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  • Cohort Profile: The Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Adaora A Adimora, Catalina Ramirez, Lorie Benning, Ruth M Greenblatt, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Phyllis C Tien, Seble G Kassaye, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge Cohen, Howard Minkoff, Gina Wingood, Igho Ofotokun, Margaret A Fischl, Stephen Gange

    The National Institutes of Health established the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) in 1993 to study the impact and progression of HIV infection among women in response to the rising number of AIDS cases and the relative paucity of clinical, behavioural and epidemiological data in this population. Women now comprise more than 50% of people with HIV (PWH) worldwide.1 The WIHS is the largest and oldest ongoing prospective cohort study of women with and at risk for HIV infection in the world, and remains the leading study to document the experience of women with HIV (WWH) in the United States.

    更新日期:2018-02-23
  • Response to: ‘More on dissidents and dietary sodium’
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Martin O’Donnell, Andrew Mente, Salim Yusuf

    Most of Campbell’s comments have been addressed in our previous response.1 We have reported all relevant disclosures in previous publications and would again clarify that we have not received funding (personally or through grants) from the salt industry.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • More on dissidents and dietary sodium
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-22
    Norm R C Campbell

    There is a lack of clarity in the response from O’Donnell et al. to concerns about their commentary on current dietary sodium recommendations.1,2 The lack of clarity may lead readers to misunderstand the scientific evidence behind current dietary guidelines for sodium.

    更新日期:2018-02-22
  • Longitudinal analysis strategies for modelling epigenetic trajectories
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-16
    James R Staley, Matthew Suderman, Andrew J Simpkin, Tom R Gaunt, Jon Heron, Caroline L Relton, Kate Tilling

    DNA methylation levels are known to vary over time, and modelling these trajectories is crucial for our understanding of the biological relevance of these changes over time. However, due to the computational cost of fitting multilevel models across the epigenome, most trajectory modelling efforts to date have focused on a subset of CpG sites identified through epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) at individual time-points.

    更新日期:2018-02-16
  • A bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy: a population-based cohort study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-14
    Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Gunhild T Christensen

    To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy.

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Baseline anticholinergic burden from medications predicts incident fatal and non-fatal stroke in the EPIC-Norfolk general population
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-14
    David T Gamble, Allan B Clark, Robert N Luben, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Phyo K Myint

    Stroke is primarily a disease of older age, with a substantial impact on global mortality and morbidity. Medications with anticholinergic effects are widely used, but no studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between anticholinergic burden (ACB) and stroke in a general population.

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Cohort Profile: The Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort (MEC) study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Kristin Hui Xian Tan, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Xueling Sim, E Shyong Tai, Jeannette Jen-Mai Lee, Kee Seng Chia, Rob M van Dam

    Non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, coronary artery disease, stroke and cancers, are major contributors to ill health across the world including Asia. These conditions are multi-factorial in origin, often involving complex gene-environment interactions. Singapore is a multi-ethnic island state and provides a useful model to evaluate determinants of the development of chronic diseases in Asian ethnic groups. Three major Asian ethnic groups are represented in Singapore: Chinese, Malays and Indians. The Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort (MEC) allows us to better understand how genes and lifestyle may influence health and diseases differently in persons of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity. As these ethnic groups reside in the same Singapore setting, confounding of ethnic differences by differences between countries is avoided. Through the MEC, we hope to improve preventive and...

    更新日期:2018-02-14
  • Using structural equation modelling to jointly estimate maternal and fetal effects on birthweight in the UK Biobank
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Nicole M Warrington, Rachel M Freathy, Michael C Neale, David M Evans

    To date, 60 genetic variants have been robustly associated with birthweight. It is unclear whether these associations represent the effect of an individual’s own genotype on their birthweight, their mother’s genotype, or both.

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Cohort Profile: The Québec Birth Cohort on Immunity and Health (QBCIH)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-13
    Marie-Claude Rousseau, Mariam El-Zein, Florence Conus, Marie-Elise Parent, Andrea Benedetti

    The Québec Birth Cohort on Immunity and Health (QBCIH) was set up in 2010 to investigate the effect of immune stimulation in early life on the risk of developing selected autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and the initial focus was on occurrence of asthma and diabetes through early adulthood (20 years of age).

    更新日期:2018-02-13
  • Data maturity and follow-up in time-to-event analyses
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Val Gebski, Valérie Garès, Emma Gibbs, Karen Byth

    We propose methods to determine the minimum number of subjects remaining at risk after which Kaplan-Meier survival plots for time-to-event outcomes should be curtailed, as, once the number remaining at risk drops below this minimum, the survival estimates are no longer meaningful in the context of the investigation. The size of the decrease of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate S(t) at time t if one extra event should occur is considered in two ways. In the first approach, the investigator sets a maximum acceptable absolute decrease in S(t) should one extra event occur. In the second, a minimum acceptable number of subjects still at risk is calculated by comparing the size of the decrease in S(t) if an extra event should occur with the variability of the survival estimate had all subjects been followed to that time (confidence interval approach). We recommend calculating both limits for the number still at risk and then making an informed choice in the context of the particular investigation. We explore further how the amount of information actually available can assist in considering issues of data maturity for studies whose outcome of interest is a survival percentage at a particular time point. We illustrate the approaches with a number of published studies having differing sample sizes and censoring issues. In particular, one study was the subject of some controversy regarding how far in time the Kaplan-Meier plot should be extended. The proposed methods allow for limits to be calculated simply using the output provided by most statistical packages.

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne

    There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset.

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Collaborative, pooled and harmonized study designs for epidemiologic research: challenges and opportunities
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Catherine R Lesko, Lisa P Jacobson, Keri N Althoff, Alison G Abraham, Stephen J Gange, Richard D Moore, Sharada Modur, Bryan Lau

    Collaborative study designs (CSDs) that combine individual-level data from multiple independent contributing studies (ICSs) are becoming much more common due to their many advantages: increased statistical power through large sample sizes; increased ability to investigate effect heterogeneity due to diversity of participants; cost-efficiency through capitalizing on existing data; and ability to foster cooperative research and training of junior investigators. CSDs also present surmountable political, logistical and methodological challenges. Data harmonization may result in a reduced set of common data elements, but opportunities exist to leverage heterogeneous data across ICSs to investigate measurement error and residual confounding. Combining data from different study designs is an art, which motivates methods development. Diverse study samples, both across and within ICSs, prompt questions about the generalizability of results from CSDs. However, CSDs present unique opportunities to describe population health across person, place and time in a consistent fashion, and to explicitly generalize results to target populations of public health interest. Additional analytic challenges exist when analysing CSD data, because mechanisms by which systematic biases (e.g. information bias, confounding bias) arise may vary across ICSs, but multidisciplinary research teams are ready to tackle these challenges. CSDs are a powerful tool that, when properly harnessed, permits research that was not previously possible.

    更新日期:2018-02-09
  • Mortality reduction from quitting smoking in Hong Kong: population-wide proportional mortality study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-08
    Zhi-Ming Mai, Sai-Yin Ho, Ching-Man Lo, Man-Ping Wang, Richard Peto, Tai-Hing Lam

    The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age).

    更新日期:2018-02-09
  • The mental health of sons and daughters of Australian Vietnam veterans
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Brian I O’Toole, Mark Dadds, Sue Outram, Stanley V Catts

    War service increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to combatants, and has been shown to increase the risk of PTSD in their offspring. The extent to which there is an excess compared with the general population is not yet established, nor whether PTSD increases the risk of other psychiatric problems.

    更新日期:2018-02-07
  • Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in boys and risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases and venous thromboembolism
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Morten Frisch, Andréa Besson, Kim Katrine Bjerring Clemmensen, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Anders Hviid

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of boys has been added to childhood vaccination programmes in several countries but, so far, no systematic population-based assessment with long-term follow-up has been undertaken of the relative incidence of adverse outcomes following HPV vaccination in this group. We investigated if quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination of 10–17-year-old boys is associated with any unusual risk of autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases or venous thromboembolism.

    更新日期:2018-02-07
  • Cohort Profile: Maternal mental health and child development in situations of past violent conflict and ongoing adversity: the DILI birth cohort study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2016-08-16
    W A Tol, S J Rees, A K Tay, N Tam, A da Costa Saldanha Segurado, Z M da Costa, E S da Costa Soares, A da Costa Alves, N Martins, D M Silove

    Since the end of World War II, 254 armed conflicts have been recorded globally, the majority in low- and middle-income countries.1 It is widely acknowledged that armed conflicts are associated with negative impacts on mental health, including a higher prevalence of a range of mental disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatoform and substance use disorders.2 In addition, armed conflicts are associated with the degradation of social structures that maintain mental health, for example by increasing levels of poverty and rates of gender-based violence and by eroding systems of social support.3,4 Although there is a considerable body of evidence concerning the factors that shape the prevalence of mental disorders in general populations exposed to armed conflict (particularly determinants of PTSD and depression), there...

    更新日期:2018-02-07
  • Use of text-mining methods to improve efficiency in the calculation of drug exposure to support pharmacoepidemiology studies
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-06
    Stuart McTaggart, Clifford Nangle, Jacqueline Caldwell, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Helen Colhoun, Marion Bennie

    Efficient generation of structured dose instructions that enable researchers to calculate drug exposure is central to pharmacoepidemiology studies. Our aim was to design and test an algorithm to codify dose instructions, applied to the NHS Scotland Prescribing Information System (PIS) that records about 100 million prescriptions per annum.

    更新日期:2018-02-06
  • Paternal and maternal obesity but not gestational weight gain is associated with type 1 diabetes
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Maria C Magnus, Sjurdur F Olsen, Charlotta Granstrom, Nicolai A Lund-Blix, Jannet Svensson, Jesper Johannesen, Abigail Fraser, Torild Skrivarhaug, Geir Joner, Pål R Njølstad, Ketil Størdal, Lars C Stene

    Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding by characteristics linked to BMI in both parents.

    更新日期:2018-02-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Integrated Women’s Health Programme (IWHP): a study of key health issues of midlife Singaporean women
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Win Pa Pa Thu, Susan Jane Sinclair Logan, Chun Wei Lim, Yue Luna Wang, Jane A Cauley, E L Yong

    The specialty of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O and G) plays an important role in women’s health, particularly in the reproductive years. Now with a global ageing epidemic and women outnumbering men in older age, the focus turns to post-reproductive health.1 Many countries do not have a strong family medicine foundation and, even in those that do, much of the care traditionally provided is being challenged by chronic illnesses with management being transferred to primary care. Globally, many women come to view their O and G provider as their primary physician. This unique position has facilitated rethinking in the management of midlife women, moving away from the traditional single condition/disease focus toward holistic care.2 The postmenopausal period now comprises, on average, over 30 years of a woman’s life. In Singapore, many women do not see the need to detect or prevent health problems early, reflected in low screening programme participation and unhealthy lifestyle choices.3 Yet important conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, metabolic disease and dementia, have shared risk factors of hormones, diet, sedentary lifestyle, stress and sleep disturbances, in addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption. An integrated approach provides care for the primary need (e.g. hot flushes, dyspareunia or an overactive bladder), but also identifies and manages parallel needs, led by public health priorities and the woman’s individual concerns. The approach of optimizing opportunities for health promotion has the potential to decrease inefficiency, undertake screening which might not otherwise have been undertaken, empower women to self-care, improve health and quality of life, reduce health care costs and broaden clinician skills. In practice, there is little in the medical literature evaluating this vertical needs approach.1 Models reported are linked to primary care4 or comprise a cluster of academic specialities.5,6 Effectiveness beyond the short term remains to be seen;7 however, access to primary health care, health promotion, disease prevention and cross-cultural influences have been identified as priority areas in ‘ageing’ research.1 The Integrated Women’s Health Programme (IWHP) is a prospective cohort study of health issues experienced by Singaporean women aged 45–69 years. It was developed in collaboration with co-investigators (J.C., S.S.) from the University of Pittsburgh and approved by the Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB) of the National Healthcare Group, Singapore (reference number 2014/00356). The specific objectives of the study were the following:

    更新日期:2018-02-05
  • Maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and hospitalization with infection in offspring: a population-based cohort study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-02-04
    Jessica Eden Miller, Chunsen Wu, Lars Henning Pedersen, Nicholas de Klerk, Jørn Olsen, David P Burgner

    The early life microbiome contributes to immune development. Antibiotics during pregnancy alter the microbiome and may influence disease risks in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between maternal antibiotic exposure before and during pregnancy, and risk of childhood hospitalization with infection.

    更新日期:2018-02-04
  • Burden of hypertension in The Gambia: evidence from a national World Health Organization (WHO) STEP survey
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-30
    Bai Cham, Shaun Scholes, Linda Ng Fat, Omar Badjie, Jennifer S Mindell

    Non-communicable diseases are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and are estimated to account for 32% of adult deaths in The Gambia. Worldwide, prevalence of hypertension is highest in the African region (46%) and a very high proportion is undiagnosed. This study examined diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension in The Gambian adult population.

    更新日期:2018-01-31
  • Commentary: Renewed controversy over cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Paulina Stehlik, Laura Rosella, David Henry

    The year 2017 marks 120 years since the first non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug, aspirin, became commercially available.1 NSAIDs quickly become mainstay treatment for non-narcotic pain relief2 and are now some of the most widely marketed and commonly used drugs in the world. Millions of patients have benefited from relief of pain and inflammation. However, this has come at a human price. Upper gastrointestinal ulceration leading to haemorrhage and occasionally perforation was detected early although, with the development of proton pump inhibitors, this is now preventable to a degree.3 It was not until 2000 that the possibility of a pro-thrombotic effect of NSAIDs became widely recognized.2 Superficially, this seemed counter-intuitive as aspirin is used widely to prevent thrombosis. However, more detailed pharmacology provided an explanation. In the vascular system NSAIDs, to variable degree, inhibit both cyclo-oxygenase 1 (COX-1), which reduces production of pro-thrombotic thromboxane, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), which reduces production of the anti-thrombotic prostacyclin. It is believed that the balance between these, but particularly the degree of COX-2 inhibition, determines the net effect.4 NSAIDs differ in the degree of COX-2 inhibition achieved during regular use, which in turn depends on dose and pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationships.5 This helps explain the apparent variability in vascular effects of NSAIDS: for example, the protective effect of aspirin (a COX-1 inhibitor at low doses) and an increased risk of major vascular events with rofecoxib (a potent COX-2 inhibitor with low inhibition of COX-1), which led to its withdrawal from world markets in 2004.6

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Valid and efficient subgroup analyses using nested case-control data
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Bénédicte Delcoigne, Nathalie C Støer, Marie Reilly

    It is not uncommon for investigators to conduct further analyses of subgroups, using data collected in a nested case-control design. Since the sampling of the participants is related to the outcome of interest, the data at hand are not a representative sample of the population, and subgroup analyses need to be carefully considered for their validity and interpretation.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Child maltreatment risk as a function of poverty and race/ethnicity in the USA
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Hyunil Kim, Brett Drake

    Child maltreatment is a pressing social problem in the USA and internationally. There are increasing calls for the use of a public health approach to child maltreatment, but the effective adoption of such an approach requires a sound foundation of epidemiological data. This study estimates for the first time, using national data, total and type-specific official maltreatment risks while simultaneously considering environmental poverty and race/ethnicity.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Do material, psychosocial and behavioural factors mediate the relationship between disability acquisition and mental health? A sequential causal mediation analysis
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-29
    Zoe Aitken, Julie Anne Simpson, Lyle Gurrin, Rebecca Bentley, Anne Marie Kavanagh

    There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health; however, the mechanism by which disability affects mental health is poorly understood. This gap in understanding limits the development of effective interventions to improve the mental health of people with disabilities.

    更新日期:2018-01-30
  • Your contribution to a living journal
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-25
    Stephen Leeder

    As we move into 2018, we at IJE thank our readers, authors, editors and reviewers, all of whom help us to achieve our ambition to publish new, robust and useful epidemiological research to contribute to the improvement of health worldwide. We are fully aware of the IJE’s dependence on you all.

    更新日期:2018-01-25
  • Cohort Profile: The Siyakhula Cohort, rural South Africa
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-23
    T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland

    First published online: 21 August 2017, Int J Epidemiol 2017; 46(6):1755–1756n. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx148

    更新日期:2018-01-23
  • Growing Inequality: Bridging Complex Systems, Population Health and Health Disparities
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    I sometimes ponder on the practical effect of the many words written on ‘public health’. And then I wonder, perhaps uncharitably, how many are merely a re-hash of what has already been said. So when a new book had not one, but four, concepts in the title, I was tempted to think that there might be something new, perhaps at the intersection of the four. Or was it another re-working of current knowledge? We already know a lot about the rise of inequality over the past three decades,1 and about ‘complexity science’ and its applications to health care,2 public policy,3 public health4 and health disparities.6,7

    更新日期:2018-01-22
  • NMR metabolomic signatures reveal predictive plasma metabolites associated with long-term risk of developing breast cancer
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Lucie Lécuyer, Agnès Victor Bala, Mélanie Deschasaux, Nadia Bouchemal, Mohamed Nawfal Triba, Marie-Paule Vasson, Adrien Rossary, Aicha Demidem, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Valentin Partula, Laurence Le Moyec, Bernard Srour, Thibault Fiolet, Paule Latino-Martel, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Philippe Savarin, Mathilde Touvier

    Combination of metabolomics and epidemiological approaches opens new perspectives for ground-breaking discoveries. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time whether plasma untargeted metabolomic profiles, established from a simple blood draw from healthy women, could contribute to predict the risk of developing breast cancer within the following decade and to better understand the aetiology of this complex disease.

    更新日期:2018-01-20
  • Trajectories of alcohol consumption prior to the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal case–cohort study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Craig S Knott, Annie Britton, Steven Bell

    Non-linear associations have been reported between baseline measures of alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, given that drinking varies over the adult life course, we investigated whether differences existed in the longitudinal trajectory of alcohol consumption according to T2DM status.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • MELODI: Mining Enriched Literature Objects to Derive Intermediates
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Benjamin Elsworth, Karen Dawe, Emma E Vincent, Ryan Langdon, Brigid M Lynch, Richard M Martin, Caroline Relton, Julian P T Higgins, Tom R Gaunt

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information from different fields on potential disease mechanisms. However, identifying and prioritizing mechanisms for further analytical evaluation presents enormous challenges in terms of the quantity and diversity of published research. The application of data mining approaches to the literature offers the potential to identify and prioritize mechanisms for more focused and detailed analysis.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Cohort Profile: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Linda L Magnusson Hanson, Constanze Leineweber, Viktor Persson, Martin Hyde, Töres Theorell, Hugo Westerlund

    Sweden has played a major role in the development of psychosocial work environment research.1 In addition, Sweden, along with the other Nordic countries, has unique possibilities to link questionnaire data to administrative registers on demographics, employment and health. Despite this, the country has not previously had a prospective cohort with regularly repeated measures of work environment and health. The strengths of longitudinal studies in epidemiological research, as opposed to cross-sectional studies, are well known. Still, a significant part of the available evidence on associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health has been based on cross-sectional studies, making it difficult to separate cause and effect. Both selection and reverse causation are often plausible alternatives to a causal interpretation.2,3 Associations may also be inflated by common method bias, since self-ratings are often used for both exposures and outcomes.4 Repeated measures of both psychosocial work factors and health outcomes have become more common, but are often treated with cross-sectional methodologies using information on exposure variables from one time point to predict outcome variables from the next.5 Although preferable to cross-sectional studies, such approaches do not rule out reverse causation and contribute little or no understanding of causal mechanisms. Longitudinal studies with multiple repeat measures of both exposures and outcomes are therefore needed to advance our understanding of causality.

    更新日期:2018-01-11
  • Risk of pancreatic cancer associated with family history of cancer and other medical conditions by accounting for smoking among relatives
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    E Molina-Montes, P Gomez-Rubio, M Márquez, M Rava, M Löhr, C W Michalski, X Molero, A Farré, J Perea, W Greenhalf, L Ilzarbe, M O’Rorke, A Tardón, T Gress, V M Barberà, T Crnogorac-Jurcevic, E Domínguez-Muñoz, L Muñoz-Bellvís, J Balsells, E Costello, J Huang, M Iglesias, J Kleeff, Bo Kong, J Mora, L Murray, D O’Driscoll, I Poves, A Scarpa, W Ye, M Hidalgo, L Sharp, A Carrato, F X Real, N Malats

    Family history (FH) of pancreatic cancer (PC) has been associated with an increased risk of PC, but little is known regarding the role of inherited/environmental factors or that of FH of other comorbidities in PC risk. We aimed to address these issues using multiple methodological approaches.

    更新日期:2018-01-10
  • Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-06
    F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Livia Montana, Ryan G Wagner, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Julia K Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, Till Bärnighausen, Mark Collinson, David Canning, Thomas Gaziano, Joshua A Salomon, Collin F Payne, Alisha Wade, Stephen M Tollman, Lisa Berkman

    Population ageing is a global phenomenon. The United Nations estimates that the world population aged over 60 will have increased 3-fold from 1950 to 2050, to reach 21% of the population.1 This compositional shift is happening fastest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).2 South Africa in particular is undergoing a dramatic demographic and epidemiological transition, and little is known about the socioeconomic determinants or consequences of transition. This study, following important findings in previous studies in Agincourt3–6 and South Africa in general,7–9 is set up to inform us about morbidity, mortality and aetiological factors shaping these trends. Various ageing studies, including the Studies on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and the 2015 Global Burden of Disease, found that non-communicable diseases, driven mainly by population growth and ageing, have become leading causes of death and disability globally, including in LMIC such as South Africa.10–14 At the same time, the share of the population 60 and above in South Africa is estimated to increase from 7.8% in 2012 to 14.8% in 2050,15 and the population aged 50 and over living with HIV will triple by 2040.16 We established the cohort ‘Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community’ in South Africa (HAALSI) in the INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site of Agincourt, as a harmonized sister study to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA17 and other similar studies worldwide, including ELSA in the UK,18 TILDA in Ireland,19 SHARE in Europe,20 CHARLS in China21 and LASI in India.22 We aim to describe biological, social and economic determinants and consequences of health and ageing in rural South Africa, as well as to build capacity to explore cross-country differences in risk factors for health and well-being.

    更新日期:2018-01-06
  • Joint associations of a polygenic risk score and environmental risk factors for breast cancer in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Anja Rudolph, Minsun Song, Mark N Brook, Roger L Milne, Nasim Mavaddat, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Amber N Wilcox, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Renske Keeman, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Jose E Castelao, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Stig E Bojesen, Henrik Flyger, Hermann Brenner, Volker Arndt, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Arto Mannermaa, Veli-Matti Kosma, Diether Lambrechts, Machteld Keupers, Fergus J Couch, Celine Vachon, Graham G Giles, Robert J MacInnis, Jonine Figueroa, Louise Brinton, Kamila Czene, Judith S Brand, Marike Gabrielson, Keith Humphreys, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Alison M Dunning, Nick Orr, Anthony Swerdlow, Per Hall, Paul D P Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Douglas F Easton, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jenny Chang-Claude, Montserrat García-Closas

    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast cancer can be used to stratify the population into groups at substantially different levels of risk. Combining PRS and environmental risk factors will improve risk prediction; however, integrating PRS into risk prediction models requires evaluation of their joint association with known environmental risk factors.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Policies and strategies to facilitate secondary use of research data in the health sciences
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Paul R Burton, Natalie Banner, Mark J Elliot, Bartha Maria Knoppers, James Banks

    Data are increasingly seen as a fundamental resource that underpins research across biomedicine and the broader health sciences. They often have important value and utility beyond the purpose for which they were originally collected. Recognizing this, many initiatives across the globe actively seek to enable and promote greater sharing of research data, and most major funders now require researchers to set out formal plans for managing and sharing their data with users beyond their own study team. To provide a contextual backdrop to the article and to point the reader to additional sources of relevant information, we include a table listing examples of international, regional and national projects that seek to enhance and facilitate data sharing in a variety of different ways. Table 1 is not intended as an exhaustive catalogue, rather it aims to provide an illustrative listing of a variety of projects we believe to be in good standing around the world, to demonstrate the broad diversity of responses to the important challenges presented by data sharing.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • MendelianRandomization: an R package for performing Mendelian randomization analyses using summarized data
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-04-07
    Olena O Yavorska, Stephen Burgess

    MendelianRandomization is a software package for the R open-source software environment that performs Mendelian randomization analyses using summarized data. The core functionality is to implement the inverse-variance weighted, MR-Egger and weighted median methods for multiple genetic variants. Several options are available to the user, such as the use of robust regression, fixed- or random-effects models and the penalization of weights for genetic variants with heterogeneous causal estimates. Extensions to these methods, such as allowing for variants to be correlated, can be chosen if appropriate. Graphical commands allow summarized data to be displayed in an interactive graph, or the plotting of causal estimates from multiple methods, for comparison. Although the main method of data entry is directly by the user, there is also an option for allowing summarized data to be incorporated from the PhenoScanner database of genotype—phenotype associations. We hope to develop this feature in future versions of the package. The R software environment is available for download from [https://www.r-project.org/]. The MendelianRandomization package can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) within R, or directly from [https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MendelianRandomization/]. Both R and the MendelianRandomization package are released under GNU General Public Licenses (GPL-2|GPL-3).

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-02-10
    Marike Gabrielson, Mikael Eriksson, Mattias Hammarström, Signe Borgquist, Karin Leifland, Kamila Czene, Per Hall

    The overarching goal of the KARMA (KARolinska MAmmography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer) study is to reduce the incidence and mortality of breast cancer by focusing on individualized prevention and screening (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the KARMA study are: (i) to determine the roles and interaction of mammographic density, genetic determinants and lifestyle in the risk of breast cancer through a large-scale population cohort study; (ii) to build a comprehensive risk prediction model including all known and established risk factors for breast cancer; (iii) to discover new biomarkers for early detection and prevention of breast cancer using genomic and proteomic approaches; and (iv) to establish a comprehensive database of information linked to biological specimens, which will become a resource for further scientific studies.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The INTERGENE Study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-02-10
    Kirsten Mehlig, Christina Berg, Lena Björck, Fredrik Nyberg, Anna-Carin Olin, Annika Rosengren, Elisabeth Strandhagen, Kjell Torén, Dag S Thelle, Lauren Lissner

    In 2001, the INTERGENE research programme established a population-based cohort of 3614 adults living in south-western Sweden. The aim was to assess environmental, lifestyle and hereditary risk factors for cardio-metabolic and respiratory diseases, and to document secular changes in many of these characteristics. Because the focus is on coronary heart disease (CHD), the population cohort was complemented with 618 patients with acute or chronic CHD who were sampled during the examination period for the cohort (2001–04), following the same protocol. More than 800 variables describe lifestyle and socio-demographic characteristics from questionnaires, anthropometric characteristics from physical examinations, and biomarkers from blood sampled during the examination. Additional blood samples and extracted DNA are stored in biobanks. Data from the case-control study of CHD were used to investigate associations between common risk factors (overweight,...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Taiwan MJ Cohort: half a million Chinese with repeated health surveillance data
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-02-15
    Xifeng Wu, Shan Pou Tsai, Chwen Keng Tsao, Mu Lin Chiu, Min Kuang Tsai, Po Jung Lu, June Han Lee, Chien Hwa Chen, Christopher Wen, Shu-Sen Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chi Pang Wen

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) that manifest primarily later in life, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, account for nearly two-thirds of deaths in the world.1 Over the past few decades, the burden of chronic NCD in the USA and worldwide has increased dramatically as a consequence of ageing populations and unhealthy lifestyle changes, including overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet habits, cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol drinking. An important feature of these chronic NCD is that they are not independent of each other, but instead often clustered together. A recent systematic review of literature found that multimorbidity (the coexistence of multiple chronic diseases) affects more than half of the elderly population.2 The clustering of chronic NCD could be mediated by shared...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: African Collaborative Center for Microbiome and Genomics Research’s (ACCME's) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer Study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-04-13
    Sally N Adebamowo, Eileen O Dareng, Ayotunde O Famooto, Richard Offiong, Olayinka Olaniyan, Kayode Obende, Amos Adebayo, Sanni Ologun, Bunmi Alabi, Peter Achara, Rasheed A Bakare, Michael Odutola, Oluwatoyosi Olawande, James Okuma, George Odonye, Ruxton Adebiyi, Patrick Dakum, Clement A Adebamowo

    Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women, with an estimated 528 000 new cases in 2012.1 Although it remains a significant public health problem worldwide, the burden of cervical cancer falls disproportionately on low-resource countries. In the USA, the incidence rate of cervical cancer was 6.6 per 100 000 in 2012,1 compared with 23.0 per 100 000 in Nigeria2 which had about half the population of the USA in 2012.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The 1895, 1905, 1910 and 1915 Danish Birth Cohort Studies - secular trends in the health and functioning of the very old
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-04-22
    Signe Høi Rasmussen, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Mikael Thinggaard, Bernard Jeune, Axel Skytthe, Lene Christiansen, James W Vaupel, Matt McGue, Kaare Christensen

    A demographic change towards an increasing proportion of old and oldest - old in high-income countries has taken place since World War II (WW2). The past decades’ improved survival among older people is the main driving force, but it is further strengthened by declining birth rates and the large post-WW2 birth cohorts (‘the Baby Boomers’) entering the old age segment.1 The increasing proportion of individuals reaching their 10th and 11th decade2,3 is a success in terms of survival, but concerns have been expressed that this comes with a cost. The ‘Failure of Success’ hypothesis states that an increasing proportion of individuals surviving to very old ages (Success) will also show higher mean levels of disability and disease at these ages (Failure), thus challenging the welfare...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Madagascar Health and Environmental Research (MAHERY) study in north-eastern Madagascar
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-14
    Christopher D Golden, Evelin Jean Gasta Anjaranirina, Lia CH Fernald, Daniel L Hartl, Claire Kremen, Danny A Milner Jr, Dera H Ralalason, Herlyne Ramihantaniarivo, Hervet Randriamady, Benjamin L Rice, Bapu Vaitla, Sarah K Volkman, Miadana Arisoa Vonona, Samuel S Myers

    The Madagascar Health and Environmental Research (MAHERY) study cohort was set up in 2004 to understand the human health impacts of environmental change (e.g. deforestation, unsustainable hunting, biodiversity loss, climate change etc.) in Madagascar. There was a particular focus on the role of local people in rainforested areas of north-eastern Madagascar (near the city of Maroantsetra) in depleting the stocks of wild foods and how that may affect nutritional status.1,2 Nutritional status is viewed as the interaction of dietary intake, disease status and physiological state (for example, rapid growth or lactation). We selected this site for our cohort because it is nearly a fully autarchic food production system where local people are heavily reliant on wild harvest plants and animals (including wild meats like lemurs, bats, carnivores, tenrecs,...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The ‘Bristol Cats Study’ (BCS)–a birth cohort of kittens owned by UK households
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    J K Murray, R A Casey, E Gale, C A T Buffington, C Roberts, R H Kinsman, T J Gruffydd-Jones

    Longitudinal health-related data among domestic cats represents an important information deficit in veterinary literature. Cats are popular household pets in the UK, with approximately 23% of households in the UK owning one or more cats.1 In 2015, the approximate cost of caring for a cat during its lifetime (median duration = 14 years, interquartile range 9.0–17.0)2 was estimated to be approximately £17 000, excluding veterinary costs associated with treating ill or injured cats.3 Commonly diagnosed health problems affecting pet cats of all ages include periodontal disease (68% of cats of all ages)4 and overweight/obesity (11.5–38% of cats of all ages).5,6 Cognitive dysfunction, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperthyroidism are among the most prevalent health conditions diagnosed in cats over the age of 10 years,...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile Update: The Doetinchem Cohort Study 1987–2017: lifestyle, health and chronic diseases in a life course and ageing perspective
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-07-07
    H S J Picavet, Anneke Blokstra, Annemieke MW Spijkerman, WM Monique Verschuren

    In a previous cohort profile we described the Doetinchem Cohort Study from round one starting in 1987–91 as a monitoring study, and its development into a cohort study with a second measurement in 1993–97 and a third in 1998–2002.1 The original sample was an age-sex-stratified sample of the population register of inhabitants of Doetinchem, with equal numbers of men and women and equal numbers in 10-year age categories: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49 and 50–59. In the first round the focus was on cardiovascular health, and this was broadened to other major chronic conditions in the second round. The Doetinchem Cohort Study is carried out by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The PERU MIGRANT Study–A prospective cohort study of rural dwellers, urban dwellers and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Rodrigo M Carrillo-Larco, Andrea Ruiz-Alejos, Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz, Robert H Gilman, Liam Smeeth, J Jaime Miranda

    Infectious diseases are still a major concern in developing countries, causing up to 60% of the deaths in low-income countries. However, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their associated risk factors are becoming a major public health issue in the developing world where between 38% (low-income) and 80% (upper middle-income) of deaths are attributable to NCDs.1,2 Major common risk factors include raised blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, obesity, low physical activity, unhealthy diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption. Many risks are associated with lifestyle and have rapidly changed over recent decades, some driven by urbanization.3,4

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Lymphoma Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER) Cohort Study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    James R Cerhan, Brian K Link, Thomas M Habermann, Matthew J Maurer, Andrew L Feldman, Sergei I Syrbu, Carrie A Thompson, Umar Farooq, Anne J Novak, Susan L Slager, Cristine Allmer, Julianne J Lunde, William R Macon, David J Inwards, Patrick B Johnston, Ivana NM Micallef, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Stephen M Ansell, Neil E Kay, George J Weiner, Thomas E Witzig

    In 2016, an estimated 70 580 people in the USA will have been diagnosed and 20 150 will have died from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).1 NHL incidence rates increased over the latter half of the 20th century and only recently stabilized. In parallel, NHL survival rates began improving in the 1990 s with the advent of improved treatment strategies, leading to the current 5-year survival rate of 72%.2 These trends have led to a growth in the number of NHL survivors, estimated at over 630 000 in the USA in 2013.3

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Siyakhula Cohort, rural South Africa
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland

    Each year millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) fail to reach their developmental potential due to factors including poverty, malnutrition, poor stimulation and HIV. Although vertically-acquired HIV can now be prevented, little is known about the impact of HIV exposure in fetal and early life on the development of the many HIV-negative children. The Siyakhula Cohort was established within the Canadian Grand Challenges ‘Saving Brains’ initiative, to support re-enrolment of strategic cohorts in LMIC. This unique cohort in rural South Africa includes 1536 HIV-negative children born to HIV-infected (HIV-exposed) and HIV-uninfected (unexposed) mothers, enrolled from the Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI)–formerly the Africa Centre for Population Health (Africa Centre). The cohort includes data on HIV exposure in fetal and early life, and other early life factors (including breastfeeding) known to impact on later health outcomes. At birth, all children benefited from the early Prevention of Mother-to-Child-Transmission of HIV services in the district, and a subgroup were part of an additional early life breastfeeding intervention, the Vertical Transmission Study (VTS). This cohort pre-dated antiretroviral treatment (ART) roll-out, allowing for examination of outcomes associated with HIV exposure without ART exposure in utero and during breastfeeding. Current assessments at ages 7–11 years collected data on growth, health, cognition (including executive function), education and emotional-behavioural outcomes at primary school age.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (Health 2020)
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-21
    R L Milne, A S Fletcher, R J MacInnis, A M Hodge, A H Hopkins, J K Bassett, F J Bruinsma, B M Lynch, P A Dugué, H Jayasekara, M T Brinkman, L V Popowski, L Baglietto, G Severi, K O’Dea, J L Hopper, M C Southey, D R English, G G Giles

    The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), also known as Health 2020, was planned in the late 1980s and established in the early 1990s as an omnibus cohort to investigate prospectively the roles of diet and lifestyle in causing cancer and other non-communicable diseases.1 It was developed contemporaneously with the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort2 at a time when diet and nutrition were considered important to cancer causation,3 but detailed information adequate to inform prevention was scant. The literature was dominated by inconsistent evidence generated by a large number of small case-control studies which had problems not only with statistical power and dietary assessment but also, more importantly, with forms of information bias to which such studies are prone. A prospective design was chosen to...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Well-being in HospitAL Employees (WHALE) study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Jakob Bue Bjorner, Johan Høy Jensen, Nina Breinegaard, Peter Hasle, Jens Peter Ellekilde Bonde, Naja Hulvej Rod

    Most health care systems face a challenge to balance efficiency and quality under the pressure of limited resources and budget cuts. Consequently, hospital employees may face stressful working conditions, which may increase the risk of health problems as well as poor co-operation between staff. Combined, these may increase the risk of inefficiency, poor quality of care or even malpractice.1,2 The Well-being in Hospital Employees (WHALE) study is an ongoing prospective, observational cohort on work environment among all health care employees within the Capital Region of Denmark. The data are collected to continuously monitor the well-being of employees, in order to develop targets for potential intervention.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Surveys FMC, FMCF and MFS
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Paul Knekt, Harri Rissanen, Ritva Järvinen, Markku Heliövaara

    In the early 1960s, the morbidity of chronic diseases was very high in Finland. For this reason, the Social Insurance Institution, Finland, created a mobile examination and research unit, the Finnish Mobile Clinic, to carry out health examinations in different parts of Finland. The action of the unit was performed in two phases, the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, FMC, in 1966–77 and the Mini Finland Health Survey, MFS, in 1978–2012.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Cohort Profile: The Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (Atlantic PATH) Study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    E Sweeney, Y Cui, V DeClercq, P Devichand, C Forbes, S Grandy, J M T Hicks, M Keats, L Parker, D Thompson, M Volodarsky, Z M Yu, T J B Dummer

    The Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (Atlantic PATH) study is a regional cohort of the Canadian Partnership for Tomorrow Project (CPTP) which is a multi-centred prospective cohort study.1 Prospective cohort studies that follow participants over time provide an opportunity to better understand how genetics, environment and lifestyle factors interact to affect the development of chronic health outcomes. The CPTP involves five regional cohorts in eight provinces, including Atlantic PATH, Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, the Ontario Health Study, the British Columbia Generations Project and CARTaGENE (Quebec). The CPTP was established in 2008 with a goal of recruiting 300 000 participants from across Canada in order to examine the complex interplay of factors that lead to the development of cancer and other chronic diseases.2 CPTP participants will be followed actively and passively...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Focus on an unusual rise in pancreatic cancer incidence in France
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-09
    Anne-Marie Bouvier, Zoé Uhry, Valérie Jooste, Antoine Drouillard, Laurent Remontet, Guy Launoy, Nathalie Leone

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal. Most countries have exhibited a stable or decreasing incidence over time. The aim of this study was to provide updated French temporal trends in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality over the past three decades.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Commentary: Unusual pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality patterns
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Claire M Vajdic, Maarit A Laaksonen

    Pancreatic cancer, a high-burden cancer, is the 12th most common cancer and the seventh most common cause of cancer death globally.1 The accurate diagnosis of this internal malignancy is challenging in settings without access to medical imaging technology. Around 20–50% of cases are diagnosed only clinically, without microscopic assessment of a tissue sample. In 2012, the average age-standardized incidence and mortality rates in developed countries were 8.6 and 8.3 per 100‐000, respectively, in men and 5.9 and 5.5 per 100‐000, respectively, in women.1 As these rates suggest, relative survival is very poor, around 5–10% at 5 years.2,3 With an aggressive natural history, indistinct symptoms and no effective screening test or therapy, primary prevention is currently the best available strategy to reduce the burden of this malignancy....

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Commentary: Pancreatic cancer: is the worst to come?
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Louis Buscail

    The paper by Anne-Marie Bouvier et al. brings scientific confirmation to a clinical impression.1 What we know, say and write is that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries.2 In a recent North American analysis on deaths, projection of the ‘top cancer killers’ has, due to demographic changes, placed pancreatic cancer as the second cause of death by cancer in 2030 after lung cancer.3 In addition, and as stated by Bouvier et al. in their manuscript, ‘very recent predictions suggest that the burden of pancreatic cancer is expected to rise over the next 15 years regardless of age and sex in European regions as well as in other regions defined according to the World Health Organization’.1,4

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Commentary: A pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality gap?
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Bruce K Armstrong

    In a paper published in this issue of the Journal, Bouvier et al.1 report that pancreatic cancer incidence in France increased substantially in women and men over the period 1982 to 2012: a period during which pancreatic cancer mortality rose in women at only a quarter of the rate that incidence rose and remained flat in men. The authors identified this pattern of increase as unusual because of the known high lethality of pancreatic cancer. It was also unusual, as they showed, in not being observed in other countries with mainly European-origin populations over roughly the same calendar period. Annual percent changes in pancreatic cancer incidence in France were +3.6% in women and +2.3% in men; corresponding changes in Canada, Denmark, Ireland, The Netherlands and the USA ranged from...

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Using genetics to explore whether the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe may cause an increased risk of cancer
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-06-30
    Bo Kobberø Lauridsen, Stefan Stender, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen

    Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have raised concern that the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe might increase the risk of cancer. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in NPC1L1, mimicking treatment with ezetimibe, was associated with an increased risk of cancer.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • The Mediterranean diet and risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-19
    Petra Jones, Janet E Cade, Charlotte EL Evans, Neil Hancock, Darren C Greenwood

    Evidence from epidemiological studies investigating associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess in the UK Women’s Cohort Study whether adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behaviour in relation to colon and rectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Shahid Mahmood, Robert J MacInnis, Dallas R English, Amalia Karahalios, Brigid M Lynch

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but most epidemiological studies have focused on occupational and recreational physical activity. The evidence for other domains of activity, and for sedentary behaviour, is limited.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
  • Body mass index and breast cancer survival: a Mendelian randomization analysis
    Int. J. Epidemiol. (IF 7.738) Pub Date : 2017-10-09
    Qi Guo, Stephen Burgess, Constance Turman, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Michael Lush, Jean Abraham, Kristiina Aittomäki, Irene L Andrulis, Carmel Apicella, Volker Arndt, Myrto Barrdahl, Javier Benitez, Christine D Berg, Carl Blomqvist, Stig E Bojesen, Bernardo Bonanni, Judith S Brand, Hermann Brenner, Annegien Broeks, Barbara Burwinkel, Carlos Caldas, Daniele Campa, Federico Canzian, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen J Chanock, Suet-Feung Chin, Fergus J Couch, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Cezary Cybulski, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Peter Devilee, W Ryan Diver, Alison M Dunning, Helena M Earl, Diana M Eccles, Arif B Ekici, Mikael Eriksson, D Gareth Evans, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Henrik Flyger, Susan M Gapstur, Mia M Gaudet, Graham G Giles, Gord Glendon, Mervi Grip, Jacek Gronwald, Lothar Haeberle, Christopher A Haiman, Per Hall, Ute Hamann, Susan Hankinson, Jaana M Hartikainen, Alexander Hein, Louise Hiller, Frans B Hogervorst, Bernd Holleczek, Maartje J Hooning, Robert N Hoover, Keith Humphreys, David J Hunter, Anika Hüsing, Anna Jakubowska, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Rudolf Kaaks, Maria Kabisch, Vesa Kataja, Julia A Knight, Linetta B Koppert, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vessela N Kristensen, Diether Lambrechts, Loic Le Marchand, Jingmei Li, Annika Lindblom, Sara Lindström, Jolanta Lissowska, Jan Lubinski, Mitchell J Machiela, Arto Mannermaa, Siranoush Manoukian, Sara Margolin, Federik Marme, John WM Martens, Catriona McLean, Primitiva Menéndez, Roger L Milne, Anna Marie Mulligan, Taru A Muranen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Janet E Olson, Jose IA Perez, Paolo Peterlongo, Kelly-Anne Phillips, Christopher J Poole, Katri Pylkäs, Paolo Radice, Nazneen Rahman, Thomas Rüdiger, Anja Rudolph, Elinor J Sawyer, Fredrick Schumacher, Petra Seibold, Caroline Seynaeve, Mitul Shah, Ann Smeets, Melissa C Southey, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Ian Tomlinson, Helen Tsimiklis, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Celine Vachon, Ans MW van den Ouweland, Laura J Van’t Veer, Hans Wildiers, Walter Willett, Robert Winqvist, M Pilar Zamora, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Thilo Dörk, Douglas F Easton, Montserrat García-Closas, Peter Kraft, John L Hopper, Wei Zheng, Marjanka K Schmidt, Paul DP Pharoah

    There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer.

    更新日期:2018-01-05
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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