Candidate genes linking maternal nutrient exposure to offspring health via DNA methylation: a review of existing evidence in humans with specific focus on one-carbon metabolism Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Philip James, Sara Sajjadi, Ashutosh Singh Tomar, Ayden Saffari, Caroline H D Fall, Andrew M Prentice, Smeeta Shrestha, Prachand Issarapu, Dilip Kumar Yadav, Lovejeet Kaur, Karen Lillycrop, Matt Silver, Giriraj R Chandak, Lena Acolatse, Meraj Ahmed, Modupeh Betts, Giriraj R Chandak, Harsha Chopra, Cyrus Cooper, Momodou K Darboe, Chiara Di Gravio, Caroline HD Fall, Meera Gandhi, Gail R Goldberg, Prachand Issarapu, Philip James, Ramatoulie Janha, Landing M A Jarjou, Lovejeet Kaur, Sarah H Kehoe, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Karen A Lillycrop, Mohammed Ngum, Suraj S Nongmaithem, Stephen Owens, Ramesh D Potdar, Andrew M Prentice, Ann Prentice, Tallapragada Divya Sri Priyanka, Ayden Saffari, Sirazul Ameen Sahariah, Sara Sajjadi, Harshad Sane, Smeeta Shrestha, Matt J Silver, Ashutosh Singh Tomar, Kate A Ward, Dilip Kumar Yadav, Chittaranjan S Yajnik
Mounting evidence suggests that nutritional exposures during pregnancy influence the fetal epigenome, and that these epigenetic changes can persist postnatally, with implications for disease risk across the life course.
Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma risk Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-17 Alfreda Krupoves
Exposure to asbestos is the cause of the most important occupational disease epidemic of the 20th century, and it remains highly relevant to public health even after asbestos has largely disappeared from manufacture and from new uses in many countries.1 There are still 125 million people exposed to asbestos in the workplace, according to the World Health Organization.2 In addition, most of the asbestos that was ever used is still in place and is therefore a potential source of exposure for workers in renovation, demolition, maintenance and waste removal.
Effects of ambient air pollution on incident Parkinson’s disease in Ontario, 2001 to 2013: a population-based cohort study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Saeha Shin, Richard T Burnett, Jeffrey C Kwong, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Jeffrey R Brook, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Mark S Goldberg, Paul J Villeneuve, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Hong Chen
Despite recent studies linking air pollution to neurodegenerative illness, evidence relating air pollution and Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains scarce. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, to determine the association between air pollution and incident PD.
Development and validation of a predictive ecological model for TB prevalence Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-16 Sandra Alba, Ente Rood, Mirjam I Bakker, Masja Straetemans, Philippe Glaziou, Charalampos Sismanidis
Nationally representative tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys provide invaluable empirical measurements of TB burden but are a massive and complex undertaking. Therefore, methods that capitalize on data from these surveys are both attractive and imperative. The aim of this study was to use existing TB prevalence estimates to develop and validate an ecological predictive statistical model to indirectly estimate TB prevalence in low- and middle-income countries without survey data.
AHR gene-dioxin interactions and birthweight in the Seveso Second Generation Health Study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-14 Jennifer Ames, Marcella Warner, Paolo Mocarelli, Paolo Brambilla, Stefano Signorini, Claudia Siracusa, Karen Huen, Nina Holland, Brenda Eskenazi
2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is proposed to interfere with fetal growth via altered activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (protein: AHR; gene: AHR) pathway which regulates diverse biological and developmental processes including xenobiotic metabolism. Genetic variation in AHR is an important driver of susceptibility to low birthweight in children exposed to prenatal smoking, but less is known about these genetic interactions with TCDD, AHR’s most potent xenobiotic ligand.
Data Resource Profile: The China National Health Survey (CNHS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Huijing He, Li Pan, Lize Pa, Ze Cui, Xiaolan Ren, Dingming Wang, Feng Liu, Xianghua Wang, Jianwei Du, Hailing Wang, Shaoping Wan, Jingbo Zhao, Xia Peng, Xiaoyang Wang, Jia Zhang, Ye Wang, Huiru Ren, Chengdong Yu, Guangliang Shan
The China National Health Survey (CNHS) is the first nationwide multi-ethnic cross-sectional interview and health examination conducted from 2012 to 2017. The survey is designed to study reference intervals for physiological constants as well as determinants of noncommunicable diseases among different ethnic populations in different areas, so that the data can be used to enhance clinical diagnosis strategies and health promotion. CNHS used a stratified, multistage cluster sampling method to obtain a sample of 53 895 people aged 20-80 years in 10 ethnic groups from 11 provinces or autonomous regions all over China. Blood samples were collected from each participant for the establishment of the China Multi-Ethnic Biobank (CMEB). CNHS collected data on demographic and socioeconomic information, lifestyle factors, anthropometric measures, laboratory tests and clinical profiles. These data provide a comprehensive resource for further study on risk factors of noncommunicable disease among different ethnic groups. Information about the CNHS database, including publication list, introduction of the survey design and methods, and guidelines for submitting electronic forms of data application, is available at [http://www.bmicc.cn/web/share/home].
Cohort Profile Update: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-13 Orna A Donoghue, Christine A McGarrigle, Margaret Foley, Andrew Fagan, James Meaney, Rose Anne Kenny
As outlined in the original cohort profile,1 The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) is a prospective cohort study designed to provide an evidence base for addressing the challenges and opportunities associated with population ageing in Ireland. The sampling and study design are described in Whelan et al.2 Briefly, the sampling frame is based on the Irish Geodirectory, a comprehensive and up-to-date listing and mapping of all residential addresses in the Republic of Ireland, compiled by An Post (the Irish Postal Service) and Ordnance Survey Ireland.3 Participants were randomly selected using the RANSAM sampling procedure, so that each residential address in Ireland had an equal probability of...
Cohort profile: The Boston Hospital Workers Health Study (BHWHS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Erika L Sabbath, Dean Hashimoto, Leslie I Boden, Jack T Dennerlein, Jessica A R Williams, Karen Hopcia, Theresa Orechia, Yorghos Tripodis, Anne Stoddard, Glorian Sorensen
Protecting and promoting the health of hospital workers is both an occupational health priority and a public health imperative. Health care workers are the fastest-growing segment of the US labour force.1,2 Their working conditions present many health risks, which can affect them, their families, their patients and their employers.3–6
Epigenome-wide association study in whole blood on type 2 diabetes among sub-Saharan African individuals: findings from the RODAM study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-10 Karlijn A C Meeks, Peter Henneman, Andrea Venema, Juliet Addo, Silver Bahendeka, Tom Burr, Ina Danquah, Cecilia Galbete, Marcel M A M Mannens, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Charles N Rotimi, Matthias B Schulze, Liam Smeeth, Joachim Spranger, Mohammad H Zafarmand, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles Agyemang
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a complex interplay between genetics and the environment. Several epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have found DNA methylation loci associated with T2D in European populations. However, data from African populations are lacking. We undertook the first EWAS for T2D among sub-Saharan Africans, aiming at identifying ubiquitous and novel DNA methylation loci associated with T2D.
Weakening association of parental education: analysis of child health outcomes in 43 low- and middle-income countries Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Omar Karlsson, Jan-Walter De Neve, S V Subramanian
Parental education has been suggested to be an effective instrument for improving child health in low- and middle-income countries. Both education and child health have improved, however, as well as related factors. These changes may have implications for the observed association.
Early childhood antibiotics use and autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-07 Amani F Hamad, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Marni Brownell, I Fan Kuo
Changes in microbiota composition as a result of antibiotics use in early life has been proposed as a possible contributor in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to examine the association between early life antibiotic exposure and risk of ASD.
Significant cognitive delay among 3- to 4-year old children in low- and middle-income countries: prevalence estimates and potential impact of preventative interventions Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-06 Eric Emerson, Amber Savage, Gwynnyth Llewellyn
We sought to: (i) estimate the prevalence of significant cognitive delay (a marked delay in the development of general cognitive functioning) among nationally representative samples of young children in middle- and low-income countries; (ii) estimate the total number of children under 5 years of age with significant cognitive delay living in low- and middle-income countries; and (iii) estimate the potential impact of five preventative interventions.
Differential vulnerability and susceptibility: how to make use of recent development in our understanding of mediation and interaction to tackle health inequalities Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Finn Diderichsen, Johan Hallqvist, Margaret Whitehead
This paper discusses the concepts of vulnerability and susceptibility and their relevance for understanding and tackling health inequalities. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health is based on an understanding of how an individual’s social position influences disease risk. Conceptually, there are two possible mechanisms (not mutually exclusive): there is either some cause(s) of disease that are unevenly distributed across socioeconomic groups (differential exposure) or the effect of some cause(s) of disease differs across groups (differential effect). Since differential vulnerability and susceptibility are often used to denote the latter, we discuss these concepts and their current use and suggest an epidemiologically relevant distinction. The effect of social position can thus be mediated by causes that are unevenly distributed across social groups and/or interact with social position. Recent improvements in the methodology to estimate mediation and interaction have made it possible to calculate measures of relevance for setting targets and priorities in policy for health equity which include both mechanisms, i.e. equalize exposure or equalize effects. We finally discuss the importance of differential susceptibility and vulnerability for the choice of preventive strategies, including approaches that target high-risk individuals, whole populations and vulnerable groups.
To what extent is the association between disability and mental health in adolescents mediated by bullying? A causal mediation analysis Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-03 Tania King, Zoe Aitken, Allison Milner, Eric Emerson, Naomi Priest, Amalia Karahalios, Anne Kavanagh, Tony Blakely
Disability among adolescents is associated with both poorer mental health (MH) and higher levels of bullying-victimization. Bullying, therefore, conceivably mediates the association between disability and MH. Quantifying this pathway is challenging as the exposure (disability), mediator (bullying) and outcome (MH) are subjective, and subject to dependent measurement error if the same respondent reports on two or more variables.
Reducing geographic inequalities in access times for acute treatment of myocardial infarction in a large country: the example of Russia Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-08-01 Sergey Timonin, Anna Kontsevaya, Martin McKee, David A Leon
Russia has the largest area of any country in the world and has one of the highest cardiovascular mortality rates. Over the past decade, the number of facilities able to perform percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has increased substantially. We quantify the extent to which the constraints of geography make equitable access to this effective technology difficult to achieve.
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-30 Bruce K Armstrong
Schottenfeld and Fraumeni Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, now in fourth edition (Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention 4), has been the ‘go to’ text for cancer epidemiology (less so for prevention, which has been lightly treated) since Oxford University Press (OUP) published the first edition in 1982.
Mendelian Randomization and mediation analysis of leukocyte telomere length and risk of lung and head and neck cancers Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-28 Linda Kachuri, Olli Saarela, Stig Egil Bojesen, George Davey Smith, Geoffrey Liu, Maria Teresa Landi, Neil E Caporaso, David C Christiani, Mattias Johansson, Salvatore Panico, Kim Overvad, Antonia Trichopoulou, Paolo Vineis, Ghislaine Scelo, David Zaridze, Xifeng Wu, Demetrius Albanes, Brenda Diergaarde, Pagona Lagiou, Gary J Macfarlane, Melinda C Aldrich, Adonina Tardón, Gad Rennert, Andrew F Olshan, Mark C Weissler, Chu Chen, Gary E Goodman, Jennifer A Doherty, Andrew R Ness, Heike Bickeböller, H-Erich Wichmann, Angela Risch, John K Field, M Dawn Teare, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Erik H F M van der Heijden, June C Carroll, Aage Haugen, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Vidar Skaug, Victor Wünsch-Filho, Eloiza H Tajara, Raquel Ayoub Moysés, Fabio Daumas Nunes, Stephen Lam, Jose Eluf-Neto, Martin Lacko, Wilbert H M Peters, Loïc Le Marchand, Eric J Duell, Angeline S Andrew, Silvia Franceschi, Matthew B Schabath, Jonas Manjer, Susanne Arnold, Philip Lazarus, Anush Mukeriya, Beata Swiatkowska, Vladimir Janout, Ivana Holcatova, Jelena Stojsic, Dana Mates, Jolanta Lissowska, Stefania Boccia, Corina Lesseur, Xuchen Zong, James D McKay, Paul Brennan, Christopher I Amos, Rayjean J Hung
Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses.
Cohort Profile: The Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos, Aline Elizabeth da Silva Miranda, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Fernando Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Luana Caroline dos Santos, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes, Miguel Ángel Martínez González, Josefina Bressan
In Brazil, noncommunicable disease (NCD) accounts for 72% of deaths, representing a serious public health concern.1,2 In this context, the Ministry of Health proposed a strategic action plan to confront these diseases between 2011 and 2022, with emphasis on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, as well as their main risk factors—smoking, harmful alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, inadequate diet and obesity.3
Primary prevention of rheumatic fever in the 21st century: evaluation of a national programme Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Susan J Jack, Deborah A Williamson, Yvonne Galloway, Nevil Pierse, Jane Zhang, Jane Oliver, Richard J Milne, Graham Mackereth, Catherine M Jackson, Andrew C Steer, Jonathan R Carapetis, Michael G Baker
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) has largely disappeared from high-income countries. However, in New Zealand (NZ) rates remain high in indigenous (Māori) and Pacific populations. In 2011, NZ launched an intensive and unparalleled primary Rheumatic Fever Prevention Programme (RFPP). We evaluated the impact of the school-based sore throat service component of the RFPP.
Investigating the relationship between fetal growth and academic attainment: secondary analysis of the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-27 Tom Norris, William Johnson, Emily Petherick, Noel Cameron, Sam Oddie, Samantha Johnson, John Wright, Elizabeth Draper, Philip N Baker
The relationship between ultrasongraphically derived estimates of fetal growth and educational attainment in the postnatal period is unknown. Results from previous studies focusing on cognitive ability, however, suggest there may be gestation-specific associations. Our objective was to model growth in fetal weight (EFW) and head circumference (HC) and identify whether growth variation in different periods was related to academic attainment in middle childhood.
A cohort study assessing the sustainable long-term effectiveness of a childhood-obesity intervention in China Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-25 Zhijuan Cao, Jing Hua, Donglan Zhang, Janani R Thapa, Shumei Wang
Obesity has become a global epidemic, with substantial impacts on children’s health. Numerous intervention studies for the prevention of obesity in children have been conducted during the most recent decade, but very few have evaluated the long-term and sustainable effectiveness of such prevention efforts.
Male-biased sex ratios in Australian migrant populations: a population-based study of 1 191 250 births 1999–2015 Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-23 Kristina Edvardsson, Anna Axmon, Rhonda Powell, Mary-Ann Davey
The naturally occurring male-to-female (M/F) ratio at birth is 1.05. Higher ratios found primarily in countries across Asia have been attributed to prenatal sex selection due to son preference. There is growing evidence that sex-selective practices continue following migration; however, little is known about these practices following migration to Australia.
Medium- and long-term health effects of earthquakes in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-19 Alba Ripoll Gallardo, Barbara Pacelli, Marta Alesina, Dario Serrone, Giovanni Iacutone, Fabrizio Faggiano, Francesco Della Corte, Elias Allara
Accurate monitoring of population health is essential to ensure proper recovery after earthquakes. We aimed to summarize the findings and features of post-earthquake epidemiological studies conducted in high-income countries and to prompt the development of future surveillance plans.
Privilege and deprivation in Detroit: infant mortality and the Index of Concentration at the Extremes Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-19 Maeve E Wallace, Joia Crear-Perry, Carmen Green, Erica Felker-Kantor, Katherine Theall
Enhanced understanding of spatial social polarization as a determinant of infant mortality is critical to efforts aimed at advancing health equity. Our objective was to identify associations between spatial social polarization and risk of infant death.
The New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS)—Wave 2 (child age 13 years) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Melissa J Green, Felicity Harris, Kristin R Laurens, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kimberlie Dean, Sally Brinkman, Marilyn Chilvers, Titia Sprague, Robert Stevens, Vaughan J Carr
The New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS) enables a life course epidemiological approach to identifying risk and protective factors for childhood and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and a diverse range of health, social and developmental outcomes. The study methodology entails repeated waves of record linkage for a state population of Australian children and their parents.
Patterns of multimorbid health conditions: a systematic review of analytical methods and comparison analysis Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Shu Kay Ng, Richard Tawiah, Michael Sawyer, Paul Scuffham
The latest review of studies on multimorbidity patterns showed high heterogeneity in the methodology for identifying groups of multimorbid conditions. However, it is unclear how analytical methods used influence the identified multimorbidity patterns.
Which English is English? Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Peter Arnold
There was an error in the last paragraph on page 360 of this article, wherein the word “dissident” was incorrectly used. The third sentence should read: “The translators’ sentences, as written in their particular ‘-glish’, are often unclear, ambiguous or inadvertently inconsistent or dissonant with other sentences in the same paper.” The article has been corrected.
Atrial fibrillation: is there enough evidence to recommend opportunistic or systematic screening? Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-16 Jessica Orchard, Nicole Lowres, Lis Neubeck, Ben Freedman
There was an error in the first sentence of this article, which incorrectly referred to incidence rather than prevalence. The first sentence should read: “Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia,1 the prevalence rising with age to 18% for those aged ≥85 years.2” The article has been corrected.
Does selective survival before study enrolment attenuate estimated effects of education on rate of cognitive decline in older adults? A simulation approach for quantifying survival bias in life course epidemiology Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-13 Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Teresa J Filshtein, Yorghos Tripodis, M Maria Glymour, Alden L Gross
The relationship between education and late-life cognitive decline is controversial. Selective survival between early life, when education is typically completed, and late life, when cognitive ageing studies take place, could attenuate effect estimates.
Development and validation of alternative cardiovascular risk prediction equations for population health planning: a routine health data linkage study of 1.7 million New Zealanders Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Suneela Mehta, Rod Jackson, Romana Pylypchuk, Katrina Poppe, Sue Wells, Andrew J Kerr
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equations are primarily used in clinical settings to inform individual risk management decisions. We sought to develop and validate alternative equations derived solely from linked routinely collected national health data that could be applied countrywide to inform population health planning.
The effect of cumulative soil-transmitted helminth infections over time on child development: a 4-year longitudinal cohort study in preschool children using Bayesian methods to adjust for exposure misclassification Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Brittany Blouin, Martin Casapía, Lawrence Joseph, Jay S Kaufman, Charles Larson, Theresa W Gyorkos
Limited research has documented an association between soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and child development. This has recently been identified as an important knowledge gap.
Who needs editors? The epidemiology of publications in the IJE Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Shah Ebrahim, George Davey Smith
Grant and colleagues1 provided an analysis of trends in content and characteristics of original research articles published in IJE from 1976 to 2016. The main issues they raise are of a bias towards high-income country authors, too few articles on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and mental health with respect to their high contribution to the global burden of disease, and a call to redress these biases.
What is the true tuberculosis mortality burden? Differences in estimates by the World Health Organization and the Global Burden of Disease study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Alberto L García-Basteiro, Joe Brew, Brian Williams, Martien Borgdorff, Frank Cobelens
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) periodically provide global estimates of tuberculosis (TB) mortality. We compared the 2015 WHO and GBD TB mortality estimates and explored which factors might drive the differences.
The pros of plurality for tuberculosis burden estimates Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-12 Peter J Dodd
Tuberculosis (TB) is now reckoned to be the leading infectious cause of death.1 That multiple people die every minute from a cheaply curable disease, which has been reduced to incidence rates of below 0.01% per year in many rich countries, is plainly unacceptable. The evidence to support statements on the extent of the TB pandemic most often comes from the burden estimates released annually by the Global TB Programme at the World Health Organization (WHO).1 The other set of global TB disease burden estimates are those of the Global Burden of Disease studies from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), which include TB as part of...
Cohort Profile: The Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS) of phthalate exposure and health risk assessment Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Chia-Fang Wu, Hui-Ming Chen, Chien-Wen Sun, Mei-Lien Chen, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Shu-Li Wang, Ming-Tsang Wu
This cohort was established in response to a food contamination scandal that became news in Taiwan in 2011. In that scandal, endocrine-disrupting phthalates, especially di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foods commonly consumed by children there.1 Although the food scandal wound down, environmental exposure to phthalates remains ubiquitous in daily life in Taiwan.2–4 Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children can be exposed to these products through different routes, including food ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their daily life.3,5–7
The role of epidemiology in firearm violence prevention: a Policy Brief Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-27 Amy B Davis, James A Gaudino, Colin L Soskolne, Wael K Al-Delaimy
Firearm violence has reached pandemic levels, with some countries experiencing high injury and death rates from privately owned guns and firearms (hereinafter collectively referred to as ‘firearms’).1–6 Significant factors in the increase in deaths and injuries from privately held firearms include the ease of obtaining these arms and, most importantly, the growing lethality of these weapons.7,8
Preterm infants have distinct microbiomes not explained by mode of delivery, breastfeeding duration or antibiotic exposure Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-20 Cecilie Dahl, Hein Stigum, Jørgen Valeur, Nina Iszatt, Virissa Lenters, Shyamal Peddada, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Siddhartha Mandal, Merete Eggesbø
Preterm infants have low gut microbial diversity and few anaerobes. It is unclear whether the low diversity pertains to prematurity itself or is due to differences in delivery mode, feeding mode or exposure to antibiotics.
Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a pooled analysis of seven European birth cohort studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-17 Joan Forns, Hein Stigum, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Isabelle Sioen, Eva Sovcikova, Nikola Nowack, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mònica Guxens, Jesús Ibarluzea, Matias Torrent, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Eva Govarts, Tomas Trnovec, Cecile Chevrier, Gunnar Toft, Martine Vrijheid, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p’-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood.
Physical activity and cause-specific mortality: the Rotterdam Study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-16 Chantal M Koolhaas, Klodian Dhana, Josje D Schoufour, Lies Lahousse, Frank J A van Rooij, M Arfan Ikram, Guy Brusselle, Henning Tiemeier, Oscar H Franco
Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for all-cause mortality. However, in elderly people, it remains unknown which types of PA are associated with mortality and whether the association between PA and mortality differs by cause of death.
Data Resource Profile: Danish Conscription Registry Data (DCRD) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-11 Gunhild Tidemann Christensen, Sissel Skogstad, Lars Ravnborg Nissen, Merete Osler
The physical and mental health of an individual is shaped throughout life, and exposures in early life may influence the risk of later adverse outcomes and survival.1–3 Height, body mass index, cognitive ability and education at the start of adult life are among the traits most consistently associated with later physical and mental health outcomes, as measured by morbidity and mortality. Information on these traits is available in the Danish Conscription Registry Data (DCRD), which consists of conscription data on 1.7 million Danish citizens (99.1% males) examined by the Danish conscription board from 1957 through 2015. Moreover, the data can be linked to individual-level data on socioeconomic and health...
An open-source, integrated pedigree data management and visualization tool for genetic epidemiology Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-05 Thilina Ranaweera, Enes Makalic, John L Hopper, Adrian Bickerstaffe
With advances in genetic epidemiology, increasingly large amounts of pedigree-related information are being collected by family studies, including twin studies. To date, biomedical data management systems that cater for family data have usually done so as part of their standard (non-family-centric) data model. Consequently, data managers with computing expertise are needed to extract family datasets and perform family-centric operations. We present a robust approach to handling large family datasets. Our approach is implemented as a new module which extends the capabilities of The Ark, an open-source web-based biomedical data management tool. Using an algorithm designed by the authors, the pedigree module dynamically infers family relationships for any selected subject (not necessarily the proband). A web interface allows researchers to create, update, delete and navigate parental and twin relationships between subjects, and bulk import/export pedigrees. Consanguineous relationships can be captured, and configurable pedigree visualizations generated. A web services interface provides interoperability.
Analysis of ‘sensitive’ periods of fetal and child growth Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Xun Zhang, Kate Tilling, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Ashley I Naimi, Izzuddin M Aris, Seungmi Yang, Michael S Kramer
Birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood are commonly studied as risk factors for later cardiometabolic diseases. In this study, we explore methods for quantifying weight gain during different age periods and for comparing the magnitude of the associations with later blood pressure.
Patterns of plant and animal protein intake are strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality: the Adventist Health Study-2 cohort Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-04-02 Marion Tharrey, François Mariotti, Andrew Mashchak, Pierre Barbillon, Maud Delattre, Gary E Fraser
Current evidence suggests that plant and animal proteins are intimately associated with specific large nutrient clusters that may explain part of their complex relation with cardiovascular health. We aimed at evaluating the association between specific patterns of protein intake with cardiovascular mortality.
Do employment factors reduce the effect of low education on mental health? A causal mediation analysis using a national panel study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-09 Allison Milner, Tony Blakely, George Disney, Anne M Kavanagh, Anthony D LaMontagne, Zoe Aitken
Young people with low education have worse health than those with higher education. This paper examined the extent to which employment and income reduced the adverse effects of low education on mental health among people aged 20–35 years.
The use of controls in interrupted time series studies of public health interventions Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 James Lopez Bernal, Steven Cummins, Antonio Gasparrini
Interrupted time series analysis differs from most other intervention study designs in that it involves a before-after comparison within a single population, rather than a comparison with a control group. This has the advantage that selection bias and confounding due to between-group differences are limited. However, the basic interrupted time series design cannot exclude confounding due to co-interventions or other events occurring around the time of the intervention. One approach to minimizse potential confounding from such simultaneous events is to add a control series so that there is both a before-after comparison and an intervention-control group comparison. A range of different types of controls can be used with interrupted time series designs, each of which has associated strengths and limitations. Researchers undertaking controlled interrupted time series studies should carefully consider a priori what confounding events may exist and whether different controls can exclude these or if they could introduce new sources of bias to the study. A prudent approach to the design, analysis and interpretation of controlled interrupted time series studies is required to ensure that valid information on the effectiveness of health interventions can be ascertained.
Cohort Profile: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-05 Donna S Rothstein, Deborah Carr, Elizabeth Cooksey
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) is a cohort of men and women born in the USA between 1957 and 1964, who were aged 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979. The survey was established to study the transition from school to work and careers among adolescents and young adults in the late 1970s. An additional goal of the survey was to help policy makers and researchers evaluate the expanded employment and training programmes for youths legislated by the 1977 amendments to the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA).
Are birthweight and postnatal weight gain in childhood associated with blood pressure in early adolescence? Results from a Ugandan birth cohort Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Swaib A Lule, Benigna Namara, Helen Akurut, Lawrence Muhangi, Lawrence Lubyayi, Margaret Nampijja, Florence Akello, Josephine Tumusiime, Judith C Aujo, Gloria Oduru, Liam Smeeth, Alison M Elliott, Emily L Webb
In Africa, where low birthweight (LBW), malnutrition and high blood pressure (BP) are prevalent, the relationships between birthweight (BW), weight gain and BP later in life remain uncertain. We examined the effects of early life growth on BP among Ugandan adolescents.
Reflection on modern methods: selection bias—a review of recent developments Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Claire Infante-Rivard, Alexandre Cusson
Selection bias remains a more difficult bias to understand than confounding or measurement error. Past definitions have not always been illuminating and a simple method (such as the change-in-estimate method for confounding) has not been available to determine its presence and magnitude in the study sample. A better understanding of the nature of the bias has led to the definition of endogenous selection bias. It is the result of conditioning on a collider variable, itself caused by two other variables; the latter variables become spuriously associated. Conditioning on a variable in the analysis that is a collider or on an indicator of sample selection has the same effect. Note that selection bias is possible even in the absence of a collider, but in the presence of endogenous selection bias, the concern is whether it is possible to identify a causal effect in the sample. Conditions have been outlined to determine that. However, even if conditions are met to identify a causal effect in the study sample, its generalization to a defined target population is not a given.
Physical activity and generalized anxiety disorder: results from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-03 Cillian P McDowell, Rodney K Dishman, Davy Vancampfort, Mats Hallgren, Brendon Stubbs, Ciaran MacDonncha, Matthew P Herring
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is prevalent and costly. Physical activity (PA) may protect against other mental health disorders, including depression, but its protective effect on GAD remains under-studied in the general population and unstudied among older adults. Therefore, the present study examines associations between meeting World Health Organization PA guidelines (i.e. ≥150 min of moderate PA, ≥75 min of vigorous PA or ≥600MET min of moderate and vigorous PA weekly) and the prevalence of probable GAD and incidence of GAD.
Longitudinal associations between having an adult child migrant and depressive symptoms among older adults in the Mexican Health and Aging Study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Jacqueline M Torres, Kara E Rudolph, Oleg Sofrygin, M Maria Glymour, Rebeca Wong
Migration may impact the mental health of family members who remain in places of origin. We examined longitudinal associations between having an adult child migrant and mental health, for middle-aged and older Mexican adults accounting for complex time-varying confounding.
Comparison of metabolite networks from four German population-based studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Khalid Iqbal, Stefan Dietrich, Clemens Wittenbecher, Jan Krumsiek, Tilman Kühn, Maria Elena Lacruz, Alexander Kluttig, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Martin von Bergen, Rudolf Kaaks, Matthias B Schulze, Heiner Boeing, Anna Floegel
Metabolite networks are suggested to reflect biological pathways in health and disease. However, it is unknown whether such metabolite networks are reproducible across different populations. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate similarity of metabolite networks in four German population-based studies.
The future burden of lung cancer attributable to current modifiable behaviours: a pooled study of seven Australian cohorts Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-07-02 Maarit A Laaksonen, Karen Canfell, Robert MacInnis, Maria E Arriaga, Emily Banks, Dianna J Magliano, Graham G Giles, Robert G Cumming, Julie E Byles, Paul Mitchell, Tiffany K Gill, Vasant Hirani, Susan McCullough, Jonathan E Shaw, Anne W Taylor, Barbara-Ann Adelstein, Claire M Vajdic
Knowledge of preventable disease and differences in disease burden can inform public health action to improve health and health equity. We quantified the future lung cancer burden preventable by behavioural modifications across Australia.
Improving the visualization, interpretation and analysis of two-sample summary data Mendelian randomization via the Radial plot and Radial regression Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Jack Bowden, Wesley Spiller, Fabiola Del Greco M, Nuala Sheehan, John Thompson, Cosetta Minelli, George Davey Smith
Summary data furnishing a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study are often visualized with the aid of a scatter plot, in which single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–outcome associations are plotted against the SNP–exposure associations to provide an immediate picture of the causal-effect estimate for each individual variant. It is also convenient to overlay the standard inverse-variance weighted (IVW) estimate of causal effect as a fitted slope, to see whether an individual SNP provides evidence that supports, or conflicts with, the overall consensus. Unfortunately, the traditional scatter plot is not the most appropriate means to achieve this aim whenever SNP–outcome associations are estimated with varying degrees of precision and this is reflected in the analysis.
Investigating causality in associations between education and smoking: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-28 Suzanne H Gage, Jack Bowden, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
Lower educational attainment is associated with increased rates of smoking, but ascertaining causality is challenging. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of summary statistics to examine whether educational attainment is causally related to smoking.
Sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-27 Magali Leyvraz, Angeline Chatelan, Bruno R da Costa, Patrick Taffé, Gilles Paradis, Pascal Bovet, Murielle Bochud, Arnaud Chiolero
High sodium intake is a cause of elevated blood pressure in adults. In children and adolescents, less evidence is available and findings are equivocal. We systematically reviewed the evidence from experimental and observational studies on the association between sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents.
Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Corey M Peak, Amy Wesolowski, Elisabeth zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Andrew J Tatem, Erik Wetter, Xin Lu, Daniel Power, Elaine Weidman-Grunewald, Sergio Ramos, Simon Moritz, Caroline O Buckee, Linus Bengtsson
Travel restrictions were implementeded on an unprecedented scale in 2015 in Sierra Leone to contain and eliminate Ebola virus disease. However, the impact of epidemic travel restrictions on mobility itself remains difficult to measure with traditional methods. New ‘big data’ approaches using mobile phone data can provide, in near real-time, the type of information needed to guide and evaluate control measures.
Numero: a statistical framework to define multivariable subgroups in complex population-based datasets Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Song Gao, Stefan Mutter, Aaron Casey, Ville-Petteri Mäkinen
Large-scale epidemiological and population data provide opportunities to identify subgroups of people who are at risk of disease or exposed to adverse environments. Clustering algorithms are popular data-driven tools to identify these subgroups; however, relying exclusively on algorithms may not produce the best results if the dataset does not have a clustered structure. For this reason, we propose a framework (the R-library Numero) that combines the self-organizing map algorithm, permutation analysis for statistical evidence and a final expert-driven subgrouping step. We used Numero to define subgroups in two examples without an obvious clustering structure: a biomedical dataset of kidney disease and another dataset of community-level socioeconomic indicators. We benchmarked the Numero subgroupings against popular clustering algorithms (principal components, K-means and hierarchical clustering). The Numero subgroupings were more intuitive and easier to interpret without losing mathematical quality. Therefore, we expect Numero to be useful for exploratory analyses of population-based epidemiological datasets.
Parental socioeconomic status and risk of cerebral palsy in the child: evidence from two Nordic population-based cohorts Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Ingeborg Forthun, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, Allen J Wilcox, Dag Moster, Tanja Gram Petersen, Torstein Vik, Rolv Terje Lie, Peter Uldall, Mette Christophersen Tollånes
We investigated whether the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in the child varies by parents’ socioeconomic status, in Denmark and Norway.
Placental weight and birthweight; the relations with number of daily cigarettes and smoking cessation in pregnancy. A population study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Sandra Larsen, Camilla Haavaldsen, Elisabeth Krefting Bjelland, Johanne Dypvik, Anne Marie Jukic, Anne Eskild
We studied associations of number of daily cigarettes in the first trimester with placental weight and birthweight in women who smoked throughout pregnancy, and in women who stopped smoking after the first trimester.
The impact of social housing on mental health: longitudinal analyses using marginal structural models and machine learning-generated weights Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 8.36) Pub Date : 2018-06-26 Rebecca Bentley, Emma Baker, Koen Simons, Julie A Simpson, Tony Blakely
Social housing may provide an affordable and secure residential environment, but has also been associated with stigma, poor housing conditions and locational disadvantage. We examined the cumulative effect of additional years, and tenure security (number of transitions in/out), of social housing on mental health in a large cohort of lower-income Australians.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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