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  • EphA3 maintains radioresistance in head and neck cancers through epithelial mesenchymal transition
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    Song Hee Kim, Won Hyeok Lee, Seong Who Kim, Je Hyoung Uk, Jong Cheol Lee, Hyo Won Chang, Young Min Kim, Kyungbin Kim, Sang Yoon Kim, Myung Woul Han

    Radiotherapy is a well-established therapeutic modality used in the treatment of many cancers. However, radioresistance remains a serious obstacle to successful treatment. Radioresistance can cause local recurrence and distant metastases in some patients after radiation treatment. Thus, many studies have attempted to identify effective radiosensitizers. Eph receptor functions contribute to tumor development, modulating cell-cell adhesion, invasion, neo-angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of EphA3 in radioresistance remains unclear. In the current study, we established a stable radioresistant head and neck cancer cell line (AMC HN3R cell line) and found that EphA3 was expressed predominantly in the radioresistant head and neck cancer cell line through DNA microarray, real time PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, we found that EphA3 was overexpressed in recurrent laryngeal cancer specimens after radiation therapy. EphA3 mediated the tumor invasiveness and migration in radioresistant head and neck cancer cell lines and epithelial mesenchymal transition- related protein expression. Inhibition of EphA3 enhanced radiosensitivity in the AMC HN 3R cell line in vitro and in vivo study. In conclusion, our results suggest that EphA3 is overexpressed in radioresistant head and neck cancer and plays a crucial role in the development of radioresistance in head and neck cancers by regulating the epithelial mesenchymal transition pathway.

  • α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate impairs pancreatic cancer cells by stimulating the p38 signaling pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-30
    Maria Schönrogge, Hagen Kerndl, Xianbin Zhang, Simone Kumstel, Brigitte Vollmar, Dietmar Zechner
  • Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Atefeh Rabiee, Marcus Krüger, Jacob Ardenkjær-Larsen, C. Ronald Kahn, Brice Emanuelli

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1−/− and IRS-2−/− mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins.

  • Dishevelled: A masterful conductor of complex Wnt signals
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-17
    Monica Sharma, Isabel Castro-Piedras, Glenn E. Simmons, Kevin Pruitt

    The Dishevelled gene was first identified in Drosophila mutants with disoriented hair and bristle polarity [1–3]. The Dsh gene (Dsh/Dvl, in Drosophila and vertebrates respectively) gained popularity when it was discovered that it plays a key role in segment polarity during early embryonic development in Drosophila [4]. Subsequently, the vertebrate homolog of Dishevelled genes were identified in Xenopus (Xdsh), mice (Dvl1, Dvl2, Dvl3), and in humans (DVL1, DVL2, DVL3) [5–10]. Dishevelled functions as a principal component of Wnt signaling pathway and governs several cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation, polarity and stem cell renewal. This review will revisit seminal discoveries and also summarize recent advances in characterizing the role of Dishevelled in both normal and pathophysiological settings.

  • Wuho/WDR4 deficiency inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via DNA damage in mouse embryonic fibroblasts
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-21
    Chi-Chiu Lee, Tao-shih Hsieh

    Wuho known as WDR4 encodes a highly conserved WD40-repeat protein, which has known homologues of WDR4 in human and mouse. Wuho-FEN1 interaction may have a critical role in the growth and development, and in the maintenance of genome stability. However, how Wuho gene deletion contributes to cell growth inhibition and apoptosis is still unknown. We utilized CAGGCre-ER transgenic mice have a tamoxifen-inducible cre-mediated recombination cassette to prepare primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with Wuho deficiency. We have demonstrated that Wuho deficiency would induces γH2AX protein level elevation, heterochromatin relaxation and DNA damage down-stream sequences, including p53 activation, caspase-mediated apoptotic pathway, and p21-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  • A novel regulatory function of CDKN1A/p21 in TNFα-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9-dependent migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Magdalena Zaremba-Czogalla, Anita Hryniewicz-Jankowska, Renata Tabola, Miroslaw Nienartowicz, Kamilla Stach, Jaroslaw Wierzbicki, Roberto Cirocchi, Piotr Ziolkowski, Sabina Tabaczar, Katarzyna Augoff

    Metastasis is the leading cause of mortality in patients with highly invasive cancers and, as such, is a major problem for medicine. It has been increasingly recognized that cancer-related inflammation plays an important role in promoting invasion and the metastatic process in which cell motility and upregulation of proteolytic enzymes are crucial events. TNFα is a proinflammatory cytokine known to stimulate synthesis of MMP9, a zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidase contributing to the regulation of ECM remodeling and cell signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanism of TNFα-induced MMP9 gene expression in cancers is still not fully understood. This study shows that TNFα-induced cell migration and invasion involve ERK1/2-dependent up-regulation of CDKN1A/p21 expression in highly aggressive breast cancer cells and that CDKN1A/p21 plays an important regulatory role in TNFα-induced MMP9 gene expression, indicating an unknown function of CDKN1A/p21 as a regulator of proteolytic activity in cancer cells.

  • Thrombin promotes PAI-1 expression and migration in keratinocytes via ERK dependent Smad linker region phosphorylation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-22
    Nirali Talati, Danielle Kamato, Terrence J. Piva, Peter J. Little, Narin Osman

    Keratinocyte proliferation and migration is essential during re-epithelialisation for the restoration of the epithelial barrier during skin wound healing. Numerous growth factors are involved in the stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation and migration. The signalling pathways that drive these processes during wound healing are not well defined. This study investigated thrombin-mediated signalling in keratinocytes. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) is a seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that is known to transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with thrombin and selective inhibitors to EGFR and MAP kinases. Whole cell lysates were separated on SDS-PAGE and analysed by Western blot using antibodies against transcription factor Smad2. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA expression of PAI-1 while scratch wound assays were used to measure keratinocyte migration. Western blot data showed that thrombin mediates PAR-1 transactivation of EGFR and the downstream phosphorylation of the transcription factor Smad2 linker (Smad2L) region. ERK1/2 inhibition by UO126 caused a decrease in Smad2L phosphorylation while the p38 inhibitor SB202190 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 did not. Smad2L Ser250 was specifically phosphorylated by this thrombin mediated pathway while Ser245 and Ser255 were not. Thrombin increased PAI-1 mRNA expression and keratinocyte migration and this was reduced when either EGFR or ERK1/2 were blocked. Taken together these results show that thrombin mediated mRNA expression of PAI-1 in keratinocytes and migration occurs via EGFR transactivation and involves signalling intermediates ERK1/2 and Smad2 and may be a key pathway in skin wound healing.

  • Heat shock protein 60 involvement in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Justin F. Deniset, Thomas E. Hedley, Markéta Hlaváčková, Mirna N. Chahine, Elena Dibrov, Kim O'Hara, Graham G. Maddaford, David Nelson, Thane G. Maddaford, Robert Fandrich, Elissavet Kardami, Grant N. Pierce

    Aim Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a mediator of stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. This study will determine, first, if the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic localization of Hsp60 is critical to VSMC proliferation and, second, the mechanism of Hsp60 induction of VSMC proliferation with a focus on modification of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Methods and results Hsp60 was overexpressed in primary rabbit VSMCs with or without a mitochondrial targeting sequence (AdHsp60mito-). Both interventions induced an increase in VSMC PCNA expression and proliferation. The increase in VSMC PCNA expression and growth was not observed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of Hsp60 expression. Nuclear protein import in VSMC was measured by fluorescent microscopy using a microinjected fluorescent import substrate. Nuclear protein import was stimulated by both AdHsp60 and AdHsp60mito- treatments. AdHsp60 treatment also induced increases in nucleoporin (Nup) 62, Nup153, importin-α, importin-β and Ran expression as well as cellular ATP levels compared to control. AdHsp60mito- treatment induced an up-regulation in importin-α, importin-β and Ran expression compared to control. Hsp60 knockdown did not change nuclear protein import nor the expression of any nuclear transport receptors or nucleoporins. Both heat shock treatment and Hsp60 overexpression promoted the interaction of Ran with Hsp60. Conclusions VSMC proliferation can be modulated via an Hsp60 dependent, cytosol localized mechanism that in part involves a stimulation of nuclear protein import through an interaction with Ran. This novel cellular signaling role for Hsp60 may be important in growth-based vascular pathologies like atherosclerosis and hypertension.

  • Caveolin-1 deficiency protects pancreatic β cells against palmitate-induced dysfunction and apoptosis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-26
    Wen Zeng, Jiansong Tang, Haicheng Li, Haixia Xu, Hongyun Lu, Hangya Peng, Chuwen Lin, Rili Gao, Shuo Lin, Keyi Lin, Kunying Liu, Yan Jiang, Jianping Weng, Longyi Zeng

    Lipotoxicity leads to insulin secretion deficiency, which is among the important causes for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, the restoration of β-cell mass and preservation of its endocrine function are long-sought goals in diabetes research. Previous studies have suggested that the membrane protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is implicated in β-cell apoptosis and insulin secretion, however, the underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Our objective is to explore whether Cav-1 depletion protects pancreatic β cells from lipotoxicity and what are the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we found that Cav-1 silencing significantly promoted β-cell proliferation, inhibited palmitate (PA)-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and enhanced insulin production and secretion. These effects were associated with enhanced activities of Akt and ERK1/2, which in turn downregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors (FOXO1, GSK3β, P21, P27 and P53) and upregulated the expression of Cyclin D2 and Cyclin D3. Subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways abolished Cav-1 depletion induced β-cell mass protection. Furthermore, under PA induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Cav-1 silencing significantly reduced eIF2α phosphorylation and the expression of ER stress-responsive markers BiP and CHOP, which are among the known sensitizers of lipotoxicity. Our findings suggest Cav-1 as potential target molecule in T2DM treatment via the preservation of lipotoxicity-induced β-cell mass reduction and the attenuation of insulin secretion dysfunction.

  • Inhibition of DNMT suppresses the stemness of colorectal cancer cells through down-regulating Wnt signaling pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-27
    Shanxin Li, Zhipeng Han, Naping Zhao, Bing Zhu, Qianwen Zhang, Xue Yang, Dandan Sheng, Jing Hou, Shiwei Guo, Lixin Wei, Li Zhang

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory reveals a new insight into the understanding of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recently, DNA methylation is suggested to be a potential epigenetic mechanism for maintenance of CSCs. What's more, studies have shown that DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is essential for CSCs and deletion of DNMT can reduce tumorigenesis by limiting CSC pool. Therefore, targeting the epigenetic modifiers especially DNA methylation offers an optional strategy for treating human cancers. In the present study we found that DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AzaDC) markedly reduced colorectal CSC abundance in vitro and suppressed liver metastatic tumor growth in vivo. And 5-AzaDC inhibited the expression of active β-catenin and down-regulated the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt inhibitors were frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in colorectal cancer; however analysis of TCGA data base showed that only the expression of SFRP1 was significantly reduced in tumors compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoring of SFRP1 expression inhibited the stem cell-like potential of colorectal cancer cells. Our results indicated that inhibition of DNMT blocked the self-renewal of colorectal CSCs and SFRP1 was essential for the maintenance of colorectal CSCs.

  • Melatonin therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy: A mechanism involving Syk-mitochondrial complex I-SERCA pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Hao Zhou, Yan Yue, Jin Wang, Qiang Ma, Yundai Chen
  • Physiological functions of FBW7 in cancer and metabolism
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Kouhei Shimizu, Naoe Taira Nihira, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Wenyi Wei

    FBW7 is one of the most well characterized F-box proteins that serve as substrate recognition subunits of SCF (Skp1-Cullin 1-F-box proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. SCFFBW7 plays key roles in regulating cell cycle progression, differentiation, and stem cell maintenance largely through targeting a broad range of oncogenic substrates for proteasome-dependent degradation. The identification of an increasing number of FBW7 substrates for ubiquitination, and intensive in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed a network of signaling components controlled by FBW7 that contributes to metabolic regulation as well as its tumor suppressor role. Here we mainly focus on recent findings that highlight a critical role for FBW7 in cancer and metabolism.

  • Adenylate cyclases: Receivers, transducers, and generators of signals
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-18
    Jens Bassler, Joachim E. Schultz, Andrei N. Lupas

    Class III adenylate cyclases (ACs) are widespread signaling proteins, which translate diverse intracellular and extracellular stimuli into a uniform intracellular signal. They are typically composed of an N-terminal array of input domains and transducers, followed C-terminally by a catalytic domain, which, as a dimer, generates the second messenger cAMP. The input domains, which receive stimuli, and the transducers, which propagate the signals, are often found in other signaling proteins. The nature of stimuli and the regulatory mechanisms of ACs have been studied experimentally in only a few cases, and even in these, important questions remain open, such as whether eukaryotic ACs regulated by G protein-coupled receptors can also receive stimuli through their own membrane domains. Here we survey the current knowledge on regulation and intramolecular signal propagation in ACs and draw comparisons to other signaling proteins. We highlight the pivotal role of a recently identified cyclase-specific transducer element located N-terminally of many AC catalytic domains, suggesting an intramolecular signaling capacity.

  • p66Shc regulates migration of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Matthew A. Ingersoll, Yu-Wei Chou, Jamie S. Lin, Ta-Chun Yuan, Dannah R. Miller, Yan Xie, Yaping Tu, Rebecca E. Oberley-Deegan, Surinder K. Batra, Ming-Fong Lin
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokine and high doses of ionizing radiation have similar effects on the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Patryk Janus, Katarzyna Szołtysek, Gracjana Zając, Tomasz Stokowy, Anna Walaszczyk, Wiesława Widłak, Bartosz Wojtaś, Bartłomiej Gielniewski, Marta Iwanaszko, Rosemary Braun, Simon Cockell, Neil D. Perkins, Marek Kimmel, Piotr Widlak

    The NF-κB transcription factors are activated via diverse molecular mechanisms in response to various types of stimuli. A plethora of functions associated with specific sets of target genes could be regulated differentially by this factor, affecting cellular response to stress including an anticancer treatment. Here we aimed to compare subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes induced in cells stimulated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine and in cells damaged by a high dose of ionizing radiation (4 and 10 Gy). The RelA-containing NF-κB species were activated by the canonical TNFα-induced and the atypical radiation-induced pathways in human osteosarcoma cells. NF-κB-dependent genes were identified using the gene expression profiling (by RNA-Seq) in cells with downregulated RELA combined with the global profiling of RelA binding sites (by ChIP-Seq), with subsequent validation of selected candidates by quantitative PCR. There were 37 NF-κB-dependent protein-coding genes identified: in all cases RelA bound in their regulatory regions upon activation while downregulation of RELA suppressed their stimulus-induced upregulation, which apparently indicated the positive regulation mode. This set of genes included a few “novel” NF-κB-dependent species. Moreover, the evidence for possible negative regulation of ATF3 gene by NF-κB was collected. The kinetics of the NF-κB activation was slower in cells exposed to radiation than in cytokine-stimulated ones. However, subsets of NF-κB-dependent genes upregulated by both types of stimuli were essentially the same. Hence, one should expect that similar cellular processes resulting from activation of the NF-κB pathway could be induced in cells responding to pro-inflammatory cytokines and in cells where so-called “sterile inflammation” response was initiated by radiation-induced damage.

  • LPS-mediated cell surface expression of CD74 promotes the proliferation of B cells in response to MIF
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Christina Klasen, Tamar Ziehm, Michael Huber, Yaw Asare, Aphrodite Kapurniotu, Idit Shachar, Jürgen Bernhagen, Omar El Bounkari

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a chemokine-like inflammatory cytokine, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We previously identified MIF as a novel B cell chemokine that promotes B cell migration through non-cognate interaction with the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR4 and CD74, the surface form of MHC class II invariant chain. In this study, we have analyzed the regulation of the MIF receptors under inflammatory conditions by investigating the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) on CD74 and CXCR4 expression in B lymphocytes. We found that both LPS and TNF-α stimulation of primary B cells and the human B myeloma cell line RPMI-8226 enhanced protein expression as well as mRNA levels of CD74 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. By contrast, no effect on CXCR4 expression was observed. Selective inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation significantly attenuated LPS-induced expression of CD74, suggesting the contribution of NF-κB signaling pathways to the regulation of CD74 expression. Importantly, individual or simultaneous blockade of MIF or CD74 using specific neutralizing antibodies markedly affected B cell proliferation after LPS exposure. Taken together, our findings unveil a connection between the pro-proliferative activity of MIF/CD74 signaling in B cells and inflammation, offering novel target mechanisms in inflammatory cardiovascular or autoimmune pathogenesis.

  • Identification of macrophage-related candidate genes in lupus nephritis using bioinformatics analysis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-17
    Bingyan Shu, Yi Fang, Weichun He, Junwei Yang, Chunsun Dai

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a chronic autoimmune disorder. Here we try to identify the candidate genes in macrophages related to LN. We performed a systematic search in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for microarray in human mononuclear cells and mouse macrophages of LN. The results of clustering and venn analysis of different GEO datasets showed that 8 genes were up-regulated and 2 genes down-regulated in samples from both human and mouse LN. The data from gene network and GO analysis revealed that CD38 and CCL2 were localized in the core of the network. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CD38 expression was markedly increased in macrophages from kidneys with LN. Our study identifies the gene expression profile for macrophages and demonstrated the induction of CCL2 and CD38 in macrophages from patients with LN. However, regarding the limited patient number included in this study, the results are preliminary and more studies are still needed to further decipher the macrophage-related candidate genes for the pathogenesis of LN.

  • NOX4-driven ROS formation regulates proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through the GLI1 pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-26
    Chao-Tao Tang, Xiao-Lu Lin, Shan Wu, Qian Liang, Li Yang, Yun-Jie Gao, Zhi-Zheng Ge

    NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4), a member of the NOX family, has emerged as a significant source of reactive oxygen species, playing an important role in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and other physiological processes. However, the potential function of NOX4 in gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to illustrate whether NOX4 plays a role in regulating gastric cancer cell growth. First, the clinical information from 90 patients was utilized to explore the clinical value of NOX4 as a predictive tool for tumor size and prognosis. Results showed that NOX4 expression was correlated with tumor size and prognosis. In vitro assays confirmed that knockdown of NOX4 expression blocked cell proliferation and the expression of Cyclin D1, BAX, and so on. Interestingly, NOX4 promoted cell proliferation via activation of the GLI1 pathway. GLI1, a well-known transcription factor in the Hedgehog signaling pathway, was overexpressed to test whether NOX4 activates downstream signaling via GLI1. Overexpression of GLI1 reversed the inhibition of proliferation induced by NOX4 knockdown. In addition, overexpression of NOX4 increased GLI1 expression, and depletion of GLI1 expression decreased the effects induced by NOX4 overexpression. Further, ROS generated by NOX4 was required for GLI1 expression, as shown by use of the ROS inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI). In summary, the findings indicate that NOX4 plays an important role in gastric cancer cell growth and apoptosis through the generation of ROS and subsequent activation of GLI1 signaling. Hence, the targeting of NOX4 may be an attractive therapeutic strategy for blocking gastric cancer cell proliferation.

  • ARF GTPases control phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells through the regulation of actin function and actin dependent gene expression
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-27
    Ricardo Charles, Mohamed Bourmoum, Audrey Claing

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) can exhibit a contractile or a synthetic phenotype depending on the extracellular stimuli present and the composition of the extracellular matrix. Uncontrolled activation of the synthetic VSMC phenotype is however associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of the ARF GTPases in the regulation of VSMC dedifferentiation. First, we observed that the inhibition of the activation of ARF proteins with SecinH3, a blocker of the cytohesin ARF GEF family, reduced the ability of the cells to migrate and proliferate. In addition, this inhibitor also blocked expression of sm22α and αSMA, two contractile markers, at the transcription level impairing cell contractility. Specific knockdown of ARF1 and ARF6 showed that both isoforms were required for migration and proliferation, but ARF1 only regulated contractility through sm22α and αSMA expression. Expression of these VSMC markers was correlated with the degree of actin polymerization. VSMC treatment with SecinH3 as well as ARF1 depletion was both able to block the formation of stress fibres and focal adhesions, demonstrating the role of this GTPase in actin filament formation. Consequently, we observed that both treatments increased the ratio of G-actin to F-actin in these cells. The elevated amounts of cytoplasmic G-actin, acting as a signaling intermediate, blocked the recruitment of the Mkl1 (MRTF-A) transcription factor in the nucleus, demonstrating its involvement in the regulation of contractile protein expression. Altogether, these findings show for the first time that ARF GTPases are actively involved in VSMC phenotypic switching through the regulation of actin function in migration and proliferation, and the control of actin dependent gene regulation.

  • STAT6 is a cargo of exportin 1: Biological relevance in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-01
    Hadjer Miloudi, Karen Leroy, Fabrice Jardin, Brigitte Sola
  • Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway promotes INSM1 transcription factor in neuroendocrine lung cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-01
    Chiachen Chen, Mary B. Breslin, Michael S. Lan

    Neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumors account for 20% of total lung cancer cases and represent a subset of aggressive tumors with metastatic potential. High-risk NE lung cancer patients display disseminated disease, N-myc expression/amplification, and poorly differentiated tumors. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying a zinc-finger transcription factor, INSM1 in NE lung cancer. Our study revealed that INSM1 crosstalk with the Shh-PI3K/AKT-N-myc/Ascl1-MEK/ERK1/2 transcriptional network in NE lung cancer. The INSM1 expression pattern and functional data demonstrated that INSM1 is not only critical for NE differentiation, but also served as a NE tumor-specific marker in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The Shh signaling pathway activates INSM1 expression through N-myc and Ascl1 in aggressive SCLC. The E2-box in the INSM1 promoter is the direct target recognized by N-myc and Ascl1 transcription factors. N-myc or Ascl1 activates endogenous INSM1 expression in lung cancer cells. INSM1 functions as a key player in NE lung cancer via Shh signaling that crosstalk with PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK1/2 pathway to enhance N-myc stability in NE lung cancer. We investigate the negative effects of Shh inhibitor and knockdown of INSM1 in NE lung cancer cells. The combination of different Shh signaling pathway inhibitors targeting INSM1 and N-myc inhibits lung cancer cell growth and could be used as a new treatment option for SCLC.

  • Targeting of cathepsin C induces autophagic dysregulation that directs ER stress mediated cellular cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-01
    Tejinder Pal Khaket, Mahendra Pal Singh, Imran Khan, Monika Bhardwaj, Sun Chul Kang

    As Autophagy is a pivotal mechanism of cancer cell survival and the development of chemotherapeutic resistance; therefore, new approaches are warranted for its targeting which may be fulfilled by cathepsins regulation. Amongst cathepsins, cathepsin C (CTSC) is highly expressed in various cancers and possesses significant therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders; however, its role in colorectal cancer has not been explored. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of CTSC in autophagy regulation mediated colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation. Cathepsin C targeting through inhibitors/siRNA leads to the accumulation of light chain 3 II and p62 without affecting the lysosomal integrity, revealed dysfunctional autolysosomal degradation which is also substantiated by proteolytic studies. Cathepsin C inhibition showed comparable autophagy blockade with E64d and augmented the autophagy blockade mediated by bafilomycin. Loss of CTSC function also induced ER stress-mediated JNK phosphorylation accompanied by the translocation of mitochondrial cyt c followed by apoptotic cell death in colorectal carcinoma cells. Taken together, the study reveals that CTSC targeting plays a key role in the regulation of autophagy mediated colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Further investigations are required to determine the functional role of CTSC in other tumors also which may have implications for the therapeutic prevention of cancer in the future.

  • Extracellular nucleotides enhance agonist potency at the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-01
    Brandon H. Kim, Alexey Pereverzev, Shuying Zhu, Abby Oi Man Tong, S. Jeffrey Dixon, Peter Chidiac

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R) on osteoblasts and other target cells. Mechanical stimulation of cells, including osteoblasts, causes release of nucleotides such as ATP into the extracellular fluid. In addition to its role as an energy source, ATP serves as an agonist at P2 receptors and an allosteric regulator of many proteins. We investigated the effects of concentrations of extracellular ATP, comparable to those that activate low affinity P2X7 receptors, on PTH1R signaling. Cyclic AMP levels were monitored in real-time using a bioluminescence reporter and β-arrestin recruitment to PTH1R was followed using a complementation-based luminescence assay. ATP markedly enhanced cyclic AMP and β-arrestin signaling as well as downstream activation of CREB. CMP – a nucleotide that lacks a high energy bond and does not activate P2 receptors – mimicked this effect of ATP. Moreover, potentiation was not inhibited by P2 receptor antagonists, including a specific blocker of P2X7. Thus, nucleotide-induced potentiation of signaling pathways was independent of P2 receptor signaling. ATP and CMP reduced the concentration of PTH (1–34) required to produce a half-maximal cyclic AMP or β-arrestin response, with no evident change in maximal receptor activity. Increased potency was similarly apparent with PTH1R agonists PTH (1–14) and PTH-related peptide (1–34). These observations suggest that extracellular nucleotides increase agonist affinity, efficacy or both, and are consistent with modulation of signaling at the level of the receptor or a closely associated protein. Taken together, our findings establish that ATP enhances PTH1R signaling through a heretofore unrecognized allosteric mechanism.

  • Understanding the mechanism of bias signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor: Effects of LL37 and HASF
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-28
    Akshay Bareja, Shubham Patel, Conrad P. Hodgkinson, Alan Payne, Victor J. Dzau

    The development of biased agonist drugs is widely recognized to be important for the treatment of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease. While GPCR biased agonism has been heavily characterized there is a distinct lack of information with respect to RTK biased agonism both in the identification of biased agonists as well as their attendant mechanisms. One such RTK, the Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) plays an important role in a range of biological and disease processes. The micropeptide LL37 has been described as a biased agonist of the IGF1R. We were interested to further understand the mechanism by which LL37 promotes biased signaling through the IGF1R. We found that LL37 biased agonism is dependent on β-arrestin 2. Moreover, BRET assays indicated that LL37 biased agonism is explained by the inability of LL37 to promote the recruitment of IRS1 to the IGF1R compared to IGF1. LL37 promotes an altered association of IGF1R with GRK6, which could also serve as an explanation for bias. We also demonstrated a functional consequence of this bias by showing that while LL37 can promote cell proliferation, it does not induce protein synthesis, unlike IGF1, which does both. We have recently identified HASF, a natural protein released by mesenchymal stem cells, as a novel ligand of the IGF1R. HASF is a paracrine factor with potent cardioprotective and cardio-regenerative properties which also acts via IGF1R biased signaling, preferentially activated ERK over Akt.

  • Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 is a metabolic sensor in pancreatic β-cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-06
    Subu Surendran Rajasekaran, Jaeyoon Kim, Gian-Carlo Gaboardi, Jesper Gromada, Stephen B. Shears, Karen Tiago dos Santos, Eduardo Lima Nolasco, Sabrina de Souza Ferreira, Christopher Illies, Martin Köhler, Chunfang Gu, Sung Ho Ryu, Joilson O. Martins, Elisabetta Darè, Christopher J. Barker, Per-Olof Berggren
  • Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    Runmin Guo, Jiamei Jiang, Zhiliang Jing, Yonghua Chen, Zhizhou Shi, Baoping Deng

    Insulin resistance is an important pathological hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels within normal range. Impaired GSIS has been associated with type 2 diabetes, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (cysLT1R) is an important G protein-coupled receptor mediating the biological functions of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs). Little is known about the effects of cysLT1R in insulin secretion and pathogenesis of T2DM. In the present study, we aimed to define the physiological functions of cysLT1R in GSIS in MIN6 β-cells. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, we found that cysLT1R was expressed in pancreatic MIN6 β-cells. We also reported that glucose increased the expression of cysLT1R in MIN6 cells. Additionally, the cysLT1R antagonist montelukast promoted GSIS in a dose dependent manner, however, the cysLT1R agonist LD4 inhibited GSIS, suggesting an antagonistic effect of cysLT1R on GSIS. Silencing of cysLT1R by transfection with cysLT1R siRNA enhanced GSIS while overexpression of cysLT1R reduced GSIS in pancreatic MIN6 β-cells. Mechanistically, we found that the Arf6/Cdc42/Rac1 pathway was involved in this process. Collectively, our findings highlight the essential role of cysLT1R in suppressing pancreatic insulin secretion, and potentially provided a new insight into understanding the mechanical regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  • MiR-34a/miR-93 target c-Ski to modulate the proliferaton of rat cardiac fibroblasts and extracellular matrix deposition in vivo and in vitro
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    Chengliang Zhang, Yanfeng Zhang, Hong Zhu, Jiajia Hu, Zhongshang Xie

    Cardiac fibrosis is associated with diverse heart diseases. In response to different pathological irritants, cardiac fibroblasts may be induced to proliferate and differentiate into cardiac myofibroblasts, thus contributing to cardiac fibrosis. TGF-β signaling is implicated in the development of heart failure through the induction of cardiac fibrosis. C-Ski, an inhibitory regulator of TGF-β signaling, has been reported to suppress TGF-β1-induced human cardiac fibroblasts' proliferation and ECM protein increase; however, the underlying molecular mechanism needs further investigation. In the present study, we demonstrated that c-Ski could ameliorate isoproterenol (ISO)-induced rat myocardial fibrosis model and TGF-β1-induced primary rat cardiac fibroblasts' proliferation, as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. The protein level of c-Ski was dramatically decreased in cardiac fibrosis and TGF-β1-stimulated primary rat cardiac fibroblasts. In recent decades, a family of small non-coding RNA, namely miRNAs, has been reported to regulate gene expression by interacting with diverse mRNAs and inducing either translational suppression or mRNA degradation. Herein, we selected miR-34a and miR-93 as candidate miRNAs that might target to regulate c-Ski expression. After confirming that miR-34a/miR-93 targeted c-Ski to inhibit its expression, we also revealed that miR-34a/miR-93 affected TGF-β1-induced fibroblasts' proliferation and ECM deposition through c-Ski. Taken together, we demonstrated a miR-34a/miR-93-c-Ski axis which modulates TGF-β1- and ISO-induced cardiac fibrosis in vitro and in vivo; targeting the inhibitory factors of c-Ski to rescue its expression may be a promising strategy for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis.

  • Dictyostelium Erk2 is an atypical MAPK required for chemotaxis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    David J. Schwebs, Miao Pan, Nirakar Adhikari, Nick A. Kuburich, Tian Jin, Jeffrey A. Hadwiger
  • Cadherins in vascular smooth muscle cell (patho)biology: Quid nos scimus?
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    Agne Frismantiene, Maria Philippova, Paul Erne, Therese J. Resink

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypes span a reversible continuum from quiescent/contractile (differentiated) to proliferative/synthetic (dedifferentiated) enabling them to perform a diversity of functions that are context-dependent and important for vascular tone-diameter homeostasis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis or vessel reparation after injury. Dysregulated phenotype modulation and failure to maintain/regain the mature differentiated and contractile phenotypic state is pivotal in the development of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty and coronary bypass grafting. Many functions of SMCs such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, contraction, differentiation and apoptosis are regulated by a broad spectrum of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules. Cadherins represent a superfamily of cell surface homophilic adhesion molecules with fundamental roles in morphogenetic and differentiation processes during development and in the maintenance of tissue integrity and homeostasis in adults. The cadherins have major inputs on signalling pathways and cytoskeletal assemblies that participate in regulating processes such as cell polarity, migration, proliferation, survival, phenotype and differentiation. Abnormalities in these processes have long been recognized to underlie pathological SMC-driven reparation, but knowledge on the involvement of cadherins is remarkably limited. This article presents a comprehensive review of cadherin family members currently identified on vascular SMCs in relation to their functions, molecular mechanisms of action and relevance for vascular pathology.

  • PNMA family: Protein interaction network and cell signalling pathways implicated in cancer and apoptosis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Siew Wai Pang, Chandrajit Lahiri, Chit Laa Poh, Kuan Onn Tan

    Paraneoplastic Ma Family (PNMA) comprises a growing number of family members which share relatively conserved protein sequences encoded by the human genome and is localized to several human chromosomes, including the X-chromosome. Based on sequence analysis, PNMA family members share sequence homology to the Gag protein of LTR retrotransposon, and several family members with aberrant protein expressions have been reported to be closely associated with the human Paraneoplastic Disorder (PND). In addition, gene mutations of specific members of PNMA family are known to be associated with human mental retardation or 3-M syndrome consisting of restrictive post-natal growth or dwarfism, and development of skeletal abnormalities. Other than sequence homology, the physiological function of many members in this family remains unclear. However, several members of this family have been characterized, including cell signalling events mediated by these proteins that are associated with apoptosis, and cancer in different cell types. Furthermore, while certain PNMA family members show restricted gene expression in the human brain and testis, other PNMA family members exhibit broader gene expression or preferential and selective protein interaction profiles, suggesting functional divergence within the family. Functional analysis of some members of this family have identified protein domains that are required for subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and cell signalling events which are the focus of this review paper.

  • Secreted frizzled related protein 4 (sFRP4) update: A brief review
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Neelam M. Pawar, Pragna Rao

    Secreted frizzled-related proteins control a multitude of biological phenomena throughout development and adult life in humans. In parallel, aberrant gene expression and abnormal secreted protein levels accompany a wide range of pathologies in humans. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to sFRP4, an update of the pathways it's involved, its various physiological actions that are reported to contribute to diseases, outlining the importance of its wider research and specific modulation by pharmacologic interventions. First recognized as a novel molecule that co-purified with a disparate protein, its identity was based on its sequence homology to the frizzled receptors. Once multiple members of the family were cloned, their genetic loci, tissue and subcellular distributions were located. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences were characterized and homology to different organisms was found to be present that helped elucidate their actions. Following subsequent experimental studies, they were found to be secreted proteins with an affinity to bind to the Wnt ligands, participating in different developmental and adult homeostatic pathways by the virtue of their regulatory function to the Wnt signal transduction system. Secreted frizzled related protein 4 has garnered considerable attention in the recent years following breakthrough discoveries implicating them in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Studies investigating them can provide information not only regarding their association with a disease but can also help use them as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  • Lysophosphatidic acid regulates the motility of MCF10CA1a breast cancer cell sheets via two opposing signaling pathways
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-11
    Christina H. Stuelten, Rachel M. Lee, Wolfgang Losert, Carole A. Parent
  • Ripk3 regulates cardiac microvascular reperfusion injury: The role of IP3R-dependent calcium overload, XO-mediated oxidative stress and F-action/filopodia-based cellular migration
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    Hao Zhou, Jin Wang, Pingjun Zhu, Shunying Hu, Jun Ren

    Ripk3-mediated cellular apoptosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms by which Ripk3 influences microvascular homeostasis and endothelial apoptosis are not completely understood. In this study, loss of Ripk3 inhibited endothelial apoptosis, alleviated luminal swelling, maintained microvasculature patency, reduced the expression of adhesion molecules and limited the myocardial inflammatory response. In vitro, Ripk3 deficiency protected endothelial cells from apoptosis and migratory arrest induced by HR injury. Mechanistically, Ripk3 had the ability to migrate onto the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER damage, as evidenced by increased IP3R and XO expression. The higher IP3R content was associated with cellular calcium overload, and increased XO expression was involved in cellular oxidative injury. Furthermore, IP3R-mediated calcium overload and XO-dependent oxidative damage were able to initiate cellular apoptosis. More importantly, IP3R and XO also caused F-actin degradation into G-actin via post-transcriptional modification of cofilin, impairing the formation of the filopodia and limiting the migratory response of endothelial cells. Altogether, our data confirmed that Ripk3 was involved in microvascular IR injury via regulation of IP3R-mediated calcium overload, XO-dependent oxidative damage and filopodia-related cellular migration, ultimately leading to endothelial apoptosis and migratory inhibition. These findings provide a potential target for treating cardiac microcirculatory IR injury.

  • Overexpression of the 14-3-3γ protein in uterine leiomyoma cells results in growth retardation and increased apoptosis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Qi Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Lulu Zhou, Shuangwei Zou, Lu-Zhe Sun, Xueqiong Zhu

    Protein 14-3-3γ was significantly reduced in human uterine leiomyoma compared to the adjacent normal myometrium tissue. To investigate the possible link between the reduced 14-3-3γ expression and uterine leiomyoma growth, we have overexpressed 14-3-3γ protein in uterine leiomyomal cells and its effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed. Over-expression of 14-3-3γ was achieved by transducing into two types of uterine leiomyoma cells (primary culture cells and immortal stem cells) with a 14-3-3γ expressing adenovirus vector. Differentially expressed proteins were screened by the proteomics tool (TMT-LCTMS), followed by PANTHER database analysis to single out specifically modified signaling pathway proteins, which were confirmed by Phospho-MAPK Antibody Array and Western blots analysis. The results showed that increase in 14-3-3γ expression in both two types of human uterine leiomyoma cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Proteomic screening has found 42 proteins, among 5846, that were significantly affected. PANTHER database and GeneMANIA analysis of the differentially expressed proteins have found that proteins involved in apoptosis signaling and cytoskeletal/adhesion were among the ones affected the most. Further analysis of the key signaling pathways have found that over-expression of 14-3-3γ resulted in reductions in the phosphorylations of multiple signaling molecules, including AKT, pan, ERK1/2, GSK-3 α/β, MEK1/2, Foxo1 and Vimentin. In conclusion, the loss of 14-3-3γ may have causal effects on the growth of uterine leiomyoma, which may function through modifying multiple signaling pathways, including AKT-Foxo and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2.

  • Osmotic stress induced toxicity exacerbates Parkinson's associated effects via dysregulation of autophagy in transgenic C. elegans model
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    Pooja Jadiya, Snober S. Mir, Aamir Nazir

    The accumulation of aggregate-prone proteins is a major representative of many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) wherein the cellular clearance mechanisms, such as the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy pathways are impaired. PD, known to be associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors, is characterized by the aggregation of α-synuclein protein and loss of dopaminergic neurons in midbrain. This disease is also associated with other cardiovascular ailments. Herein, we report our findings from studies on the effect of hyper and hypo-osmotic induced toxicity representing hyper and hypotensive condition as an extrinsic epigenetic factor towards modulation of Parkinsonism, using a genetic model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our studies showed that osmotic toxicity had an adverse effect on α-synuclein aggregation, autophagic puncta, lipid content and oxidative stress. Further, we figure that reduced autophagic activity may cause the inefficient clearance of α-synuclein aggregates in osmotic stress toxicity, thereby promoting α-synuclein deposition. Pharmacological induction of autophagy by spermidine proved to be a useful mechanism for protecting cells against the toxic effects of these proteins in such stress conditions. Our studies provide evidence that autophagy is required for the removal of aggregated proteins in these conditions. Studying specific autophagy pathways, we observe that the osmotic stress induced toxicity was largely associated with atg-7 and lgg-1 dependent autophagy pathway, brought together by involvement of mTOR pathway. This represents a unifying pathway to disease in hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions within PD model of C. elegans.

  • TNIP1 reduction sensitizes keratinocytes to post-receptor signalling following exposure to TLR agonists
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-05
    Swetha Rudraiah, Rambon Shamilov, Brian J. Aneskievich

    Cell level inflammatory signalling is a combination of initiation at cell membrane receptors and modulation by cytoplasmic regulatory proteins. For keratinocytes, the predominant cell type in the epidermis, this would include toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic proteins that propagate or dampen post-receptor signalling. We previously reported that increased levels of tumor necrosis factor α induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) in HaCaT keratinocytes leads to decreased expression of stress response and inflammation-associated genes. This finding suggested decreased TNIP1 levels, as seen in some cutaneous disease states, may produce the opposite effect, sensitizing cells to triggers of inflammatory signalling including those sensed by TLR. In this study of TNIP1-deficient HaCaT keratinocytes we examined intracellular signalling consequences especially those expected to produce gene expression changes downstream of TLR3 or TLR2/6 activation by Poly (I:C) or FSL-1, agonists modeling skin relevant pathogens. We found TNIP1-deficient keratinocytes are hyper-sensitive to TLR activation compared to control cells with a normal complement of TNIP1 and receiving the same agonist stimulation. TNIP1-deficient keratinocytes have increased levels of activated (phosphorylated) cytoplasmic mediators such as JNK and p38 and greater nuclear translocation of NF-κB and phospho-p38 when exposed to TLR ligands. This is consistent with significantly increased expression of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. These results describe how decreased TNIP1 levels promote a hyper-sensitive state in HaCaT keratinocytes evidenced by increased activation of signalling molecules downstream of TLR agonists and increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. TNIP1 keratinocyte deficiency as reported for some skin diseases may predispose these cells to excessive inflammatory signalling upon exposure to viral or bacterial ligands for TLR.

  • 更新日期:2018-04-04
  • Egr-1 is required for neu/HER2-induced mammary tumors
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    Sunhwa Oh, Hyungjoo Kim, KeeSoo Nam, Incheol Shin

    Egr-1 is known to function mainly as a tumor suppressor through direct regulation of multiple tumor suppressor genes. To determine the role of Egr-1 in breast tumors in vivo, we used mouse models of breast cancer induced by HER2/neu. We compared neu-overexpressing Egr-1 knockout mice (neu/Egr-1 KO) to neu-overexpressing Egr-1 wild type or heterozygote mice (neu/Egr-1 WT or neu/Egr-1 het) with regard to onset of tumor appearance and number of tumors per mouse. In addition, to examine the role of Egr-1 in vitro, we established neu/Egr-1 WT and KO tumor cell lines derived from breast tumors developed in each mouse. Egr-1 deletion delayed tumor development in vivo and decreased the rate of cell growth in vitro. These results suggest that Egr-1 plays an oncogenic role in HER2/neu-driven mammary tumorigenesis.

  • Bradykinin mediates myogenic differentiation in murine myoblasts through the involvement of SK1/Spns2/S1P2 axis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-03
    Gennaro Bruno, Francesca Cencetti, Caterina Bernacchioni, Chiara Donati, Kira Vanessa Blankenbach, Dominique Thomas, Dagmar Meyer zu Heringdorf, Paola Bruni
  • AKT2 contributes to increase ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion through the AKT2-PKM2-STAT3/NF-κB axis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Bin Zheng, Li Geng, Li Zeng, Fangfang Liu, Qiaojia Huang

    Multiple studies have shown that protein kinase Bβ (AKT2) is involved in the development and progression of ovarian cancer, however, its precise role remains unclear. Here we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms how AKT2 promotes ovarian cancer progression. We examined the effects of AKT2 in vitro in two ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and HEY), and in vivo by metastasis assay in nude mice. The migration and invasion ability of SKOV3 and HEY cells was determined by transwell assay. Overexpression and knockdown (with shRNA) experiments were carried out to unravel the underlying signaling mechanisms induced by AKT2. Overexpression of AKT2 led to increased expression of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) in ovarian cancer cells and in lung metastatic foci from nude mice. Elevated AKT2/PKM2 expression induced cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as lung metastasis in vivo; silencing AKT2 blocked these effects. Meanwhile, PKM2 overexpression was unable to increase AKT2 expression. The expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT2, and PKM2 were increased when stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF); however, these expressions were blocked when inhibited the PI3K by LY294002. STAT3 expression was elevated and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation was activated both in vitro and in vivo when either AKT2 or PKM2 was overexpressed; and these effects were inhibited when silencing AKT2 expression. Taken together, AKT2 increases the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and promotes lung metastasis in nude mice in vivo through PKM2-mediated elevation of STAT3 expression and NF-κB activation. In conclusion, we highlight a novel mechanism of the AKT2-PKM2-STAT3/NF-κB axis in the regulation of ovarian cancer progression, and our work suggested that both AKT2 and PKM2 may be potential targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  • New insights into the Vav1 activation cycle in lymphocytes
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-02
    María Barreira, Sonia Rodríguez-Fdez, Xosé R. Bustelo

    Vav1 is a hematopoietic-specific Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor and signaling adaptor. Although these activities are known to be stimulated by direct Vav1 phosphorylation, little information still exists regarding the regulatory layers that influence the overall Vav1 activation cycle. Using a collection of cell models and activation-mimetic Vav1 mutants, we show here that the dephosphorylated state of Vav1 in nonstimulated T cells requires the presence of a noncatalytic, phospholipase Cγ1–Slp76-mediated inhibitory pathway. Upon T cell stimulation, Vav1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated via the engagement of Lck and, to a much lesser extent, other Src family kinases and Zap70. In this process, Lck, Zap70 and the adaptor protein Lat contribute differently to the dynamics and amplitude of the Vav1 phosphorylated pool. Consistent with a multiphosphosite activation mechanism, the optimal stimulation of Vav1 can only be recapitulated by the combination of several activation-mimetic phosphosite mutants. The analysis of these mutants has also unveiled the presence of different Vav1 signaling competent states that are influenced by phosphosites present in the N- and C-terminal domains of the protein.

  • CEACAM1 resists hypoxia-induced inhibition of tube formation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-02-07
    Qi Xie, Xiaocui Chen, Yinghua Xu, Jing Liang, Fufang Wang, Ju Liu

    Tube formation is one of the fundamental events required by angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. To date, there is little knowledge on the effects of hypoxia on tube formation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). In this study, we found that tube formation of HDLECs was inhibited under hypoxic condition with decreased expressions of VEGF-D, CEACAM1 and Prox1 genes. However, hypoxia-induced inhibition of tube formation of HDLECs was reversed by conditional media from hypoxic tumor cells. After knockdown of CEACAM1 by siRNA transfection, tube formation of HDLECs was increased with elevated Prox1 expression, suggesting that CEACAM1 downregulates Prox1 and plays an inhibitory role in tube formation of HDLECs. Since the expressions of CEACAM1 and Prox1 were both decreased by hypoxia, there are additional mechanisms downregulating Prox1 expressions during hypoxia-inhibited tube formation of HDLECs.

  • MAGI proteins can differentially regulate the signaling pathways of 5-HT2AR by enhancing receptor trafficking and PLC recruitment
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-04-03
    Maha M. Hammad, Henry A. Dunn, Stephen S.G. Ferguson

    MAGI proteins are Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase Inverted proteins that belong to the MAGUK family. They are scaffolding proteins that were shown to mediate the trafficking and signaling of various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They contain PDZ domains in their structure and most GPCRs interact with these proteins via the PDZ motifs on the carboxyl terminal end of a receptor. In a PDZ overlay assay performed with the carboxyl terminal tail of 5-HT2AR, we were able to detect all three members of the MAGI subfamily, MAGI-1, MAGI-2 and MAGI-3 as interacting PDZ proteins. The PDZ motif of 5-HT2AR consists of three amino acids; serine (S), cysteine (C) and valine (V). In this study, we characterize these 5-HT2AR interactions with MAGI proteins. We first confirm the interaction using co-immunopricipitation and illustrate that the interaction is PDZ motif-dependent in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. We then assess the effects of overexpression and knockdown of the MAGI proteins on the internalization, trafficking and signaling of 5-HT2AR. We find that knockdown of either MAGI-1 or MAGI-3 using siRNA results in a significant reduction in the internalization of 5-HT2AR. As for signaling, we report here that MAGI proteins can modulate the signaling via the two transduction pathways that 5-HT2AR can activate. We illustrate a significant effect of modulating MAGI proteins expression on 5-HT-stimulated IP formation. We demonstrate an enhancement in 5-HT2AR-stimulated IP formation upon MAGI proteins overexpression. In addition, we show that knockdown of MAGI proteins with siRNA leads to a significant reduction in 5-HT2AR-stimulated IP formation. Furthermore, we illustrate a significant increase in 5-HT-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon MAGI proteins overexpression. Interestingly, this effect on ERK1/2 activation is PDZ motif-independent. We also suggest two possible mechanisms of regulation for the effect of MAGI proteins on 5-HT2AR function. One mechanism involves the regulation of cell surface expression since we show that both MAGI-2 and MAGI-3 can enhance receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane when overexpressed in HEK 293 cells. The other mechanism points to regulation of second messengers in the signaling pathways. Specifically, we show that overexpression of any of the three MAGI proteins can enhance the recruitment of PLCβ3 to 5-HT2AR. In addition, we report a negative effect for knocking down MAGI-3 on β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor and this effect is PDZ motif-independent. Taken together, our findings document distinct roles for the three MAGI proteins in regulating 5-HT2AR trafficking and signaling and emphasize the importance of studying PDZ proteins and their interactions with GPCRs to regulate their function.

  • Protein neddylation and its alterations in human cancers for targeted therapy
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Lisha Zhou, Wenjuan Zhang, Yi Sun, Lijun Jia

    Neddylation, a post-translational modification that conjugates an ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to substrate proteins, is an important biochemical process that regulates protein function. The best-characterized substrates of neddylation are the cullin subunits of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which, as the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, control many important biological processes, including tumorigenesis, through promoting ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of a variety of key regulatory proteins. Recently, increasing pieces of experimental evidence strongly indicate that the process of protein neddylation modification is elevated in multiple human cancers, providing sound rationale for its targeting as an attractive anticancer therapeutic strategy. Indeed, neddylation inactivation by MLN4924 (also known as pevonedistat), a small molecule inhibitor of E1 NEDD8-activating enzyme currently in phase I/II clinical trials, exerts significant anticancer effects by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and autophagy in a cell-type and context dependent manner. Here, we summarize the latest progresses in the field with a major focus on preclinical studies in validation of neddylation modification as a promising anticancer target.

  • Compartmentalized crosstalk of CFTR and TMEM16A (ANO1) through EPAC1 and ADCY1
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-10
    Joana Lérias, Madalena Pinto, Roberta Benedetto, Rainer Schreiber, Margarida Amaral, Massimo Aureli, Karl Kunzelmann
  • miRNA15a regulates insulin signal transduction in the retinal vasculature
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Youde Jiang, Li Liu, Jena J. Steinle

    We previously reported that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) could inhibit insulin signal transduction in retinal cells. We recently found that miR15a/16 also reduced TNFα in retinal endothelial cells (REC) and in vascular specific miR15a/16 knockout mice. Since in silico programs suggested that miR15a could directly bind the insulin receptor, we wanted to determine whether miR15a altered insulin signal transduction. We used a luciferase-based binding assay to determine whether miR15a directly bound the insulin receptor. We then used Western blotting, ELISA, and qPCR to investigate whether miR15a altered insulin signaling proteins in REC and in both miR15a/16 endothelial cell knockout and overexpressing mice. We also treated some REC with resveratrol to determine if resveratrol could increase miR15a expression, since resveratrol is protective to the diabetic retina. We found that miR15a directly bound the 3’UTR of the insulin receptor. Treatment with resveratrol increased miR15a expression in REC grown in high glucose. While total insulin receptor levels were not altered, insulin signal transduction was reduced in REC grown in high glucose and was restored with treatment with resveratrol. miR15a knockout mice had reduced insulin receptor phosphorylation and Akt2 levels, with increased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation on serine 307, a site known to inhibit insulin signaling. In contrast, overexpression of miR15a increased insulin signal transduction. Taken together, these data suggest that miR15a binds the insulin receptor and indirectly regulates insulin receptor actions. It also offers an additional mechanism by which resveratrol is protective to the diabetic retina.

  • miR-613 inhibits cell migration and invasion by downregulating Daam1 in triple-negative breast cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-12
    Huaping Xiong, Ting Yan, Weijie Zhang, Fangfang Shi, Xuesong Jiang, Xiaohua Wang, Shoushan Li, Ying Chen, Cheng Chen, Yichao Zhu
  • Nogo-A interacts with TrkA to alter nerve growth factor signaling in Nogo-A-overexpressing PC12 cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2018-01-08
    Robert G. Farrer, Gwendolyn L. Kartje

    The Nogo-A protein, originally discovered as a potent myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, is also expressed by certain neurons, especially during development and after injury, but its role in neuronal function is not completely known. In this report, we overexpressed Nogo-A in PC12 cells to use as a model to identify potential neuronal signaling pathways affected by endogenously expressed Nogo-A. Unexpectedly, our results show that viability of Nogo-A-overexpressing cells was reduced progressively due to apoptotic cell death following NGF treatment, but only after 24 h. Inhibitors of neutral sphigomyelinase prevented this loss of viability, suggesting that NGF induced the activation of a ceramide-dependent cell death pathway. Nogo-A over-expression also changed NGF-induced phosphorylation of TrkA at tyrosines 490 and 674/675 from sustained to transient, and prevented the regulated intramembrane proteolysis of p75NTR, indicating that Nogo-A was altering the function of the two neurotrophin receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that there was a physical association between TrkA and Nogo-A which appeared to be dependent on interactions in the Nogo-A-specific region of the protein. Taken together, our results indicate that Nogo-A influences NGF-mediated mechanisms involving the activation of TrkA and its interaction with p75NTR.

  • Coordinated d-cyclin/Foxd1 activation drives mitogenic activity of the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-26
    Dustin M. Fink, Miranda R. Sun, Galen W. Heyne, Joshua L. Everson, Hannah M. Chung, Sookhee Park, Michael D. Sheets, Robert J. Lipinski
  • 更新日期:2017-12-31
  • HBP induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 via the FAK/PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathways in vascular endothelial cells
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-27
    Mengling Chang, Feng Guo, Zengding Zhou, Xiaoqin Huang, Lei Yi, Yi Dou, Jingning Huan

    Inflammation is characterized by early influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), followed by a second wave of monocyte recruitment. PMNs mediate monocyte recruitment via their release of heparin binding protein (HBP), which activates CCR2 (CC-chemokine receptor 2) on monocytes. However, the pathways for such signal transmission remain unknown. Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the initiation of inflammation. In this study, an interesting finding is that HBP enhances the secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), ligand of CCR2, from a third party, the endothelial cells (ECs). HBP-induced increase in MCP-1 production was demonstrated at the protein, mRNA and secretion levels. Exposure of ECs to HBP elicited rapid phosphorylation of FAK/PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling. MCP-1 levels were attenuated during the response to HBP stimulation by pretreatment with a FAK inhibitor (or siRNA), a PI3K inhibitor, an AKT inhibitor, a p38 inhibitor (or siRNA) and two NF-κB inhibitors. Additionally, pretreatment with inhibitors to FAK, PI3K and AKT led to a decrease in HBP-induced phosphorylation of p38/NF-κB axis. These results showed that HBP induced MCP-1 expression via a sequential activation of the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway and p38 MAPK/NF-κB axis. Interestingly, the patterns of HBP regulation of the expression of the adhesion molecular VCAM-1 were similar to those seen in MCP-1 after pretreatment with inhibitors (or not). These findings may help to determine key pharmacological points of intervention, thus slowing the progress of inflammatory-mediated responses in certain diseases where inflammation is detrimental to the host.

  • TGF-β1 up-regulates cadherin-11 expression through Snail: A potential mechanism for human trophoblast cell differentiation
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Jung-Chien Cheng, Yuyin Yi, Hsun-Ming Chang, Peter C.K. Leung

    Cadherins are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell adhesion by promoting the formation of adherens junctions. The regulated expression of cadherins is thought to play important roles in both normal and diseased placental development. Cadherin-11, also known as OB-cadherin, is expressed in human placenta and has been shown to be involved in regulation of trophoblast cell differentiation. We have demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) promotes human trophoblast cell differentiation. In addition, cadherin-11 can be up-regulated by TGF-β1 treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate TGF-β1-induced cadherin-11 expression remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that TGF-β1 up-regulates cadherin-11 expression in human trophoblast cells. TGF-β1 treatment activates SMAD2/3 signaling pathways. Knockdown of SMAD2 or SMAD3 attenuates the stimulatory effect of TGF-β1 on cadherin-11 expression. In addition, the transcription factors, Snail and Slug, are up-regulated by the TGF-β1 treatment. Interestingly, only knockdown of Snail abolishes the TGF-β1-induced up-regulation of cadherin-11 expression. Our results suggest that TGFβ1-SMAD2/3-Snail signaling could contribute to the human trophoblast cell differentiation by up-regulating cadherin-11 expression.

  • Coordinated regulation of hepatic FoxO1, PGC-1α and SREBP-1c facilitates insulin action and resistance
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Mini P. Sajan, Mackenzie C. Lee, Fabienne Foufelle, Joshua Sajan, Courtney Cleland, Robert V. Farese

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic overproduction of glucose and lipids. Insulin increases lipogenic enzyme expression by activating Akt and aPKC which activate SREBP-1c; this pathway is hyperactivated in insulin-resistant states. Insulin suppresses gluconeogenic enzyme expression by Akt-dependent phosphorylation/inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC-1α; this pathway is impaired in insulin-resistant states by aPKC excess, which displaces Akt from scaffolding-protein WD40/ProF, where Akt phosphorylates/inhibits FoxO1. But how PGC-1α and FoxO1 are coordinated in insulin action and resistance is uncertain. Here, in normal mice, we found, along with Akt and aPKC, insulin increased PGC-1α association with WD40/ProF by an aPKC-dependent mechanism. However, in insulin-resistant high-fat-fed mice, like FoxO1, PGC-1α phosphorylation was impaired by aPKC-mediated displacement of Akt from WD40/ProF, as aPKC inhibition diminished its association with WD40/ProF, and simultaneously restored Akt association with WD40/ProF and phosphorylation/inhibition of both PGC-1α and FoxO1. Moreover, in high-fat-fed mice, in addition to activity, PGC-1α expression was increased, not only by FoxO1 activation, but also, as found in human hepatocytes, by a mechanism requiring aPKC and SREBP-1c, which also increased expression and activity of PKC-ι. In high-fat-fed mice, inhibition of hepatic aPKC, not only restored Akt association with WD40/ProF and FoxO1/PGC-1α phosphorylation, but also diminished expression of SREBP-1c, PGC-1α, PKC-ι and gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes, and corrected glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: Insulin suppression of gluconeogenic enzyme expression is facilitated by coordinated inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC-1α by WD40/ProF-associated Akt; but this coordination also increases vulnerability to aPKC hyperactivity, which is abetted by SREBP-1c-induced increases in PGC-1α and PKC-ι.

  • TGF-β1/p53 signaling in renal fibrogenesis
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Stephen P. Higgins, Yi Tang, Craig E. Higgins, Badar Mian, Wenzheng Zhang, Ralf-Peter Czekay, Rohan Samarakoon, David J. Conti, Paul J. Higgins

    Fibrotic disorders of the renal, pulmonary, cardiac, and hepatic systems are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies to prevent or curtail the advancement to organ failure, however, remain a major clinical challenge. Chronic kidney disease, in particular, constitutes an increasing medical burden affecting > 15% of the US population. Regardless of etiology (diabetes, hypertension, ischemia, acute injury, urologic obstruction), persistently elevated TGF-β1 levels are causatively linked to the activation of profibrotic signaling networks and disease progression. TGF-β1 is the principal driver of renal fibrogenesis, a dynamic pathophysiologic process that involves tubular cell injury/apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, interstitial fibroblast activation and excess extracellular matrix synthesis/deposition leading to impaired kidney function and, eventually, to chronic and end-stage disease. TGF-β1 activates the ALK5 type I receptor (which phosphorylates SMAD2/3) as well as non-canonical (e.g., src kinase, EGFR, JAK/STAT, p53) pathways that collectively drive the fibrotic genomic program. Such multiplexed signal integration has pathophysiological consequences. Indeed, TGF-β1 stimulates the activation and assembly of p53-SMAD3 complexes required for transcription of the renal fibrotic genes plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, connective tissue growth factor and TGF-β1. Tubular-specific ablation of p53 in mice or pifithrin-α-mediated inactivation of p53 prevents epithelial G2/M arrest, reduces the secretion of fibrotic effectors and attenuates the transition from acute to chronic renal injury, further supporting the involvement of p53 in disease progression. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of TGF-β1-initiated renal fibrogenesis and the role of p53 as a regulator of profibrotic gene expression.

  • The mechanism of myocardial hypertrophy regulated by the interaction between mhrt and myocardin
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Ying Luo, Yao Xu, Chen Liang, Weibing Xing, Tongcun Zhang
  • Phosphorylation of Mig6 negatively regulates the ubiquitination and degradation of EGFR mutants in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-02
    Gandhi T.K. Boopathy, Julia Lim Sze Lynn, Sheena Wee, Jayantha Gunaratne, Wanjin Hong

    Activating mutations in the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to the constitutively active kinase, improves the EGFR stability and promotes malignant transformation in lung adenocarcinoma. Despite the clinical significance, the mechanism by which the increased kinase activity stabilizes the receptor is not completely understood. Using SILAC phosphoproteomic approach, we identify that Mig6 is highly phosphorylated at S256 in EGFR mutants (19del and L858R). Loss of Mig6 contributes to the efficient degradation of EGFR wildtype and mutants in lung cancer cells. Mig6 regulates the recruitment of c-Cbl to EGFR as the ablation of Mig6 enables efficient ubiquitination of the EGFR mutants through elevated recruitment of c-Cbl. We show that the cells with activating mutants of EGFR inactivate Mig6 through phosphorylation at S256. Inactivated Mig6 causes inefficient ubiquitination of EGFR, leading to defective degradation of the receptor thus contributing to the increased stability of the receptor. Taken together, we show a novel function of Mig6 in regulating the ubiquitination of EGFR.

  • C60 fullerenes disrupt cellular signalling leading to TRPC4 and TRPC6 channels opening by the activation of muscarinic receptors and G-proteins in small intestinal smooth muscles
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Dariia O. Dryn, Mariia I. Melnyk, Lina T. Al Kury, Yuriy I. Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Alexander V. Zholos
  • Regulating the regulators: Epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-translational regulation of RGS proteins
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Mohammed Alqinyah, Shelley B. Hooks

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are a family of proteins classically known to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of G proteins, which results in accelerated inactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins and inhibition of G protein coupled receptor signaling. RGS proteins play major roles in essential cellular processes, and dysregulation of RGS protein expression is implicated in multiple diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The expression of RGS proteins is highly dynamic and is regulated by epigenetic, transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. This review summarizes studies that report dysregulation of RGS protein expression in disease states, and presents examples of drugs that regulate RGS protein expression. Additionally, this review discusses, in detail, the transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms regulating RGS protein expression, and further assesses the therapeutic potential of targeting these mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling the expression of RGS proteins is essential for the development of therapeutics that indirectly modulate G protein signaling by regulating expression of RGS proteins.

  • Emerging role of non-coding RNA in oral cancer
    Cell Signal. (IF 3.937) Pub Date : 2017-10-19
    Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by genomic and epigenomic alterations. However, the mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression remain to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are emerging groups of regulatory RNAs, which possess low or no protein-coding potential. Emerging lines of evidence indicates that deregulated expression of lncRNAs and circular RNAs are associated with the induction and progression of various cancers, including oral cancer, through epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional alterations. In this review, we highlight the expression and functional roles of extracellular RNAs, lncRNAs, and circular RNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma and discuss their potential clinical applications as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets.

  • 更新日期:2017-12-14
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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