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  • Ignoring theory and misinterpreting evidence: the false belief in fear appeals
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-12-28
    Gerjo Kok, Gjalt-Jorn Y. Peters, Loes T. E. Kessels, Gill A. ten Hoor, Robert A. C. Ruiter

    Use of fear appeals assumes that when people are emotionally confronted with the negative effects of their behaviour they will change that behaviour. That reasoning is simple and intuitive, but only true under specific, rare circumstances. Risk perception theories predict that if people will experience a threat, they want to counter that threat. However, how they do so is determined by their coping efficacy level: if efficacy is high, they may change their behaviour in the suggested direction; if efficacy is low, they react defensively. Research on fear appeals should be methodologically sound, comparing a threatening to a non-threatening intervention under high and low efficacy levels, random assignment and measuring behaviour as outcome. We critically review extant empirical evidence and conclude that it does not support positive effects of fear appeals. Nonetheless, their use persists and is even promoted by health psychology researchers, causing scientific insights to be ignored or misinterpreted.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • Does self-control modify the impact of interventions to change alcohol, tobacco, and food consumption? A systematic review
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Kaidy Stautz, Zorana Zupan, Matt Field, Theresa M. Marteau

    Low self-control is associated with increased consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and unhealthy food. This systematic review aimed to assess whether individual differences in self-control modify the effectiveness of interventions to reduce consumption of these products, and hence their potential to reduce consumption amongst those whose consumption is generally greater. Searches of six databases were supplemented with snowball searches and forward citation tracking. Narrative synthesis summarised findings by: consumption behaviour (alcohol, tobacco, food); psychological processes targeted by the intervention (reflective, non-reflective, or both); and study design (experiment, cohort, or cross-sectional). Of 54 eligible studies, 22 reported no evidence of modification, 18 reported interventions to be less effective in those with low self-control, and 14 reported interventions to be more effective in those with low self-control. This pattern did not differ from chance. Whilst self-control often influenced intervention outcomes, there was no consistent pattern of effects, even when stratifying studies by consumption behaviour, intervention type, or study design. There was a notable absence of evidence regarding interventions that restructure physical or economic environments. In summary, a heterogeneous, low-quality evidence base suggests an inconsistent moderating effect of low self-control on the effectiveness of interventions to change consumption behaviours.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • The structure of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): two meta-analytic factor analyses
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2018-01-30
    Timo Gnambs, Thomas Staufenbiel

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a popular measure of psychological distress. Despite its widespread use, an ongoing controversy pertains to its internal structure. Although the GHQ-12 was originally constructed to capture a unitary construct, empirical studies identified different factor structures. Therefore, this study examined the dimensionality of the GHQ-12 in two independent meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis used summary data published in 38 primary studies (total N = 76,473). Meta-analytic exploratory factor analyses identified two factors formed by negatively and positively worded items. The second meta-analysis included individual responses of 410,640 participants from 84 independent samples. Meta-analytic confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the two-dimensional structure of the GHQ-12. However, bifactor modelling showed that most of the variance was explained by a general factor. Therefore, subscale scores reflected rather limited unique variance. Overall, the two meta-analyses demonstrated that the GHQ-12 is essentially unidimensional. It is not recommended to use and interpret subscale scores because they primarily reflect general mental health rather than distinct constructs.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • Sedentary behaviours and health-related quality of life. A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Monika Boberska, Zofia Szczuka, Magdalena Kruk, Nina Knoll, Jan Keller, Diana Hilda Hohl, Aleksandra Luszczynska

    Researchers have speculated that sedentary behaviour may reduce health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but the extent to which this is true remains unknown. Our study sought to systematically review and synthesise research on the relationship between sedentary behaviours and HRQOL and to investigate if these relationships are moderated by age, health status, and HRQOL domain. The review was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42016036342). We searched six electronic databases. The selection process resulted in including k = 27 original studies; k = 18 were included in a meta-analysis. Data were synthesised twice, using the methods of systematic review and meta-analysis, in order to reduce biases related to a small number of included studies. Both the systematic review and meta-analytical methods indicated that lower levels of sedentary behaviours were associated with higher physical HRQOL (estimate of average effect: r = −.140; 95% CI −.191, −.088). Moderator analyses indicated that associations between the physical HRQOL domain and sedentary behaviours may be similar in strength across age- and health status groups. Causal inferences could not be drawn as most studies were cross-sectional. Concluding, sedentary behaviours were related to better physical HRQOL but not reliably to mental and social HRQOL.

    更新日期:2018-04-18
  • Action and inaction in multi-behaviour recommendations: a meta-analysis of lifestyle interventions
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-09-22
    Dolores Albarracín, Kristina Wilson, Man-pui Sally Chan, Marta Durantini, Flor Sanchez

    This meta-analysis examined theoretical predictions about the effects of different combinations of action (e.g., start an exercise regime) and of inaction (e.g., reduce screen time, rest in between weight lifting series) recommendations in smoking, diet, and physical activity multiple-domain interventions. The synthesis included 150 research reports of interventions promoting multiple behaviour domain change and measuring change at the most immediate follow-up. The main outcome measure was an indicator of overall change that combined behavioural and clinical effects. There were two main findings. First, as predicted, interventions produced the highest level of change when they included a predominance of recommendations along one behavioural dimension (i.e., predominantly inaction or predominantly action). Unexpectedly, within interventions with predominant action or inaction recommendations, those including predominantly inaction recommendations had greater efficacy than those including predominantly action recommendations. This effect, however, was limited to interventions in the diet and exercise domains, but reversed (greater efficacy for interventions with predominant action vs. inaction recommendations) in the smoking domain. These findings provide important insights on how to best combine recommendations when interventions target clusters of health behaviours.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Automated telecommunication interventions to promote adherence to cardio-metabolic medications: meta-analysis of effectiveness and meta-regression of behaviour change techniques
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Aikaterini Kassavou, Stephen Sutton

    Automated telecommunication interventions, including short message service and interactive voice response, are increasingly being used to promote adherence to medications prescribed for cardio-metabolic conditions. This systematic review aimed to comprehensively assess the effectiveness of such interventions to support medication adherence, and to identify the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics that are positively associated with greater intervention effectiveness. Meta-analysis of 17 randomised controlled trials showed a small but statistically significant effect on medication adherence, OR = 1.89, 95% CI [1.51, 2.36], I2 = 89%, N = 25,101. Multivariable meta-regression analysis including eight BCTs explained 88% of the observed variance in effect size (ES). The BCTs ‘tailored’ and ‘information about health consequences’ were positively and significantly associated with ES. Future studies could explore whether the inclusion of these and/or additional techniques (e.g., ‘implementation intentions’) would increase the effect of automated telecommunication interventions, using rigorous designs and objective outcome measures.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Evolutionary learning processes as the foundation for behaviour change
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Rik Crutzen, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram Peters

    We argue that the active ingredients of behaviour change interventions, often called behaviour change methods (BCMs) or techniques (BCTs), can usefully be placed on a dimension of psychological aggregation. We introduce evolutionary learning processes (ELPs) as fundamental building blocks that are on a lower level of psychological aggregation than BCMs/BCTs. A better understanding of ELPs is useful to select the appropriate BCMs/BCTs to target determinants of behaviour, or vice versa, to identify potential determinants targeted by a given BCM/BCT, and to optimally translate them into practical applications. Using these insights during intervention development may increase the likelihood of developing effective interventions – both in terms of behaviour change as well as maintenance of behaviour change.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Understanding active school travel through the Behavioural Ecological Model
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-11-23
    Samuel Ginja, Bronia Arnott, Anil Namdeo, Elaine McColl

    Active school travel (AST) is an important source of physical activity for children and a conceptual understanding of AST is necessary to inform promotion efforts. The aim of this article is to provide a conceptual analysis of AST. All currently identified AST formulations include intra-individual variables which are often recommended as intervention targets. However, existing literature lacks clarity on precisely how these intra-individual variables might shape specific AST interventions. Moreover, evaluative studies of AST interventions typically fail to specify an underpinning theory or model. To address this limitation, the Behavioural Ecological Model (BEM), not previously addressed in AST, is presented to guide this area of research. Based on specific examples, we draw attention to the role of potential antecedents and potential reinforcers of AST, as well as potential reinforcers of motorised travel. Antecedents and reinforcers may help to explain choices of school travel mode, and to inform and increase intervention options to promote AST. Consistent with the BEM, the provision of more immediate consequences, such as fun and material prizes, is an evidence-based strategy for increasing AST which is likely to be low-cost and easier to deliver than alternative interventions. This approach to the study of AST is expected to contribute to similar analyses in this and other areas of behaviour change research, and to a more useful discussion and treatment of theoretical and conceptual behavioural models.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • Trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress, and preventive health behaviours: a systematic review
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    Sharon Y. Lee, Crystal L. Park

    Psychological trauma has implications for many aspects of physical health, including preventive health behaviours (PHBs). However, whether trauma exposure additionally contributes to PHBs above and beyond the effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms remains unclear. In this systematic review, 32 studies were analysed to characterise: (1) the relationships between trauma exposure and PHBs, (2) the relationships between PTSD symptoms and PHBs, (3) the unique associations between trauma exposure and PHBs, independent of PTSD symptoms, and (4) the unique associations between PTSD symptoms and PHBs, independent of trauma exposure. Findings were variable across the three examined PHBs (physical activity, diet, medical screening) when only trauma exposure or PTSD symptoms were taken into account. Clearer relationships emerged between trauma exposure and PHBs when PTSD symptoms were taken into account, demonstrating that trauma exposure is related to PHB engagement above and beyond the effects of PTSD symptoms. Additionally, PTSD symptoms shared unique associations with physical activity and screening frequency, which were not explained by trauma exposure. Our review reveals that teasing apart the effects of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms on PHBs brings greater clarity to the strength and direction of these associations.

    更新日期:2018-01-12
  • The state of the art and future opportunities for using longitudinal n-of-1 methods in health behaviour research: a systematic literature overview
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-04-25
    Suzanne McDonald, Francis Quinn, Rute Vieira, Nicola O’Brien, Martin White, Derek W. Johnston, Falko F. Sniehotta

    n-of-1 studies test hypotheses within individuals based on repeated measurement of variables within the individual over time. Intra-individual effects may differ from those found in between-participant studies. Using examples from a systematic review of n-of-1 studies in health behaviour research, this article provides a state of the art overview of the use of n-of-1 methods, organised according to key methodological considerations related to n-of-1 design and analysis, and describes future challenges and opportunities. A comprehensive search strategy (PROSPERO:CRD42014007258) was used to identify articles published between 2000 and 2016, reporting observational or interventional n-of-1 studies with health behaviour outcomes. Thirty-nine articles were identified which reported on n-of-1 observational designs and a range of n-of-1 interventional designs, including AB, ABA, ABABA, alternating treatments, n-of-1 randomised controlled trial, multiple baseline and changing criterion designs. Behaviours measured included treatment adherence, physical activity, drug/alcohol use, sleep, smoking and eating behaviour. Descriptive, visual or statistical analyses were used. We identify scope and opportunities for using n-of-1 methods to answer key questions in health behaviour research. n-of-1 methods provide the tools needed to help advance theoretical knowledge and personalise/tailor health behaviour interventions to individuals.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Matthew J. Stork, Laura E. Banfield, Martin J. Gibala, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Clocking self-regulation: why time of day matters for health psychology
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-04-20
    Brett M. Millar

    Various lines of research have identified a number of factors that can impair a person’s ability and motivation to exercise self-control, here self-regulation, in the face of a tempting object (e.g., food, sex, alcohol/drugs, smoking). Each of these in situ factors – the availability of the tempting object, one’s desire for it, and impaired affective and cognitive functioning (most notably from sleep-related fatigue, daily ‘wear and tear’, and intoxication) – makes self-regulation more difficult, and even more so when they co-occur. This integrative paper highlights how time of day modulates the salience of these impairing factors and argues that they are likely to be especially influential on self-regulation at night, or later in one’s waking day. As each factor is likely to vary considerably across the 24 hours of a day, so too will one’s self-regulatory ability and motivation – although person-level characteristics such as chronotype may shift these time-based considerations. The paper thus emphasises the importance of clocking self-regulation within health psychology research and intervention design. Consideration of when a self-regulation attempt is being made and of how time of day (or night) may be altering both the person and the situation towards risk, will facilitate a more temporally contextualised account of self-regulation.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Evaluating the impact of method bias in health behaviour research: a meta-analytic examination of studies utilising the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Máirtín S. McDermott, Rajeev Sharma

    The methods employed to measure behaviour in research testing the theories of reasoned action/planned behaviour (TRA/TPB) within the context of health behaviours have the potential to significantly bias findings. One bias yet to be examined in that literature is that due to common method variance (CMV). CMV introduces a variance in scores attributable to the method used to measure a construct, rather than the construct it represents. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of method bias on the associations of health behaviours with TRA/TPB variables. Data were sourced from four meta-analyses (177 studies). The method used to measure behaviour for each effect size was coded for susceptibility to bias. The moderating impact of method type was assessed using meta-regression. Method type significantly moderated the associations of intentions, attitudes and social norms with behaviour, but not that between perceived behavioural control and behaviour. The magnitude of the moderating effect of method type appeared consistent between cross-sectional and prospective studies, but varied across behaviours. The current findings strongly suggest that method bias significantly inflates associations in TRA/TPB research, and poses a potentially serious validity threat to the cumulative findings reported in that field.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Should patients be optimistic about surgery? Resolving a conflicted literature
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Kate Sweeny, Sara E. Andrews

    Following surgery, some patients suffer distress, disappointment, regret, poor adjustment, and poor quality-of-life. Surgeons may define ‘success’ based on objective clinical outcomes, but patients’ perceptions of surgical success rely primarily on a comparison to their initial expectations. We review the literature on the relationship between patients’ surgical expectations and psychosocial outcomes and attempt to resolve a conflict in the literature. Specifically, we propose that conflicting conclusions regarding the merits of optimism primarily stem from differing methodological approaches by researchers in the field. Studies that examine preoperative expectations in isolation typically conclude that optimism is positively associated with beneficial psychosocial outcomes. Studies that compare preoperative expectations to objective surgical outcomes typically conclude that optimism, particularly unrealistic optimism, is associated with detrimental psychosocial outcomes. As a whole, the evidence strongly supports an association between optimistic expectations and positive psychosocial outcomes following surgery if those expectations are based in reality. If preoperative optimism ultimately turns out to be unrealistic, however, it is likely to be a postoperative liability.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
  • Meaning in life and physical health: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 7.241) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Katarzyna Czekierda, Anna Banik, Crystal L. Park, Aleksandra Luszczynska

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations between meaning in life and physical health using random-effects models. Conceptualisation of meaning (order in world vs. purpose in life), type of health indicators, participants’ health status, and age issues were investigated as moderators. Systematic searches of six databases resulted in inclusion of k = 66 studies (total N = 73,546). Findings indicated that meaning in life and physical health formed weak-to-moderate associations (the overall estimate of the average effect = 0.258). Conceptualisation of meaning, participants’ health status, and their age did not moderate these associations. Operationalisation of health moderated the relationship between meaning in life and health. The strongest associations were found for subjective indicators of physical health. Significant albeit weak associations between meaning in life and objective indices of health were found. Furthermore, stronger effects were observed when the measures of meaning combined items referring to meaning in life and meaning-related sense of harmony, peace, and well-being, compared to measures focusing solely on meaning in life. Overall, the results point to the potential role of meaning in life in explaining physical health.

    更新日期:2017-12-15
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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