Cohort profile: The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-25 Frances L Garden, Brett G Toelle, Seema Mihrshahi, Karen L Webb, Catarina Almqvist, Euan R Tovey, Bronwyn K Brew, Julian G Ayer, Michael R Skilton, Graham Jones, Manuel A R Ferreira, Christine T Cowie, Christina Weber-Chrysochoou, Warwick J Britton, David S Celermajer, Stephen R Leeder, Jennifer K Peat, Guy B Marks
The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) commenced in 1997 in Sydney, Australia, because of concern about the high and increasing prevalence of childhood asthma.1,2 Cross-sectional and ecological studies had shown that exposure to high concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergen and being sensitized to HDM were both associated with increased prevalence.3–6 Other studies had indicated that children who regularly consumed oily fish containing high levels of omega-3 fatty acids were less likely to have airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and asthma.7 Those who regularly consumed oils and spreads containing polyunsaturated fats with a higher proportion of omega-6 fatty acids had an increased prevalence of asthma-like symptoms....
Variation of the age at onset of pancreatic cancer according to tobacco smoking and family history Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Patrick Maisonneuve, Albert B Lowenfels
We congratulate the authors of the recent paper reporting on the association between pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients with a positive family history of cancer.1 They used an original study design allowing them to better characterize the association between family history of PC (FHPC), familial aggregation of other cancer, family history of diabetes and PC risk. They reported that the risk of PC associated with FHPC was higher among ever-smokers [odds ratio (OR) = 3.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.56–5.78], particularly in those with two or more first-degree relatives affected with PC (OR = 5.41; 95% CI: 4.16–18.77).
Exploring the association of genetic factors with participation in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Amy E Taylor, Hannah J Jones, Hannah Sallis, Jack Euesden, Evie Stergiakouli, Neil M Davies, Stanley Zammit, Debbie A Lawlor, Marcus R Munafò, George Davey Smith, Kate Tilling
It is often assumed that selection (including participation and dropout) does not represent an important source of bias in genetic studies. However, there is little evidence to date on the effect of genetic factors on participation.
Response to: Variation of the age at onset of pancreatic cancer according to tobacco smoking and family history Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Esther Molina-Montes, Núria Malats
We thank Maisonneuve and Lowenfels for the attention given to our article1 and for prompting us to further explore the role of smoking on age of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnosis among those patients with family history of pancreatic cancer (FHPC). Indeed, as stated in their letter,2 the need for examining further the impact that smoking and FHPC have on PC onset is highly relevant and justified on the grounds of the findings reported by Rulyak et al.3 and others, showing that smoking anticipates PC development. Within the PanGenEU study, we addressed the association between FHPC and PC risk in two different study designs: a case-control and a...
Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation: a pooled individual-based analysis of secular trends and global geographical differences using 26 twin cohorts Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-19 Yoshie Yokoyama, Aline Jelenkovic, Yoon-Mi Hur, Reijo Sund, Corrado Fagnani, Maria A Stazi, Sonia Brescianini, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, Esther Rebato, John L Hopper, Tessa L Cutler, Kimberly J Saudino, Tracy L Nelson, Keith E Whitfield, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth J F Loos, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Meike Bartels, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Gonneke Willemsen, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas S Nilsen, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Claire M A Haworth, Robert Plomin, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Syuichi Ooki, Richard J Rose, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio, Karri Silventoinen
The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects.
Cohort Profile: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-16 Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Constanze Leineweber, Viktor Persson, Martin Hyde, Töres Theorell, Hugo Westerlund
First published online: 10 January 2018, Int J Epidemiol, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx260
Considerations of antiviral treatment to interrupt mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in China Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-10 Fuqiang Cui, Joseph Woodring, Polin Chan, Fujie Xu
Treating high-risk women with antivirals in their third trimester is a promising intervention to further reduce perinatal transmission in neonates born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive [HBsAg(+)] mothers.
Response to: Long-term smoking cessation: from general practice to public health Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Gemma M J Taylor, Neil M Davies
We would like to thank Dr Braillon for his letter1 about our study investigating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) using electronic medical records in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).2 We agree that the CPRD is an abundant resource. About 12% of GP practices in England are currently participating in CPRD Gold.3,4
Cohort profile: The Environment and Development of Children (EDC) study: a prospective children’s cohort Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Choong Ho Shin, Young Ah Lee, Bung-Nyun Kim, Johanna Inhyang Kim, In Gyun Hwang, Myung Sil Hwang, Jin-Hyang Suh, Yun-Chul Hong
Exposure to environmental risk factors during the prenatal and early childhood period can lead to physical and neurobehavioural developmental abnormalities1,2 among children, which can persist into adulthood.3,4 This finding emphasizes the importance of early environmental chemical exposure and suggests an underlying mechanism for its persisting effects during vulnerable periods.5,6 Epigenetic processes have been suggested to mediate the lasting effects of environmental chemical exposure on the developmental trajectories of children.7 However, previous birth cohort studies have not thoroughly investigated the vulnerable periods of environmental exposure or the underlying mechanism for the lasting effects of environmental chemical exposure.8–10
Cohort Profile: The International Mobility In Aging Study (IMIAS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Fernando Gomez, Maria Victoria Zunzunegui, Beatriz Alvarado, Carmen L Curcio, Catherine M Pirkle, Ricardo Guerra, Alban Ylli, Jack Guralnik
Mobility, the ability to move in one’s environment, is an essential feature of human functioning.1 Among older adults, mobility disability is more frequent in women than in men and differences are largely unexplained. Results from the Established Populations Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) showed that the prevalence of mobility disability in women increased from 22% at age 70 to 62% at age 80, whereas in men disability reached only 15% and 38% at comparable ages.2 This gender gap in mobility disability in old age was narrower and had decreased in recent decades in Sweden.3 In less industrialized countries, gender mobility disability differences are larger. Using data...
Cohort profile: The Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in PeoPle over fiftY (POPPY) study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-09 Emmanouil Bagkeris, Laura Burgess, Patrick W Mallon, Frank A Post, Marta Boffito, Memory Sachikonye, Jane Anderson, David Asboe, Lucy Garvey, Jaime Vera, Ian Williams, Margaret Johnson, Daphne Babalis, Davide De Francesco, Alan Winston, Caroline A Sabin
The Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in PeoPle over fiftY (POPPY) Study was initiated in 2013 as the first large-scale study to assess clinical outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 50 in England and Ireland. Discussions around the management of HIV as a chronic disease have been ongoing.1–5 However, some recent studies have suggested a possible acceleration of the ageing process in PLWH, with reported increases in the rates of several comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancers, cognitive disorders, end-stage liver and renal diseases, and frailty and fracture risk.6–10 The primary aims of the study are therefore: (i) to describe the burden of clinical...
Long-term smoking cessation: from general practice to public health Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-07 Alain Braillon
Taylor et al. must be commended for their observational study in the general practice setting, showing that long-term smoking cessation was more frequent with varenicline than with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): 29% vs 24% at 2 years (odds ratio, 1.3).1 Indeed, too few data are available in the real-life setting, as well as in the long term. However, this work warranted some comments.
Commentary: Renewed controversy over cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-29 Paulina Stehlik, Laura Rosella, David Henry
The year 2017 marks 120 years since the first non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug, aspirin, became commercially available.1 NSAIDs quickly become mainstay treatment for non-narcotic pain relief2 and are now some of the most widely marketed and commonly used drugs in the world. Millions of patients have benefited from relief of pain and inflammation. However, this has come at a human price. Upper gastrointestinal ulceration leading to haemorrhage and occasionally perforation was detected early although, with the development of proton pump inhibitors, this is now preventable to a degree.3 It was not until 2000 that the possibility of a pro-thrombotic effect of NSAIDs became widely recognized.2 Superficially,...
Data Resource Profile: Expansion of the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system (E-REP) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Walter A Rocca, Brandon R Grossardt, Scott M Brue, Cynthia M Bock-Goodner, Alanna M Chamberlain, Patrick M Wilson, Lila J Finney Rutten, Jennifer L St Sauver
In a series of methodological papers, we have described the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system as it has existed for more than 50 years in Olmsted County, Minnesota.1–4 Further details about the major events and protagonists of the history of the original REP are available elsewhere.1 Starting in 2010, we have expanded the population captured by the REP from a single county in south-eastern Minnesota to a geographical region including 27 counties in southern Minnesota and western Wisconsin. In this paper, we provide a profile of the expanded medical records-linkage system, which we name the Expanded-REP (E-REP) to distinguish it from the original REP. Because the...
MELODI: Mining Enriched Literature Objects to Derive Intermediates Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-12 Benjamin Elsworth, Karen Dawe, Emma E Vincent, Ryan Langdon, Brigid M Lynch, Richard M Martin, Caroline Relton, Julian P T Higgins, Tom R Gaunt
The scientific literature contains a wealth of information from different fields on potential disease mechanisms. However, identifying and prioritizing mechanisms for further analytical evaluation presents enormous challenges in terms of the quantity and diversity of published research. The application of data mining approaches to the literature offers the potential to identify and prioritize mechanisms for more focused and detailed analysis.
Cohort Profile: Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-09-07 Harry L Hébert, Bridget Shepherd, Keith Milburn, Abirami Veluchamy, Weihua Meng, Fiona Carr, Louise A Donnelly, Roger Tavendale, Graham Leese, Helen M Colhoun, Ellie Dow, Andrew D Morris, Alexander S Doney, Chim C Lang, Ewan R Pearson, Blair H Smith, Colin N A Palmer
The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has been steadily increasing over the past 20 years. In 1997 it was estimated to be 124 million,1 in 2015 it was estimated to be 415 million among 20–70 year olds, and this is expected to rise to 642 million by 2040.2 In the UK, an estimated 4 million people have diabetes either diagnosed or undiagnosed.2 This represents a significant burden on health care resources,3 particularly given that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with comorbidities including obesity,4 cardiovascular disease,5 chronic kidney disease6 and neuropathy.7 T2D is a complex disorder, caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors.8 Before the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for T2D in 2007,9 very few genetic loci were known to be involved with T2D. However, linkage and candidate-gene association studies have often failed to replicate findings through lack of power and inadequate knowledge of the underlying biological pathways.10,11
Cohort Profile: The Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-23 Yon Ho Jee, Jonathan Emberson, Keum Ji Jung, Sun Ju Lee, Sunmi Lee, Joung Hwan Back, Seri Hong, Heejin Kimm, Paul Sherliker, Sun Ha Jee, Sarah Lewington
The Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II) Biobank is a large blood-based cohort study with long-term follow-up via a unique linkage of routine, nationwide medical examinations conducted at health promotion centres across South Korea with records for mortality and hospitalization. It was initiated in April 2004 and has been supported by the Seoul city government since December 2005. In addition to the examination of cancer, a major reason for the cohort being established was to examine the determinants and long-term consequences of the metabolic syndrome—a term used to describe the co-occurrence of increased blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess central adiposity and elevated cholesterol or triglyceride levels—which has been shown in...
Cohort Profile: The Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort (CCFRC) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Mark A Jenkins, Aung Ko Win, Allyson S Templeton, Maggie S Angelakos, Daniel D Buchanan, Michelle Cotterchio, Jane C Figueiredo, Stephen N Thibodeau, John A Baron, John D Potter, John L Hopper, Graham Casey, Steven Gallinger, Loic Le Marchand, Noralane M Lindor, Polly A Newcomb, Robert W Haile, Dennis Ahnen, Kristen Anton, Julie Arnold, Melyssa Aronson, Kelly Aujard, Bharati Bapat, John Baron, Melissa Barker, Adrian Bickerstaffe, Terrilea Burnett, Iona Cheng, James Church, Timothy Church, Mark Clendenning, Darshana Daftary, Melissa DeRycke, Elizabeth Dicks, Anh Diep, Dave Duggan, Mary Jane Esplen, Douglass Fisher, Samantha Fox, Amy French, Graham Giles, Karen Glanz, Jack Goldblatt, Richard Goldberg, Ellen Goode, William Grady, Cary Greenberg, Jane Green, Roger Green, John Grove, Robert Gryfe, Patricia Harmon, Eric Holowaty, Spring Holter, John Hopper, Louise Keogh, Hyeja Kim, Judy Kirk, Peter Lance, Mercy Laurino, Barbara Leggett, A Joan Levine, Paul Limburg, Jan Lowery, Laurie Lydum, Finlay Macrae, Lisa Madlensky, Karen Makar, Rachel Malen, Judi Maskiell, Pamela McAllister, Ellen McGannon, Gail McKeown-Eyssen, John McLaughlin, Heide Miller-Pakvasa, Gabriela Moslein, Nathalie Nguyen, Sandy Nigon, Patrick Parafrey, Susan Parry, Susan Peterson, Amanda Phipps, Aaron Pollett, Mark Redston, Scott Rogers, Robert Sandler, Sheri Schully, Teresa Selander, Daniella Seminara, Stacey Shiovitz, Kim Siegmund, Thomas Smyrk, Douglas Snazel, Melissa Southey, John Stubbs, Graeme Suthers, Duncan Thomas, Kathy Tucker, Dee West, Michael Woods, Ban Younghusband, Joanne Young
Colorectal cancer has long been one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world, with an estimated 1.4 million new cases diagnosed each year (9.8% of worldwide cancer diagnoses) and the cause of 694 000 deaths (8.5% of all worldwide cancer deaths) in 2012.1 In 1996, as a commitment to reduce morbidity and mortality from this disease, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health invited investigators to apply for funding to establish a ‘Cooperative Family Registry for Colorectal Cancer Studies’ (RFA: CA-96-011). The main NIH stated aims were: to collect pedigree information, epidemiological data and related biological specimens from participants with and without...
Cohort Profile: The Integrated Women’s Health Programme (IWHP): a study of key health issues of midlife Singaporean women Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Win Pa Pa Thu, Susan Jane Sinclair Logan, Chun Wei Lim, Yue Luna Wang, Jane A Cauley, E L Yong
The specialty of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O and G) plays an important role in women’s health, particularly in the reproductive years. Now with a global ageing epidemic and women outnumbering men in older age, the focus turns to post-reproductive health.1 Many countries do not have a strong family medicine foundation and, even in those that do, much of the care traditionally provided is being challenged by chronic illnesses with management being transferred to primary care. Globally, many women come to view their O and G provider as their primary physician. This unique position has facilitated rethinking in the management of midlife women, moving away from the traditional single condition/disease...
Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) 1989–95 cohort Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-07 Deborah Loxton, Leigh Tooth, Melissa L Harris, Peta M Forder, Annette Dobson, Jennifer Powers, Wendy Brown, Julie Byles, Gita Mishra
In 2010, the lack of contemporary health information about women in early adulthood led the Australian Government Department of Health to provide funding for the establishment of a cohort of women who would be aged 18–23 years in 2012–13. This would be the fourth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Since 1996, the Australian Government Department of Health has funded the ALSWH to obtain data on health and health service use from three cohorts of women, born in 1973–78, 1946–51 and 1921–26. The study is based at the University of Newcastle and the University of Queensland. The purpose of the ALSWH is to provide evidence for...
Cohort Profile: The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-23 Adaora A Adimora, Catalina Ramirez, Lorie Benning, Ruth M Greenblatt, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Phyllis C Tien, Seble G Kassaye, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge Cohen, Howard Minkoff, Gina Wingood, Igho Ofotokun, Margaret A Fischl, Stephen Gange
The National Institutes of Health established the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in 1993 to study the impact and progression of HIV infection among women in response to the rising number of AIDS cases and the relative paucity of clinical, behavioural and epidemiological data in this population. Women now comprise more than 50% of people with HIV (PWH) worldwide.1 The WIHS is the largest and oldest ongoing prospective cohort study of women with and at risk for HIV infection in the world, and remains the leading study to document the experience of women with HIV (WWH) in the United States.
Cohort Profile: Rationale and design of the fourth visit of the STANISLAS cohort: a familial longitudinal population-based cohort from the Nancy region of France Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-06 João Pedro Ferreira, Nicolas Girerd, Erwan Bozec, Ludovic Mercklé, Anne Pizard, Sanae Bouali, Elise Eby, Céline Leroy, Jean-Loup Machu, Jean-Marc Boivin, Zohra Lamiral, Patrick Rossignol, Faiez Zannad
Population-based cohort studies allow the assessment of exposure-outcome relationships and potential confounders, as well as numerous other variables of potential interest.1 Given their nature and design, population-based cohort studies generally enable evaluation of multiple hypotheses, some defined a priori whereas others are suggested during the course or at the end of the study.1 In particular, having data repeatedly and longitudinally collected on cohort members allows the testing and generation of new hypotheses such as predictors of events and disease/state incidence determination and its trends over time, in addition to the testing of multiple associations (in both cross-sectional and longitudinal manners). Additionally, the estimation of distributions and prevalence rates...
Cohort Profile: The Hoorn Studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-13 Femke Rutters, Giel Nijpels, Petra Elders, Coen D A Stehouwer, Amber A van der Heijden, Lenka Groeneveld, Leen M ‘T Hart, Jacqueline M Dekker, Joline W J Beulens
Type 2 diabetes is one of the major chronic diseases accounting for a substantial proportion of disease burden in Western countries. Its prevalence has been increasing over decades and is estimated to affect 642 million of people worldwide by 2040.1 This is due to the pandemic of overweight in our society, ageing of the population and improved diabetes management and treatment. In the year 1989, the Hoorn Study was initiated to study the prevalence and risk factors of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in a Western European population.2 This initially cross-sectional study has been extended to a prospective cohort over the past decades, to study the...
Cohort Profile: The Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study and the follow-up study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-09-07 Ching-Lung Cheung, Kathryn C B Tan, Annie W C Kung
With a globally ageing population, morbidity becomes both a clinical and a financial concern. Among the age-related diseases, osteoporosis imposes a heavy burden on individuals and society, in terms of both the cost of treatment and quality of life. Since osteoporosis is often termed a ‘silent disease’, i.e. its presence becomes evident only after a fracture occurs, it becomes important to be able to identify risk factors of osteoporosis and subsequent fracture.
Prenatal famine exposure, adulthood obesity patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Ruogu Meng, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Hui Zhang, Xiaofang Chen, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Lu Qi, Liming Li
Prenatal exposure to famine and adulthood obesity have been independently related to the risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the joint effects of these risk factors at different stages of life on adulthood diabetes risk.
The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes: a paediatric case-cohort study in Finland, years 1981–2009 Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Johanna Metsälä, Annamari Lundqvist, Lauri J Virta, Minna Kaila, Mika Gissler, Suvi M Virtanen, Jaakko Nevalainen
The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes, two chronic, immune-mediated diseases, has been of longstanding interest, but the evidence is still conflicting. We examined this association in a large, nationwide case-cohort study among Finnish children, using a novel statistical approach.
Paternal and maternal obesity but not gestational weight gain is associated with type 1 diabetes Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-05 Maria C Magnus, Sjurdur F Olsen, Charlotta Granstrom, Nicolai A Lund-Blix, Jannet Svensson, Jesper Johannesen, Abigail Fraser, Torild Skrivarhaug, Geir Joner, Pål R Njølstad, Ketil Størdal, Lars C Stene
Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding by characteristics linked to BMI in both parents.
Pancreatic cancer incidence trends: evidence from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population-based data Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-14 Vanessa L Gordon-Dseagu, Susan S Devesa, Michael Goggins, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon
Annual pancreatic cancer incidence rates have been increasing. We examine pancreatic cancer incidence trends by demographics and histologic type.
Family history of gastric mucosal abnormality and the risk of gastric cancer: a population-based observational study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-17 Huan Song, Isabella Guncha Ekheden, Alexander Ploner, Jan Ericsson, Olof Nyren, Weimin Ye
An increased prevalence of gastric premalignant abnormalities was reported among relatives of gastric cancer (GC) patients, with rather unexplored clinical significance.
Assessment of moderate coffee consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: a Mendelian randomization study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-25 Jue-Sheng Ong, Liang-Dar Hwang, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Nicholas G Martin, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Michael C J Quinn, Marilyn C Cornelis, Puya Gharahkhani, Penelope M Webb, Stuart MacGregor, Jue-Sheng Ong, Liang-Dar Hwang, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Enda Bryne, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Stefanie Burghaus, Matthias W Beckmann, Diether Lambrechts, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Ignace Vergote, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Anthony J Swerdlow, Michael Jones, Nicholas Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Digna Velez Edwards, James Brenton, Javier Benítez, María J García, Cristina Rodriguez-Antona, Mary Anne Rossing, Renée T Fortner, Elio Riboli, Jenny Chang-Claude, Ursula Eilber, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Marc T Goodman, Natalia Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Matthias Duerst, Peter Hillemanns, Ingo B Runnebaum, Natalia Antonenkova, Ralf Butzow, Heli Nevanlinna, Liisa M Pelttari, Robert P Edwards, Joseph L Kelley, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten B Moysich, Roberta B Ness, Rikki Cannioto, Florian Heitz, Beth Karlan, Håkan Olsson, Susanne K Kjaer, Allan Jensen, Graham G Giles, Fiona Bruinsma, Michelle A T Hildebrandt, Dong Liang, Xifeng Wu, Loic Le Marchand, V Wendy Setiawan, Jennifer B Permuth, Maria Bisogna, Fanny Dao, Douglas A Levine, Daniel W Cramer, Kathryn L Terry, Shelley S Tworoger, Meir Stampfer, Walter Willet, Stacey Missmer, Line Bjorge, Reidun K Kopperud, Katharina Bischof, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim Thomsen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Leon FAG Massuger, Tanja Pejovic, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Sara H Olson, Valerie McGuire, Joseph H Rothstein, Weiva Sieh, Alice S Whittemore, Linda S Cook, Nhu D Le, C Blake Gilks, Jacek Gronwald, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Tomasz Kluz, Nicolas Wentzensen, Louise Brinton, Britton Trabert, Jolanta Lissowska, Estrid Høgdall, Claus K Høgdall, Dale P Sandler, Alicja Wolk, Jonathan P Tyrer, Honglin Song, Diana Eccles, Ian Campbell, Ros Glasspool, Iain McNeish, James Paul, Nadeem Siddiqui, Rebecca Sutphen, John R McLaughlin, Catherine Phelan, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Taymaa May, Simon A Gayther, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Usha Menon, Susan J Ramus, Anna H Wu, David Huntsman, Anna deFazio, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Joanna Moes-Sosnowska, Lukasz Michal Szafron, Julie M Cunningham, Stacey J Winham, Harvey A Risch, Ellen L Goode, Joellen M Schildkraut, Celeste L Pearce, Andrew Berchuck, Paul D P Pharoah, Nicholas G Martin, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Michael C J Quinn, Marilyn C Cornelis, Puya Gharahkhani, Penelope M Webb, Stuart MacGregor
Coffee consumption has been shown to be associated with various health outcomes in observational studies. However, evidence for its association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is inconsistent and it is unclear whether these associations are causal.
Racial/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Lauren C Peres, Harvey Risch, Kathryn L Terry, Penelope M Webb, Marc T Goodman, Anna H Wu, Anthony J Alberg, Elisa V Bandera, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa L Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Patricia G Moorman, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Paul D Terry, Ani Manichaikul, Sarah E Abbott, Fabian Camacho, Susan J Jordan, Christina M Nagle, Mary Anne Rossing, Jennifer A Doherty, Francesmary Modugno, Kirsten Moysich, Roberta Ness, Andrew Berchuck, Linda Cook, Nhu Le, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Weiva Sieh, Alice Whittemore, Valerie McGuire, Joseph Rothstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Celeste L Pearce, Chiuchen Tseng, Malcom Pike, Joellen M Schildkraut
Ovarian cancer incidence differs substantially by race/ethnicity, but the reasons for this are not well understood. Data were pooled from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) and 11 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to examine racial/ethnic differences in epidemiological characteristics with suspected involvement in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) aetiology.
Risk of pancreatic cancer associated with family history of cancer and other medical conditions by accounting for smoking among relatives Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-10 E Molina-Montes, P Gomez-Rubio, M Márquez, M Rava, M Löhr, C W Michalski, X Molero, A Farré, J Perea, W Greenhalf, L Ilzarbe, M O’Rorke, A Tardón, T Gress, V M Barberà, T Crnogorac-Jurcevic, E Domínguez-Muñoz, L Muñoz-Bellvís, J Balsells, E Costello, J Huang, M Iglesias, J Kleeff, Bo Kong, J Mora, L Murray, D O’Driscoll, I Poves, A Scarpa, W Ye, M Hidalgo, L Sharp, A Carrato, F X Real, N Malats
Family history (FH) of pancreatic cancer (PC) has been associated with an increased risk of PC, but little is known regarding the role of inherited/environmental factors or that of FH of other comorbidities in PC risk. We aimed to address these issues using multiple methodological approaches.
NMR metabolomic signatures reveal predictive plasma metabolites associated with long-term risk of developing breast cancer Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-19 Lucie Lécuyer, Agnès Victor Bala, Mélanie Deschasaux, Nadia Bouchemal, Mohamed Nawfal Triba, Marie-Paule Vasson, Adrien Rossary, Aicha Demidem, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Valentin Partula, Laurence Le Moyec, Bernard Srour, Thibault Fiolet, Paule Latino-Martel, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Philippe Savarin, Mathilde Touvier
Combination of metabolomics and epidemiological approaches opens new perspectives for ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time whether plasma untargeted metabolomic profiles, established from a simple blood draw from healthy women, could contribute to predict the risk of developing breast cancer within the following decade and to better understand the aetiology of this complex disease.
Blood lipid genetic scores, the HMGCR gene and cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-20 Marju Orho-Melander, George Hindy, Signe Borgquist, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Jonas Manjer, Olle Melander, Tanja Stocks
It is unclear whether there are causal associations between blood lipids, statin use and cancer risks. Under certain assumptions, Mendelian randomization analysis of a genetic marker for an exposure eliminates reverse causation and confounding.
Associations between genetic variants associated with body mass index and trajectories of body fatness across the life course: a longitudinal analysis Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Mingyang Song, Yan Zheng, Lu Qi, Frank B Hu, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci
The genetic associations with trajectories of body fatness over the life course remain unknown.
Longitudinal analysis strategies for modelling epigenetic trajectories Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-16 James R Staley, Matthew Suderman, Andrew J Simpkin, Tom R Gaunt, Jon Heron, Caroline L Relton, Kate Tilling
DNA methylation levels are known to vary over time, and modelling these trajectories is crucial for our understanding of the biological relevance of these changes over time. However, due to the computational cost of fitting multilevel models across the epigenome, most trajectory modelling efforts to date have focused on a subset of CpG sites identified through epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) at individual time-points.
Joint associations of a polygenic risk score and environmental risk factors for breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-05 Anja Rudolph, Minsun Song, Mark N Brook, Roger L Milne, Nasim Mavaddat, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Amber N Wilcox, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Renske Keeman, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Jose E Castelao, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Stig E Bojesen, Henrik Flyger, Hermann Brenner, Volker Arndt, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Arto Mannermaa, Veli-Matti Kosma, Diether Lambrechts, Machteld Keupers, Fergus J Couch, Celine Vachon, Graham G Giles, Robert J MacInnis, Jonine Figueroa, Louise Brinton, Kamila Czene, Judith S Brand, Marike Gabrielson, Keith Humphreys, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Alison M Dunning, Nick Orr, Anthony Swerdlow, Per Hall, Paul D P Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Douglas F Easton, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jenny Chang-Claude, Montserrat García-Closas
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast cancer can be used to stratify the population into groups at substantially different levels of risk. Combining PRS and environmental risk factors will improve risk prediction; however, integrating PRS into risk prediction models requires evaluation of their joint association with known environmental risk factors.
Identifying ‘corridors of HIV transmission’ in a severely affected rural South African population: a case for a shift toward targeted prevention strategies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Adrian Dobra, Benn Sartorius
In the context of a severe generalized African HIV epidemic, the value of geographically targeted prevention interventions has only recently been given serious consideration. However, to date no study has performed a population-based analysis of the micro-geographical clustering of HIV incident infections, limiting the evidential support for such a strategy.
Curbing the hepatitis C virus epidemic in Pakistan: the impact of scaling up treatment and prevention for achieving elimination Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-03 Aaron G Lim, Huma Qureshi, Hassan Mahmood, Saeed Hamid, Charlotte F Davies, Adam Trickey, Nancy Glass, Quaid Saeed, Hannah Fraser, Josephine G Walker, Christinah Mukandavire, Matthew Hickman, Natasha K Martin, Margaret T May, Francisco Averhoff, Peter Vickerman
The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global health strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis. We project the treatment and prevention requirements to achieve the WHO HCV elimination target of reducing HCV incidence by 80% and HCV-related mortality by 65% by 2030 in Pakistan, which has the second largest HCV burden worldwide.
Maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and hospitalization with infection in offspring: a population-based cohort study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-04 Jessica Eden Miller, Chunsen Wu, Lars Henning Pedersen, Nicholas de Klerk, Jørn Olsen, David P Burgner
The early life microbiome contributes to immune development. Antibiotics during pregnancy alter the microbiome and may influence disease risks in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between maternal antibiotic exposure before and during pregnancy, and risk of childhood hospitalization with infection.
Is it safe to go back into the water? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of acquiring infections from recreational exposure to seawater Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-26 Anne F C Leonard, Andrew Singer, Obioha C Ukoumunne, William H Gaze, Ruth Garside
Numerous illnesses are associated with bathing in natural waters, although it is assumed that the risk of illness among bathers exposed to relatively clean waters found in high-income countries is negligible. A systematic review was carried out to quantify the increased risk of experiencing a range of adverse health outcomes among bathers exposed to coastal water compared with non-bathers.
Negative control exposure studies in the presence of measurement error: implications for attempted effect estimate calibration Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-10-27 Eleanor Sanderson, Corrie Macdonald-Wallis, George Davey Smith
Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome.
A two-step method for variable selection in the analysis of a case-cohort study Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-11-10 P J Newcombe, S Connolly, S Seaman, S Richardson, S J Sharp
Accurate detection and estimation of true exposure-outcome associations is important in aetiological analysis; when there are multiple potential exposure variables of interest, methods for detecting the subset of variables most likely to have true associations with the outcome of interest are required. Case-cohort studies often collect data on a large number of variables which have not been measured in the entire cohort (e.g. panels of biomarkers). There is a lack of guidance on methods for variable selection in case-cohort studies.
A comparison of methods to correct for misclassification bias from administrative database diagnostic codes Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-14 Carl van Walraven
In administrative database research, misclassification bias can result from diagnostic codes that imperfectly represent the condition being studied. It is unclear how to correct for this bias.
Use of text-mining methods to improve efficiency in the calculation of drug exposure to support pharmacoepidemiology studies Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Stuart McTaggart, Clifford Nangle, Jacqueline Caldwell, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Helen Colhoun, Marion Bennie
Efficient generation of structured dose instructions that enable researchers to calculate drug exposure is central to pharmacoepidemiology studies. Our aim was to design and test an algorithm to codify dose instructions, applied to the NHS Scotland Prescribing Information System (PIS) that records about 100 million prescriptions per annum.
Baseline anticholinergic burden from medications predicts incident fatal and non-fatal stroke in the EPIC-Norfolk general population Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-14 David T Gamble, Allan B Clark, Robert N Luben, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Phyo K Myint
Stroke is primarily a disease of older age, with a substantial impact on global mortality and morbidity. Medications with anticholinergic effects are widely used, but no studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between anticholinergic burden (ACB) and stroke in a general population.
Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in boys and risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Morten Frisch, Andréa Besson, Kim Katrine Bjerring Clemmensen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Anders Hviid
In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of boys has been added to childhood vaccination programmes in several countries but, so far, no systematic population-based assessment with long-term follow-up has been undertaken of the relative incidence of adverse outcomes following HPV vaccination in this group. We investigated if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination of 10–17-year-old boys is associated with any unusual risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases or venous thromboembolism.
Community-wide intervention and population-level physical activity: a 5-year cluster randomized trial Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Masamitsu Kamada, Jun Kitayuguchi, Takafumi Abe, Masataka Taguri, Shigeru Inoue, Yoshiki Ishikawa, Adrian Bauman, I-Min Lee, Motohiko Miyachi, Ichiro Kawachi
Evidence from a limited number of short-term trials indicates the difficulty in achieving population-level improvements in physical activity (PA) through community-wide interventions (CWIs). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-year CWI for promoting PA in middle-aged and older adults using a cluster randomized design.
Collaborative, pooled and harmonized study designs for epidemiologic research: challenges and opportunities Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Catherine R Lesko, Lisa P Jacobson, Keri N Althoff, Alison G Abraham, Stephen J Gange, Richard D Moore, Sharada Modur, Bryan Lau
Collaborative study designs (CSDs) that combine individual-level data from multiple independent contributing studies (ICSs) are becoming much more common due to their many advantages: increased statistical power through large sample sizes; increased ability to investigate effect heterogeneity due to diversity of participants; cost-efficiency through capitalizing on existing data; and ability to foster cooperative research and training of junior investigators. CSDs also present surmountable political, logistical and methodological challenges. Data harmonization may result in a reduced set of common data elements, but opportunities exist to leverage heterogeneous data across ICSs to investigate measurement error and residual confounding. Combining data from different study designs is an art, which motivates methods development. Diverse study samples, both across and within ICSs, prompt questions about the generalizability of results from CSDs. However, CSDs present unique opportunities to describe population health across person, place and time in a consistent fashion, and to explicitly generalize results to target populations of public health interest. Additional analytic challenges exist when analysing CSD data, because mechanisms by which systematic biases (e.g. information bias, confounding bias) arise may vary across ICSs, but multidisciplinary research teams are ready to tackle these challenges. CSDs are a powerful tool that, when properly harnessed, permits research that was not previously possible.
Physical activity and bone health: understanding mechanical strain-related stimuli Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Toshihiro Sugiyama
In a cross-sectional study (UK Biobank) including 1218 pre- and 1316 postmenopausal healthy women, Stiles and colleagues1 recently found that 1–2 min per day of high-intensity physical activity quantified from wrist-worn accelerometry-based monitors, equivalent to running [≥ 1000 milli-gravitational units (mg)] in premenopausal women and slow jogging (≥ 750 mg) in postmenopausal women, was positively associated with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measures of bone health. I agree with the authors’ reasonable explanation that the lower threshold of intensity in postmenopausal women could result from their weaker bone strength; the skeleton normally responds to physical activity through resultant elastic deformation (strain).2,3 Of note, however, mechanical...
More on dissidents and dietary sodium Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Norm R C Campbell
There is a lack of clarity in the response from O’Donnell et al. to concerns about their commentary on current dietary sodium recommendations.1,2 The lack of clarity may lead readers to misunderstand the scientific evidence behind current dietary guidelines for sodium.
Response to: ‘More on dissidents and dietary sodium’ Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-22 Martin O’Donnell, Andrew Mente, Salim Yusuf
Most of Campbell’s comments have been addressed in our previous response.1 We have reported all relevant disclosures in previous publications and would again clarify that we have not received funding (personally or through grants) from the salt industry.
Authors’ reply to commentary: Renewed controversy over cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 James M Brophy, Michèle Bally
We wish to emphasize three issues concerning our study: its quality, its reporting and its transparency. We would encourage those interested in objectively assessing its quality to review not only the original 13-page publication, but also the 54 pages of supplementary material freely available on the BMJ website [http://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1909], to form their own conclusions.1
Response to authors re commentary: Renewed controversy over cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-03-30 David Henry, Paulina Stehlik, Laura Rosella
Brophy and Bally have expressed several concerns about our commentary1 regarding their meta-analysis of observational studies of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and myocardial infarction, published in the BMJ.2 We are grateful for the opportunity to respond to these concerns.
Walter Werner Holland, 5 March 1929 to 9 February 2018 Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-04-20 Stephen Leeder
Walter Holland was an exceptional leader in epidemiology. He died in the hospital where, in 1954, he had earned his medical degree, and where he had worked for much of his productive and influential life. Arriving in England from German-speaking Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia in the wake of Kristallnacht, he excelled at Rugby School and then as a medical student at St Thomas’ Hospital. During his long association with St Thomas’, he contributed to mainstream epidemiology in the areas of smoking and respiratory disorders, screening, applied epidemiology in multidisciplinary health services research, and in conjoint general practice research and education.
Cohort Profile: The Siyakhula Cohort, rural South Africa Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-23 T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
First published online: 21 August 2017, Int J Epidemiol 2017; 46(6):1755–1756n. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx148.
Growth parameters at birth mediate the relationship between prenatal manganese exposure and cognitive test scores among a cohort of 2- to 3-year-old Bangladeshi children Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-05-03 Jane J Lee, Linda Valeri, Kush Kapur, Md Omar Sharif Ibne Hasan, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, David C Christiani, Maitreyi Mazumdar
Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal manganese exposure is associated with cognitive test scores among a cohort of 2- to 3-year-old Bangladeshi children. This study tested the hypothesis that the adverse effects of manganese are mediated through poor prenatal growth.
Cohort Profile: The Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS) of phthalate exposure and health risk assessment Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-04-30 Chia-Fang Wu, Hui-Ming Chen, Chien-Wen Sun, Mei-Lien Chen, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Shu-Li Wang, Ming-Tsang Wu
This cohort was established in response to a food contamination scandal that became news in Taiwan in 2011. In that scandal, endocrine-disrupting phthalates, especially di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foods commonly consumed by children there.1 Although the food scandal wound down, environmental exposure to phthalates remains ubiquitous in daily life in Taiwan.2–4 Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children can be exposed to these products through different routes, including food ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their daily life.3,5–7
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