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  • Face Mask Extraction in Video Sequence
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-11-16
    Yujiang Wang, Bingnan Luo, Jie Shen, Maja Pantic

    Inspired by the recent development of deep network-based methods in semantic image segmentation, we introduce an end-to-end trainable model for face mask extraction in video sequence. Comparing to landmark-based sparse face shape representation, our method can produce the segmentation masks of individual facial components, which can better reflect their detailed shape variations. By integrating convolutional LSTM (ConvLSTM) algorithm with fully convolutional networks (FCN), our new ConvLSTM-FCN model works on a per-sequence basis and takes advantage of the temporal correlation in video clips. In addition, we also propose a novel loss function, called segmentation loss, to directly optimise the intersection over union (IoU) performances. In practice, to further increase segmentation accuracy, one primary model and two additional models were trained to focus on the face, eyes, and mouth regions, respectively. Our experiment shows the proposed method has achieved a 16.99% relative improvement (from 54.50 to 63.76% mean IoU) over the baseline FCN model on the 300 Videos in the Wild (300VW) dataset.

  • From BoW to CNN: Two Decades of Texture Representation for Texture Classification
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-11-08
    Li Liu, Jie Chen, Paul Fieguth, Guoying Zhao, Rama Chellappa, Matti Pietikäinen

    Texture is a fundamental characteristic of many types of images, and texture representation is one of the essential and challenging problems in computer vision and pattern recognition which has attracted extensive research attention over several decades. Since 2000, texture representations based on Bag of Words and on Convolutional Neural Networks have been extensively studied with impressive performance. Given this period of remarkable evolution, this paper aims to present a comprehensive survey of advances in texture representation over the last two decades. More than 250 major publications are cited in this survey covering different aspects of the research, including benchmark datasets and state of the art results. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, the survey discusses open challenges and directions for future research.

  • Learning Latent Representations of 3D Human Pose with Deep Neural Networks
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Isinsu Katircioglu, Bugra Tekin, Mathieu Salzmann, Vincent Lepetit, Pascal Fua

    Most recent approaches to monocular 3D pose estimation rely on Deep Learning. They either train a Convolutional Neural Network to directly regress from an image to a 3D pose, which ignores the dependencies between human joints, or model these dependencies via a max-margin structured learning framework, which involves a high computational cost at inference time. In this paper, we introduce a Deep Learning regression architecture for structured prediction of 3D human pose from monocular images or 2D joint location heatmaps that relies on an overcomplete autoencoder to learn a high-dimensional latent pose representation and accounts for joint dependencies. We further propose an efficient Long Short-Term Memory network to enforce temporal consistency on 3D pose predictions. We demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance both in terms of structure preservation and prediction accuracy on standard 3D human pose estimation benchmarks.

  • EMVS: Event-Based Multi-View Stereo—3D Reconstruction with an Event Camera in Real-Time
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Henri Rebecq, Guillermo Gallego, Elias Mueggler, Davide Scaramuzza

    Event cameras are bio-inspired vision sensors that output pixel-level brightness changes instead of standard intensity frames. They offer significant advantages over standard cameras, namely a very high dynamic range, no motion blur, and a latency in the order of microseconds. However, because the output is composed of a sequence of asynchronous events rather than actual intensity images, traditional vision algorithms cannot be applied, so that a paradigm shift is needed. We introduce the problem of event-based multi-view stereo (EMVS) for event cameras and propose a solution to it. Unlike traditional MVS methods, which address the problem of estimating dense 3D structure from a set of known viewpoints, EMVS estimates semi-dense 3D structure from an event camera with known trajectory. Our EMVS solution elegantly exploits two inherent properties of an event camera: (1) its ability to respond to scene edges—which naturally provide semi-dense geometric information without any pre-processing operation—and (2) the fact that it provides continuous measurements as the sensor moves. Despite its simplicity (it can be implemented in a few lines of code), our algorithm is able to produce accurate, semi-dense depth maps, without requiring any explicit data association or intensity estimation. We successfully validate our method on both synthetic and real data. Our method is computationally very efficient and runs in real-time on a CPU.

  • Occlusion-Aware 3D Morphable Models and an Illumination Prior for Face Image Analysis
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Bernhard Egger, Sandro Schönborn, Andreas Schneider, Adam Kortylewski, Andreas Morel-Forster, Clemens Blumer, Thomas Vetter

    Faces in natural images are often occluded by a variety of objects. We propose a fully automated, probabilistic and occlusion-aware 3D morphable face model adaptation framework following an analysis-by-synthesis setup. The key idea is to segment the image into regions explained by separate models. Our framework includes a 3D morphable face model, a prototype-based beard model and a simple model for occlusions and background regions. The segmentation and all the model parameters have to be inferred from the single target image. Face model adaptation and segmentation are solved jointly using an expectation–maximization-like procedure. During the E-step, we update the segmentation and in the M-step the face model parameters are updated. For face model adaptation we apply a stochastic sampling strategy based on the Metropolis–Hastings algorithm. For segmentation, we apply loopy belief propagation for inference in a Markov random field. Illumination estimation is critical for occlusion handling. Our combined segmentation and model adaptation needs a proper initialization of the illumination parameters. We propose a RANSAC-based robust illumination estimation technique. By applying this method to a large face image database we obtain a first empirical distribution of real-world illumination conditions. The obtained empirical distribution is made publicly available and can be used as prior in probabilistic frameworks, for regularization or to synthesize data for deep learning methods.

  • Combining Shape from Shading and Stereo: A Joint Variational Method for Estimating Depth, Illumination and Albedo
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Daniel Maurer, Yong Chul Ju, Michael Breuß, Andrés Bruhn

    Shape from shading (SfS) and stereo are two fundamentally different strategies for image-based 3-D reconstruction. While approaches for SfS infer the depth solely from pixel intensities, methods for stereo are based on a matching process that establishes correspondences across images. This difference in approaching the reconstruction problem yields complementary advantages that are worthwhile being combined. So far, however, most “joint” approaches are based on an initial stereo mesh that is subsequently refined using shading information. In this paper we follow a completely different approach. We propose a joint variational method that combines both cues within a single minimisation framework. To this end, we fuse a Lambertian SfS approach with a robust stereo model and supplement the resulting energy functional with a detail-preserving anisotropic second-order smoothness term. Moreover, we extend the resulting model in such a way that it jointly estimates depth, albedo and illumination. This in turn makes the approach applicable to objects with non-uniform albedo as well as to scenes with unknown illumination. Experiments for synthetic and real-world images demonstrate the benefits of our combined approach: They not only show that our method is capable of generating very detailed reconstructions, but also that joint approaches are feasible in practice.

  • Feedback and Surround Modulated Boundary Detection
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Arash Akbarinia, C. Alejandro Parraga

    Edges are key components of any visual scene to the extent that we can recognise objects merely by their silhouettes. The human visual system captures edge information through neurons in the visual cortex that are sensitive to both intensity discontinuities and particular orientations. The “classical approach” assumes that these cells are only responsive to the stimulus present within their receptive fields, however, recent studies demonstrate that surrounding regions and inter-areal feedback connections influence their responses significantly. In this work we propose a biologically-inspired edge detection model in which orientation selective neurons are represented through the first derivative of a Gaussian function resembling double-opponent cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). In our model we account for four kinds of receptive field surround, i.e. full, far, iso- and orthogonal-orientation, whose contributions are contrast-dependant. The output signal from V1 is pooled in its perpendicular direction by larger V2 neurons employing a contrast-variant centre-surround kernel. We further introduce a feedback connection from higher-level visual areas to the lower ones. The results of our model on three benchmark datasets show a big improvement compared to the current non-learning and biologically-inspired state-of-the-art algorithms while being competitive to the learning-based methods.

  • Learning 3D Shape Completion Under Weak Supervision
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-10-29
    David Stutz, Andreas Geiger

    We address the problem of 3D shape completion from sparse and noisy point clouds, a fundamental problem in computer vision and robotics. Recent approaches are either data-driven or learning-based: Data-driven approaches rely on a shape model whose parameters are optimized to fit the observations; Learning-based approaches, in contrast, avoid the expensive optimization step by learning to directly predict complete shapes from incomplete observations in a fully-supervised setting. However, full supervision is often not available in practice. In this work, we propose a weakly-supervised learning-based approach to 3D shape completion which neither requires slow optimization nor direct supervision. While we also learn a shape prior on synthetic data, we amortize, i.e., learn, maximum likelihood fitting using deep neural networks resulting in efficient shape completion without sacrificing accuracy. On synthetic benchmarks based on ShapeNet (Chang et al. Shapenet: an information-rich 3d model repository, 2015. arXiv:1512.03012) and ModelNet (Wu et al., in: Proceedings of IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR), 2015) as well as on real robotics data from KITTI (Geiger et al., in: Proceedings of IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR), 2012) and Kinect (Yang et al., 3d object dense reconstruction from a single depth view, 2018. arXiv:1802.00411), we demonstrate that the proposed amortized maximum likelihood approach is able to compete with the fully supervised baseline of Dai et al. (in: Proceedings of IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition (CVPR), 2017) and outperforms the data-driven approach of Engelmann et al. (in: Proceedings of the German conference on pattern recognition (GCPR), 2016), while requiring less supervision and being significantly faster.

  • Learning to Predict 3D Surfaces of Sculptures from Single and Multiple Views
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Olivia Wiles, Andrew Zisserman

    The objective of this work is to reconstruct the 3D surfaces of sculptures from one or more images using a view-dependent representation. To this end, we train a network, SiDeNet, to predict the Silhouette and Depth of the surface given a variable number of images; the silhouette is predicted at a different viewpoint from the inputs (e.g. from the side), while the depth is predicted at the viewpoint of the input images. This has three benefits. First, the network learns a representation of shape beyond that of a single viewpoint, as the silhouette forces it to respect the visual hull, and the depth image forces it to predict concavities (which don’t appear on the visual hull). Second, as the network learns about 3D using the proxy tasks of predicting depth and silhouette images, it is not limited by the resolution of the 3D representation. Finally, using a view-dependent representation (e.g. additionally encoding the viewpoint with the input image) improves the network’s generalisability to unseen objects. Additionally, the network is able to handle the input views in a flexible manner. First, it can ingest a different number of views during training and testing, and it is shown that the reconstruction performance improves as additional views are added at test-time. Second, the additional views do not need to be photometrically consistent. The network is trained and evaluated on two synthetic datasets—a realistic sculpture dataset (SketchFab), and ShapeNet. The design of the network is validated by comparing to state of the art methods for a set of tasks. It is shown that (i) passing the input viewpoint (i.e. using a view-dependent representation) improves the network’s generalisability at test time. (ii) Predicting depth/silhouette images allows for higher quality predictions in 2D, as the network is not limited by the chosen latent 3D representation. (iii) On both datasets the method of combining views in a global manner performs better than a local method. Finally, we show that the trained network generalizes to real images, and probe how the network has encoded the latent 3D shape.

  • A Differential Approach to Shape from Polarisation: A Level-Set Characterisation
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-10-19
    Fotios Logothetis, Roberto Mecca, Fiorella Sgallari, Roberto Cipolla

    Despite the longtime research aimed at retrieving geometrical information of an object from polarimetric imaging, physical limitations in the polarisation phenomena constrain current approaches to provide ambiguous depth estimation. As an additional constraint, polarimetric imaging formulation differs when light is reflected off the object specularly or diffusively. This introduces another source of ambiguity that current formulations cannot overcome. With the aim of deriving a formulation capable of dealing with as many heterogeneous effects as possible, we propose a differential formulation of the Shape from Polarisation problem that depends only on polarimetric images. This allows the direct geometrical characterisation of the level-set of the object keeping consistent mathematical formulation for diffuse and specular reflection. We show via synthetic and real-world experiments that diffuse and specular reflection can be easily distinguished in order to extract meaningful geometrical features from just polarimetric imaging. The inherent ambiguity of the Shape from Polarization problem becomes evident through the impossibility of reconstructing the whole surface with this differential approach. To overcome this limitation, we consider shading information elegantly embedding this new formulation into a two-light calibrated photometric stereo approach..

  • Describing Upper-Body Motions Based on Labanotation for Learning-from-Observation Robots
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Katsushi Ikeuchi, Zhaoyuan Ma, Zengqiang Yan, Shunsuke Kudoh, Minako Nakamura

    We have been developing a paradigm that we call learning-from-observation for a robot to automatically acquire a robot program to conduct a series of operations, or for a robot to understand what to do, through observing humans performing the same operations. Since a simple mimicking method to repeat exact joint angles or exact end-effector trajectories does not work well because of the kinematic and dynamic differences between a human and a robot, the proposed method employs intermediate symbolic representations, tasks, for conceptually representing what-to-do through observation. These tasks are subsequently mapped to appropriate robot operations depending on the robot hardware. In the present work, task models for upper-body operations of humanoid robots are presented, which are designed on the basis of Labanotation. Given a series of human operations, we first analyze the upper-body motions and extract certain fixed poses from key frames. These key poses are translated into tasks represented by Labanotation symbols. Then, a robot performs the operations corresponding to those task models. Because tasks based on Labanotation are independent of robot hardware, different robots can share the same observation module, and only different task-mapping modules specific to robot hardware are required. The system was implemented and demonstrated that three different robots can automatically mimic human upper-body operations with a satisfactory level of resemblance.

  • Deep Sign: Enabling Robust Statistical Continuous Sign Language Recognition via Hybrid CNN-HMMs
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Oscar Koller, Sepehr Zargaran, Hermann Ney, Richard Bowden

    This manuscript introduces the end-to-end embedding of a CNN into a HMM, while interpreting the outputs of the CNN in a Bayesian framework. The hybrid CNN-HMM combines the strong discriminative abilities of CNNs with the sequence modelling capabilities of HMMs. Most current approaches in the field of gesture and sign language recognition disregard the necessity of dealing with sequence data both for training and evaluation. With our presented end-to-end embedding we are able to improve over the state-of-the-art on three challenging benchmark continuous sign language recognition tasks by between 15 and 38% relative reduction in word error rate and up to 20% absolute. We analyse the effect of the CNN structure, network pretraining and number of hidden states. We compare the hybrid modelling to a tandem approach and evaluate the gain of model combination.

  • Elastic Alignment of Triangular Surface Meshes
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-21
    Zsolt Sánta, Zoltan Kato

    A novel region-based approach is proposed to find a thin plate spline map between a pair of deformable 3D objects represented by triangular surface meshes. The proposed method works without landmark extraction and feature correspondences. The aligning transformation is simply found by solving a system of integral equations. Each equation is generated by integrating a non-linear function over the object domains. We derive recursive formulas for the efficient computation of these integrals for open and closed surface meshes. Based on a series of comparative tests on a large synthetic dataset, our triangular mesh-based algorithm outperforms state of the art methods both in terms of computing time and accuracy. The applicability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated on the registration of 3D lung CT volumes, brain surfaces and 3D human faces.

  • Artistic Style Transfer for Videos and Spherical Images
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-21
    Manuel Ruder, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Thomas Brox

    Manually re-drawing an image in a certain artistic style takes a professional artist a long time. Doing this for a video sequence single-handedly is beyond imagination. We present two computational approaches that transfer the style from one image (for example, a painting) to a whole video sequence. In our first approach, we adapt to videos the original image style transfer technique by Gatys et al. based on energy minimization. We introduce new ways of initialization and new loss functions to generate consistent and stable stylized video sequences even in cases with large motion and strong occlusion. Our second approach formulates video stylization as a learning problem. We propose a deep network architecture and training procedures that allow us to stylize arbitrary-length videos in a consistent and stable way, and nearly in real time. We show that the proposed methods clearly outperform simpler baselines both qualitatively and quantitatively. Finally, we propose a way to adapt these approaches also to 360\(^\circ \) images and videos as they emerge with recent virtual reality hardware.

  • Joint Contour Filtering
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Xing Wei, Qingxiong Yang, Yihong Gong

    Edge/structure-preserving operations for images aim to smooth images without blurring the edges/structures. Many exemplary edge-preserving filtering methods have recently been proposed to reduce the computational complexity and/or separate structures of different scales. They normally adopt a user-selected scale measurement to control the detail smoothing. However, natural photos contain objects of different sizes, which cannot be described by a single scale measurement. On the other hand, contour analysis is closely related to edge-preserving filtering, and significant progress has recently been achieved. Nevertheless, the majority of state-of-the-art filtering techniques have ignored the successes in this area. Inspired by the fact that learning-based edge detectors significantly outperform traditional manually-designed detectors, this paper proposes a learning-based edge-preserving filtering technique. It synergistically combines the differential operations in edge-preserving filters with the effectiveness of the recent edge detectors for scale-aware filtering. Unlike previous filtering methods, the proposed filters can efficiently extract subjectively meaningful structures from natural scenes containing multiple-scale objects.

  • On Unifying Multi-view Self-Representations for Clustering by Tensor Multi-rank Minimization
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Yuan Xie, Dacheng Tao, Wensheng Zhang, Yan Liu, Lei Zhang, Yanyun Qu

    In this paper, we address the multi-view subspace clustering problem. Our method utilizes the circulant algebra for tensor, which is constructed by stacking the subspace representation matrices of different views and then rotating, to capture the low rank tensor subspace so that the refinement of the view-specific subspaces can be achieved, as well as the high order correlations underlying multi-view data can be explored. By introducing a recently proposed tensor factorization, namely tensor-Singular Value Decomposition (t-SVD) (Kilmer et al. in SIAM J Matrix Anal Appl 34(1):148–172, 2013), we can impose a new type of low-rank tensor constraint on the rotated tensor to ensure the consensus among multiple views. Different from traditional unfolding based tensor norm, this low-rank tensor constraint has optimality properties similar to that of matrix rank derived from SVD, so the complementary information can be explored and propagated among all the views more thoroughly and effectively. The established model, called t-SVD based Multi-view Subspace Clustering (t-SVD-MSC), falls into the applicable scope of augmented Lagrangian method, and its minimization problem can be efficiently solved with theoretical convergence guarantee and relatively low computational complexity. Extensive experimental testing on eight challenging image datasets shows that the proposed method has achieved highly competent objective performance compared to several state-of-the-art multi-view clustering methods.

  • Depth-Based Hand Pose Estimation: Methods, Data, and Challenges
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    James Steven Supančič, Grégory Rogez, Yi Yang, Jamie Shotton, Deva Ramanan

    Hand pose estimation has matured rapidly in recent years. The introduction of commodity depth sensors and a multitude of practical applications have spurred new advances. We provide an extensive analysis of the state-of-the-art, focusing on hand pose estimation from a single depth frame. To do so, we have implemented a considerable number of systems, and have released software and evaluation code. We summarize important conclusions here: (1) Coarse pose estimation appears viable for scenes with isolated hands. However, high precision pose estimation [required for immersive virtual reality and cluttered scenes (where hands may be interacting with nearby objects and surfaces) remain a challenge. To spur further progress we introduce a challenging new dataset with diverse, cluttered scenes. (2) Many methods evaluate themselves with disparate criteria, making comparisons difficult. We define a consistent evaluation criteria, rigorously motivated by human experiments. (3) We introduce a simple nearest-neighbor baseline that outperforms most existing systems. This implies that most systems do not generalize beyond their training sets. This also reinforces the under-appreciated point that training data is as important as the model itself. We conclude with directions for future progress.

  • Subspace Learning by $$\ell ^{0}$$ ℓ 0 -Induced Sparsity
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    Yingzhen Yang, Jiashi Feng, Nebojsa Jojic, Jianchao Yang, Thomas S. Huang

    Subspace clustering methods partition the data that lie in or close to a union of subspaces in accordance with the subspace structure. Such methods with sparsity prior, such as sparse subspace clustering (SSC) (Elhamifar and Vidal in IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 35(11):2765–2781, 2013) with the sparsity induced by the \(\ell ^{1}\)-norm, are demonstrated to be effective in subspace clustering. Most of those methods require certain assumptions, e.g. independence or disjointness, on the subspaces. However, these assumptions are not guaranteed to hold in practice and they limit the application of existing sparse subspace clustering methods. In this paper, we propose \(\ell ^{0}\)-induced sparse subspace clustering (\(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC). In contrast to the required assumptions, such as independence or disjointness, on subspaces for most existing sparse subspace clustering methods, we prove that \(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC guarantees the subspace-sparse representation, a key element in subspace clustering, for arbitrary distinct underlying subspaces almost surely under the mild i.i.d. assumption on the data generation. We also present the “no free lunch” theorem which shows that obtaining the subspace representation under our general assumptions can not be much computationally cheaper than solving the corresponding \(\ell ^{0}\) sparse representation problem of \(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC. A novel approximate algorithm named Approximate \(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC (A\(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC) is developed which employs proximal gradient descent to obtain a sub-optimal solution to the optimization problem of \(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC with theoretical guarantee. The sub-optimal solution is used to build a sparse similarity matrix upon which spectral clustering is performed for the final clustering results. Extensive experimental results on various data sets demonstrate the superiority of A\(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC compared to other competing clustering methods. Furthermore, we extend \(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC to semi-supervised learning by performing label propagation on the sparse similarity matrix learnt by A\(\ell ^{0}\)-SSC and demonstrate the effectiveness of the resultant semi-supervised learning method termed \(\ell ^{0}\)-sparse subspace label propagation (\(\ell ^{0}\)-SSLP).

  • RED-Net: A Recurrent Encoder–Decoder Network for Video-Based Face Alignment
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Xi Peng, Rogerio S. Feris, Xiaoyu Wang, Dimitris N. Metaxas

    We propose a novel method for real-time face alignment in videos based on a recurrent encoder–decoder network model. Our proposed model predicts 2D facial point heat maps regularized by both detection and regression loss, while uniquely exploiting recurrent learning at both spatial and temporal dimensions. At the spatial level, we add a feedback loop connection between the combined output response map and the input, in order to enable iterative coarse-to-fine face alignment using a single network model, instead of relying on traditional cascaded model ensembles. At the temporal level, we first decouple the features in the bottleneck of the network into temporal-variant factors, such as pose and expression, and temporal-invariant factors, such as identity information. Temporal recurrent learning is then applied to the decoupled temporal-variant features. We show that such feature disentangling yields better generalization and significantly more accurate results at test time. We perform a comprehensive experimental analysis, showing the importance of each component of our proposed model, as well as superior results over the state of the art and several variations of our method in standard datasets.

  • Learning Sight from Sound: Ambient Sound Provides Supervision for Visual Learning
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-07-11
    Andrew Owens, Jiajun Wu, Josh H. McDermott, William T. Freeman, Antonio Torralba

    The sound of crashing waves, the roar of fast-moving cars—sound conveys important information about the objects in our surroundings. In this work, we show that ambient sounds can be used as a supervisory signal for learning visual models. To demonstrate this, we train a convolutional neural network to predict a statistical summary of the sound associated with a video frame. We show that, through this process, the network learns a representation that conveys information about objects and scenes. We evaluate this representation on several recognition tasks, finding that its performance is comparable to that of other state-of-the-art unsupervised learning methods. Finally, we show through visualizations that the network learns units that are selective to objects that are often associated with characteristic sounds. This paper extends an earlier conference paper, Owens et al. (in: European conference on computer vision, 2016b), with additional experiments and discussion.

  • Focal Flow: Velocity and Depth from Differential Defocus Through Motion
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Emma Alexander, Qi Guo, Sanjeev Koppal, Steven J. Gortler, Todd Zickler

    We present the focal flow sensor. It is an unactuated, monocular camera that simultaneously exploits defocus and differential motion to measure a depth map and a 3D scene velocity field. It does this using an optical-flow-like, per-pixel linear constraint that relates image derivatives to depth and velocity. We derive this constraint, prove its invariance to scene texture, and prove that it is exactly satisfied only when the sensor’s blur kernels are Gaussian. We analyze the inherent sensitivity of the focal flow cue, and we build and test a prototype. Experiments produce useful depth and velocity information for a broader set of aperture configurations, including a simple lens with a pillbox aperture.

  • Top-Down Neural Attention by Excitation Backprop
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2017-12-23
    Jianming Zhang, Sarah Adel Bargal, Zhe Lin, Jonathan Brandt, Xiaohui Shen, Stan Sclaroff

    We aim to model the top-down attention of a convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier for generating task-specific attention maps. Inspired by a top-down human visual attention model, we propose a new backpropagation scheme, called Excitation Backprop, to pass along top-down signals downwards in the network hierarchy via a probabilistic Winner-Take-All process. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of contrastive attention to make the top-down attention maps more discriminative. We show a theoretic connection between the proposed contrastive attention formulation and the Class Activation Map computation. Efficient implementation of Excitation Backprop for common neural network layers is also presented. In experiments, we visualize the evidence of a model’s classification decision by computing the proposed top-down attention maps. For quantitative evaluation, we report the accuracy of our method in weakly supervised localization tasks on the MS COCO, PASCAL VOC07 and ImageNet datasets. The usefulness of our method is further validated in the text-to-region association task. On the Flickr30k Entities dataset, we achieve promising performance in phrase localization by leveraging the top-down attention of a CNN model that has been trained on weakly labeled web images. Finally, we demonstrate applications of our method in model interpretation and data annotation assistance for facial expression analysis and medical imaging tasks.

  • Locality Preserving Matching
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-22
    Jiayi Ma, Ji Zhao, Junjun Jiang, Huabing Zhou, Xiaojie Guo

    Seeking reliable correspondences between two feature sets is a fundamental and important task in computer vision. This paper attempts to remove mismatches from given putative image feature correspondences. To achieve the goal, an efficient approach, termed as locality preserving matching (LPM), is designed, the principle of which is to maintain the local neighborhood structures of those potential true matches. We formulate the problem into a mathematical model, and derive a closed-form solution with linearithmic time and linear space complexities. Our method can accomplish the mismatch removal from thousands of putative correspondences in only a few milliseconds. To demonstrate the generality of our strategy for handling image matching problems, extensive experiments on various real image pairs for general feature matching, as well as for point set registration, visual homing and near-duplicate image retrieval are conducted. Compared with other state-of-the-art alternatives, our LPM achieves better or favorably competitive performance in accuracy while intensively cutting time cost by more than two orders of magnitude.

  • Kernel Cuts : Kernel and Spectral Clustering Meet Regularization
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-22
    Meng Tang, Dmitrii Marin, Ismail Ben Ayed, Yuri Boykov

    This work bridges the gap between two popular methodologies for data partitioning: kernel clustering and regularization-based segmentation. While addressing closely related practical problems, these general methodologies may seem very different based on how they are covered in the literature. The differences may show up in motivation, formulation, and optimization, e.g. spectral relaxation versus max-flow. We explain how regularization and kernel clustering can work together and why this is useful. Our joint energy combines standard regularization, e.g. MRF potentials, and kernel clustering criteria like normalized cut. Complementarity of such terms is demonstrated in many applications using our bound optimization Kernel Cut algorithm for the joint energy (code is publicly available). While detailing combinatorial move-making, our main focus are new linear kernel and spectral bounds for kernel clustering criteria allowing their integration with any regularization objectives with existing discrete or continuous solvers.

  • Learning to Segment Moving Objects
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-22
    Pavel Tokmakov, Cordelia Schmid, Karteek Alahari

    We study the problem of segmenting moving objects in unconstrained videos. Given a video, the task is to segment all the objects that exhibit independent motion in at least one frame. We formulate this as a learning problem and design our framework with three cues: (1) independent object motion between a pair of frames, which complements object recognition, (2) object appearance, which helps to correct errors in motion estimation, and (3) temporal consistency, which imposes additional constraints on the segmentation. The framework is a two-stream neural network with an explicit memory module. The two streams encode appearance and motion cues in a video sequence respectively, while the memory module captures the evolution of objects over time, exploiting the temporal consistency. The motion stream is a convolutional neural network trained on synthetic videos to segment independently moving objects in the optical flow field. The module to build a “visual memory” in video, i.e., a joint representation of all the video frames, is realized with a convolutional recurrent unit learned from a small number of training video sequences. For every pixel in a frame of a test video, our approach assigns an object or background label based on the learned spatio-temporal features as well as the “visual memory” specific to the video. We evaluate our method extensively on three benchmarks, DAVIS, Freiburg-Berkeley motion segmentation dataset and SegTrack. In addition, we provide an extensive ablation study to investigate both the choice of the training data and the influence of each component in the proposed framework.

  • Robust and Optimal Registration of Image Sets and Structured Scenes via Sum-of-Squares Polynomials
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Danda Pani Paudel, Adlane Habed, Cédric Demonceaux, Pascal Vasseur

    This paper addresses the problem of registering a known structured 3D scene, typically a 3D scan, and its metric Structure-from-Motion (SfM) counterpart. The proposed registration method relies on a prior plane segmentation of the 3D scan. Alignment is carried out by solving either the point-to-plane assignment problem, should the SfM reconstruction be sparse, or the plane-to-plane one in case of dense SfM. A Polynomial Sum-of-Squares optimization theory framework is employed for identifying point-to-plane and plane-to-plane mismatches, i.e. outliers, with certainty. An inlier set maximization approach within a Branch-and-Bound search scheme is adopted to iteratively build potential inlier sets and converge to the solution satisfied by the largest number of assignments. Plane visibility conditions and vague camera locations may be incorporated for better efficiency without sacrificing optimality. The registration problem is solved in two cases: (i) putative correspondences (with possibly overwhelmingly many outliers) are provided as input and (ii) no initial correspondences are available. Our approach yields outstanding results in terms of robustness and optimality.

  • A Robust Monocular 3D Object Tracking Method Combining Statistical and Photometric Constraints
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Leisheng Zhong, Li Zhang

    Both region-based methods and direct methods have become popular in recent years for tracking the 6-dof pose of an object from monocular video sequences. Region-based methods estimate the pose of the object by maximizing the discrimination between statistical foreground and background appearance models, while direct methods aim to minimize the photometric error through direct image alignment. In practice, region-based methods only care about the pixels within a narrow band of the object contour due to the level-set-based probabilistic formulation, leaving the foreground pixels beyond the evaluation band unused. On the other hand, direct methods only utilize the raw pixel information of the object, but ignore the statistical properties of foreground and background regions. In this paper, we find it beneficial to combine these two kinds of methods together. We construct a new probabilistic formulation for 3D object tracking by combining statistical constraints from region-based methods and photometric constraints from direct methods. In this way, we take advantage of both statistical property and raw pixel values of the image in a complementary manner. Moreover, in order to achieve better performance when tracking heterogeneous objects in complex scenes, we propose to increase the distinctiveness of foreground and background statistical models by partitioning the global foreground and background regions into a small number of sub-regions around the object contour. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed novel strategies on a newly constructed real-world dataset containing different types of objects with ground-truth poses. Further experiments on several challenging public datasets also show that our method obtains competitive or even superior tracking results compared to previous works. In comparison with the recent state-of-art region-based method, the proposed hybrid method is proved to be more stable under silhouette pose ambiguities with a slightly lower tracking accuracy.

  • Pointly-Supervised Action Localization
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Pascal Mettes, Cees G. M. Snoek

    This paper strives for spatio-temporal localization of human actions in videos. In the literature, the consensus is to achieve localization by training on bounding box annotations provided for each frame of each training video. As annotating boxes in video is expensive, cumbersome and error-prone, we propose to bypass box-supervision. Instead, we introduce action localization based on point-supervision. We start from unsupervised spatio-temporal proposals, which provide a set of candidate regions in videos. While normally used exclusively for inference, we show spatio-temporal proposals can also be leveraged during training when guided by a sparse set of point annotations. We introduce an overlap measure between points and spatio-temporal proposals and incorporate them all into a new objective of a multiple instance learning optimization. During inference, we introduce pseudo-points, visual cues from videos, that automatically guide the selection of spatio-temporal proposals. We outline five spatial and one temporal pseudo-point, as well as a measure to best leverage pseudo-points at test time. Experimental evaluation on three action localization datasets shows our pointly-supervised approach (1) is as effective as traditional box-supervision at a fraction of the annotation cost, (2) is robust to sparse and noisy point annotations, (3) benefits from pseudo-points during inference, and (4) outperforms recent weakly-supervised alternatives. This leads us to conclude that points provide a viable alternative to boxes for action localization.

  • Making the V in VQA Matter: Elevating the Role of Image Understanding in Visual Question Answering
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Yash Goyal, Tejas Khot, Aishwarya Agrawal, Douglas Summers-Stay, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh

    The problem of visual question answering (VQA) is of significant importance both as a challenging research question and for the rich set of applications it enables. In this context, however, inherent structure in our world and bias in our language tend to be a simpler signal for learning than visual modalities, resulting in VQA models that ignore visual information, leading to an inflated sense of their capability. We propose to counter these language priors for the task of VQA and make vision (the V in VQA) matter! Specifically, we balance the popular VQA dataset (Antol et al., in: ICCV, 2015) by collecting complementary images such that every question in our balanced dataset is associated with not just a single image, but rather a pair of similar images that result in two different answers to the question. Our dataset is by construction more balanced than the original VQA dataset and has approximately twice the number of image-question pairs. Our complete balanced dataset is publicly available at http://visualqa.org/ as part of the 2nd iteration of the VQA Dataset and Challenge (VQA v2.0). We further benchmark a number of state-of-art VQA models on our balanced dataset. All models perform significantly worse on our balanced dataset, suggesting that these models have indeed learned to exploit language priors. This finding provides the first concrete empirical evidence for what seems to be a qualitative sense among practitioners. We also present interesting insights from analysis of the participant entries in VQA Challenge 2017, organized by us on the proposed VQA v2.0 dataset. The results of the challenge were announced in the 2nd VQA Challenge Workshop at the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2017. Finally, our data collection protocol for identifying complementary images enables us to develop a novel interpretable model, which in addition to providing an answer to the given (image, question) pair, also provides a counter-example based explanation. Specifically, it identifies an image that is similar to the original image, but it believes has a different answer to the same question. This can help in building trust for machines among their users.

  • Fusing Visual and Inertial Sensors with Semantics for 3D Human Pose Estimation
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Andrew Gilbert, Matthew Trumble, Charles Malleson, Adrian Hilton, John Collomosse

    We propose an approach to accurately estimate 3D human pose by fusing multi-viewpoint video (MVV) with inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor data, without optical markers, a complex hardware setup or a full body model. Uniquely we use a multi-channel 3D convolutional neural network to learn a pose embedding from visual occupancy and semantic 2D pose estimates from the MVV in a discretised volumetric probabilistic visual hull. The learnt pose stream is concurrently processed with a forward kinematic solve of the IMU data and a temporal model (LSTM) exploits the rich spatial and temporal long range dependencies among the solved joints, the two streams are then fused in a final fully connected layer. The two complementary data sources allow for ambiguities to be resolved within each sensor modality, yielding improved accuracy over prior methods. Extensive evaluation is performed with state of the art performance reported on the popular Human 3.6M dataset (Ionescu et al. in Intell IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach 36(7):1325–1339, 2014), the newly released TotalCapture dataset and a challenging set of outdoor videos TotalCaptureOutdoor. We release the new hybrid MVV dataset (TotalCapture) comprising of multi-viewpoint video, IMU and accurate 3D skeletal joint ground truth derived from a commercial motion capture system. The dataset is available online at http://cvssp.org/data/totalcapture/.

  • Deep Appearance Models: A Deep Boltzmann Machine Approach for Face Modeling
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Chi Nhan Duong, Khoa Luu, Kha Gia Quach, Tien D. Bui

    The “interpretation through synthesis” approach to analyze face images, particularly Active Appearance Models (AAMs) method, has become one of the most successful face modeling approaches over the last two decades. AAM models have ability to represent face images through synthesis using a controllable parameterized Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model. However, the accuracy and robustness of the synthesized faces of AAMs are highly depended on the training sets and inherently on the generalizability of PCA subspaces. This paper presents a novel Deep Appearance Models (DAMs) approach, an efficient replacement for AAMs, to accurately capture both shape and texture of face images under large variations. In this approach, three crucial components represented in hierarchical layers are modeled using the Deep Boltzmann Machines (DBM) to robustly capture the variations of facial shapes and appearances. DAMs are therefore superior to AAMs in inferencing a representation for new face images under various challenging conditions. The proposed approach is evaluated in various applications to demonstrate its robustness and capabilities, i.e. facial super-resolution reconstruction, facial off-angle reconstruction or face frontalization, facial occlusion removal and age estimation using challenging face databases, i.e. Labeled Face Parts in the Wild, Helen and FG-NET. Comparing to AAMs and other deep learning based approaches, the proposed DAMs achieve competitive results in those applications, thus this showed their advantages in handling occlusions, facial representation, and reconstruction.

  • Leveraging Prior-Knowledge for Weakly Supervised Object Detection Under a Collaborative Self-Paced Curriculum Learning Framework
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Dingwen Zhang, Junwei Han, Long Zhao, Deyu Meng

    Weakly supervised object detection is an interesting yet challenging research topic in computer vision community, which aims at learning object models to localize and detect the corresponding objects of interest only under the supervision of image-level annotation. For addressing this problem, this paper establishes a novel weakly supervised learning framework to leverage both the instance-level prior-knowledge and the image-level prior-knowledge based on a novel collaborative self-paced curriculum learning (C-SPCL) regime. Under the weak supervision, C-SPCL can leverage helpful prior-knowledge throughout the whole learning process and collaborate the instance-level confidence inference with the image-level confidence inference in a robust way. Comprehensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate the superior capacity of the proposed C-SPCL regime and the proposed whole framework as compared with state-of-the-art methods along this research line.

  • Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-06
    Baoyuan Wu, Fan Jia, Wei Liu, Bernard Ghanem, Siwei Lyu

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low rank) and an equivalence constraint between the summation of this two matrices and the original label matrix. Interestingly, two important applications, including image annotation and tag based image retrieval, can be jointly handled using our proposed methods. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets show that our methods lead to significant improvements in performance and robustness to missing labels over the state-of-the-art methods.

  • Facial Landmark Detection: A Literature Survey
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Yue Wu, Qiang Ji

    The locations of the fiducial facial landmark points around facial components and facial contour capture the rigid and non-rigid facial deformations due to head movements and facial expressions. They are hence important for various facial analysis tasks. Many facial landmark detection algorithms have been developed to automatically detect those key points over the years, and in this paper, we perform an extensive review of them. We classify the facial landmark detection algorithms into three major categories: holistic methods, Constrained Local Model (CLM) methods, and the regression-based methods. They differ in the ways to utilize the facial appearance and shape information. The holistic methods explicitly build models to represent the global facial appearance and shape information. The CLMs explicitly leverage the global shape model but build the local appearance models. The regression based methods implicitly capture facial shape and appearance information. For algorithms within each category, we discuss their underlying theories as well as their differences. We also compare their performances on both controlled and in the wild benchmark datasets, under varying facial expressions, head poses, and occlusion. Based on the evaluations, we point out their respective strengths and weaknesses. There is also a separate section to review the latest deep learning based algorithms. The survey also includes a listing of the benchmark databases and existing software. Finally, we identify future research directions, including combining methods in different categories to leverage their respective strengths to solve landmark detection “in-the-wild”.

  • Combining Multiple Cues for Visual Madlibs Question Answering
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-05-03
    Tatiana Tommasi, Arun Mallya, Bryan Plummer, Svetlana Lazebnik, Alexander C. Berg, Tamara L. Berg

    This paper presents an approach for answering fill-in-the-blank multiple choice questions from the Visual Madlibs dataset. Instead of generic and commonly used representations trained on the ImageNet classification task, our approach employs a combination of networks trained for specialized tasks such as scene recognition, person activity classification, and attribute prediction. We also present a method for localizing phrases from candidate answers in order to provide spatial support for feature extraction. We map each of these features, together with candidate answers, to a joint embedding space through normalized canonical correlation analysis (nCCA). Finally, we solve an optimization problem to learn to combine scores from nCCA models trained on multiple cues to select the best answer. Extensive experimental results show a significant improvement over the previous state of the art and confirm that answering questions from a wide range of types benefits from examining a variety of image cues and carefully choosing the spatial support for feature extraction.

  • An Approximate Shading Model with Detail Decomposition for Object Relighting
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-30
    Zicheng Liao, Kevin Karsch, Hongyi Zhang, David Forsyth

    We present an object relighting system that allows an artist to select an object from an image and insert it into a target scene. Through simple interactions, the system can adjust illumination on the inserted object so that it appears naturally in the scene. To support image-based relighting, we build object model from the image, and propose a perceptually-inspired approximate shading model for the relighting. It decomposes the shading field into (a) a rough shape term that can be reshaded, (b) a parametric shading detail that encodes missing features from the first term, and (c) a geometric detail term that captures fine-scale material properties. With this decomposition, the shading model combines 3D rendering and image-based composition and allows more flexible compositing than image-based methods. Quantitative evaluation and a set of user studies suggest our method is a promising alternative to existing methods of object insertion.

  • Structural Constraint Data Association for Online Multi-object Tracking
    Int. J. Comput. Vis. (IF 11.541) Pub Date : 2018-04-27
    Ju Hong Yoon, Chang-Ryeol Lee, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Kuk-Jin Yoon

    Online two-dimensional (2D) multi-object tracking (MOT) is a challenging task when the objects of interest have similar appearances. In that case, the motion of objects is another helpful cue for tracking and discriminating multiple objects. However, when using a single moving camera for online 2D MOT, observable motion cues are contaminated by global camera movements and, thus, are not always predictable. To deal with unexpected camera motion, we propose a new data association method that effectively exploits structural constraints in the presence of large camera motion. In addition, to reduce incorrect associations with mis-detections and false positives, we develop a novel event aggregation method to integrate assignment costs computed by structural constraints. We also utilize structural constraints to track missing objects when they are re-detected again. By doing this, identities of the missing objects can be retained continuously. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of the proposed data association algorithm under unexpected camera motions. In addition, tracking results on a large number of benchmark datasets demonstrated that the proposed MOT algorithm performs robustly and favorably against various online methods in terms of several quantitative metrics, and that its performance is comparable to offline methods.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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