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  • Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 in high temperature water
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Tyler Moss, Wenjun Kuang, Gary S Was

    Initiation of stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 690 in high temperature water is a rare occurrence and depends on the method by which the sample is loaded. Only in dynamic straining experiments is crack initiation consistently observed. Stress relaxation in constant deflection tests, and lack of a means of rupturing the oxide film in constant load tests are the principle reasons for the difficulty of initiating cracks in these tests. These observations, combined with those from the much more susceptible Alloy 600 form the basis for a mechanism stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation of Alloy 690. SCC initiation is proposed to occur in three stages: an oxidation stage in which a protective film of Cr2O3 is formed on the surface over grain boundaries, an incubation stage in which successive cycles of oxide film rupture and repair depletes the grain boundary of chromium, and a nucleation stage in which the chromium depleted grain boundary is no longer able to support growth of a protective chromium oxide layer, resulting in formation and rupture of oxides down the grain boundary. The mechanism is supported by the available literature on oxidation and crack initiation of Alloy 690 in hydrogenated primary water conditions.

  • Feedstock powder processing research needs for additive manufacturing development
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Iver E. Anderson, Emma M.H. White, Ryan Dehoff

    Additive manufacturing (AM) promises to redesign traditional manufacturing by enabling the ultimate in agility for rapid component design changes in commercial products and for fabricating complex integrated parts. By significantly increasing quality and yield of metallic alloy powders, the pace for design, development, and deployment of the most promising AM approaches can be greatly accelerated, resulting in rapid commercialization of these advanced manufacturing methods. By successful completion of a critical suite of processing research tasks that are intended to greatly enhance gas atomized powder quality and the precision and efficiency of powder production, researchers can help promote continued rapid growth of AM. Other powder-based or spray-based advanced manufacturing methods could also benefit from these research outcomes, promoting the next wave of sustainable manufacturing technologies for conventional and advanced materials.

  • Recent approaches to reduce aging phenomena in oxygen- and nitrogen-containing plasma polymer films: An overview
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    M. Vandenbossche, D. Hegemann

    Plasma polymer films (PPFs) are well-known for their enhanced stability compared to conventional polymer coatings. However, PPFs tend to undergo aging in air or in aqueous environments due to oxidation, hydrophobic recovery, hydrolysis and dissolution of oligomeric fragments. Such aging mechanisms cause modifications of the PPFs that entail a change in surface properties. For example, PPF surfaces which are probed for protein adsorption or cell adhesion might therefore be substantially different from the initial PPF. It becomes thus necessary to understand the chemical reactions involved in the chemical modification (and/or degradation) of PPFs. Here, a summary of the most important aging mechanisms occurring in PPFs is given. More precisely, chemical reactions that can potentially occur in oxygen- and nitrogen-containing plasma polymer films when stored in air and in water were highlighted. On the basis of this understanding, recent strategies to reduce or delay aging mechanisms and/or to provide time-controlled degradable PPFs are discussed: the enhancement of the degree of cross-linking, the formation of a gradient structure in the PPF during plasma deposition, and the chemical post-plasma treatment to reduce the number of reactive sites. Finally, potential applications of such coatings will be considered.

  • Coupled electronic and atomic effects on defect evolution in silicon carbide under ion irradiation
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Yanwen Zhang, Haizhou Xue, Eva Zarkadoula, Ritesh Sachan, Christopher Ostrouchov, Peng Liu, Xue-lin Wang, Shuo Zhang, Tie Shan Wang, William J. Weber
  • Physical metallurgy of concentrated solid solutions from low-entropy to high-entropy alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-09-28
    Chun-Yang Cheng, Ya-Chu Yang, Yi-Zhen Zhong, Yang-Yuan Chen, Tung Hsu, Jien-Wei Yeh

    The alloy world could be divided into low-entropy (LEAs), medium-entropy (MEAs) and high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on the configurational entropy at the random solution state. In HEAs, four core effects, i.e. high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion and cocktail effects, are much more significant than low-entropy alloys in affecting phase transformation, microstructure and properties. In fact, the degree of the influence from these core effects more or less increases with increased mixing entropy. The trend is gradual from low-entropy alloys to high-entropy alloys. In this article, physical metallurgy of HEAs is discussed with the bridge connected to that of conventional alloys. As disordered and ordered solid solutions are the main constituent phases of alloys, the understanding of solid solutions is fundamental for the understanding of alloys. In addition, as dilute solid solutions have been well treated in current physical metallurgy, concentrated solid solutions from low-entropy to high-entropy alloys are focused in this article. Physical properties are especially emphasized besides mechanical properties.

  • Electronic band structure and electron transfer properties of two-dimensional metal oxide nanosheets and nanosheet films
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    J.E. ten Elshof

    The electronic properties of 2-dimensional metal oxide nanosheets are reviewed. Although the band structures of 2D nanosheets bear some resemblance with the band structures of the 3D parent compounds from they are derived, their 2D nature may have a profound influence on the location of the valence and conduction bands. The presence of structural defects, aliovalent dopants, and adsorbed molecules affects the mobility and concentration of charge carriers, and may even influence the band structure. The ability to transfer electrons to and from nanosheets is controlled by the charge density of the nanosheet, and/or the presence of electron donating or accepting species in the immediate vicinity. Charge transport and electron transfer in multilayer films and heterostructures are also discussed.

  • Recent advances in 3D printing of porous ceramics: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-09-09
    Lim Chin Hwa, Srithar Rajoo, Alias Mohd Noor, Norhayati Ahmad, M.B. Uday

    3D printing, alongside the rapidly advancing field of porous ceramics, is quickly expanding the horizon of what is going to be possible in the future. In this paper, 3D printing technology is evaluated for its compatibility with porous ceramic materials, due to its competitive process in terms of speed and specific tooling, especially for good quality fabrication. The paper reviews the capabilities of these new technology techniques for the fabrication of porous ceramic. The basic technology is the 3D printing techniques, which are used to fabricate porous green ceramic parts that are later sintered. Different ceramic materials are evaluated and the classification of different powders according to their 3D printing quality as well as material aspects is examined. The evaluation of 3D printing process in terms of the powders’ physical properties such as particle size, flowability and wettability is also discussed. The relationship between the different 3D printing parameters and the final printing outcome are assessed.

  • Anisotropic organic glasses
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    Ankit Gujral, Lian Yu, M.D. Ediger

    While the last decades have seen considerable efforts to control molecular packing in organic crystals, the idea of controlling packing in organic glasses is relatively unexplored. Glasses have many advantageous properties that crystals lack, such as macroscopic homogeneity and compositional flexibility, but packing in organic glasses is generally considered to be isotropic and highly disordered. Here we review and compare four areas of recent research activity showing control over anisotropic packing in organic glasses: (1) anisotropic glasses of low molecular weight organic semiconductors prepared by physical vapor deposition, (2) the use of mesogens to produce anisotropic glasses by cooling equilibrium liquid crystal phases, (3) the preparation of highly anisotropic glassy solids by vapor-depositing low molecular weight mesogens, and (4) anisotropic films of polymeric semiconductors prepared by spin-coating or solution casting. We delineate the connections between these areas with the hope of cross-fertilizing progress in the development of anisotropic glassy materials.

  • Hydrogen embrittlement in compositionally complex FeNiCoCrMn FCC solid solution alloy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-12-01
    K.E. Nygren, K.M. Bertsch, S. Wang, H. Bei, A. Nagao, I.M. Robertson
  • Atomic-level heterogeneity and defect dynamics in concentrated solid-solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-03-18
    Yanwen Zhang, Shijun Zhao, William J. Weber, Kai Nordlund, Fredric Granberg, Flyura Djurabekova

    Performance enhancement of structural materials in extreme radiation environments has been actively investigated for many decades. Traditional alloys, such as steel, brass and aluminum alloys, normally contain one or two principal element(s) with a low concentration of other elements. While these exist in either a mixture of metallic phases (multiple phases) or in a solid solution (single phase), limited or localized chemical disorder is a common characteristic of the main matrix. Fundamentally different from traditional alloys, recently developed single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys (CSAs) contain multiple elemental species in equiatomic or high concentrations with different elements randomly arranged on a crystalline lattice. Due to the lack of ordered elemental arrangement in these CSAs, they exhibit significant chemical disorder and unique site-to-site lattice distortion. While it is well recognized in traditional alloys that minor additions lead to enhanced radiation resistance, it remains unclear in CSAs how atomic-level heterogeneity affects defect formation, damage accumulation, and microstructural evolution. These knowledge gaps have acted as roadblocks to the development of future-generation energy technology. CSAs with a simple crystal structure, but complex chemical disorder, are unique systems that allow us, through replacing principal alloying elements and modifying concentrations, to study how compositional complexity influences defect dynamics, and to bridge the knowledge gaps through understanding intricate electronic- and atomic-level interactions, mass and energy transfer processes, and radiation resistance performance. Recent advances in defect dynamics and irradiation performance of CSAs are reviewed, intrinsic chemical effects on radiation performance are discussed, and direction for future studies is suggested.

  • Thermodynamics of concentrated solid solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-10-12
    M.C. Gao, C. Zhang, P. Gao, F. Zhang, L.Z. Ouyang, M. Widom, J.A. Hawk
  • Fundamental deformation behavior in high-entropy alloys: An overview
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    H.Y. Diao, R. Feng, K.A. Dahmen, P.K. Liaw

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a new class of materials, are nearly equiatomic and multi-element systems, which can crystallize as a single phase or multi-phases. Most of the HEAs described in the literature contain multiple phases (secondary phases, nanoparticles, and so on), rather than a single solid-solution phase. Thus, it is essential to review the typical mechanical properties of both single-phase and multiphase HEAs thoroughly, with emphases on (1) the fundamental physical mechanisms and (2) the difference from conventional alloys. In this paper, mainly based on different mechanical properties, HEAs are classified into four types for the first time, i.e., (a) HEA alloy systems of 3d-transition metals only (Type 1), (b) HEA alloy systems of transition metals with larger atomic-radius elements (Type 2), (c) HEA alloy systems of refractory metals (Type 3), and (4) others (Type 4). Then a number of aspects of mechanical behavior are reviewed and discussed, including the elastic anisotropy, yield strength, high-temperature performance, serration behavior, fracture toughness, and fatigue responses, which may serve as a demonstrative summary for the current progress in the scientific research of HEAs. Several mechanisms that quantitatively explain the mechanical properties of single-phase and multiphase HEAs in terms of basic defects (dislocations, twinning, precipitates, etc.) are discussed. A number of future research activities are suggested, based on the emphasis on developing high-performance structural materials. The review concludes with a brief summary of major mechanical properties and insights into the deformation behavior of single-phase and multiphase HEAs. The comparison and contrast between HEAs and conventional alloys remain the most compelling motivation for future studies. With the integrated experimental and simulation investigations, a clearer picture of the fundamental deformation behavior of single-phase and multiphase HEAs could be explored.

  • Phase stability, physical properties and strengthening mechanisms of concentrated solid solution alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Z. Wu, M.C. Troparevsky, Y.F. Gao, J.R. Morris, G.M. Stocks, H. Bei

    We review recent research developments in a special class of multicomponent concentrated solid solution alloys (CSAs) – of which the recently discovered high entropy alloys (HEAs) are exemplars – that offer a new paradigm for the development of next generation structural materials. This review focuses on the role of inherent extreme chemical complexity on the phase stability, electronic, transport, and mechanical properties of this remarkable class of disordered solid solution alloys. Both experimental observations and theoretical models indicate that the phase stability of HEAs goes beyond the original conjecture that these alloys are stabilized by configurational/mixing entropy; rather, it results from competition between the homogeneously disordered phase and phase separation/intermetallic compound formation. Although the number of single-phase HEAs with equiatomic composition is limited, those that do exist often exhibit remarkable electronic, magnetic, transport, and mechanical properties. For the mechanical response, we discuss the solution strengthening mechanism which governs the strength and deformation behaviors of the CSAs, as well as the increasing evidence that low stacking fault energies (deformation twinning) plays an important role in the low temperature strength and ductility of CrMnFeCoNi related alloys. We also review the current understanding of the role of the number and type of alloy elements in determining the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties, in particular the dominant role of magnetic interactions in the properties of 3d-transition metal based alloys. Finally, we emphasize that, despite rapid progress in characterization and understanding of the phase stability and physical/mechanical responses of CSAs, there remain significant challenges to fully exploring the new paradigm that these alloys represent.

  • Decoding the glass genome
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    John C. Mauro
  • Ion beam surface nanostructuring of noble metal films with localized surface plasmon excitation
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-01-12
    Xuan Meng, Tamaki Shibayama, Ruixuan Yu, Junya Ishioka, Seiichi Watanabe

    Noble metal nanoparticles strongly adhered to dielectric matrices have been extensively studied because of their potential applications in plasmonic devices based on tunable localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitation. Compared with conventional synthesis methods, the noble metal nanoparticles formed by ion-beam irradiation draw significant interest in recent years because a single layer dispersion of nanoparticles strongly bonded on the dielectric substrate can be obtained. In this paper, important phenomena related to ion-beam surface nanostructuring including ion-induced reshaping of metal nanoparticles, ion-induced core-satellite structure formation, and ion-induced burrowing of these nanoparticles are discussed, with their individual effects on LSP excitation. Consequently, ion-induced surface nanostructuring of Ag-Au bimetallic films on amorphous silica glass and sapphire with tunable LSP excitation are presented. In addition, theoretical studies of far-field and near-field optical properties of these nanoparticles under ion irradiation are introduced, and the enhanced localized electric field (hot spot) is interpreted. Finally, the futures and challenges of the emerging plasmonic applications based on tunable LSP excitations in bio-sensing and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are presented.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Powder bed binder jet 3D printing of Inconel 718: Densification, microstructural evolution and challenges☆
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-01-03
    Peeyush Nandwana, Amy M. Elliott, Derek Siddel, Abbey Merriman, William H. Peter, Sudarsanam S. Babu

    Traditional manufacturing of Inconel 718 components from castings and thermomechanical processing routes involve extensive post processing and machining to attain the desired geometry. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies including direct energy deposition (DED), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM) and binder jet 3D printing (BJ3DP) can minimize scrap generation and reduce lead times. While there is extensive literature on the use of melting and solidification based AM technologies, there has been limited research on the use of binder jet 3D printing. In this paper, a brief review on binder jet additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 is presented. In addition, existing knowledge on sintering of Inconel 718 has been extended to binder jet 3D printing. We found that supersolidus liquid phase sintering (SLPS) is necessary to achieve full densification of Inconel 718. SLPS is sensitive to the feedstock chemistry that has a strong influence on the liquid volume fraction at the processing temperature. Based on these results, we discuss an empirical framework to determine the role of powder particle size and liquid volume fraction on sintering kinetics. The role of powder packing factor and binder saturation on microstructural evolution is discussed. The current challenges in the use of BJ3DP for fabrication of Inconel 718, as well as, extension to other metal systems, are presented.

  • Statistical inference and adaptive design for materials discovery
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-10-10
    Turab Lookman, Prasanna V. Balachandran, Dezhen Xue, John Hogden, James Theiler

    A key aspect of the developing field of materials informatics is optimally guiding experiments or calculations towards parts of the relatively vast feature space where a material with desired property may be discovered. We discuss our approach to adaptive experimental design and the methods developed in decision theory and global optimization which can be used in materials science. We show that the use of uncertainties to trade-off exploration versus exploitation to guide new experiments or calculations generally leads to enhanced performance, highlighting the need to evaluate and incorporate errors in predictive materials design. We illustrate our ideas on a computed data set of M2AX phases generated using ab initio calculations to find the sample with the optimal elastic properties, and discuss how our approach leads to the discovery of new NiTi-based alloys with the smallest thermal dissipation.

  • Microstructure-based knowledge systems for capturing process-structure evolution linkages
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    David B. Brough, Daniel Wheeler, James A. Warren, Surya R. Kalidindi

    This paper reviews and advances a data science framework for capturing and communicating critical information regarding the evolution of material structure in spatiotemporal multiscale simulations. This approach is called the MKS (Materials Knowledge Systems) framework, and was previously applied successfully for capturing mainly the microstructure-property linkages in spatial multiscale simulations. This paper generalizes this framework by allowing the introduction of different basis functions, and explores their potential benefits in establishing the desired process-structure-property (PSP) linkages. These new developments are demonstrated using a Cahn-Hilliard simulation as an example case study, where structure evolution was predicted three orders of magnitude faster than an optimized numerical integration algorithm. This study suggests that the MKS localization framework provides an alternate method to learn the underlying embedded physics in a numerical model expressed through Green’s function based influence kernels rather than differential equations, and potentially offers significant computational advantages in problems where numerical integration schemes are challenging to optimize. With this extension, we have now established a comprehensive framework for capturing PSP linkages for multiscale materials modeling and simulations in both space and time.

  • Informatics and data science in materials microscopy
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-10-20
    Paul M. Voyles

    The breadth, complexity, and volume of data generated by materials characterization using various forms of microscopy has expanded significantly. Combined with increases in computing power, this has led to increased application of techniques from informatics and data science to materials microscopy data, both to improve the data quality and improve the materials information extracted from the data. This review covers recent advances in data science applied to materials microscopy, including problems such as denoising, drift and distortion correction, spectral unmixing, and the use of simulated experiments to derive information about materials from microscopy data. Techniques covered include non-local patch-based methods, component analysis, clustering, optimization, and compressed sensing. Examples illustrate the need to combine several informatics approaches to solve problems and showcase recent advances in materials microscopy made possible by informatics.

  • Industrial materials informatics: Analyzing large-scale data to solve applied problems in R&D, manufacturing, and supply chain
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-03-09
    Bryce Meredig

    In this review, we discuss current and potential future applications for materials informatics in industry. We include in this discussion not only the traditional materials and chemical industries, but also other manufacturing-intensive sectors, which broadens the relevance of materials informatics to a large proportion of the economy. We describe several high-level use cases, drawing upon our experience at Citrine Informatics working in materials and manufacturing, although we omit any details that could be considered customer-proprietary. We note that a converging set of factors, including executive-level corporate demand for Big Data technologies, increasing availability of large-scale materials data, drive for greater competitiveness in manufacturing, and advances in machine learning, will lead to a rapid increase in industrial application of materials informatics over the next several years.

  • Atomistic calculations and materials informatics: A review
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-08-03
    Logan Ward, Chris Wolverton

    In recent years, there has been a large effort in the materials science community to employ materials informatics to accelerate materials discovery or to develop new understanding of materials behavior. Materials informatics methods utilize machine learning techniques to extract new knowledge or predictive models out of existing materials data. In this review, we discuss major advances in the intersection between data science and atom-scale calculations with a particular focus on studies of solid-state, inorganic materials. The examples discussed in this review cover methods for accelerating the calculation of computationally-expensive properties, identifying promising regions for materials discovery based on existing data, and extracting chemical intuition automatically from datasets. We also identify key issues in this field, such as limited distribution of software necessary to utilize these techniques, and opportunities for areas of research that would help lead to the wider adoption of materials informatics in the atomistic calculations community.

  • Analytical transmission electron microscopy at organic interfaces
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-04-11
    Angela E. Goode, Alexandra E. Porter, Michał M. Kłosowski, Mary P. Ryan, Sandrine Heutz, David W. McComb

    Organic materials are ubiquitous in all aspects of our daily lives. Increasingly there is a need to understand interactions between different organic phases, or between organic and inorganic materials (hybrid interfaces), in order to gain fundamental knowledge about the origin of their structural and functional properties. In order to understand the complex structure–property–processing relationships in (and between) these materials, we need tools that combine high chemical sensitivity with high spatial resolution to allow detailed interfacial characterisation. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful and versatile technique that can fulfil both criteria. However, the application of analytical TEM to organic systems presents some unique challenges, such as low contrast between phases, and electron beam sensitivity. In this review recent analytical TEM approaches to the nanoscale characterisation of two systems will be discussed: the hybrid collagen/mineral interface in bone, and the all-organic donor/acceptor interface in OPV devices.

  • Revealing structure and electronic properties at organic interfaces using TEM
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2017-02-07
    James B. Gilchrist, Sandrine Heutz, David W. McComb

    Molecules and atoms at material interfaces have properties that are distinct from those found in the bulk. Distinguishing the interfacial species from the bulk species is the inherent difficulty of interfacial analysis. For organic photovoltaic devices, the interface between the donor and acceptor materials is the location for exciton dissociation. Dissociation is thought to occur via a complex route effected by microstructure and the electronic energy levels. The scale of these devices and the soft nature of these materials create an additional level of difficulty for identification and analysis at these interfaces. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the spectroscopic techniques it incorporates can allow the properties of the donor-acceptor interfaces to be revealed. Cross-sectional sample preparation, using modern focused ion beam instruments, enables these buried interfaces to be uncovered with minimal damage for high resolution analysis. This powerful instrument combination has the ability to draw conclusions about interface morphology, structure and electronic properties of organic donor-acceptor interfaces at the molecular scale. Recent publications have demonstrated these abilities, and this article aims to summarise some of that work and provide scope for the future.

  • Achieve atomic resolution in in situ S/TEM experiments to examine complex interface structures in nanomaterials
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-10
    Joerg R. Jinschek

    Characterization methods utilizing Scanning / Transmission Electron Microscopes have become routine techniques to investigate interface structures in nanomaterials. High resolution imaging methods reveals atomic structure; while spectroscopy gives additional access to elemental distribution and chemical bonding. Focus behind these developments is the research on nanomaterial-based technologies. Current trends in S/TEM research focus on extending atomic scale characterization capabilities from static to dynamic studies to understand in more detail the link between structure and its evolution vs. unique properties directly on its characteristic length scale. Progress in recent research is briefly reviewed to highlight the potential when using latest S/TEM methodology optimized for atomic scale investigations and how this can be extended to in situ studies of interfacial effects, followed by comments on how to achieve and maintain highest possible resolution & sensitivity when keeping the effect of electron beam under control during these atomic-scale in situ experiments.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Shape memory strains and temperatures in the extreme
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-25
    H. Sehitoglu, L. Patriarca, Y. Wu

    It is well known that the achievement of high transformation strains in shape memory alloys (SMAs) has been curtailed by plastic deformation mediated via dislocation slip. In particular, the utilization of SMAs at high temperatures is also hindered by plastic slip. In this paper, an overview of the most important SMAs is provided by constructing transformation strain, transformation temperature, and slip resistance plots to put existing works in perspective. To this plots, we added results on NiTiHf alloys which impart both high temperature capability and high slip resistance at unprecedented levels. The remarkable finding is that NiTiHf alloys can undergo transformation strains near 20% and transformation temperatures exceeding 400 °C.

  • Nanodiamond: A high impact nanomaterial
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-30
    Nicholas Nunn, Marco Torelli, Gary McGuire, Olga Shenderova

    Diamond nanoparticles occupy a special niche among nanomaterials due to their combination of outstanding mechanical performance, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, and unique optical and electronic properties. In this review a brief survey of the different classes of nanodiamond particles based on synthesis method and associated structural features is provided. Then major structural features of ND particles (size, shape, crystallographic core, surface chemistry, internal defects / dopants, and presence of sp2 carbon) are discussed as well as their connection with ND properties and related applications. In conclusion current opportunities in the fields of production and processing of nanodiamond particles and the outlook for the future of the field are critically discussed.

  • Hydrogenated nanodiamonds: Synthesis and surface properties
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-25
    J.C. Arnault, H.A. Girard

    The present paper provides first a state of art on hydrogenation treatments performed either by plasma or by annealing. To compare with other surface terminations, specific assets of hydrogenated diamond surface for grafting are detailed and the different grafting routes achievable on hydrogenated nanodiamonds are summarized. In the last part, their reactivity with water molecules as well as their colloidal properties are presented and it will be shown that it is possible to render hydrogenated nanodiamonds active for radiosensitization applications.

  • Nanodiamond-based nanolubricants for motor oils
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-08-09
    Michail Ivanov, Olga Shenderova
  • Diamonds for quantum nano sensing
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-08-17
    Taras Plakhotnik

    This paper reviews applications of diamonds for sensing of magnetic and electrical fields, pressure and temperature. Considerable attention is focussed on the interaction of spins with static and oscillating magnetic fields as well as applications of such fields to spin control. A particular focus is on the spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers. Electron-spin microwave resonances play a central role in the ultra-sensitive metrology on the nanoscale, but pure optical methods are also considered in this review.

  • Single particle tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds in cells and organisms
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-05-02
    Yuen Yung Hui, Wesley Wei-Wen Hsiao, Simon Haziza, Michel Simonneau, François Treussart, Huan-Cheng Chang

    Ever since the discovery of fullerenes in 1985, nanocarbon has demonstrated a wide range of applications in various areas of science and engineering. Compared with metal, oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles, the carbon-based nanomaterials have distinct advantages in both biotechnological and biomedical applications due to their inherent biocompatibility. Fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) joined the nanocarbon family in 2005. It was initially developed as a contrast agent for bioimaging because it can emit bright red photoluminescence from negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers built in the diamond matrix. A notable application of this technology is to study the cytoplasmic dynamics of living cells by tracking single bioconjugated FNDs in intracellular medium. This article provides a critical review on recent advances and developments of such single particle tracking (SPT) research. It summarizes SPT and related studies of FNDs in cells (such as cancer cell lines) and organisms (including zebrafish embryos, fruit fly embryos, whole nematodes, and mice) using assorted imaging techniques.

  • Coating nanodiamonds with biocompatible shells for applications in biology and medicine
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-03
    Jitka Neburkova, Jan Vavra, Petr Cigler

    Use of nanodiamonds (NDs) as nontoxic nanoparticles for biological imaging, sensing, and drug delivery is expanding rapidly. The interest in NDs is triggered by their unique combination of optical properties. ND can accommodate nitrogen-vacancy color centers which provide stable fluorescence without photobleaching or photoblinking and their electronic structure is very sensitive to magnetic and electric fields. The limited options to control ND properties during synthesis or by direct surface functionalization leave room to be improved upon by employing surface coatings engineered precisely for a particular application. The major disadvantages of unmodified NDs are their limited colloidal stability and tendency to non-specifically adsorb biomolecules. This review aims to summarize recent advances in coating NDs (namely with silica and polymer shells), which addresses these disadvantages and enables the use of NDs in biological applications such as targeting of specific cells, drug delivery, and biological imaging.

  • Silicon Valley meets the ivory tower: Searchable data repositories for experimental nanomaterials research
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-14
    Nils Persson, Michael McBride, Martha Grover, Elsa Reichmanis
  • Some current challenges in clathrate hydrate science: Nucleation, decomposition and the memory effect
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-04-05
    John A. Ripmeester, Saman Alavi

    Among outstanding issues still to be understood regarding the clathrate hydrates are the mechanism of the processes involved in the formation and decomposition of clathrates: nucleation, decomposition, and the memory effect during reformation. The latter involves the shorter induction times required for solutions of decomposed hydrate to nucleate as compared to those for freshly prepared solutions. The formation of the clathrate hydrate phases of insoluble gases in water is accompanied by a ∼6000 fold concentration of the gas content in the solid phase compared to the aqueous phase from which it forms. The nucleation mechanism for the solid hydrate which allows the delivery of such high concentration of gas and water in one location has been the subject of much experimental and computational study. While these studies have improved our understanding of the nucleation process, many unknown aspects remain. These developments are described in this Opinion.

  • Semiconductor quantum dots
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-07-07
    Weidong Zhou, James J. Coleman

    Three-dimensionally confined semiconductor quantum dots have emerged to be a versatile material system with unique physical properties for a wide range of device applications. With the advances in nanotechnology and material growth techniques for both epitaxial and colloidal quantum dots, recently the research has been shifted largely towards quantum dot based devices for practical applications. In this short review, we have tried to assemble a selection of recent advances in the areas of quantum dots for computing and communications, solid state lighting, photovoltaics, and biomedical applications that highlight the state of the art.

  • Mechanical property design of molecular solids
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-06
    Manish Kumar Mishra, Upadrasta Ramamurty, Gautam R. Desiraju
  • Subtractive methods to form pyrite and sulfide nanostructures of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-03-30
    Kurt W. Kolasinski

    The low Z metals Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn are Earth abundant, i.e. inexpensive, and their sulfides are of low toxicity. This makes them appealing candidates for materials applications requiring semiconductors or, in the case of CoS2, a metal since they can potentially be produced in large quantities and low cost. Though of great potential little work has explored how subtractive methods can be used to form nanostructured and/or porous structures in, e.g. FeS2, CoS2, NiS, Cu2S and ZnS.

  • Emerging opportunities in the two-dimensional chalcogenide systems and architecture
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-06-23
    Jeffrey D. Cain, Eve D. Hanson, Fengyuan Shi, Vinayak P. Dravid

    Inspired by the triumphs - and motivated by the need to overcome the limitations - of graphene, the science and engineering community is rapidly exploring the landscape of other potential two-dimensional materials, particularly in their single - or few layer form. Dominating this landscape are the layered chalcogenides; diverse in chemistry, structure and properties, there are well over 100 primary members of this materials family. Driven by quantum confinement, single layers (or few, in some cases) of these materials exhibit electronic, optical, and transport properties that diverge dramatically from their bulk counterparts. The field has evolved considerably since the time when single or few layer flakes were “synthesized” by the scotch-tape mechanical cleavage method. New and more sophisticated methods for controlled synthesis (or thinning), deposition and chemical exfoliation have been developed that can “dial” the number of layers with large areal coverage on diverse substrates. Further, the 2D chalcogenide layers are being used as “substrates” onto which other dimensionally confined structures are being integrated in the spirit of nanoscale composites. Some composite structures exhibit synergy of multiple functionalities of the individual components, while in other cases they represent quantum coupling or unusual behavior that is contrary to nominal synergy or the proportional contribution of individual components. Last but not the least, there remain many structural and chemical combinations that are yet to be explored with deeply intriguing properties or phenomena that are waiting to be revealed. Thus, it is timely to review the status of the field; particularly in the context of synthesis, geometric architecturing and characterization of 2D layered systems. Herein we review the evolving architecture of two-dimensional chalcogenide materials. We outline classes of specific materials and the evolution of their properties as they transition from nominally three to two-dimensionality, and especially in their single (or few) layer form. A variety of vapor-phase synthetic methods for the direct growth of large area single layers and the typical techniques for their characterization are presented. Lastly, we examine the potential of these materials as the fundamental building blocks of two-dimensional heterostructures and multi-dimensional nanocomposites. However, we also emphasize the need for fundamental experimental and theoretical undertaking to probe the classical problems like basic characterization and the dynamics of nucleation and growth in these 2D systems for realizing complex architecturing and resultant technologically useful phenomena and properties.

  • Magnetic two-dimensional systems
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-10-06
    Wenqing Liu, Yongbing Xu

    Two-dimensional (2D) systems have considerably strengthened their position as one of the premier candidates to become the key material for the proposed spintronics technology, in which computational logic, communications and information storage are all processed by the electron spin. In this article, some of the most representative 2D materials including ferromagnetic metals (FMs) and diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMSs) in their thin film form, magnetic topological insulators (TIs), magnetic graphene and magnetic transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are reviewed for their recent research progresses. FM thin films have spontaneous magnetization and usually high Curie temperature (Tc), though this can be strongly altered when bonded with semiconductors (SCs). DMS and magnetic TIs have the advantage of easy integration with the existing SC-based technologies, but less robust magnetism. Magnetic ordering in graphene and TMDs are even more fragile and limited to cryogenic temperatures so far, but they are particularly interesting topics due to the desired long spin lifetime as well as the outstanding mechanical and optical properties of these materials.

  • Some difficulties in the theory of diffusion-controlled growth in substitutionally alloyed steels
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-08-03
    H.K.D.H. Bhadeshia

    The theory for the diffusion-controlled growth of ferrite in steels that also contain substitutional solutes is fraught with difficulties when it comes to transformation at large supersaturations, where the bulk compositions of the ferrite and austenite do not differ much, but where local-equilibrium is nevertheless maintained at the transformation front. This requires the existence of a narrow variation in substitutional solute content in the austenite at the interface (so-called ‘concentration spike’) - so narrow that it has no physical meaning. Drawing on the theory for spinodal reactions, it is demonstrated here that there is a substantial penalty associated with the creation of such sharp changes in composition. Therefore, the spikes would never occur in practice. The actual distribution of solute would be over distances orders of magnitude larger than currently calculated, leading to slower growth rates than are predicted currently. The consequences of this conclusion place doubt both on the transition from local to paraequilibrium, and whether the latter state exists at all for reconstructive transformations.

  • Motivation for utilizing new high-performance advanced materials in nuclear energy systems
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-10-06
    S.J. Zinkle, K.A. Terrani, L.L. Snead

    Despite the very demanding operational environment in nuclear reactors, there have been relatively few advanced high-performance materials introduced into fission reactors during the past 50 years. Some of the regulatory and operational barriers to the introduction of high performance materials are briefly discussed, and several examples of potential improvement in current and planned fission reactor systems that could be enabled by advanced structural materials for in-core applications are outlined. Enhanced non-proprietary public-private research and development on advanced structural materials could yield numerous performance, economic, environmental and safety benefits for current boiling water and pressurized water reactors as well as future Generation IV reactor systems such as sodium cooled fast reactors or very high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  • The α-factor in the Taylor flow-stress law in monotonic, cyclic and quasi-stationary deformations: Dependence on slip mode, dislocation arrangement and density
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-07-15
    Haël Mughrabi

    The aim of the present work is to assess in a formal manner “effective” values of the geometrical factor α which takes into account the arrangement of the dislocation pattern in the classical Taylor flow-stress law. For this purpose, selected experimentally well-documented cases of unidirectional and cyclic plastic deformation were analyzed. It is shown that, in both monotonic and cyclic deformation, the α-factor depends on the mode of deformation (single slip versus multiple slip). For examples of dominant primary slip interaction, a value α ≈ 0.1 is found. However, more frequently, α ≈ 0.3–0.4, typical of forest interaction, obtains. As deformation proceeds, the dislocation pattern frequently becomes more heterogeneous (cell formation) and approaches a state of lower energy, with increasing lattice misorientations which arise from an increasing density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). In these cases, α is generally lowered, for example from an initial value of 0.35 down to values around 0.2. This behaviour is explicable in terms of the composite model in which the heterogeneity is explicitly taken into account. Very similar developments of the dislocation arrangement, accompanied by a decrease of the α-value, are also noted during so-called “steady-state” cyclic and high-temperature creep deformations. In both cases, deformation is shown to be only quasi-stationary due to the fact that well-documented small but non-negligible microstructural changes, associated with a mild increase of the density of the GNDs, persist during deformation. The overall behaviour is readily described in an empirical manner in a unified picture. From the results obtained follows the requirement for a more general flow-stress model which considers explicitly the interaction of different slip systems and the heterogeneity of the dislocation pattern.

  • Layering transitions at grain boundaries
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-05-04
    J.M. Rickman, J. Luo
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Surface and grain boundary complexions in transition metal – Bismuth alloys
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-10-14
    Qin Gao, Michael Widom

    This article reviews experimental and theoretical work related to grain boundary complexions in transition metals, especially bismuth alloy complexions on nickel and copper surfaces and grain boundaries. One-, three-, five-, and seven-layer bismuth complexions are observed on the Ni(1 1 1) surface. Recent experiments suggest that Bi impurities segregate to form bilayer complexions on Ni and Cu grain boundaries which could possibly explain liquid metal embrittlement. Density functional theory calculations of Bi films on transition metal grain boundaries confirm that Bi bilayer complexions (actually a pair of monolayers bound to the metal surfaces) are thermodynamically stable. Meanwhile, complexion transitions have been demonstrated with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and are supported by analytical thermodynamic models.

  • Grain boundary complexions and pseudopartial wetting
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-05-17
    B.B. Straumal, A.A. Mazilkin, B. Baretzky
  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Grain boundary complexions in multicomponent alloys: Challenges and opportunities
    Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. (IF 6.938) Pub Date : 2016-05-06
    Naixie Zhou, Tao Hu, Jian Luo

    Grain boundaries (GBs) can undergo first-order or continuous phase-like transitions, which are called complexion transitions. Such GB transitions can cause abrupt changes in transport and physical properties, thereby critically influencing sintering, grain growth, creep, embrittlement, electrical/thermal/ionic conductivity, and a broad range of other materials properties. Specifically, the presence of multiple dopants and impurities can significantly alter the GB complexion formation and transition. This article reviews and discusses several GB adsorption (segregation) and prewetting/premelting type complexion models in multicomponent alloys, in which the interactions among multiple adsorbates not only provide a route to control GB properties but also produce novel phenomena. Specifically, various ternary GB diagrams, including both GB adsorption complexion diagrams with well-defined transition lines calculated from a lattice model (without considering interfacial disordering) and GB λ diagrams that predict useful trends for average general GBs to disorder at high temperatures and related sintering phenomena, are constructed to quantitatively describe the GB behaviors as functions of bulk compositions. Finally, we propose a new opportunity of utilizing “high-entropy GB complexions” to stabilize nanocrystalline alloys.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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