Sustained protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis nasal colonization by intranasal immunization with a vaccine-adjuvant combination that induces IL-17-secreting TRM cells Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Aideen C. Allen, Mieszko M. Wilk, Alicja Misiak, Lisa Borkner, Dearbhla Murphy, Kingston H. G. Mills
Current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines induce strong antibody and Th2 responses but fail to protect against nasal colonization and transmission of Bordetella pertussis. Furthermore, immunity wanes rapidly after immunization. We have developed a novel adjuvant combination (called LP-GMP), comprising c-di-GMP, an intracellular receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonist, and LP1569, a TLR2 agonist from B. pertussis, which synergistically induces production of IFN-β, IL-12 and IL-23, and maturation of dendritic cells. Parenteral immunization of mice with an experimental aP vaccine formulated with LP-GMP promoted Th1 and Th17 responses and conferred protection against lung infection with B. pertussis. Intranasal immunization with the same aP vaccine-induced potent B. pertussis-specific Th17 responses and IL-17-secreting respiratory tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD4 T cells, and conferred a high level of protection against nasal colonization as well as lung infection, which was sustained for at least 10 months. Furthermore, long-term protection against nasal colonization with B. pertussis correlated with the number of IL-17-secreting TRM cells in nasal tissue. Our study has identified an approach for inducing IL-17-secreting TRM cells that sustain sterilizing immunity against nasal colonization of mice with B. pertussis, and could form the basis of a third generation pertussis vaccine for humans.
Frequencies of circulating regulatory TIGIT+CD38+ effector T cells correlate with the course of inflammatory bowel disease Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-20 Maria E. Joosse, Celia L. Menckeberg, Lilian F. de Ruiter, H. (Rolien) C. Raatgeep, Lisette A. van Berkel, Ytje Simons-Oosterhuis, Irma Tindemans, A. (Femke) M. Muskens, Rudi W. Hendriks, Remco M. Hoogenboezem, Tom Cupedo, Lissy de Ridder, Johanna C. Escher, Sharon Veenbergen, Janneke N. Samsom
Disease heterogeneity hampers achieving long-term disease remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Monitoring ongoing tissue-localized regulatory and inflammatory T-cell responses in peripheral blood would empower disease classification. We determined whether regulatory and inflammatory phenotypes of circulating CD38+ effector (CD62LnegCD4+) T cells, a population enriched for cells with mucosal antigen specificity, classify disease course in pediatric IBD patients. In healthy individuals, circulating CD38+ effector T cells had a predominant regulatory component with lower frequencies of IFNγ-secreting T cells, higher frequencies of IL-10-secreting T cells and higher frequencies of inhibitory molecule T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain+ (TIGIT) cells than CD38neg effector T cells. TIGIT expression was stable upon stimulation and marked CD38+ T cells with inhibitory properties. In IBD patients with active intestinal inflammation this predominant regulatory component was lost: circulating CD38+ effector T cells had increased activated CD25+CD45RAneg and decreased TIGIT+ cell frequencies. TIGIT percentages below 25% before treatment associated with shorter duration of clinical remission. In conclusion, phenotypic changes in circulating CD38+ effector T cells, in particular the frequency of TIGIT+ cells, classify pediatric IBD patients and predict severity of disease course. These findings have relevance for IBD and can be exploited in graft-versus-host-disease and checkpoint inhibitor-induced inflammation in cancer.
Polyclonal HIV envelope-specific breast milk antibodies limit founder SHIV acquisition and cell-associated virus loads in infant rhesus monkeys Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Jonathon E. Himes, Ria Goswami, Riley J. Mangan, Amit Kumar, Thomas L. Jeffries Jr., Joshua A. Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Quang N. Nguyen, Justin Pollara, Celia LaBranche, Meng Chen, Nathan A. Vandergrift, James W. Peacock, Faith Schiro, Cecily Midkiff, Guido Ferrari, David C. Montefiori, Xavier Alvarez Hernandez, Pyone Pyone Aye, Sallie R. Permar
Breast milk HIV-1 transmission is currently the predominant contributor to pediatric HIV infections. Yet, only ~10% of breastfeeding infants born to untreated HIV-infected mothers become infected. This study assessed the protective capacity of natural HIV envelope-specific antibodies isolated from the milk of HIV-infected women in an infant rhesus monkey (RM), tier 2 SHIV oral challenge model. To mimic placental and milk maternal antibody transfer, infant RMs were i.v. infused and orally treated at the time of challenge with a single weakly neutralizing milk monoclonal antibody (mAb), a tri-mAb cocktail with weakly neutralizing and ADCC functionalities, or an anti-influenza control mAb. Of these groups, the fewest tri-mAb-treated infants had SHIV detectable in plasma or tissues (2/6, 5/6, and 7/8 animals infected in tri-mAb, single-mAb, and control-mAb groups, respectively). Tri-mAb-treated infants demonstrated significantly fewer plasma transmitted/founder variants and reduced peripheral CD4+ T cell proviral loads at 8 weeks post-challenge compared to control mAb-treated infants. Abortive infection was observed as detectable CD4+ T cell provirus in non-viremic control mAb- and single mAb-, but not in tri-mAb-treated animals. These results suggest that polyfunctional milk antibodies contribute to the natural inefficiency of HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding and infant vaccinations eliciting non-neutralizing antibody responses could reduce postnatal HIV transmission.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator ONO-4641 stimulates CD11b+Gr-1+ cell expansion and inhibits lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs to ameliorate murine pulmonary emphysema Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Takanori Asakura, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Shoji Suzuki, Shizuko Kagawa, Kazuma Yagi, Takaki Komiya, Takafumi Hashimoto, Satoshi Okamori, Hirofumi Kamata, Sadatomo Tasaka, Akio Kihara, Ahmed E. Hegab, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Sphingolipids play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little is known about the precise roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, and its receptor modulation in COPD. In this study, we demonstrated that the S1P receptor modulator ONO-4641 induced the expansion of lung CD11b+Gr-1+ cells and lymphocytopenia in naive mice. ONO-4641-expanded CD11b+Gr-1+ cells showed higher arginase-1 activity, decreased T cell proliferation, and lower IFN-γ production in CD3+ T cells, similar to the features of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. ONO-4641 treatment decreased airspace enlargement in elastase-induced and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema models and attenuated emphysema exacerbation induced by post-elastase pneumococcal infection, which was also associated with an increased number of lung CD11b+Gr-1+ cells. Adoptive transfer of ONO-4641-expanded CD11b+Gr-1+ cells protected against elastase-induced emphysema. Lymphocytopenia observed in these models likely contributed to beneficial ONO-4641 effects. Thus, ONO-4641 attenuated murine pulmonary emphysema by expanding lung CD11b+Gr-1+ cell populations and inducing lymphocytopenia. The S1P receptor might be a promising target for strategies aimed at ameliorating pulmonary emphysema progression.
Pulmonary immunization with a recombinant influenza A virus vaccine induces lung-resident CD4+ memory T cells that are associated with protection against tuberculosis Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Manuela Flórido, Heni Muflihah, Leon C. W. Lin, Yingju Xia, Frederic Sierro, Mainthan Palendira, Carl G. Feng, Patrick Bertolino, John Stambas, James A. Triccas, Warwick. J. Britton
The lung is the primary site of infection with the major human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Effective vaccines against M. tuberculosis must stimulate memory T cells to provide early protection in the lung. Recently, tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) were found to be phenotypically and transcriptional distinct from circulating memory T cells. Here, we identified M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells induced by recombinant influenza A viruses (rIAV) vaccines expressing M. tuberculosis peptides that persisted in the lung parenchyma with the phenotypic and transcriptional characteristics of TRMs. To determine if these rIAV-induced CD4+ TRM were protective independent of circulating memory T cells, mice previously immunized with the rIAV vaccine were treated with the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, FTY720, prior to and during the first 17 days of M. tuberculosis challenge. This markedly reduced circulating T cells, but had no effect on the frequency of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ TRMs in the lung parenchyma or their cytokine response to infection. Importantly, mice immunized with the rIAV vaccine were protected against M. tuberculosis infection even when circulating T cells were profoundly depleted by the treatment. Therefore, pulmonary immunization with the rIAV vaccine stimulates lung-resident CD4+ memory T cells that are associated with early protection against tuberculosis infection.
A novel role for C–C motif chemokine receptor 2 during infection with hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Micah D. Dunlap, Nicole Howard, Shibali Das, Ninecia Scott, Mushtaq Ahmed, Oliver Prince, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Bruce A. Rosa, John Martin, Deepak Kaushal, Gilla Kaplan, Makedonka Mitreva, Ki-Wook Kim, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Shabaana A. Khader
C–C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is a major chemokine axis that recruits myeloid cells including monocytes and macrophages. Thus far, CCR2−/− mice have not been found to be susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, using a prototype W-Beijing family lineage 2 Mtb strain, HN878, we show that CCR2−/− mice exhibit increased susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). Following exposure to Mtb HN878, alveolar macrophages (AMs) are amongst the earliest cells infected. We show that AMs accumulate early in the airways following infection and express CCR2. During disease progression, CCR2-expressing AMs exit the airways and localize within the TB granulomas. RNA-sequencing of sorted airway and non-airway AMs from infected mice show distinct gene expression profiles, suggesting that upon exit from airways and localization within granulomas, AMs become classically activated. The absence of CCR2+ cells specifically at the time of AM egress from the airways resulted in enhanced susceptibility to Mtb infection. Furthermore, infection with an Mtb HN878 mutant lacking phenolic glycolipid (PGL) expression still resulted in increased susceptibility in CCR2−/− mice. Together, these data show a novel role for CCR2 in protective immunity against clinically relevant Mtb infections.
Desmoglein 2, but not desmocollin 2, protects intestinal epithelia from injury Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Annika Gross, Lotta A. P. Pack, Gabriel M. Schacht, Sebastian Kant, Hanna Ungewiss, Michael Meir, Nicolas Schlegel, Christian Preisinger, Peter Boor, Nurdan Guldiken, Claudia A. Krusche, Gernot Sellge, Christian Trautwein, Jens Waschke, Arnd Heuser, Rudolf E. Leube, Pavel Strnad
Desmosomes are the least understood intercellular junctions in the intestinal epithelia and provide cell–cell adhesion via the cadherins desmoglein (Dsg)2 and desmocollin (Dsc)2. We studied these cadherins in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients and in newly generated conditional villin-Cre DSG2 and DSC2 knockout mice (DSG2ΔIEC; DSC2ΔIEC). CD patients exhibited altered desmosomes and reduced Dsg2/Dsc2 levels. The intestines of both transgenic animal lines were histopathologically inconspicuous. However, DSG2ΔIEC, but not DSC2ΔIEC mice displayed an increased intestinal permeability, a wider desmosomal space as well as alterations in desmosomal and tight junction components. After dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment and Citrobacter rodentium exposure, DSG2ΔIEC mice developed a more-pronounced colitis, an enhanced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption, leading to a stronger inflammation and activation of epithelial pSTAT3 signaling. No susceptibility to DSS-induced intestinal injury was noted in DSC2ΔIEC animals. Dsg2 interacted with the cytoprotective chaperone Hsp70. Accordingly, DSG2ΔIEC mice had lower Hsp70 levels in the plasma membrane compartment, whereas DSC2ΔIEC mice displayed a compensatory recruitment of galectin 3, a junction-tightening protein. Our results demonstrate that Dsg2, but not Dsc2 is required for the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier in vivo.
Natural killer T cells mediate inflammation in the bile ducts Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 N. L. Berntsen, B. Fosby, C. Tan, H. M. Reims, J. Ogaard, X. Jiang, E. Schrumpf, L. Valestrand, T. H. Karlsen, P.-D. Line, R. S. Blumberg, E. Melum
Cholangiocytes function as antigen-presenting cells with CD1d-dependent activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells in vitro. NKT cells may act both pro- and anti-inflammatory in liver immunopathology. We explored this immune pathway and the antigen-presenting potential of NKT cells in the bile ducts by challenging wild-type and Cd1d−/− mice with intrabiliary injection of the NKT cell activating agent oxazolone. Pharmacological blocking of CD1d-mediated activation was performed with a monoclonal antibody. Intrabiliary oxazolone injection in wild-type mice caused acute cholangitis with significant weight loss, elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin, increased histologic grade of cholangitis and number of T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and myofibroblasts per portal tract after 7 days. NKT cells were activated after intrabiliary injection of oxazolone with upregulation of activation markers. Cd1d−/− and wild-type mice pretreated with antibody blocking of CD1d were protected from disease. These findings implicate that cells in the bile ducts function as antigen-presenting cells in vivo and activate NKT cells in a CD1d-restricted manner. The elucidation of this biliary immune pathway opens up for potentially new therapeutic approaches for cholangiopathies.
IL-17-dependent SIgA-mediated protection against nasal Bordetella pertussis infection by live attenuated BPZE1 vaccine Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Luis Solans, Anne-Sophie Debrie, Lisa Borkner, Nacho Aguiló, Anaïs Thiriard, Loic Coutte, Santi Uranga, François Trottein, Carlos Martín, Kingston H. G. Mills, Camille Locht
BPZE1 is a live attenuated Bordetella pertussis vaccine for nasal administration to mimic the natural route of infection. Here, we studied the mechanism of BPZE1-induced immunity in the murine nasal cavity in contrast to acellular vaccine (aPV), although both vaccines protected against lung colonization. Transfer of splenocytes or serum from BPZE1-vaccinated or aPV-vaccinated mice protected naïve mice against lung colonization but not against nasal colonization. However, transfer of nasal washes from BPZE1-vaccinated mice resulted in protection against nasal colonization, which was lost in IgA-deficient or poly-Ig receptor-deficient mice, indicating that it depends on secretory IgA (SIgA) induction induced in the nose. BPZE1-induced protection against nasal colonization was long-lived despite the relatively rapid decay of SIgA, indicating a potent BPZE1-induced local memory response, likely due to CD4+ tissue-resident memory T cells induced in the nose by BPZE1. These cells produced interleukin-17 (IL-17), known to be important for SIgA secretion. Furthermore, BPZE1 failed to protect Il17−/− mice against nasal colonization by B. pertussis and induced only background levels of nasal SIgA. Thus, our results show important differences in the protective mechanism between the upper and the lower murine respiratory tract and demonstrate an IL-17-dependent SIgA-mediated mechanism of BPZE1-induced protection against B. pertussis nasopharyngeal colonization.
Tuning of human MAIT cell activation by commensal bacteria species and MR1-dependent T-cell presentation Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Cihan Tastan, Ece Karhan, Wei Zhou, Elizabeth Fleming, Anita Y. Voigt, Xudong Yao, Lei Wang, Meghan Horne, Lindsey Placek, Lina Kozhaya, Julia Oh, Derya Unutmaz
Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell receptors (TCRs) recognize bacterial riboflavin pathway metabolites through the MHC class 1-related molecule MR1. However, it is unclear whether MAIT cells discriminate between many species of the human microbiota. To address this, we developed an in vitro functional assay through human T cells engineered for MAIT-TCRs (eMAIT-TCRs) stimulated by MR1-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We then screened 47 microbiota-associated bacterial species from different phyla for their eMAIT-TCR stimulatory capacities. Only bacterial species that encoded the riboflavin pathway were stimulatory for MAIT-TCRs. Most species that were high stimulators belonged to Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla, whereas low/non-stimulator species were primarily Actinobacteria or Firmicutes. Activation of MAIT cells by high- vs low-stimulating bacteria also correlated with the level of riboflavin they secreted or after bacterial infection of macrophages. Remarkably, we found that human T-cell subsets can also present riboflavin metabolites to MAIT cells in a MR1-restricted fashion. This T–T cell-mediated signaling also induced IFNγ, TNF and granzyme B from MAIT cells, albeit at lower level than professional APC. These findings suggest that MAIT cells can discriminate and categorize complex human microbiota through computation of TCR signals depending on antigen load and presenting cells, and fine-tune their functional responses.
High-dimensional immune phenotyping and transcriptional analyses reveal robust recovery of viable human immune and epithelial cells from frozen gastrointestinal tissue Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-15 Liza Konnikova, Gilles Boschetti, Adeeb Rahman, Vanessa Mitsialis, James Lord, Camilla Richmond, Vesselin T. Tomov, Will Gordon, Scott Jelinsky, James Canavan, Andrew Liss, Sarah Wall, Michael Field, Fanny Zhou, Jeffery D. Goldsmith, Meenakshi Bewtra, David T. Breault, Miriam Merad, Scott B. Snapper
Simultaneous analyses of peripheral and mucosal immune compartments can yield insight into the pathogenesis of mucosal-associated diseases. Although methods to preserve peripheral immune cells are well established, studies involving mucosal immune cells have been hampered by lack of simple storage techniques. We provide a cryopreservation protocol allowing for storage of gastrointestinal (GI) tissue with preservation of viability and functionality of both immune and epithelial cells. These methods will facilitate translational studies allowing for batch analysis of mucosal tissue to investigate disease pathogenesis, biomarker discovery and treatment responsiveness.
Chronic intestinal inflammation in mice expressing viral Flip in epithelial cells Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Barbara Ruder, Vinay Murtadak, Michael Stürzl, Stefan Wirtz, Ute Distler, Stefan Tenzer, Mousumi Mahapatro, Florian R. Greten, Yinling Hu, Markus F. Neurath, Ethel Cesarman, Gianna Ballon, Claudia Günther, Christoph Becker
Viruses are present in the intestinal microflora and are currently discussed as a potential causative mechanism for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. A number of viruses, such as Human Herpesvirus-8, express homologs to cellular FLIPs, which are major contributors for the regulation of epithelial cell death. In this study we analyzed the consequences of constitutive expression of HHV8-viral FLIP in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in mice. Surprisingly, expression of vFlip disrupts tissue homeostasis and induces severe intestinal inflammation. Moreover vFlipIEC-tg mice showed reduced Paneth cell numbers, associated with excessive necrotic cell death. On a molecular level vFlip expression altered classical and alternative NFκB activation. Blocking of alternative NFκB signaling by deletion of Ikka in vivo largely protected mice from inflammation and Paneth cell loss induced by vFLIP. Collectively, our data provide functional evidence that expression of a single viral protein in IECs can be sufficient to disrupt epithelial homeostasis and to initiate chronic intestinal inflammation.
Dietary DHA amplifies LXA4 circuits in tissues and lymph node PMN and is protective in immune-driven dry eye disease Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Yuan Gao, John Su, Yibing Zhang, Allison Chan, Jun Hyung Sin, Di Wu, Kyungi Min, Karsten Gronert
Recently identified regulatory PMN control immune-driven dry eye disease (DED) in females by producing the arachidonic acid (ω-6)-derived specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM), LXA4, in lymph nodes. Dietary ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is protective in DED but mechanisms of action remain elusive. DHA is converted to ω-3 SPMs by PMN via the same lipoxygenases (LOX) that generate LXA4. We investigated if dietary DHA amplifies SPM formation and affects T effector cell function and/or regulatory PMN in DED. DED was induced in mice on a DHA-enriched or ω-3-deficient diet. DHA deficiency amplified DED with marked sex-specific differences. Dietary DHA protection against dry eye disease correlated with increased PMN levels in lymph nodes, ocular tissues, and unexpectedly, selective amplification of LXA4 tissue levels. Dietary DHA increased 12/15-LOX and decreased 5-LOX expression in lymph nodes and isolated lymph node PMN, which correlated with amplified LXA4 formation. Acute DHA treatment rescued DHA-deficient females from exaggerated DED by amplifying lymph node LXA4 formation, increasing Treg and decreasing TH1 and TH17 effector cells. Our results identify DHA regulation of LXA4 producing PMN in ocular tissues and lymph nodes in health and immune disease as novel mechanism and determinant for T-cell responses to routine ocular injury or stress signals.
C3a is required for ILC2 function in allergic airway inflammation Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Naina Gour, Ursula Smole, Hwan-Mee Yong, Ian P. Lewkowich, Nu Yao, Anju Singh, Edward Gabrielson, Marsha Wills-Karp, Stephane Lajoie
Aberrant type 2 responses underlie the pathologies in allergic diseases like asthma, yet, our understanding of the mechanisms that drive them remains limited. Recent evidence suggests that dysregulated innate immune factors can perpetuate asthma pathogenesis. In susceptible individuals, allergen exposure triggers the activation of complement, a major arm of innate immunity, leading to the aberrant generation of the C3a anaphylatoxin. C3 and C3a have been shown to be important for the development of Th2 responses, yet remarkably, the mechanisms by which C3a regulates type 2 immunity are relatively unknown. We demonstrate a central role for C3a in driving type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2)-mediated inflammation in response to allergen and IL-33. Our data suggests that ILC2 recruitment is C3a-dependent. Further, we show that ILC2s directly respond to C3a, promoting type 2 responses by specifically: (1) inducing IL-13 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, whereas inhibiting IL-10 production from ILC2; and (2) enhancing their antigen-presenting capability during ILC-T-cell cross-talk. In summary, we identify a novel mechanism by which C3a can mediate aberrant type 2 responses to aeroallergen exposure, which involves a yet unrecognized cross-talk between two major innate immune components—complement and group 2 innate lymphoid cells.
In vivo imaging reveals unique neutrophil transendothelial migration patterns in inflamed intestines Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 David P. Sullivan, Triet Bui, William A. Muller, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Neutrophil (PMN) infiltration of the intestinal mucosa is a hallmark of gastrointestinal inflammation, with significant implications for host defense, injury and repair. However, phenotypic and mechanistic aspects of PMN recruitment in inflamed intestines have not been explored in vivo. Using novel epithelial/PMN fluorescence reporter mice, advanced intravital imaging and 3D reconstruction analysis, we mapped the microvasculature architecture across the intestinal layers and determined that in response to Salmonella/endotoxin-induced inflammation, PMN transendothelial migration (TEM) was restricted to submucosal vessels. PMN TEM was not observed in villus or crypt vessels, proximal to the epithelium that underlies the intestinal lumen, and was partially dependent on (C-X-C motif) ligands 1 (CXCL1) and 2 (CXCL2) expression, which was found to be elevated in the submucosa layer. Restricted PMN extravasation at the submucosa and subsequent PMN interstitial migration may serve as a novel regulatory step of PMN effector function and recruitment to the luminal space in inflamed intestines.
Neuro-immune regulation of mucosal physiology Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-08 Julie Chesné, Vânia Cardoso, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes
Mucosal barriers constitute major body surfaces that are in constant contact with the external environment. Mucosal sites are densely populated by a myriad of distinct neurons and immune cell types that sense, integrate and respond to multiple environmental cues. In the recent past, neuro-immune interactions have been reported to play central roles in mucosal health and disease, including chronic inflammatory conditions, allergy and infectious diseases. Discrete neuro-immune cell units act as building blocks of this bidirectional multi-tissue cross-talk, ensuring mucosal tissue health and integrity. Herein, we will focus on reciprocal neuro-immune interactions in the airways and intestine. Such neuro-immune cross-talk maximizes sensing and integration of environmental aggressions, which can be considered an important paradigm shift in our current views of mucosal physiology and immune regulation.
Role of IL-18 induced Amphiregulin expression on virus induced ocular lesions Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Siva Karthik Varanasi, Naveen K. Rajasagi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Barry T. Rouse
This report deals with the possible mechanism by which IL-18 can contribute to the control and resolution of inflammatory lesions in the cornea caused by herpes simplex virus infection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the IL-18R by both regulatory T cells (Treg) and effector T cells was a pivotal event that influenced lesion pathogenesis. The engagement of IL-18R on Treg with its cytokine ligand resulted in Amphiregulin expression a molecule associated with tissue repair. In support of this scheme of events, lesion severity became more severe in animals unable to express the IL-18R because of gene knockout and was reduced in severity when IL-18 was overexpressed in the cornea. These changes in lesion severity correlated with the frequency and number of both Treg and Teff that expressed Amphiregulin. Additional experiments indicated that IL-12 and IL-18 acted synergistically to enhance Amphiregulin expression in Treg, an event partly dependent on P38 MAPK activity. Finally, sub-conjunctival administration of Amphiregulin resulted in resolution of both developing and developed lesions. Thus, overall our results imply that IL-18 may participate in controlling the severity of SK and contribute to tissue repair by converting both Treg and effector T cells into those that produce Amphiregulin.
Dynamics of helper CD4 T cells during acute and stable allergic asthma Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Yanxia Lu, Hassen Kared, Shu Wen Tan, Etienne Becht, Evan W. Newell, Hugo P. S. Van Bever, Tze Pin Ng, Anis Larbi
Asthma comprises heterogeneous clinical subtypes driven by diverse pathophysiological mechanisms. We characterized the modulation of the inflammatory environment with the phenotype, gene expression, and function of helper CD4 T cells among acutely exacerbated and stable asthma patients. Systemic Th2 immune deviation (IgE and Th2 cytokines) and inflammation (IL-6, CRP) were associated with increased Th17 cells during acute asthma. Th2/Th17 cell differentiation during acute asthma was regulated by the enhanced expression of transcription factors (c-MAF, IRF-4). The development of pathogenic Th2 cells during acute asthma was characterized by the secretion of inflammatory cytokines coupled with Th2 molecules and PPARγ expression. The acquisition of CD15S, CD39, CD101, and CCR4 contributed to the increased heterogeneity of Regulatory T cells during asthma. Two clusters were derived from above cytokines, CD4 T cell phenotypes, and clinical data. Cluster 1, characterized by high eosinophils, Th2 and ILC2 frequencies, and higher exacerbation rates, may represent Th2-high subtype. Cluster 2 represents a more complex subtype; it is constituted by higher neutrophils or Th17 frequencies, higher inhaled corticosteroids dose and poor asthma control. In conclusion, we characterized systematically and longitudinally Th2-high and non-Th2 asthma subtypes and the heterogeneity of CD4 T cells in stable and acute asthma.
Defective IgA response to atypical intestinal commensals in IL-21 receptor deficiency reshapes immune cell homeostasis and mucosal immunity Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Hyeseon Cho, Henrique Jaime, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Byunghyun Kang, Rosanne Spolski, Tina Vaziri, Timothy G. Myers, Vishal Thovarai, Zeli Shen, James G. Fox, Warren J. Leonard, Brian L. Kelsall
Despite studies indicating the effects of IL-21 signaling in intestinal inflammation, its roles in intestinal homeostasis and infection are not yet clear. Here, we report potent effects of commensal microbiota on the phenotypic manifestations of IL-21 receptor deficiency. IL-21 is produced highly in the small intestine and appears to be critical for mounting an IgA response against atypical commensals such as segmented filamentous bacteria and Helicobacter, but not to the majority of commensals. In the presence of these atypical commensals, IL-21R-deficient mice exhibit reduced numbers of germinal center and IgA+ B cells and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in Peyer’s patches as well as a significant decrease in small intestine IgA+ plasmablasts and plasma cells, leading to higher bacterial burdens and subsequent expansion of Th17 and Treg cells. These microbiota-mediated secondary changes in turn enhance T cell responses to an oral antigen and strikingly dampen Citrobacter rodentium-induced immunopathology, demonstrating a complex interplay between IL-21-mediated mucosal immunity, microbiota, and pathogens.
Colonic epithelial mTORC1 promotes ulcerative colitis through COX-2-mediated Th17 responses Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Xiaojun Lin, Qiuyi Sun, Ling Zhou, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Mingqiang Lai, Miao Liu, Yongchun Su, Chunhong Jia, Zelong Han, Side Liu, Hang Zheng, Yu Jiang, Hui Ling, Mangmang Li, Juan Chen, Zhipeng Zou, Xiaochun Bai
The functional role of colonic epithelium in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. Here, we reveal a novel mechanism by which colonic epithelia recruit T helper-17 (Th17) cells during the onset of UC. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) was hyper-activated in colonic epithelia of UC mice. While colonic epithelial TSC1 (mTORC1 negative regulator) disruption induced constitutive mTORC1 activation in the colon epithelia and aggravated UC, RPTOR (essential mTORC1 component) depletion inactivated mTORC1 and ameliorated UC. TSC1 deficiency enhanced, whereas RPTOR ablation reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-23, as well as Th17 infiltration in the colon. Importantly, inhibition of COX-2 reversed the elevation in the expression of these proinflammatory mediators induced by TSC1 deficiency, and subsequently reduced the symptoms and pathological characteristics of UC in mouse models. Mechanistically, mTORC1 activates COX-2 transcription via phosphorylating STAT3 and enhancing it’s binding to the COX-2 promoter. Consistently, enhanced mTORC1 activity and COX2 expression, as well as strong positive correlation between each other, were observed in colonic epithelial tissues of UC patients. Collectively, our study demonstrates an essential role of epithelial mTORC1 in UC pathogenesis and establishes a novel link between colonic epithelium, Th17 responses, and UC development.
Cytomegalovirus promotes intestinal macrophage-mediated mucosal inflammation through induction of Smad7 Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Evida A. Dennis, Lesley E. Smythies, Robert Grabski, Mao Li, Mary E. Ballestas, Masako Shimamura, Jim J. Sun, Jayleen Grams, Richard Stahl, Michael E. Niederweis, William J. Britt, Phillip D. Smith
Intestinal macrophages in healthy human mucosa are profoundly down-regulated for inflammatory responses (inflammation anergy) due to stromal TGF-β inactivation of NF-κB. Paradoxically, in cytomegalovirus (CMV) intestinal inflammatory disease, one of the most common manifestations of opportunistic CMV infection, intestinal macrophages mediate severe mucosal inflammation. Here we investigated the mechanism whereby CMV infection promotes macrophage-mediated mucosal inflammation. CMV infected primary intestinal macrophages but did not replicate in the cells or reverse established inflammation anergy. However, CMV infection of precursor blood monocytes, the source of human intestinal macrophages in adults, prevented stromal TGF-β-induced differentiation of monocytes into inflammation anergic macrophages. Mechanistically, CMV up-regulated monocyte expression of the TGF-β antagonist Smad7, blocking the ability of stromal TGF-β to inactivate NF-κB, thereby enabling MyD88 and NF-κB-dependent cytokine production. Smad7 expression also was markedly elevated in mucosal tissue from subjects with CMV colitis and declined after antiviral ganciclovir therapy. Confirming these findings, transfection of Smad7 antisense oligonucleotide into CMV-infected monocytes restored monocyte susceptibility to stromal TGF-β–induced inflammation anergy. Thus, CMV-infected monocytes that recruit to the mucosa, not resident macrophages, are the source of inflammatory macrophages in CMV mucosal disease and implicate Smad7 as a key regulator of, and potential therapeutic target for, CMV mucosal disease.
Notch ligand Delta-like 4 induces epigenetic regulation of Treg cell differentiation and function in viral infection Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Hung-An Ting, Denise de Almeida Nagata, Andrew J Rasky, Carrie-Anne Malinczak, Ivan P Maillard, Matthew A Schaller, Nicholas W Lukacs
Notch ligand Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) has been shown to regulate CD4 T-cell differentiation, including regulatory T cells (Treg). Epigenetic alterations, which include histone modifications, are critical in cell differentiation decisions. Recent genome-wide studies demonstrated that Treg have increased trimethylation on histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) around the Treg master transcription factor, Foxp3 loci. Here we report that DLL4 dynamically increased H3K4 methylation around the Foxp3 locus that was dependent upon upregulated SET and MYDN domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3). DLL4 promoted Smyd3 through the canonical Notch pathway in iTreg differentiation. DLL4 inhibition during pulmonary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection decreased Smyd3 expression and Foxp3 expression in Treg leading to increased Il17a. On the other hand, DLL4 supported Il10 expression in vitro and in vivo, which was also partially dependent upon SMYD3. Using genome-wide unbiased mRNA sequencing, novel sets of DLL4- and Smyd3-dependent differentially expressed genes were discovered, including lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (Lag3), a checkpoint inhibitor that has been identified for modulating Th cell activation. Together, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of DLL4/Notch-induced Smyd3 epigenetic pathways that maintain regulatory CD4 T cells in viral infections.
Transcriptional profiling reveals monocyte-related macrophages phenotypically resembling DC in human intestine Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 L. Richter, O. J. B. Landsverk, N. Atlasy, A. Bujko, S. Yaqub, R. Horneland, O. Øyen, E. M. Aandahl, K. E. A. Lundin, H. G. Stunnenberg, E. S. Bækkevold, F. L. Jahnsen
The tissue dendritic cell (DC) compartment is heterogeneous, and the ontogeny and functional specialization of human tissue conventional DC (cDC) subsets and their relationship with monocytes is unresolved. Here we identify monocyte-related CSF1R+Flt3- antigen presenting cells (APCs) that constitute about half of the cells classically defined as SIRPα+ DCs in the steady-state human small intestine. CSF1R+Flt3- APCs express calprotectin and very low levels of CD14, are transcriptionally related to monocyte-derived cells, and accumulate during inflammation. CSF1R+Flt3- APCs show typical macrophage characteristics functionally distinct from their Flt3+ cDC counterparts: under steady-state conditions they excel at antigen uptake, have a lower migratory potential, and are inefficient activators of naïve T cells. These results have important implications for the understanding of the ontogenetic and functional heterogeneity within human tissue DCs and their relation to the monocyte lineage.
Herpes simplex virus-binding IgG traps HSV in human cervicovaginal mucus across the menstrual cycle and diverse vaginal microbial composition Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Holly A. Schroeder, Kenetta L. Nunn, Alison Schaefer, Christine E. Henry, Felix Lam, Michael H. Pauly, Kevin J. Whaley, Larry Zeitlin, Mike S. Humphrys, Jacques Ravel, Samuel K. Lai
IgG possesses an important yet little recognized effector function in mucus. IgG bound to viral surface can immobilize otherwise readily diffusive viruses to the mucin matrix, excluding them from contacting target cells and facilitating their elimination by natural mucus clearance mechanisms. Cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) is populated by a microbial community, and its viscoelastic and barrier properties can vary substantially not only across the menstrual cycle, but also in women with distinct microbiota. How these variations impact the “muco-trapping” effector function of IgGs remains poorly understood. Here we obtained multiple fresh, undiluted CVM specimens (n = 82 unique specimens) from six women over time, and employed high-resolution multiple particle tracking to quantify the mobility of fluorescent Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1) in CVM treated with different HSV-1-binding IgG. The IgG trapping potency was then correlated to the menstrual cycle, and the vaginal microbial composition was determined by 16 s rRNA. In the specimens studied, both polyclonal and monoclonal HSV-1-binding IgG appeared to consistently and effectively trap HSV-1 in CVM obtained at different times of the menstrual cycle and containing a diverse spectrum of commensals, including G. vaginalis-dominant microbiota. Our findings underscore the potential broad utility of this “muco-trapping” effector function of IgG to reinforce the vaginal mucosal defense, and motivates further investigation of passive immunization of the vagina as a strategy to protect against vaginally transmitted infections.
Pathophysiology of environmental enteric dysfunction and its impact on oral vaccine efficacy Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Chelsea Marie, Asad Ali, Kanta Chandwe, William A. Petri Jr, Paul Kelly
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) refers to a subclinical disorder of intestinal function common in tropical countries and in settings of poverty and economic disadvantage. The enteropathy that underlies this syndrome is characterized by mucosal inflammation and villus blunting mediated by T cell activation. Epithelial cell disruption and microbial translocation drive systemic inflammation. EED in young children is associated geographically with growth failure, malnutrition, and greatly impaired responses to oral vaccines, notably rotavirus and poliovirus vaccines. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of EED and examine the evidence linking EED and oral vaccine failure. This evidence is far from conclusive. Although our understanding of EED is still sketchy, there is limited evidence of disturbed innate immunity, B cell disturbances including aggregation into lymphoid follicles, and autoantibody generation. Pathways of T cell activation and the possibility of dendritic cell anergy, which could help explain oral vaccine failure, require further work.
The mouse autonomic nervous system modulates inflammation and epithelial renewal after corneal abrasion through the activation of distinct local macrophages Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Yunxia Xue, Jingxin He, Chengju Xiao, Yonglong Guo, Ting Fu, Jun Liu, Cuipei Lin, Mingjuan Wu, Yabing Yang, Dong Dong, Hongwei Pan, Chaoyong Xia, Li Ren, Zhijie Li
Inflammation and reepithelialization after corneal abrasion are critical for the rapid restoration of vision and the prevention of microbial infections. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we report that the manipulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the inflammation and healing processes. The activation of sympathetic nerves inhibited reepithelialization after corneal abrasion but increased the influx of neutrophils and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the activation of parasympathetic nerves promoted reepithelialization and inhibited the influx of neutrophils and the release of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we observed that CD64+CCR2+ macrophages in the cornea preferentially expressed the β-2 adrenergic receptor (AR), whereas CD64+CCR2− macrophages preferentially expressed the α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). After abrasion, the topical administration of a β2AR agonist further enhanced the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the CD64+CCR2+ cell subset sorted from injured corneas. In contrast, the topical administration of an α7nAChR agonist further enhanced the expression of the anti-inflammatory genes in the CD64+CCR2− subset. Thus crosstalk between the ANS and local macrophage populations is necessary for the progress of corneal wound repair. Manipulation of ANS inputs to the wounded cornea may represent an alternative approach to the treatment of impaired wound healing.
Inflammation-independent TL1A-mediated intestinal fibrosis is dependent on the gut microbiome Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Noam Jacob, Jonathan P. Jacobs, Kotaro Kumagai, Connie W. Y. Ha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Venu Lagishetty, Katherine Altmayer, Ariel M. Hamill, Aimee Von Arx, R. Balfour Sartor, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan Braun, Kathrin S. Michelsen, Stephan R. Targan, David Q. Shih
Tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15) is implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), modulating the location and severity of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. TL1A expression is increased in inflamed gut mucosa and associated with fibrostenosing Crohn’s disease. Tl1a-overexpression in mice lead to spontaneous ileitis, and exacerbated induced proximal colitis and fibrosis. IBD is associated with shifts in the gut microbiome, but the effect of differing microbial populations and their interaction with TL1A on fibrosis has not been investigated. We demonstrate that the pro-fibrotic and inflammatory phenotype resulting from Tl1a-overexpression is abrogated in the absence of resident microbiota. To evaluate if this is due to the absence of a unique bacterial population, as opposed to any bacteria per se, we gavaged germ-free (GF) wild-type and Tl1a-transgenic (Tl1a-Tg) mice with stool from specific pathogen free (SPF) mice and a healthy human donor (Hu). Reconstitution with SPF, but not Hu microbiota, resulted in increased intestinal collagen deposition and fibroblast activation in Tl1a-Tg mice. Notably, there was reduced fibroblast migration and activation under GF conditions compared to native conditions. We then identified several candidate organisms that correlated directly with increased fibrosis in reconstituted mice and showed that these organisms directly impact fibroblast function in vitro. Thus, Tl1a-mediated intestinal fibrosis and fibroblast activation are dependent on specific microbial populations.
Interbacterial mechanisms of colonization resistance and the strategies pathogens use to overcome them Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Matthew T. Sorbara, Eric G. Pamer
The communities of bacteria that reside in the intestinal tract are in constant competition within this dynamic and densely colonized environment. At homeostasis, the equilibrium that exists between these species and strains is shaped by their metabolism and also by pathways of active antagonism, which drive competition with related and unrelated strains. Importantly, these normal activities contribute to colonization resistance by the healthy microbiota, which includes the ability to prevent the expansion of potential pathogens. Disruption of the microbiota, resulting from, for example, inflammation or antibiotic use, can reduce colonization resistance. Pathogens that engraft following disruption of the microbiota are often adapted to expand into newly created niches and compete in an altered gut environment. In this review, we examine both the interbacterial mechanisms of colonization resistance and the strategies of pathogenic strains to exploit gaps in colonization resistance.
Expanded TCRβ CDR3 clonotypes distinguish Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis patients Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 J. Wu, A. H. Pendegraft, M. Byrne-Steele, Q. Yang, C. Wang, W. Pan, T. Lucious, T. Seay, X. Cui, C. O. Elson, J. Han, P. J. Mannon
We aimed to determine whether the TCR repertoires of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients contain highly prevalent disease-specific T-cell clonotypes reflective of the characteristic and highly shared aberrant serum antibody reactivity to gut commensal flagellin antigens. The CD4 TCRβ CDR3 sequence repertoires from active CD (n = 20) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 10) patients were significantly more diverse, and individual sequences over-represented, compared to healthy controls (HC) (n = 97). While a very small number of expanded public CDR3 sequences are highly shared between active CD and UC, the majority of significantly expanded TCRβ CDR3 clonotypes are private to CD and UC patients with equivalent prevalence among IBD patients. Further defining TCR clonotypes by Vβ-CDR3 linkage showed significant differences in the TCR repertoires between UC and CD. Flagellin antigen exposure induced expansion of several TCRβ CDR3 sequences in CD4 cells from a flagellin-seropositive subject including sequences highly shared by or relatively private to CD (and UC) patients. These data suggest that flagellin-reactivity contributes to the expansion of a small number of CD4 clonotypes but does not support flagellin antigens as predominantly driving CD4 cell proliferation in CD. Disease-specific expanded TCRβ CDR3 clonotypes characterize CD and UC and the shared exposure to the gamut of gut microbial antigens.
The JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib reduces inflammation in an ILC3-independent model of innate immune colitis Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 A. M. Overstreet, D. L. LaTorre, L. Abernathy-Close, S. F. Murphy, L. Rhee, A. M. Boger, K. R. Adlaka, A. M. Iverson, D. S. Bakke, C. R. Weber, D. L. Boone
Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms of IBD mediated by innate immunity are incompletely understood and there are limited models of spontaneous innate immune colitis to address this question. Here we describe a new robust model of colitis occurring in the absence of adaptive immunity. RAG1-deficient mice expressing TNFAIP3 in intestinal epithelial cells (TRAG mice) spontaneously developed 100% penetrant, early-onset colitis that was limited to the colon and dependent on intestinal microbes but was not transmissible to co-housed littermates. TRAG colitis was associated with increased mucosal numbers of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and depletion of ILC prevented colitis in TRAG mice. ILC depletion also therapeutically reversed established colitis in TRAG mice. The colitis in TRAG mice was not prevented by interbreeding to mice lacking group 3 ILC nor by depletion of TNF. Treatment with the JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib ameliorated colitis in TRAG mice. This new model of colitis, with its predictable onset and colon-specific inflammation, will have direct utility in developing a more complete understanding of innate immune mechanisms that can contribute to colitis and in pre-clinical studies for effects of therapeutic agents on innate immune-mediated IBD.
BVES is required for maintenance of colonic epithelial integrity in experimental colitis by modifying intestinal permeability Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Yash A. Choksi, Vishruth K. Reddy, Kshipra Singh, Caitlyn W. Barrett, Sarah P. Short, Bobak Parang, Cody E. Keating, Joshua J. Thompson, Thomas G. Verriere, Rachel E. Brown, M. Blanca Piazuelo, David M. Bader, M. Kay Washington, Mukul K. Mittal, Thomas Brand, Alain P. Gobert, Lori A. Coburn, Keith T. Wilson, Christopher S. Williams
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES), or POPDC1, is a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein that modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via junctional signaling pathways. There have been no in vivo studies investigating the role of BVES in colitis. We hypothesized that BVES is critical for maintaining colonic epithelial integrity. At baseline, Bves−/− mouse colons demonstrate increased crypt height, elevated proliferation, decreased apoptosis, altered intestinal lineage allocation, and dysregulation of tight junctions with functional deficits in permeability and altered intestinal immunity. Bves−/− mice inoculated with Citrobacter rodentium had greater colonic injury, increased colonic and mesenteric lymph node bacterial colonization, and altered immune responses after infection. We propose that increased bacterial colonization and translocation result in amplified immune responses and worsened injury. Similarly, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment resulted in greater histologic injury in Bves−/− mice. Two different human cell lines (Caco2 and HEK293Ts) co-cultured with enteropathogenic E. coli showed increased attaching/effacing lesions in the absence of BVES. Finally, BVES mRNA levels were reduced in human ulcerative colitis (UC) biopsy specimens. Collectively, these studies suggest that BVES plays a protective role both in ulcerative and infectious colitis and identify BVES as a critical protector of colonic mucosal integrity.
Synergistic activation of pro-inflammatory type-2 CD8+ T lymphocytes by lipid mediators in severe eosinophilic asthma Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Bart Hilvering, Timothy S. C. Hinks, Linda Stöger, Emanuele Marchi, Maryam Salimi, Rahul Shrimanker, Wei Liu, Wentao Chen, Jian Luo, Simei Go, Timothy Powell, Jennifer Cane, Samantha Thulborn, Ayako Kurioka, Tianqi Leng, Jamie Matthews, Clare Connolly, Catherine Borg, Mona Bafadhel, Christian B. Willberg, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Ratko Djukanović, Graham Ogg, Ian D. Pavord, Paul Klenerman, Luzheng Xue
Human type-2 CD8+ T cells are a cell population with potentially important roles in allergic disease. We investigated this in the context of severe asthma with persistent airway eosinophilia—a phenotype associated with high exacerbation risk and responsiveness to type-2 cytokine-targeted therapies. In two independent cohorts we show that, in contrast to Th2 cells, type-2 cytokine-secreting CD8+CRTH2+ (Tc2) cells are enriched in blood and airways in severe eosinophilic asthma. Concentrations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and cysteinyl leukotriene E4 (LTE4) are also increased in the airways of the same group of patients. In vitro PGD2 and LTE4 function synergistically to trigger Tc2 cell recruitment and activation in a TCR-independent manner. These lipids regulate diverse genes in Tc2 cells inducing type-2 cytokines and many other pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which could contribute to eosinophilia. These findings are consistent with an important innate-like role for human Tc2 cells in severe eosinophilic asthma and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this and other diseases.
C3a receptor antagonism as a novel therapeutic target for chronic rhinosinusitis Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Jennifer K. Mulligan, Kunal Patel, Tucker Williamson, Nicholas Reaves, William Carroll, Sarah E. Stephenson, Peng Gao, Richard R. Drake, Benjamin A. Neely, Stephen Tomlinson, Rodney J. Schlosser, Carl Atkinson
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a potential modulator of disease immunopathology. We performed proteomic pathway enrichment analysis of differentially increased proteins, and found an enrichment of complement cascade pathways in the nasal mucus of individuals with CRSwNP as compared to control subjects. Sinonasal mucus levels of complement 3 (C3) correlated with worse subjective disease severity, whereas no significant difference in systemic C3 levels could be determined in plasma samples. Given that human sinonasal epithelial cells were the predominate sinonasal source of C3 and complement anaphylatoxin 3a (C3a) staining, we focused on their role in in vitro studies. Baseline intracellular C3 levels were higher in CRSwNP cells, and following exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) extract, they released significantly more C3 and C3a. Inhibition of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) signaling led to a decrease in Af-induced C3 and C3a release, both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found in vivo that C3aR deficiency or inhibition significantly reduced inflammation and CRS development in a mouse model of Af-induced CRS. These findings demonstrate that local sinonasal complement activation correlates with subjective disease severity, and that local C3aR antagonism significantly ameliorates Af-induced CRS in a rodent model.
The current state of the art for biological therapies and new small molecules in inflammatory bowel disease Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Sudarshan Paramsothy, Adam K. Rosenstein, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frederic Colombel
The emergence of biologic therapies is arguably the greatest therapeutic advance in the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to date, allowing directed treatments targeted at highly specific molecules shown to play critical roles in disease pathogenesis, with advantages in potency and selectivity. Furthermore, a large number of new biologic and small-molecule therapies in IBD targeting a variety of pathways are at various stages of development that should soon lead to a dramatic expansion in our therapeutic armamentarium. Additionally, since the initial introduction of biologics, there have been substantial advances in our understanding as to how biologics work, the practical realities of their administration, and how to enhance their efficacy and safety in the clinical setting. In this review, we will summarize the current state of the art for biological therapies in IBD, both in terms of agents available and their optimal use, as well as preview future advances in biologics and highly targeted small molecules in the IBD field.
T cell-directed IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells is coordinated by a novel IL-2 and IL-1β circuit Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Antoine Ménoret, James A. Buturla, Maria M. Xu, Julia Svedova, Sanjeev Kumar, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Anthony T. Vella
Immune-mediated lung is considered the result of an exacerbated innate injury immune response, although a role for adaptive lymphocytes is emerging. αβ T cells specific for S. aureus enterotoxin A orchestrate a Tγδ17 response during lung injury. However, the mechanism driving IL-17 production is unclear. Here, we show a role for IL-2 triggering IL-17 production by lung granular γδ T cells as IL-17 synthesis and neutrophil recruitment was reduced by IL-2 blocking mAbs in vitro and in vivo. Mass cytometry analysis revealed that lung γδ T cells responded directly to IL-2 as evident from STAT5 phosphorylation and RoRγt expression. IL-2 receptor blocking mAbs and JAK inhibition impaired STAT5 phosphorylation and IL-17 release. Moreover, inhalation of S. aureus enterotoxin A induced IL-2 secretion and caspase-1-dependent IL-1β activation to drive IL-17 production. This T-cell-mediated inflammasome-dependent IL-17 response is maximum when lung Tγδ17 cells were sequentially stimulated first with IL-2 then IL-1β. Interestingly, when IL-2 is given therapeutically to cancer patients it carries a known risk of lung injury that is largely indistinguishable from that seen in sepsis. Hence, this novel mechanism reveals therapeutic targets treating both acute lung injury and high-dose IL-2 toxicity in cancer.
Intestinal damage precedes mucosal immune dysfunction in SIV infection Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Alicia R. Berard, Jennifer A. Manuzak, Charlene J. Miller, Alexander S. Zevin, Patricia Polacino, Jillian Gile, Brian Agricola, Mark Cameron, Shiu-Lok Hu, Jacob D. Estes, R. Keith Reeves, Jeremy Smedley, Brandon F. Keele, Adam D. Burgener, Nichole R. Klatt
HIV and pathogenic SIV infection are characterized by mucosal dysfunction including epithelial barrier damage, loss of Th17 cells, neutrophil infiltration, and microbial translocation with accompanying inflammation. However, it is unclear how and when these contributing factors occur relative to one another. In order to determine whether any of these features initiates the cycle of damage, we longitudinally evaluated the kinetics of mucosal and systemic T-cell activation, microbial translocation, and Th17 cell and neutrophil frequencies following intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus macaques. We additionally assessed the colon proteome to elucidate molecular pathways altered early after infection. We demonstrate increased T-cell activation (HLA-DR+) beginning 3–14 days post-SIV challenge, reduced peripheral zonulin 3–14 days post-SIV, and evidence of microbial translocation 14 days post-SIV. The onset of mucosal dysfunction preceded peripheral and mucosal Th17 depletion, which occurred 14–28 days post-SIV, and gut neutrophil accumulation was not observed. Proteins involved in epithelial structure were downregulated 3 days post-SIV followed by an upregulation of immune proteins 14 days post-SIV. These data demonstrate that immune perturbations such as Th17 loss and neutrophil infiltration occur after alterations to epithelial structural protein pathways, suggesting that epithelial damage occurs prior to widespread immune dysfunction.
The common γ-chain cytokine IL-7 promotes immunopathogenesis during fungal asthma Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-15 Kristen M. Reeder, Chad W. Dunaway, Jonathan P. Blackburn, Zhihong Yu, Sadis Matalon, Annette T. Hastie, Elizabeth J. Ampleford, Deborah A. Meyers, Chad Steele
Asthmatics sensitized to fungi are reported to have more severe asthma, yet the immunopathogenic pathways contributing to this severity have not been identified. In a pilot assessment of human asthmatics, those subjects sensitized to fungi demonstrated elevated levels of the common γ-chain cytokine IL-7 in lung lavage fluid, which negatively correlated with the lung function measurement PC20. Subsequently, we show that IL-7 administration during experimental fungal asthma worsened lung function and increased the levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), proallergic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β). Intriguingly, IL-7 administration also increased IL-22, which we have previously reported to drive immunopathogenic responses in experimental fungal asthma. Employing IL22CreR26ReYFP reporter mice, we identified γδ T cells, iNKT cells, CD4 T cells and ILC3s as sources of IL-22 during fungal asthma; however, only iNKT cells were significantly increased after IL-7 administration. IL-7-induced immunopathogenesis required both type 2 and IL-22 responses. Blockade of IL-7Rα in vivo resulted in attenuated IL-22 production, lower CCL22 levels, decreased iNKT cell, CD4 T-cell and eosinophil recruitment, yet paradoxically increased dynamic lung resistance. Collectively, these results suggest a complex role for IL-7 signaling in allergic fungal asthma.
Neutrophil extracellular traps prevent HIV infection in the female genital tract Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Fiona D. Barr, Christina Ochsenbauer, Charles R. Wira, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia
Women acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mainly through sexual intercourse. However, low transmission rates per sexual act indicate that local immune mechanisms contribute to HIV prevention. Neutrophils represent 10–20% of the genital immune cells in healthy women. Neutrophils mediate mucosal protection against bacterial and fungal pathogens through different mechanisms, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are DNA fragments associated with antimicrobial granular proteins. Despite neutrophil abundance and central contributions to innate immunity in the genital tract, their role in protection against HIV acquisition is unknown. We found that stimulation of human genital neutrophils with HIV viral-like particles (HIV-VLPs) induced NET release within minutes of viral exposure, through reactive oxygen species-independent mechanisms that resulted in immediate entrapment of HIV-VLPs. Incubation of infectious HIV with pre-formed genital NETs prevented infection of susceptible cells through irreversible viral inactivation. HIV inactivation by NETs from genital neutrophils could represent a previously unrecognized form of mucosal protection against HIV acquisition.
Supplementation of p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived protein, in early life promotes epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent intestinal development and long-term health outcomes Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Xi Shen, Liping Liu, Richard M. Peek, Sari A. Acra, Daniel J. Moore, Keith T. Wilson, Fang He, D. Brent Polk, Fang Yan
The beneficial effects of the gut microbiota on growth in early life are well known. However, knowledge about the mechanisms underlying regulating intestinal development by the microbiota is limited. p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived protein, transactivates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells for protecting the intestinal epithelium against injury and inflammation. Here, we developed p40-containing pectin/zein hydrogels for targeted delivery of p40 to the small intestine and the colon. Treatment with p40-containing hydrogels from postnatal day 2 to 21 significantly enhanced bodyweight gain prior to weaning and functional maturation of the intestine, including intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and tight junction formation, and IgA production in early life in wild-type mice. These p40-induced effects were abolished in mice with specific deletion of EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that transactivation of EGFR in intestinal epithelial cells may mediate p40-regulated intestinal development. Furthermore, neonatal p40 treatment reduced the susceptibility to intestinal injury and colitis and promoted protective immune responses, including IgA production and differentiation of regulatory T cells, in adult mice. These findings reveal novel roles of neonatal supplementation of probiotic-derived factors in promoting EGFR-mediated maturation of intestinal functions and innate immunity, which likely promote long-term beneficial outcomes.
MAdCAM costimulation through Integrin-α4β7 promotes HIV replication Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Fatima Nawaz, Livia R. Goes, Jocelyn C. Ray, Ronke Olowojesiku, Alia Sajani, Aftab A. Ansari, Ian Perrone, Joseph Hiatt, Donald Van Ryk, Danlan Wei, Mia Waliszewski, Marcelo A. Soares, Katija Jelicic, Mark Connors, Stephen A. Migueles, Elena Martinelli, Francois Villinger, Claudia Cicala, Anthony S. Fauci, James Arthos
Human gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) play a key role in the acute phase of HIV infection. The propensity of HIV to replicate in these tissues, however, is not fully understood. Access and migration of naive and memory CD4+ T cells to these sites is mediated by interactions between integrin α4β7, expressed on CD4+ T cells, and MAdCAM, expressed on high endothelial venules. We report here that MAdCAM delivers a potent costimulatory signal to naive and memory CD4+ T cells following ligation with α4β7. Such costimulation promotes high levels of HIV replication. An anti-α4β7 mAb that prevents mucosal transmission of SIV blocks MAdCAM signaling through α4β7 and MAdCAM-dependent viral replication. MAdCAM costimulation of memory CD4+ T cells is sufficient to drive cellular proliferation and the upregulation of CCR5, while naive CD4+ T cells require both MAdCAM and retinoic acid to achieve the same response. The pairing of MAdCAM and retinoic acid is unique to the GALT, leading us to propose that HIV replication in these sites is facilitated by MAdCAM–α4β7 interactions. Moreover, complete inhibition of MAdCAM signaling by an anti-α4β7 mAb, an analog of the clinically approved therapeutic vedolizumab, highlights the potential of such agents to control acute HIV infection.
Microbial dysbiosis associated with impaired intestinal Na+/H+ exchange accelerates and exacerbates colitis in ex-germ free mice Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-06 Christy A. Harrison, Daniel Laubitz, Christina L. Ohland, Monica T. Midura-Kiela, Karuna Patil, David G. Besselsen, Deepa R. Jamwal, Christian Jobin, Fayez K. Ghishan, Pawel R. Kiela
Intestinal epithelial Na+/H+ exchange facilitated by the apical NHE3 (Slc9a3) is a highly regulated process inhibited by intestinal pathogens and in inflammatory bowel diseases. NHE3−/− mice develop spontaneous, bacterially mediated colitis, and IBD-like dysbiosis. Disruption of epithelial Na+/H+ exchange in IBD may thus represent a host response contributing to the altered gut microbial ecology, and may play a pivotal role in modulating the severity of inflammation in a microbiome-dependent manner. To test whether microbiome fostered in an NHE3-deficient environment is able to drive mucosal immune responses affecting the onset or severity of colitis, we performed a series of cohousing experiments and fecal microbiome transplants into germ-free Rag-deficient or IL-10−/− mice. We determined that in the settings where the microbiome of NHE3-deficient mice was stably engrafted in the recipient host, it was able accelerate the onset and amplify severity of experimental colitis. NHE3-deficiency was characterized by the reduction in pH-sensitive butyrate-producing Firmicutes families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (Clostridia clusters IV and XIVa), with an expansion of inflammation-associated Bacteroidaceae. We conclude that the microbiome fostered by impaired epithelial Na+/H+ exchange enhances the onset and severity of colitis through disruption of the gut microbial ecology.
High expression of Sonic hedgehog in allergic airway epithelia contributes to goblet cell metaplasia Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Chengyun Xu, Chaochun Zou, Musaddique Hussain, Wei Shi, Yanan Shao, Ziyan Jiang, Xiling Wu, Meiping Lu, Junsong Wu, Qiangmin Xie, Yuehai Ke, Fanxin Long, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is abundantly expressed and critical for morphogenesis in embryonic lungs; however, SHH expression drops to a much lower level in mice from E17.5 and in humans from the 21st gestational week. We find that SHH expression is robustly upregulated in the airway epithelia of children with asthma or mouse models with allergic airway disease. Specifically, airway-specific SMO loss of function significantly suppresses allergen-induced goblet cell phenotypes, whereas an airway-specific SMO gain of function markedly enhances the goblet cell phenotypes in mouse models with allergic airway disease. Notably, intratracheal administration with SHH-neutralizing antibody or cyclopamine robustly attenuates goblet cell phenotypes in mouse models with allergic airway disease. Finally, we identify that Muc5AC gene encoding MUC5AC mucin serves as a direct target of GLI transcriptional factors in response to SHH, whereas the SAM-pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor and Forkhead box A2, critical transcriptional factors for goblet cell phenotypes, both function as the effectors of GLIs in response to SHH stimulation. Together, the upregulation of SHH expression in allergic bronchial epithelia contributes to goblet cell metaplasia; thus, blockage of SHH signaling is a rational approach in a therapeutic intervention of epithelial remodeling in chronic airway diseases.
The mucosal surfaces of both eyes are immunologically linked by a neurogenic inflammatory reflex involving TRPV1 and substance P Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Mauricio Guzmán, Maximiliano S. Miglio, Nadia R. Zgajnar, Ana Colado, María B. Almejún, Irene A. Keitelman, Florencia Sabbione, Federico Fuentes, Analía S. Trevani, Mirta N. Giordano, Jeremías G. Galletti
Immunological interdependence between the two eyes has been reported for the cornea and the retina but not for the ocular mucosal surface. Intriguingly, patients frequently report ocular surface-related symptoms in the other eye after unilateral ocular surgery. Here we show how unilateral eye injuries in mice affect the mucosal immune response of the opposite ocular surface. We report that, despite the lack of lymphatic cross-drainage, a neurogenic inflammatory reflex in the contralateral conjunctiva is sufficient to increase, first, epithelial nuclear factor kappa B signaling, then, dendritic cell maturation, and finally, expansion of effector, instead of regulatory, T cells in the draining lymph node, leading to disrupted ocular mucosal tolerance. We also show that damage to ocular surface nerves is required. Using pharmacological inhibitors and agonists, we identified transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel as the receptor sensing tissue damage in the injured eye and substance P released in the opposite ocular surface as the effector of the sympathetic response. Finally, blocking either step prevented subsequent ocular allergic reactions in the opposite eye in a unilateral corneal alkali burn model. This study demonstrates that both ocular surfaces are immunologically linked and suggests potential therapeutic targets for intervention.
Goblet cells: multifaceted players in immunity at mucosal surfaces Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Kathryn A. Knoop, Rodney D. Newberry
Goblet cells (GCs) are specialized epithelial cells that line multiple mucosal surfaces and have a well-appreciated role in barrier maintenance through the secretion of mucus. Moreover, GCs secrete anti-microbial proteins, chemokines, and cytokines demonstrating functions in innate immunity beyond barrier maintenance. Recently it was appreciated that GCs can form goblet cell-associated antigen passages (GAPs) and deliver luminal substances to underlying lamina propria (LP) antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a manner capable of inducing adaptive immune responses. GCs at other mucosal surfaces share characteristics with the GAP forming intestinal GCs, suggesting that GAP formation may not be restricted to the gut, and that GCs may perform this gatekeeper function at other mucosal surfaces. Here we review observations of how GCs contribute to immunity at mucosal surfaces through barrier maintenance, the delivery of luminal substances to APCs, interactions with APCs, and secretion of factors modulating immune responses.
Evidence for interplay among antibacterial-induced gut microbiota disturbance, neuro-inflammation, and anxiety in mice Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-04 Hyo-Min Jang, Hae-Ji Lee, Se-Eun Jang, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is the mechanistic connection between antibacterial-dependent gut microbiota disturbance and anxiety. First, exposure of mice to ampicillin caused anxiety and colitis and increased the population of Proteobacteria, particularly Klebsiella oxytoca, in gut microbiota and fecal and blood lipopolysaccharide levels, while decreasing lactobacilli population including Lactobacillus reuteri. Next, treatments with fecal microbiota of ampicillin-treated mouse (FAP), K. oxytoca, or lipopolysaccharide isolated from K. oxytoca (KL) induced anxiety and colitis in mice and increased blood corticosterone, IL-6, and lipopolysaccharide levels. Moreover, these treatments also increased the recruitment of microglia (Iba1+), monocytes (CD11b+/CD45+), and dendritic cells (CD11b+/CD11c+) to the hippocampus, as well as the population of apoptotic neuron cells (caspase-3+/NeuN+) in the brain. Furthermore, ampicillin, K. oxytoca, and KL induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β and TNF-α expression in the colon and brain as well as increased gut membrane permeability. Finally, oral administration of L. reuteri alleviated ampicillin-induced anxiety and colitis. These results suggest that ampicillin exposure can cause anxiety through neuro-inflammation which can be induced by monocyte/macrophage-activated gastrointestinal inflammation and elevated Proteobacteria population including K. oxytoca, while treatment with lactobacilli suppresses it.
Antigen-specific regulatory T-cell responses against aeroantigens and their role in allergy Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold
The mucosal immune system of the respiratory tract is specialized to continuously monitor the external environment and to protect against invading pathogens, while maintaining tolerance to innocuous inhaled particles. Allergies result from a loss of tolerance against harmless antigens characterized by formation of allergen-specific Th2 cells and IgE. Tolerance is often described as a balance between harmful Th2 cells and various types of protective “regulatory” T cells. However, the identity of the protective T cells in healthy vs. allergic individuals or following successful allergen-specific therapy is controversially discussed. Recent technological progress enabling the identification of antigen-specific effector and regulatory T cells has significantly contributed to our understanding of tolerance. Here we discuss the experimental evidence for the various tolerance mechanisms described. We try to integrate the partially contradictory data into a new model proposing different mechanism of tolerance depending on the quality and quantity of the antigens as well as the way of antigen exposure. Understanding the basis of tolerance is essential for the rational design of novel and more efficient immunotherapies.
Influence of gut microbiome on mucosal immune activation and SHIV viral transmission in naive macaques Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-01 Yongjun Sui, Amiran Dzutsev, David Venzon, Blake Frey, Vishal Thovarai, Giorgio Trinchieri, Jay A. Berzofsky
It is unknown whether the gut microbiome affects HIV transmission. In our recent SHIV vaccine study, we found that the naive rhesus macaques from two different sources had significantly different rates of infection against repeated low-dose intrarectal challenge with SHIVSF162P4 virus. Exploring causes, we found that the more susceptible group of seven macaques had significantly more activated CD4+CCR5+Ki67+ T cells in the rectal mucosa than the more resistant group of 11 macaques from a different source. The prevalence of pre-challenge activated rectal CD4 T cells in the naive macaques correlated inversely with the number of challenges required to infect. Because the two naive groups came from different sources, we hypothesized that their microbiomes may differ and might explain the activation difference. Indeed, after sequencing 16s rRNA, we found differences between the two naive groups that correlated with immune activation status. Distinct gut microbiota induced different levels of immune activation ex vivo. Significantly lower ratios of Bacteroides to Prevotella, and significantly lower levels of Firmicutes were found in the susceptible cohort, which were also inversely correlated with high levels of immune activation in the rectal mucosa. Thus, host-microbiome interactions might influence HIV/SIV mucosal transmission through effects on mucosal immune activation.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate local pre-exposure application prevents SHIV rectal infection of macaques Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-31 J. B. Liu, J. L. Li, K. Zhuang, H. Liu, X. Wang, Q. H. Xiao, X. D. Li, R. H. Zhou, L. Zhou, T. C. Ma, W. Zhou, M. Q. Liu, W. Z. Ho
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural and major ingredient of green tea, has been shown to have anti-inflammation and anti-HIV-1 properties. We demonstrated that the intrarectal administration of EGCG could protect rhesus macaques from repetitive, intrarectal challenges with low-dose SHIVSF162P3N. This protection has a per-exposure risk reduction of 91.5% (P = 0.0009; log-rank test) and a complete protection of 87.5% (P < 0.001; Fisher’s exact test). All protected animals showed no evidence of systemic and mucosal SHIV infection as demonstrated by the absence of viral RNA, DNA and antibodies. In contrast, all controls became infected after repeated SHIV challenges (a median of 2.5 times, range of 1–8 times). Mechanistically, EGCG could block the binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4 receptor and suppress the macrophage infiltration/activation in the rectal mucosa of macaques. These data support further clinical evaluation and development of EGCG as a novel, safe and cost-effective microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1.
An innate defense peptide BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 restricts influenza A virus infection Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-30 K M Akram, N A Moyo, G H Leeming, L Bingle, S Jasim, S Hussain, A Schorlemmer, A Kipar, P Digard, R A Tripp, R V Shohet, C D Bingle, J P Stewart
An innate defense peptide BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 restricts influenza A virus infection An innate defense peptide BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 restricts influenza A virus infection, Published online: 30 May 2018; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.109 An innate defense peptide BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 restricts influenza A virus infection
Healthy hosts rule within: ecological forces shaping the gut microbiota Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Mariana X. Byndloss, Sandy R. Pernitzsch, Andreas J. Bäumler
A balanced gut microbiota is important for human health, but the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis are incompletely understood. Recent insights suggest the host plays a key role in shaping its gut microbiota to be beneficial. While host control in the small intestine curbs bacterial numbers to avoid competition for simple sugars and amino acids, the host limits oxygen availability in the large intestine to obtain microbial fermentation products from fiber. Epithelial cells are major players in imposing ecological control mechanisms, which involves the release of antimicrobial peptides by small-intestinal Paneth cells and maintenance of luminal anaerobiosis by epithelial hypoxia in the colon. Harnessing these epithelial control mechanisms for therapeutic means could provide a novel lynchpin for strategies to remediate dysbiosis.
Human intestinal pro-inflammatory CD11chighCCR2+CX3CR1+ macrophages, but not their tolerogenic CD11c−CCR2−CX3CR1− counterparts, are expanded in inflammatory bowel disease Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 D. Bernardo, A. C. Marin, S. Fernández-Tomé, A. Montalban-Arques, A. Carrasco, E. Tristán, L. Ortega-Moreno, I. Mora-Gutiérrez, A. Díaz-Guerra, R. Caminero-Fernández, P. Miranda, F. Casals, M. Caldas, M. Jiménez, S. Casabona, F. De la Morena, M. Esteve, C. Santander, M. Chaparro, J. P. Gisbert
Although macrophages (Mϕ) maintain intestinal immune homoeostasis, there is not much available information about their subset composition, phenotype and function in the human setting. Human intestinal Mϕ (CD45+HLA-DR+CD14+CD64+) can be divided into subsets based on the expression of CD11c, CCR2 and CX3CR1. Monocyte-like cells can be identified as CD11chighCCR2+CX3CR1+ cells, a phenotype also shared by circulating CD14+ monocytes. On the contrary, their Mϕ-like tissue-resident counterparts display a CD11c−CCR2−CX3CR1− phenotype. CD11chigh monocyte-like cells produced IL-1β, both in resting conditions and after LPS stimulation, while CD11c− Mϕ-like cells produced IL-10. CD11chigh pro-inflammatory monocyte-like cells, but not the others, were increased in the inflamed colon from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Tolerogenic IL-10-producing CD11c− Mϕ-like cells were generated from monocytes following mucosal conditioning. Finally, the colonic mucosa recruited circulating CD14+ monocytes in a CCR2-dependent manner, being such capacity expanded in IBD. Mϕ subsets represent, therefore, transition stages from newly arrived pro-inflammatory monocyte-like cells (CD11chighCCR2+CX3CR1+) into tolerogenic tissue-resident (CD11c−CCR2−CX3CR1−) Mϕ-like cells as reflected by the mucosal capacity to recruit circulating monocytes and induce CD11c− Mϕ. The process is nevertheless dysregulated in IBD, where there is an increased migration and accumulation of pro-inflammatory CD11chigh monocyte-like cells.
NADPH oxidases and ROS signaling in the gastrointestinal tract Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Gabriella Aviello, Ulla G. Knaus
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), initially categorized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, have often been called a double-edged sword. ROS are considered indispensable when host defense and redox signaling is concerned and a threat in inflammatory or degenerative diseases. This generalization does not take in account the diversity of oxygen metabolites being generated, their physicochemical characteristics and their production by distinct enzymes in space and time. NOX/DUOX NADPH oxidases are the only enzymes solely dedicated to ROS production and the prime ROS producer for intracellular and intercellular communication due to their widespread expression and intricate regulation. Here we discuss new insights of how NADPH oxidases act via ROS as multifaceted regulators of the intestinal barrier in homeostasis, infectious disease and intestinal inflammation. A closer look at monogenic VEOIBD and commensals as ROS source supports the view of H2O2 as key beneficial messenger in the barrier ecosystem.
Immune quiescence in the oral mucosa is maintained by a uniquely large population of highly activated Foxp3+ regulatory T cells Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Joo-Young Park, Hyunsoo Chung, Devon T. DiPalma, Xuguang Tai, Jung-Hyun Park
The oral mucosa is a critical barrier tissue that protects the oral cavity against invading pathogens and foreign antigens. Interestingly, inflammation in the oral cavity is rarely observed, indicating that overt immune activation in this site is actively suppressed. Whether Foxp3+ Treg cells are involved in controlling immunity of the oral mucosa, however, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the oral mucosa is highly enriched in Foxp3+ Treg cells, and that oral mucosa Treg cells are phenotypically distinct from those of LN or spleen, as they expressed copious amounts of the tissue-retention molecule CD103 and unusually high-levels of CTLA4. Acute depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells had catastrophic effects, resulting in marked infiltration of activated effector T cells that were associated with autoimmunity and tissue destruction of the oral mucosa. Moreover, adoptive transfer of naive CD4 T cells revealed that the oral mucosa is highly ineffective in inducing Foxp3+ Treg cells in situ, so that it depends on recruitment and migration of exogenous Treg cells to populate this mucosal site. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role and a distinct developmental pathway for Foxp3+ Treg cells in the oral mucosa, which are essential to control local tissue immunity.
Modulation of bacterial metabolism by the microenvironment controls MAIT cell stimulation Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Mathias Schmaler, Alessia Colone, Julian Spagnuolo, Michael Zimmermann, Marco Lepore, Artem Kalinichenko, Sumedha Bhatia, Fabien Cottier, Tobias Rutishauser, Norman Pavelka, Adrian Egli, Elisa Azzali, Marco Pieroni, Gabriele Costantino, Petr Hruz, Uwe Sauer, Lucia Mori, Gennaro De Libero
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are abundant innate-like T lymphocytes in mucosal tissues and recognize a variety of riboflavin-related metabolites produced by the microbial flora. Relevant issues are whether MAIT cells are heterogeneous in the colon, and whether the local environment influences microbial metabolism thereby shaping MAIT cell phenotypes and responses. We found discrete MAIT cell populations in human colon, characterized by the diverse expression of transcription factors, cytokines and surface markers, indicative of activated and precisely controlled lymphocyte populations. Similar phenotypes were rare among circulating MAIT cells and appeared when circulating MAIT cells were stimulated with the synthetic antigens 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil, and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil. Furthermore, bacteria grown in colon-resembling conditions with low oxygen tension and harvested at stationary growth phase, potently activated human MAIT cells. The increased activation correlated with accumulation of the above antigenic metabolites as indicated by mass spectrometry. Thus, the colon environment contributes to mucosal immunity by directly affecting bacterial metabolism, and indirectly controlling the stimulation and differentiation of MAIT cells.
The increased protection and pathology in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected IL-27R-alpha-deficient mice is supported by IL-17A and is associated with the IL-17A-induced expansion of multifunctional T cells Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Hanna Erdmann, Jochen Behrends, Kristina Ritter, Alexandra Hölscher, Johanna Volz, Ida Rosenkrands, Christoph Hölscher
During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, mice lacking the IL-27R exhibit lower bacterial burdens but develop an immunopathological sequelae in comparison to wild-type mice. We here show that this phenotype correlates with an enhanced recruitment of antigen-specific CCR6+ CD4+ T cells and an increased frequency of IL-17A-producing CD4+ T cells. By comparing the outcome of Mtb infection in C57BL/6, IL-27R-deficient and IL-27R/IL-17A-double deficient mice, we observed that both the increased protection and elevated immunopathology are supported by IL-17A. Whereas IL-17A neither impacts the development of Tr1 cells nor the expression of PD1 and KLRG1 on T cells in IL-27R-deficient mice during infection, it regulates the presence of multifunctional T-cells in the lungs, co-expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF. Eventually, IL-17A supports Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Cxcl13 expression and the granulomatous response in the lungs of infected IL-27R-deficient mice. Taken together, IL-17A contributes to protection in Mtb-infected IL-27R-deficient mice probably through a chemokine-mediated recruitment and strategic positioning of multifunctional T cells in granulomas. As IL-27 limits optimal antimycobacterial protection by inhibiting IL-17A production, blocking of IL-27R-mediated signaling may represent a strategy for improving vaccination and host-directed therapy in tuberculosis. However, because IL-27 also prevents IL-17A-mediated immunopathology, such intervention has to be tightly controlled.
Interleukin-22-deficiency and microbiota contribute to the exacerbation of Toxoplasma gondii-induced intestinal inflammation Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 A Couturier-Maillard, N Froux, J Piotet-Morin, C Michaudel, L Brault, J Le Bérichel, A Sénéchal, P Robinet, P Chenuet, S Jejou, L Dumoutier, J C Renauld, J Iovanna, S Huber, VFJ Quesniaux, H Sokol, B Ryffel
Upon oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii cysts (76 K strain) tachyzoites are released into the intestinal lumen and cross the epithelial barrier causing damage and acute intestinal inflammation in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we investigated the role of microbiota and IL-22 in T.gondii-induced small intestinal inflammation. Oral T.gondii infection in B6 mice causes inflammation with IFNγ and IL-22 production. In IL-22-deficient mice, T.gondii infection augments the Th1 driven inflammation. Deficiency in either IL-22bp, the soluble IL-22 receptor or Reg3γ, an IL-22-dependent antimicrobial lectin/peptide, did not reduce inflammation. Under germ-free conditions, T.gondii-induced inflammation was reduced in correlation with parasite load. But intestinal inflammation is still present in germ-free mice, at low level, in the lamina propria, independently of IL-22 expression. Exacerbated intestinal inflammation driven by absence of IL-22 appears to be independent of IL-22 deficiency associated-dysbiosis as similar inflammation was observed after fecal transplantation of IL-22-/- or WT microbiota to germ-free-WT mice. Our results suggest cooperation between parasite and intestinal microbiota in small intestine inflammation development and endogenous IL-22 seems to exert a protective role independently of its effect on the microbiota. In conclusion, IL-22 participates in T.gondii induced acute small intestinal inflammation independently of microbiota and Reg3γ.
A model of TH17-associated ileal hyperplasia that requires both IL-17A and IFNγ to generate self-tolerance and prevent colitis Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-05-04 Jonathan C. Jeschke, Christopher G. Mayne, Jennifer Ziegelbauer, Christopher L. DeCiantis, Selina Singh, Suresh N. Kumar, Mariko Suchi, Yoichiro Iwakura, William R. Drobyski, Nita H Salzman, Calvin B. Williams
Homeostasis in the ileum, which is commonly disrupted in patients with Crohn’s disease, involves ongoing immune responses. To study how homeostatic processes of the ileum impact CD4+T cell responses, we used TCR transgenic tools to breed mice that spontaneously produced CD4+T cells reactive to an antigen expressed in the ileum. At an early age, the ilea of these mice exhibit crypt hyperplasia and accumulate increased numbers of TH17 cells bearing non-transgenic clonotypes. Half of these mice subsequently developed colitis linked to broad mucosal infiltration by TH17 and TH1 cells expressing non-transgenic clonotypes, chronic wasting disease and loss of ileal crypt hyperplasia. By contrast, adult mice with normal growth continued to exhibit TH17-associated ileal crypt hyperplasia and additionally accumulated ileal-reactive Treg cells. Both IL-17A and IFNγ were protective, as their deficiency precluded ileal-reactive Treg accumulation and exacerbated colitic disease. IL-23R blockade prevented progression to colitis, whereas nTreg cell transfers prevented colitic disease, ileal crypt hyperplasia and ileal-reactive Treg accumulation. Thus, our studies identify an IL-17A and IFNγ-dependent homeostatic process that mobilizes ileal-reactive Treg cells and is disrupted by IL-23.
Pulmonary Regnase-1 orchestrates the interplay of epithelium and adaptive immune systems to protect against pneumonia Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Alexis Vandenbon, Takashi Mino, Masanori Yoshinaga, Takuya Uehata, Xiaotong Cui, Ayuko Sato, Tohru Tsujimura, Yutaka Suzuki, Atsuyasu Sato, Tomohiro Handa, Kazuo Chin, Teiji Sawa, Toyohiro Hirai, Osamu Takeuchi
Inhaled pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa initially encounter airway epithelial cells (AECs), which are poised to evoke cell-intrinsic innate defense, affecting second tier of hematopoietic cell-mediated immune reaction. However, it is largely unknown how pulmonary immune responses mediated by a variety of immune cells are coordinated. Here we show that Regnase-1, an endoribonuclease expressed in AECs and immune cells, plays an essential role in coordinating innate responses and adaptive immunity against P. aeruginosa infection. Intratracheal treatment of mice with heat-killed P. aeruginosa resulted in prolonged disappearance of Regnase-1 consistent with sustained expression of Regnase-1 target inflammatory genes, whereas the transcription factor NF-κB was only transiently activated. AEC-specific deletion of Regnase-1 not only augmented innate defenses against P. aeruginosa but also enhanced secretion of Pseudomonas-specific IgA and Th17 accumulation in the lung, culminating in conferring significant resistance against P. aeruginosa re-infection in vivo. Although Regnase-1 directly controls distinct sets of genes in each of AECs and T cells, degradation of Regnase-1 in both cell types is beneficial for maximizing acquired immune responses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Regnase-1 orchestrates AEC-mediated and immune cell-mediated host defense against pulmonary bacterial infection.
A screen of Crohn’s disease-associated microbial metabolites identifies ascorbate as a novel metabolic inhibitor of activated human T cells Mucosal Immunol. (IF 7.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-25 Yu-Ling Chang, Maura Rossetti, Hera Vlamakis, David Casero, Gemalene Sunga, Nicholas Harre, Shelley Miller, Romney Humphries, Thaddeus Stappenbeck, Kenneth W. Simpson, R. Balfour Sartor, Gary Wu, James Lewis, Frederic Bushman, Dermot P. B. McGovern, Nita Salzman, James Borneman, Ramnik Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower, Jonathan Braun
Microbial metabolites are an emerging class of mediators influencing CD4+ T-cell function. To advance the understanding of direct causal microbial factors contributing to Crohn’s disease, we screened 139 predicted Crohn’s disease-associated microbial metabolites for their bioactivity on human CD4+ T-cell functions induced by disease-associated T helper 17 (Th17) polarizing conditions. We observed 15 metabolites with CD4+ T-cell bioactivity, 3 previously reported, and 12 unprecedented. A deeper investigation of the microbe-derived metabolite, ascorbate, revealed its selective inhibition on activated human CD4+ effector T cells, including IL-17A-, IL-4-, and IFNγ-producing cells. Mechanistic assessment suggested the apoptosis of activated human CD4+ T cells associated with selective inhibition of energy metabolism. These findings suggest a substantial rate of relevant T-cell bioactivity among Crohn’s disease-associated microbial metabolites, and evidence for novel modes of bioactivity, including targeting of T-cell energy metabolism.
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