Depressed mitochondrial function and electron transport Complex II-mediated H2O2 production in the cortex of type 1 diabetic rodents Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-05-23 Subir Roy Chowdhury, Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Darrell R. Smith, Benedict C. Albensi, Paul Fernyhough
Aims Abnormalities in mitochondrial function under diabetic conditions can lead to deficits in function of cortical neurons and their support cells exhibiting a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to assess simultaneously mitochondrial respiration rates and membrane potential or H2O2 generation and proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, antioxidants and AMPK/SIRT/PGC-1α pathway activity in cortex under diabetic conditions. Methods Cortical mitochondria from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats or mice, and aged-match controls were used for simultaneous measurements of mitochondrial respiration rates and mitochondrial membrane potential (mtMP) or H2O2 using OROBOROS oxygraph and measurements of enzymatic activities by a spectrophotometer. Protein levels in cortical mitochondria and homogenates were determined by Western blotting. Results Mitochondrial coupled respiration rates and FCCP-induced uncoupled respiration rates were significantly decreased in mitochondria of STZ-diabetic cortical rats compared to controls. The mtMP in the presence of ADP was significantly depolarized and succinate-dependent respiration rates and H2O2 were significantly diminished in mitochondria of diabetic animals compared to controls, accompanied with reduced expression of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase. The enzymatic activities of Complex I, II, and IV and protein levels of certain components of Complex I and II, mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), P-AMPK, SIRT2 and PGC-1α were significantly diminished in diabetic cortex. Conclusion Deficits in mitochondrial function, dynamics, and antioxidant capabilities putatively mediated through sub-optimal AMPK/SIRT/PGC-1α signaling, are involved in the development of early sub-clinical neurodegeneration in the cortex under diabetic conditions.
New approaches for solving old problems in neuronal protein trafficking Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-04-10 Ashley M. Bourke, Aaron B. Bowen, Matthew J. Kennedy
Fundamental cellular properties are determined by the repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the cell surface. As such, the trafficking mechanisms for establishing and maintaining the surface proteome must be tightly regulated for cells to respond appropriately to extracellular cues, yet plastic enough to adapt to ever-changing environments. Not only are the identity and abundance of surface proteins critical, but in many cases, their regulated spatial positioning within surface nanodomains can greatly impact their function. In the context of neuronal cell biology, surface levels and positioning of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors play essential roles in establishing important properties, including cellular excitability and synaptic strength. Here we review our current understanding of the trafficking pathways that control the abundance and localization of proteins important for synaptic function and plasticity, as well as recent technological advances that are allowing the field to investigate protein trafficking with increasing spatiotemporal precision.
Brain microvascular endothelial-astrocyte cell responses following Japanese encephalitis virus infection in an in vitro human blood-brain barrier model Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-04-07 Adjanie Patabendige, Benedict D. Michael, Alister G. Craig, Tom Solomon
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a leading cause of encephalitis, globally, which continues to grow in importance despite the availability of vaccines. Viral entry into the brain can occur via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and inflammation at the BBB is a common final pathway in many brain infections. However, the role of the BBB during JEV infection and the contribution of the endothelial and astrocytic cell inflammation in facilitating virus entry into the brain are incompletely understood. We established a BBB model using human brain endothelial cells (HBECs) and human astrocytes. HBECs are polarised, and therefore the model was inoculated by JEV from the apical side to simulate the in vivo situation. The effects of JEV on the BBB permeability and release of inflammatory mediators from both apical and basolateral sides, representing the blood and the brain side respectively were investigated. JEV infected HBECs with limited active virus production, before crossing the BBB and infecting astrocytes. Control of JEV production by HBECs was associated with a significant increase in permeability, and with elevation of many host mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, cellular adhesion molecules, and matrix metalloproteases. When compared to the controls, significantly higher amounts of mediators were released from the apical side as opposed to the basolateral side. The increased release of mediators over time also correlated with increased BBB permeability. Treatment with dexamethasone led to a significant reduction in the release of interleukin 6 (IL6), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) from the apical side with a reduction in BBB disruption and no change in JEV replication. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that JEV infection of the BBB triggers the production of a range of host mediators from both endothelial cells and astrocytes, which control JEV production but disrupt BBB integrity thus allowing virus entry into the brain. Dexamethasone treatment controlled the host response and limited BBB disruption in the model without increasing JEV production, supporting a re-investigation of its use therapeutically.
Tetraspanins shape the synapse Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Luca Murru, Edoardo Moretto, Giuseppe Martano, Maria Passafaro
Tetraspanins are a family of proteins largely expressed in mammals. These proteins share very similar structures and are involved in several biological processes spanning from the immune system to cancer growth regulation. Moreover, tetraspanins are scaffold proteins that are able to interact with each other and with a subset of proteins involved in the regulation of the central nervous system, including synapse formation, function and plasticity. In this review, we will focus on the analysis of the literature on tetraspanins, highlighting their involvement in synapse formation and function through direct or indirect modulation of synaptic proteins.
Trafficking mechanisms of synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-04-06 Luís F. Ribeiro, Ben Verpoort, Joris de Wit
Nearly every aspect of neuronal function, from wiring to information processing, critically depends on the highly polarized architecture of neurons. Establishing and maintaining the distinct molecular composition of axonal and dendritic compartments requires precise control over the trafficking of the proteins that make up these cellular domains. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), membrane proteins with a critical role in the formation, differentiation and plasticity of synapses, require targeting to the correct pre- or postsynaptic compartment for proper functioning of neural circuits. However, the mechanisms that control the polarized trafficking, synaptic targeting, and synaptic abundance of CAMs are poorly understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge about the sequential trafficking events along the secretory pathway that control the polarized surface distribution of synaptic CAMs, and discuss how their synaptic targeting and abundance is additionally influenced by post-secretory determinants. The identification of trafficking-impairing mutations in CAMs associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders underscores the importance of correct protein trafficking for normal brain function.
Aβ-oligomer uptake and the resulting inflammatory response in adult human astrocytes are precluded by an anti-Aβ single chain variable fragment in combination with an apoE mimetic peptide Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-04-03 Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D. Mulder, Maaike A.C. Herrebout, Johannes C. Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
Metabotropic glutamate receptor trafficking Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-29 Young Ho Suh, Kai Chang, Katherine W. Roche
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) are G protein-coupled receptors that bind to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and are important in the modulation of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity in the central nervous system. Trafficking of mGlu receptors in and out of the synaptic plasma membrane is a fundamental mechanism modulating excitatory synaptic function through regulation of receptor abundance, desensitization, and signaling profiles. In this review, we cover the regulatory mechanisms determining surface expression and endocytosis of mGlu receptors, with particular focus on post-translational modifications and receptor-protein interactions. The literature we review broadens our insight into the precise events defining the expression of functional mGlu receptors at synapses, and will likely contribute to the successful development of novel therapeutic targets for a variety of developmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders.
d-Serine administration affects nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein and DISC1 expression in sex-specific manner Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Kirsten C. Svane, Ericka-Kate Asis, Anton Omelchenko, Ansley J. Kunnath, Linda M. Brzustowicz, Steven M. Silverstein, Bonnie L. Firestein
Mechanisms of neurotrophin trafficking via Trk receptors Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Emily Scott-Solomon, Rejji Kuruvilla
In neurons, long-distance communication between axon terminals and cell bodies is a critical determinant in establishing and maintaining neural circuits. Neurotrophins are soluble factors secreted by post-synaptic target tissues that retrogradely control axon and dendrite growth, survival, and synaptogenesis of innervating neurons. Neurotrophins bind Trk receptor tyrosine kinases in axon terminals to promote endocytosis of ligand-bound phosphorylated receptors into signaling endosomes. Trk-harboring endosomes function locally in axons to acutely promote growth events, and can also be retrogradely transported long-distances to remote cell bodies and dendrites to stimulate cytoplasmic and transcriptional signaling necessary for neuron survival, morphogenesis, and maturation. Neuronal responsiveness to target-derived neurotrophins also requires the precise axonal targeting of newly synthesized Trk receptors. Recent studies suggest that anterograde delivery of Trk receptors is regulated by retrograde neurotrophin signaling. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the functions and mechanisms of retrograde trafficking of Trk signaling endosomes, and highlight recent discoveries on the forward trafficking of nascent receptors.
Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies modulate membrane-associated sphingomyelin metabolism by altering neutral sphingomyelinase activity ☆ Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-27 Akihiro Ueda, Sayuri Shima, Kenitiroh Murate, Kouichi Kikuchi, Ryunosuke Nagao, Toshiki Maeda, Eri Muto, Yoshiki Niimi, Yasuaki Mizutani, Tatsuro Mutoh
Previous studies have shown that patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome express autoantibodies against ganglioside GM1 (GM1), although its pathogenic significance for the development of the disease remains to be elucidated. nSMase2 is the best characterized neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) found in neuronal cells. Activation of this enzyme leads to ceramide production, which is a known second messenger of the cell-death program in neuronal cells. We have explored the effects of anti-GM1 antibodies on sphingomyelin metabolism of PC12 cells stably transfected with human trk cDNA (PCtrk cells) by determining their effects on nSMase2 activity. The data we present here strongly suggest that anti-GM1 caused a significant change in sphingomyelin content of the membrane fraction in PCtrk cells. Both nSMase2 activity and the level of nSMase2 protein were significantly decreased by anti-GM1 treatment of PCtrk cells, while acidic SMase activities remained unchanged. Our results indicate, for the first time, that anti-GM1 may produce profound impacts on lipid metabolism in neuronal cell membranes.
Species-conserved SYNGAP1 phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Murat Kilinc, Thomas Creson, Camilo Rojas, Massimiliano Aceti, Jacob Ellegood, Thomas Vaissiere, Jason P. Lerch, Gavin Rumbaugh
SYNGAP1 loss-of-function variants are causally associated with intellectual disability, severe epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. While there are hundreds of genetic risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), this gene is somewhat unique because of the frequency and penetrance of loss-of-function variants found in patients combined with the range of brain disorders associated with SYNGAP1 pathogenicity. These clinical findings indicate that SYNGAP1 regulates fundamental neurodevelopmental processes that are necessary for brain development. Here, we describe four phenotypic domains that are controlled by Syngap1 expression across vertebrate species. Two domains, the maturation of cognitive functions and maintenance of excitatory-inhibitory balance, are defined exclusively through a review of the current literature. Two additional domains are defined by integrating the current literature with new data indicating that SYNGAP1/Syngap1 regulates innate survival behaviors and brain structure. These four phenotypic domains are commonly disrupted in NDDs, suggesting that a deeper understanding of developmental Syngap1 functions will be generalizable to other NDDs of known or unknown etiology. Therefore, we discuss the known molecular and cellular functions of Syngap1 and consider how these functions may contribute to the emergence of disease-relevant phenotypes. Finally, we identify major unexplored areas of Syngap1 neurobiology and discuss how a deeper understanding of this gene may uncover general principles of NDD pathobiology.
Deletion of the endogenous TrkB.T1 receptor isoform restores the number of hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin-positive neurons and rescues long-term potentiation in pre-symptomatic mSOD1(G93A) ALS mice Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-24 Eros Quarta, Gianluca Fulgenzi, Riccardo Bravi, Erez James Cohen, Sudhirkumar Yanpallewar, Lino Tessarollo, Diego Minciacchi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes rapidly progressive paralysis and death within 5 years from diagnosis due to degeneration of the motor circuits. However, a significant population of ALS patients also shows cognitive impairments and progressive hippocampal pathology. Likewise, the mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS (mSOD1), in addition to loss of spinal motor neurons, displays altered spatial behavior and hippocampal abnormalities including loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVi) and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-functional features are not well understood. Since removal of TrkB.T1, a receptor isoform of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can partially rescue the phenotype of the mSOD1 mice, here we tested whether removal of TrkB.T1 can normalize the number of PVi and the LTP in this model. Stereological analysis of hippocampal PVi in control, TrkB.T1−/−, mSOD1, and mSOD1 mice deficient for TrkB.T1 (mSOD1/T1−/−) showed that deletion of TrkB.T1 restored the number of PVi to physiological level in the mSOD1 hippocampus. The rescue of PVi neuron number is paralleled by a normalization of high-frequency stimulation-induced LTP in the pre-symptomatic mSOD1/T1−/− mice. Our experiments identified TrkB.T1 as a cellular player involved in the homeostasis of parvalbumin expressing interneurons and, in the context of murine ALS, show that TrkB.T1 is involved in the mechanism underlying structural and functional hippocampal degeneration. These findings have potential implications for hippocampal degeneration and cognitive impairments reported in ALS patients at early stages of the disease.
Cystatin C promotes tau protein phosphorylation and causes microtubule instability by inhibiting intracellular turnover of GSK3β in neurons Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-22 Jinhai Duan, Kristen A. Marcellus, Xike Qin, Yunling Wang, Hemant K. Paudel
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) tau protein hyperphosphorylation causes neurofibrillary tangle formation, microtubule instability and neurodegeneration. Determining the mechanism of tau hyperphosphorylation will provide a better understanding of AD pathology. Cystatin C (CysC) is a risk factor for late-onset AD and its level is upregulated in the brains of AD patients. The role of CysC is AD pathogenesis is not known. In this study, we found that CysC level is upregulated in 3xTg-AD mouse brain. We demonstrate that CysC does not affect cellular Aβ production. However, when overexpressed in neuron (NGF-differentiated PC12 cells), CysC inhibits turnover of GSK3β, promotes GSK3β-catalyzed tau phosphorylation at Ser396/404 and causes microtubule instability. Our data provide a novel insight into the role of CysC in AD pathogenesis.
Expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the optic nerve head in a rat model of ocular hypertension Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-20 Teresa Mammone, Glyn Chidlow, Robert J. Casson, John P.M. Wood
Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness manifesting as an age-related, progressive optic neuropathy with associated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs: p42/44 MAPK, SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK) are activated in various retinal disease models and likely contribute to the mechanisms of RGC death. Although MAPKs play roles in the development of retinal pathology, their action in the optic nerve head (ONH), where the initial insult to RGC axons likely resides in glaucoma, remains unexplored. Methods An experimental paradigm representing glaucoma was established by induction of chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) via laser-induced coagulation of the trabecular meshwork in Sprague-Dawley rats. MAPKs were subsequently investigated over the following days for expression and activity alterations, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblot. Results p42/44 MAPK expression was unaltered after intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, but there was a significant activation of this enzyme in ONH astrocytes after 6–24 h. Activated SAPK/JNK isoforms were present throughout healthy RGC axons but after IOP elevation or optic nerve crush, they both accumulated at the ONH, likely due to RGC axon transport disruption, and were subject to additional activation. p38 MAPK was expressed by a population of microglia which were significantly more populous following IOP elevation. However it was only significantly activated in microglia after 3 days, and then only in the ONH and optic nerve; in the retina it was solely activated in RGC perikarya. Conclusions In conclusion, each of the MAPKs showed a specific spatio-temporal expression and activation pattern in the retina, ONH and optic nerve as a result of IOP elevation. These findings likely reflect the roles of the individual enzymes, and the cells in which they reside, in the developing pathology following IOP elevation. These data have implications for understanding the mechanisms of ocular pathology in diseases such as glaucoma.
Microtubules and axon regeneration in C. elegans Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-16 Lizhen Chen
Axon regeneration is a fundamental and conserved process that allows the nervous system to repair circuits after trauma. Due to its conserved genome, transparent body, and relatively simple neuroanatomy, C. elegans has become a powerful model organism for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration. Various studies from different model organisms have found microtubule dynamics to be pivotal to axon regrowth. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings on how microtubule dynamics are regulated during axon regeneration in C. elegans. Understanding the mechanisms of axon regeneration will aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for treatments of diseases involving disconnection of axons, such as spinal cord injury and stroke.
The transmembrane collagen COL-99 guides longitudinally extending axons in C. elegans Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-15 Jesse Taylor, Thomas Unsoeld, Harald Hutter
We have identified the transmembrane collagen, COL-99, in a genetic screen for novel genes involved in axon guidance in the nematode C. elegans. COL-99 is similar to transmembrane collagens type XIII, XXIII and XXV in vertebrates. col-99 mutants exhibit guidance defects in axons extending along the major longitudinal axon tracts, most prominently the left ventral nerve cord (VNC). COL-99 is expressed in the hypodermis during the time of axon outgrowth. We provide evidence that a furin cleavage site in COL-99 is essential for function, suggesting that COL-99 is released from the cells producing it. Vertebrate homologs of COL-99 have been shown to be expressed in mammalian nervous systems and linked to various neurological disease but have not been associated with guidance of extending neurons. col-99 acts genetically with the discoidin domain receptors ddr-1 and ddr-2, which are expressed by neurons affected in col-99 mutants. Discoidin domain receptors are activated by collagens in vertebrates. DDR-1 and DDR-2 may function as receptors for COL-99. Our results establish a novel role for a transmembrane collagen in axonal guidance and asymmetry establishment of the VNC.
24S-hydroxycholesterol suppresses neuromuscular transmission in SOD1(G93A) mice: A possible role of NO and lipid rafts Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-14 Kamilla A. Mukhutdinova, Marat R. Kasimov, Arthur R. Giniatullin, Guzel F. Zakyrjanova, Alexey M. Petrov
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the initial denervation of skeletal muscle and subsequent death of motor neurons. A dying-back pattern of ALS suggests a crucial role for neuromuscular junction dysfunction. In the present study, microelectrode recording of postsynaptic currents and optical detection of synaptic vesicle traffic (FM1-43 dye) and intracellular NO levels (DAF-FM DA) were used to examine the effect of the major brain-derived cholesterol metabolite 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC, 0.4 μM) on neuromuscular transmission in the diaphragm of transgenic mice carrying a mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SODG93A). We found that 24S-HC suppressed spontaneous neurotransmitter release and neurotransmitter exocytosis during high-frequency stimulation. The latter was accompanied by a decrease in both the rate of synaptic vesicle recycling and activity-dependent enhancement of NO production. Inhibition of NO synthase with L-NAME also attenuated synaptic vesicle exocytosis during high-frequency stimulation and completely abolished the effect of 24S-HC itself. Of note, 24S-HC enhanced the labeling of synaptic membranes with B-subunit of cholera toxin, suggesting an increase in lipid ordering. Lipid raft-disrupting agents (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, sphingomyelinase) prevented the action of 24S-HC on both lipid raft marker labeling and NO synthesis. Together, these experiments indicate that 24S-HC is able to suppress the exocytotic release of neurotransmitter in response to intense activity via a NO/lipid raft-dependent pathway in the neuromuscular junctions of SODG93A mice.
CaBP1 regulates Cav1 L-type Ca2+ channels and their coupling to neurite growth and gene transcription in mouse spiral ganglion neurons Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-13 Tian Yang, Ji-Eun Choi, Daniel Soh, Kevin Tobin, Mei-ling Joiner, Marlan Hansen, Amy Lee
CaBP1 is a Ca2+ binding protein that is widely expressed in neurons in the brain, retina, and cochlea. In heterologous expression systems, CaBP1 interacts with and regulates voltage-gated Cav Ca2+ channels but whether this is the case in neurons is unknown. Here, we investigated the cellular functions of CaBP1 in cochlear spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), which express high levels of CaBP1. Consistent with the role of CaBP1 as a suppressor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of Cav1 (L-type) channels, Cav1 currents underwent greater CDI in SGNs from mice lacking CaBP1 (C-KO) than in wild-type (WT) SGNs. The coupling of Cav1 channels to downstream signaling pathways was also disrupted in C-KO SGNs. Activity-dependent repression of neurite growth was significantly blunted and unresponsive to Cav1 antagonists in C-KO SGNs in contrast to WT SGNs. Moreover, Cav1-mediated Ca2+ signals and phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein were reduced in C-KO SGNs compared to WT SGNs. Our findings establish a role for CaBP1 as an essential regulator of Cav1 channels in SGNs and their coupling to downstream pathways controlling activity-dependent transcription and neurite growth.
Regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-12 Joseph E. Pick, Edward B. Ziff
A fundamental property of the brain is its ability to modify its function in response to its own activity. This ability for self-modification depends to a large extent on synaptic plasticity. It is now appreciated that for excitatory synapses, a significant part of synaptic plasticity depends upon changes in the post synaptic response to glutamate released from nerve terminals. Modification of the post synaptic response depends, in turn, on changes in the abundances of AMPA receptors in the post synaptic membrane. In this review, we consider mechanisms of trafficking of AMPA receptors to and from synapses that take place in the early trafficking stages, starting in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and continuing into the secretory pathway. We consider mechanisms of AMPA receptor assembly in the ER, highlighting the role of protein synthesis and the selective properties of specific AMPA receptor subunits, as well as regulation of ER exit, including the roles of chaperones and accessory proteins and the incorporation of AMPA receptors into COPII vesicles. We consider these processes in the context of the mechanism of mGluR LTD and discuss a compelling role for the dendritic ER membrane that is found proximal to synapses. The review illustrates the important, yet little studied, contribution of the early stages of AMPA receptor trafficking to synaptic plasticity.
Acrolein-mediated neuronal cell death and alpha-synuclein aggregation: Implications for Parkinson's disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Abeje Ambaw, Lingxing Zheng, Mitali A. Tambe, Katherine E. Strathearn, Glen Acosta, Scott A. Hubers, Fang Liu, Seth A. Herr, Jonathan Tang, Alan Truong, Elwood Walls, Amber Pond, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Riyi Shi
Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a critical role in neuronal destruction characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic cell death are far from clear. In the current investigation, we tested the hypothesis that acrolein, an oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, is a key factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Using a combination of in vitro, in vivo, and cell free models, coupled with anatomical, functional, and behavioral examination, we found that acrolein was elevated in 6-OHDA-injected rats, and behavioral deficits associated with 6-OHDA could be mitigated by the application of the acrolein scavenger hydralazine, and mimicked by injection of acrolein in healthy rats. Furthermore, hydralazine alleviated neuronal cell death elicited by 6-OHDA and another PD-related toxin, rotenone, in vitro. We also show that acrolein can promote the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, suggesting that alpha-synuclein self-assembly, a key pathological phenomenon in human PD, could play a role in neurotoxic effects of acrolein in PD models. These studies suggest that acrolein is involved in the pathogenesis of PD, and the administration of anti-acrolein scavengers such as hydralazine could represent a novel strategy to alleviate tissue damage and motor deficits associated with this disease.
A small peptide derived from BMP-9 can increase the effect of bFGF and NGF on SH-SY5Y cells differentiation Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-01-16 Marc-Antoine Lauzon, Nathalie Faucheux
The current aging of the world population will increase the number of people suffering from brain degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are evidence showing that the use of growth factors such as BMP-9 could restored cognitive function as it acts on many AD hallmarks at the same time. However, BMP-9 is a big protein expensive to produce that can hardly access the central nervous system. We have therefore developed a small peptide, SpBMP-9, derived from the knuckle epitope of BMP-9 and showed its therapeutic potential in a previous study. Since it is known that the native protein, BMP-9, can act in synergy with other growth factors in the context of AD, here we study the potential synergistic effect of various combinations of SpBMP-9 with bFGF, EGF, IGF-2 or NGF on the cholinergic differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. We found that, in opposition to IGF-2 or EGF, the combination of SpBMP-9 with bFGF or NGF can stimulate to a greater extent the neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation toward the cholinergic phenotype as shown by expression and localization of the neuronal markers NSE and VAchT and the staining of intracellular calcium. Those results strongly suggest that SpBMP-9 plus NGF or bFGF are promising therapeutic combinations against AD that required further attention.
Aging exacerbates cognitive and anxiety alterations induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-β1–42 peptide in mice Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R. Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Nathalie Savedra Gomes, Carlos Borges Filho, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Ethel Antunes Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese, Silvane Souza Roman, Silvana Peterini Boeira
An increasing body of evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dyoxigenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in Aβ1–42-neurotoxicity and AD pathogenesis. We have reported for the first time that brain IDO activation is related to Aβ1–42 exposure in young mice. Because aging is characterized by a brain dyshomeostasis and because it remains the most dominant risk factor for AD, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aging is associated with a higher sensitivity to behavioural and neurochemical alterations elicited by an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1–42 (400 pmol/mice), and whether KYN pathway is involved in these effects. We confirmed that aged mice displayed higher cognitive deficit in the object recognition test and higher anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests after the Aβ1–42 administration. Aged mice also responded to Aβ1–42 with a higher deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glutathione levels and total radical-trapping antioxidant capacity, a higher IDO activity, and a higher KYN and KYN/tryptophan ratio in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These effects of Aβ1–42 were associated with a higher proinflammatory status, as measured by higher levels of interleukin-6, lower levels of interleukin-10 and higher expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and allograft inflammatory factor 1 (Iba1) in the brain of aged mice. These results represent primary evidence suggesting that age-associated inflammatory signature and down-regulation of neuroprotectants in the brain render aged mice more vulnerable to Aβ1–42-induced memory loss, anxiety symptoms and KYN pathway dysregulation.
Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and protective autophagy in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Jimena Hebe Martinez, Agustina Alaimo, Roxana Mayra Gorojod, Soledad Porte Alcon, Federico Fuentes, Federico Coluccio Leskow, Mónica Lidia Kotler
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra. It is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Additional common features of this disease are the mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation/inhibition of autophagy both events associated to the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein. The mechanism by which these events contribute to neural degeneration remains unknown. In the present work we investigated the effect of α-synuclein on mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, an in vitro model of Parkinson disease. We demonstrated that overexpression of wild type α-synuclein causes moderated toxicity, ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, α-synuclein induces the mitochondrial fragmentation on a Drp-1-dependent fashion. Overexpression of the fusion protein Opa-1 prevented both mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cells expressing α-synuclein showed activated autophagy and particularly mitophagy. Employing a genetic strategy we demonstrated that autophagy is triggered in order to protect cells from α-synuclein-induced cell death. Our results clarify the role of Opa-1 and Drp-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and cell survival, a controversial α-synuclein research issue. The findings presented point to the relevance of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD. Better understanding of the molecular interaction between these processes could give rise to novel therapeutic methods for PD prevention and amelioration.
Reproductive role of miRNA in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Chunyu Cao, Yifei Ding, Xiangjun Kong, Guangde Feng, Wei Xiang, Long Chen, Fang Yang, Ke Zhang, Mingxing Chu, Pingqing Wang, Baoyun Zhang
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays a critical role in regulating reproductive function. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary gonadotrophs to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion, ultimately affecting the animal's fertility. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are widely expressed throughout the brain and can fine-tune gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recently, growing evidence has unveiled the central position of miRNAs within a key regulatory process involving GnRH secretion and subsequent activation in the pituitary. Although transcriptional regulation of reproduction has been well studied, the post-transcriptional processes are less well understood. In this review, we elaborate comprehensively on the critical role of miRNAs in the reproductive process, including both temporal and spatial aspects. A better understanding of how miRNAs impact the neuroendocrine system may improve our knowledge of reproduction and provide novel targets for therapeutic development.
G-protein coupled receptors Mc4r and Drd1a can serve as surrogate odorant receptors in mouse olfactory sensory neurons Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Markella Katidou, Xavier Grosmaitre, Jiangwei Lin, Peter Mombaerts
In the mouse, most mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express one allele of one gene from the repertoire of ~1100 odorant receptor (OR) genes, which encode G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Axons of OSNs that express a given OR coalesce into homogeneous glomeruli, which reside at conserved positions in the olfactory bulb. ORs are intimately involved in ensuring the expression of one OR per OSN and the coalescence of OSN axons into glomeruli. But the mechanisms whereby ORs accomplish these diverse functions remain poorly understood. An experimental approach that has been informative is to substitute an OR genetically with another GPCR that is normally not expressed in OSNs, in order to determine in which aspects this GPCR can serve as surrogate OR in mouse OSNs. Thus far only the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR, Ardb2) has been shown to be able to serve as surrogate OR in OSNs; the β2AR could substitute for the M71 OR in all aspects examined. Can other non-olfactory GPCRs function equally well as surrogate ORs in OSNs? Here, we have generated and characterized two novel gene-targeted mouse strains in which the mouse melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) or the mouse dopamine receptor D1 (Drd1a) is coexpressed with tauGFP in OSNs that express the OR locus M71. These alleles and strains are abbreviated as Mc4r → M71-GFP and Drd1a → M71-GFP. We detected strong Mc4r or Drd1a immunoreactivity in axons and dendritic knobs and cilia of OSNs that express Mc4r or Drd1a from the M71 locus. These OSNs responded physiologically to cognate agonists for Mc4r (Ro27-3225) or Drd1a (SKF81297), and not to the M71 ligand acetophenone. Axons of OSNs expressing Mc4r → M71-GFP coalesced into glomeruli. Axons of OSNs expressing Drd1a → M71-GFP converged onto restricted areas of the olfactory bulb but did not coalesce into glomeruli. Thus, OR functions in OSNs can be substituted by Mc4r or Drd1a, but not as well as by β2AR. We attribute the weak performance of Drd1a as surrogate OR to poor OSN maturation.
Arginase-1 expressing microglia in close proximity to motor neurons were increased early in disease progression in canine degenerative myelopathy, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-20 Christine M. Toedebusch, John C. Snyder, Maria R. Jones, Virginia B. Garcia, Gayle C. Johnson, Eric L. Villalón, Joan R. Coates, Michael L. Garcia
Toxicity within superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1)-associated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is non-cell autonomous with direct contribution from microglia. Microglia exhibit variable expression of neuroprotective and neurotoxic molecules throughout disease progression. The mechanisms regulating microglial phenotype within ALS are not well understood. This work presents a first study to examine the specific microglial phenotypic response in close association to motor neurons in a naturally occurring disease model of ALS, canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Microglia closely associated with motor neurons were increased in all stages of DM progression, although only DM Late reached statistical significance. Furthermore, the number of arginase-1 expressing microglia per motor neuron were significantly increased in early stages of DM, whereas the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing microglia per motor neuron was indistinguishable from aged controls at all stages of disease. Fractalkine, a chemotactic molecule for microglia, was expressed in motor neurons, and the fractalkine receptor was specifically localized to microglia. However, we found no correlation between microglial response and lumbar spinal cord fractalkine levels. Taken together, these data suggest that arginase-1-expressing microglia are recruited to the motor neuron early in DM disease through a fractalkine-independent mechanism.
Exosome-associated tau exacerbates brain functional impairments induced by traumatic brain injury in mice Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 Bo Wang, Shuangshuang Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been associated with an increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases, and Tau spread and accumulation might be one of the mechanisms underlying this process. Exosomes were speculated to be a vehicle for spreading Tau in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study sought to investigate the effect of exosome associated Tau after TBI. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and the levels of total and phosphorylated Tau in exosomes were measured. Then we isolated exosomes from wildtype and Tau-knockout mice after TBI. These exosomes were either added to primary cultured neurons to evaluate the toxicity, or injected into brains of mice subjected to TBI to evaluate the effect on brain functions. The levels of total and phosphorylated Tau in exosomes after TBI were significantly elevated. TBI derived exosomes displayed toxicity in primary neuron cultures, exacerbated TBI induced LTP (long-term potentiation) impairment and exacerbated motor and cognitive impairments after TBI. The exosome-associated Tau pathology was one of the mechanisms underlying the long-term neurodegenerative effect after TBI.
Neuroglobin overexpression plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection through mitochondrial raft-like microdomains in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 cells Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-01-31 Tina Garofalo, Alberto Ferri, Maurizio Sorice, Pardis Azmoon, Maria Grasso, Vincenzo Mattei, Antonella Capozzi, Valeria Manganelli, Roberta Misasi
Since stressing conditions induce a relocalization of endogenous human neuroglobin (NGB) to mitochondria, this research is aimed to evaluate the protective role of NGB overexpression against neurotoxic stimuli, through mitochondrial lipid raft-associated complexes. To this purpose, we built a neuronal model of oxidative stress by the use of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells, SK-N-BE2, stably overexpressing NGB by transfection and treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+). We preliminary observed the redistribution of NGB to mitochondria following MPP+ treatment. The analysis of mitochondrial raft-like microdomains revealed that, following MPP+ treatment, NGB translocated to raft fractions (Triton X-100-insoluble), where it interacts with ganglioside GD3. Interestingly, the administration of agents capable of perturbating microdomain before MPP+ treatment, significantly affected viability in SK-N-BE2-NGB cells. The overexpression of NGB was able to abrogate the mitochondrial injuries on complex IV activity or mitochondrial morphology induced by MPP+ administration. The protective action of NGB on mitochondria only takes place if the mitochondrial lipid(s) rafts-like microdomains are intact, indeed NGB fails to protect complex IV activity when purified mitochondria were treated with the lipid rafts disruptor methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Thus, our unique in vitro model of stably transfected cells overexpressing endogenous NGB allowed us to suggest that the role in neuroprotection played by NGB is reliable only through interaction with mitochondrial lipid raft-associated complexes.
Prefrontal cortical parvalbumin and somatostatin expression and cell density increase during adolescence and are modified by BDNF and sex Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-03 X. Du, K. Serena, W. Hwang, A.M. Grech, Y.W.C. Wu, A. Schroeder, R.A. Hill
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to play a critical role early in the development of cortical GABAergic interneurons. Recently our laboratory and others have shown protracted development of specific subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons extending into adolescence. BDNF expression also changes significantly across adolescent development. However the role of BDNF in regulating GABAergic changes across adolescence remains unclear. Here, we performed a week-by-week analysis of the protein expression and cell density of three major GABAergic interneurons, parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST) and calretinin (Cal) in the medial prefrontal cortex from prepubescence (week 3) to adulthood (week 12). In order to assess how BDNF and sex might influence the adolescent trajectory of GABAergic interneurons we compared WT as well as BDNF heterozygous (+/−) male and female mice. In both males and females PV expression increases during adolescent development in the mPFC. Compared to wild-types, PV expression was reduced in male but not female BDNF+/− mice throughout adolescent development. This reduction in protein expression corresponded with reduced cell density, specifically within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. SST expression increased in early adolescent WT females and this upregulation was delayed in BDNF+/−. SST cell density also increased in early adolescent mPFC of WT female mice, with BDNF+/− again showing a reduced pattern of expression. Cal protein expression was also sex-dependently altered across adolescence with WT males showing a steady decline but that of BDNF+/− remaining unaltered. Reduced cell density in on the other hand was observed particularly in male BDNF+/− mice. In females, Cal protein expression and cell density remained largely stable. Our results show that PV, SST and calretinin interneurons are indeed still developing into early adolescence in the mPFC and that BDNF plays a critical, sex-specific role in mediating expression and cell density.
Schwann cell lamellipodia regulate cell-cell interactions and phagocytosis Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-01-11 Johana Tello Velasquez, James A. St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny A.K. Ekberg
Beta estradiol and norepinephrine treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells enhances tau phosphorylation at (Ser396) and (Ser262) via AMPK but not mTOR signaling pathway Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Shohreh Majd, Zohreh Majd, Simon Koblar, John Power
Hyperphosphorylation of tau is one of the main hallmarks for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and many other tauopathies. Norepinephrine (NE), a stress-related hormone and 17-β-estradiol (E2) thought to influence tau phosphorylation (p-tau) and AD pathology. The controversy around the impact of NE and E2 requires further clarification. Moreover, the combination effect of physiological and psychological stress and estrogen alteration during menopause, which affect p-tau, has not been addressed. Exposure to E2 is believed to reduce NE release, however, the link between these two hormones and AD at cellular level was also remained unknown. Here, we examined whether NE and E2 treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y cells affected tau phosphorylation. The involvement of adenosine monophosphate kinase protein kinase (AMPK) and target of Rapamycin (mTOR) as the possible mechanisms, underlying this effect was also investigated. Subsequent to SH-SY5Y differentiation to mature neurons, we treated the cells with NE, E2 and NE plus E2 in presence and absence of Compound C and Rapamycin. Cell viability was not affected by our treatment while our Western blot and immunofluorescent findings showed that exposure to NE and E2 separately, and in combination enhanced p-tau (Ser396) and (Ser262)/tau but not (Ser202/Thr205)/tau. Blocking AMPK by Compound C reduced p-tau (Ser396) and (Ser262), while GSK-3β and PP2A activities were remained unchanged. We also found that blocking mTOR by Rapamycin did not change increased p-tau (Ser396) and (Ser262) due to NE + E2 treatment. Collectively, our results suggested that tau hyperphosphorylation due to exposure to NE/E2 was mediated by AMPK, the main energy regulator of cells during stress with no significant involvement of mTOR, GSK-3β and PP2A.
New insights on Parkinson's disease from differentiation of SH-SY5Y into dopaminergic neurons: An involvement of aquaporin4 and 9 Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-08 Rosanna Avola, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Giovanna Pannuzzo, Ferdaous Albouchi, Venera Cardile
The purpose of this research was to explore the behavior of aquaporins (AQPs) in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease that is a recurrent neurodegenerative disorder caused by the gradual, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Because of postmortem studies have provided evidences for oxidative damage and alteration of water flow and energy metabolism, we carried out an investigation about AQP4 and 9, demonstrated in the brain to maintain water and energy homeostasis. As an appropriate in vitro cell model, we used SH-SY5Y cultures and induced their differentiation into a mature dopaminergic neuron phenotype with retinoic acid (RA) alone or in association with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (MPA). The association RA plus MPA provided the most complete and mature neuron phenotype, as demonstrated by high levels of β-Tubulin III, MAP-2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. After validation of cell differentiation, the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and H2O2 were applied to reproduce a Parkinson's-like stress. The results confirmed RA/MPA differentiated SH-SY5Y as a useful in vitro system for studying neurotoxicity and for using in a MPTP and H2O2-induced Parkinson's disease cell model. Moreover, the data demonstrated that neuronal differentiation, neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress are strongly correlated with dynamic changes of AQP4 and 9 transcription and transduction. New in vitro and in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these innovative outcomes.
Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-06 Gergő Vőfély, Tünde Berecz, Eszter Szabó, Kornélia Szebényi, Edit Hathy, Tamás I. Orbán, Balázs Sarkadi, László Homolya, Maria C. Marchetto, János M. Réthelyi, Ágota Apáti
Calcium-activated SK potassium channels are key modulators of the pacemaker frequency in locus coeruleus neurons Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-08 Lina A. Matschke, Susanne Rinné, Terrance P. Snutch, Wolfgang H. Oertel, Amalia M. Dolga, Niels Decher
The physiological, intrinsic activity of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is important for the control of sleep/wakefulness, cognition and autonomous body functions. Dysregulations of the LC-noradrenergic network contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and are key findings in early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, identifying ion channels mediating the intrinsic pacemaking mechanism of LC neurons, which is in turn directly coupled to Ca2+ homeostasis and cell survival signaling pathways, can help to foster our understanding of the vulnerability of these neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels regulate the intrinsic firing patterns in different central neurons and are essential regulators of the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the role of SK channels for the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons in mice is still unclear. Therefore we performed qPCR expression analysis as well as patch clamp recordings of in vitro brainstem slices, for instance testing SK channel blockers and activators like apamin and NS309, respectively. Although we found a transcriptional expression of SK1, SK2 and SK3 channels, SK2 was the predominantly expressed subunit in mouse LC neurons. Using perforated-patch clamp experiments, we found that SK channels are essential regulators of the intrinsic pacemaking of LC neurons, mediating a large fraction of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in these cells. Consistent with previous observations that a concerted action of L- and T-type Cav channels is essential for the pacemaking of LC neurons, we found that SK channel activation, and the respective AHP amplitude, is primarily coupled to Ca2+ influx via these types of Ca2+ channels. Our study identified SK2 channels as drug targets for the tuning of the pacemaker frequency in disorders involving a dysregulation of the LC.
Assessment of metal concentrations in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its potential role in muscular denervation, with particular focus on muscle tissue Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-07 T. Gabriel Enge, Heath Ecroyd, Dianne F. Jolley, Justin J. Yerbury, Bernadett Kalmar, Anthony Dosseto
Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is among the most common of the motor neuron diseases, and arguably the most devastating. During the course of this fatal neurodegenerative disorder, motor neurons undergo progressive degeneration. The currently best-understood animal models of ALS are based on the over-expression of mutant isoforms of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); these indicate that there is a perturbation in metal homeostasis with disease progression. Copper metabolism in particular is affected in the central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissue. Methods This present study assessed previously published and newly gathered concentrations of transition metals (Cu, Zn, Fe and Se) in CNS (brain and spinal cord) and non-CNS (liver, intestine, heart and muscle) tissues from transgenic mice over-expressing the G93A mutant SOD1 isoform (SOD1G93A), transgenic mice over-expressing wildtype SOD1 (SOD1WT) and non-transgenic controls. Results Cu accumulates in non-CNS tissues at pre-symptomatic stages in SOD1G93A tissues. This accumulation represents a potentially pathological feature that cannot solely be explained by the over-expression of mSOD1. As a result of the lack of Cu uptake into the CNS there may be a deficiency of Cu for the over-expressed mutant SOD1 in these tissues. Elevated Cu concentrations in muscle tissue also preceded the onset of symptoms and were found to be pathological and not be the result of SOD1 over-expression. Conclusions It is hypothesized that the observed Cu accumulations may represent a pathologic feature of ALS, which may actively contribute to axonal retraction leading to muscular denervation, and possibly significantly contributing to disease pathology. Therefore, it is proposed that the toxic-gain-of-function and dying-back hypotheses to explain the molecular drivers of ALS may not be separate, individual processes; rather our data suggests that they are parallel processes.
The genetic architecture of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-03-02 Kevin S. O'Connell, Nathaniel W. McGregor, Christine Lochner, Robin Emsley, Louise Warnich
Considerable evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share a common molecular aetiology, despite their unique clinical diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine and characterise the common and unique molecular architecture of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Gene lists were obtained from previously published studies for ASD, BD, SCZ and for OCD. Genes identified to be common to all disorders, or unique to one specific disorder, were included for enrichment analyses using the web-server tool Enrichr. Ten genes were identified to be commonly associated with the aetiology of ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD. Enrichment analyses determined that these genes are predominantly involved in the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways, the voltage-gated calcium ion channel gene network, folate metabolism, regulation of the hippo signaling pathway, and the regulation of gene silencing and expression. In addition to well-characterised and previously described pathways, regulation of the hippo signaling pathway was commonly associated with ASD, SCZ, BD and OCD, implicating neural development and neuronal maintenance as key in neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, a large number of previously associated genes were shown to be disorder-specific. And unique disorder-specific pathways and biological processes were presented for ASD, BD, SCZ and OCD aetiology. Considering the current global incidence and prevalence rates of mental health disorders, focus should be placed on cross-disorder commonalities in order to realise actionable and translatable results to combat mental health disorders.
Gestational stress in mouse dams negatively affects gestation and postpartum hippocampal BDNF and P11 protein levels Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-28 Tim Vanmierlo, Jochen De Vry, Ellis Nelissen, Annerieke Sierksma, Nadia Roumans, Harry W.M. Steinbusch, Lawrence P. Wennogle, Daniel van den Hove, Jos Prickaerts
Stress during pregnancy increases the risk to develop psychological disorders such as depression during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. According to the neurotrophin hypothesis of depression, the pathophysiology of depression is caused by reduced neurotrophic activity in the brain. However, most studies only focus on the molecular changes happening to the offspring upon gestational stress. To gain insight into the potential molecular changes happening in the stressed dams, C57Bl6/J mice were stressed during their first week of gestation. At 28 days postpartum, the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens core of the dams, two brain regions heavily implicated in depression, were evaluated using immunohistochemistry to detect changes in the neurotrophin system. Gestational stress decreased the weight of the dams, increased the chance for spontaneous abortion and increased the weight of offspring. Litter size, survival rates and sex distribution were not altered as a consequence of gestational stress. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) decreased following exposure to stress during pregnancy. Hippocampal protein levels of p75NTR, a low-affinity receptor for BDNF which can induce apoptosis, were increased following exposure to stress. Protein levels of p11, of which the expression is regulated by BDNF, were decreased in the hippocampus. No changes were found for TrkB immunostaining or apoptosis. Taken together, this shows that stress during pregnancy negatively affects the neurotrophin system in the hippocampus of the dams, thereby reducing hippocampal plasticity. These data confirm that gestational stress has a negative impact on pregnancy.
The pro-apoptotic protein Bmf co-operates with Bim and Puma in neuron death induced by β-amyloid or NGF deprivation Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-27 Rumana Akhter, Suraiya Saleem, Akash Saha, Subhas Chandra Biswas
PTEN expression in astrocytic processes after spinal cord injury Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-15 T.V. Povysheva, Y.O. Mukhamedshina, A.A. Rizvanov, Y.A. Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i.e., on dendritic spines, in the VH area. At 30 dpi, the square occupied by synaptophysin reactivity on the motoneuron perikarya and dendritic spines decreased ~2.4 and ~2.1 folds, respectively. Western blotting of the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) showed a decreased amount in the area of injury of ~3 folds at 30 dpi. Expression of GFAP in the astrocytic processes around the synaptophysin spots (APAS) was less than in the astrocytic processes that were located at distance from the synapses (APFS) both in the intact and SCI groups. In the APAS, the expression level of PTEN increased significantly after SCI. In these astrocytic processes, the PTEN expression level was significantly higher than in the APFS for both the intact and SCI rats. In the intact spinal cord, different PTEN expression levels were detected both in APAS and APFS. This may be due to the varying degree of integration of PTEN in the membrane compartment of astrocyte stem processes and possibly the increased delivery of PTEN from the GFAP-positive stem into fine GFAP-negative peripheral processes. The observed shifts after SCI reflect the imbalance in the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity after injury. Thus, strategies that have been developed for the deletion or knockdown of the PTEN gene are quite promising.
Brain-region specific responses of astrocytes to an in vitro injury and neurotrophins Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-11 Andrea Beatriz Cragnolini, Gonzalo Montenegro, Wilma J. Friedman, Daniel Hugo Mascó
Survival of mature mouse olfactory sensory neurons labeled genetically perinatally Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2018-02-07 Anna-Maria Holl
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of an adult mouse harbors a few million mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are traditionally defined as mature by their expression of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Mature OSNs differentiate in situ from stem cells at the base of the MOE. The consensus view is that mature OSNs have a defined lifespan and then undergo programmed cell death, and that the adult MOE maintains homeostasis by generating new mature OSNs from stem cells. But there is also evidence for mature OSNs that are long-lived. Thus far modern genetic tools have not been applied to quantify survival of a population of OSNs that are mature at a given point in time. Here, a genetic strategy was developed to label irreversibly OMP-expressing OSNs in mice. A gene-targeted OMP-CreERT2 strain was generated in which mature OSNs express an enzymatically inactive version of the Cre recombinase. The fusion protein CreERT2 becomes transiently active when exposed to tamoxifen, and in the presence of a Cre reporter in the genome such as tdRFP, CreERT2-expressing cells become irreversibly labeled. A cohort of mice was generated with the same day of birth by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, and injected tamoxifen in their mothers at E18.5 of gestation. I counted RFP immunoreactive cells in the MOE and vomeronasal organ of 36 tamoxifen-exposed OMP-CreERT2 × tdRFP mice from 7 age groups: postnatal day (PD)1.5, PD3.5, PD6.5, 3 weeks, 9 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Approximately 7.8% of perinatally labeled cells remain at 12 months, confirming that some mature OSNs are indeed long-lived. The survival curve of the population of perinatally labeled MOE cells can be modeled with a mean half-life of 26 days for the population as a whole, excluding the long-lived cells.
Perturbations in the p53/miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway in the R6/2 Huntington's disease model Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-28 Regina Hertfelder Reynolds, Maria Hvidberg Petersen, Cecilie Wennemoes Willert, Marie Heinrich, Nynne Nymann, Morten Dall, Jonas T. Treebak, Maria Björkqvist, Asli Silahtaroglu, Lis Hasholt, Anne Nørremølle
Epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-18 Jiaqing Yi, Jiang Wu
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The heterogeneous tumors are classified into four subgroups based on transcription profiles. Recent developments in genome-wide sequencing techniques have rapidly advanced the understanding of these tumors. The high percentages of somatic alterations of genes encoding chromatin regulators in all subgroups suggest that epigenetic deregulation is a major driver of medulloblastoma. In this report, we review the current understanding of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma with a focus on the functional studies of chromatin regulators in the initiation and progression of specific subgroups of medulloblastoma. We also discuss the potential usage of epigenetic inhibitors for medulloblastoma treatment.
The role of ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes in brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Laura R. Goodwin, David J. Picketts
The mammalian ISWI (Imitation Switch) genes SMARCA1 and SMARCA5 encode the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins SNF2L and SNF2H. The ISWI proteins interact with BAZ (bromodomain adjacent to PHD zinc finger) domain containing proteins to generate eight distinct remodeling complexes. ISWI complex-mediated nucleosome positioning within genes and gene regulatory elements is proving important for the transition from a committed progenitor state to a differentiated cell state. Genetic studies have implicated the involvement of many ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including SMARCA1. Here we review the characterization of mice inactivated for ISWI and their interacting proteins, as it pertains to brain development and disease. A better understanding of chromatin dynamics during neural development is a prerequisite to understanding disease pathologies and the development of therapeutics for these complex disorders.
Epigenetic crosstalk: Pharmacological inhibition of HDACs can rescue defective synaptic morphology and neurotransmission phenotypes associated with loss of the chromatin reader Kismet Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Nina K. Latcheva, Jennifer M. Viveiros, Edward A. Waddell, Phuong T.T. Nguyen, Faith L.W. Liebl, Daniel R. Marenda
We are beginning to appreciate the complex mechanisms by which epigenetic proteins control chromatin dynamics to tightly regulate normal development. However, the interaction between these proteins, particularly in the context of neuronal function, remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) opposes that of a chromatin remodeling enzyme at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC function reverses loss of function phenotypes associated with Kismet, a chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) protein. Inhibition of HDACs suppresses motor deficits, overgrowth of the NMJ, and defective neurotransmission associated with loss of Kismet. We hypothesize that Kismet and HDACs may converge on a similar set of target genes in the nervous system. Our results provide further understanding into the complex interactions between epigenetic protein function in vivo.
Emerging themes in neuronal activity-dependent gene expression Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Ram Madabhushi, Tae-Kyung Kim
In this review, we attempt to discuss emerging themes in the regulation of neuronal activity-regulated genes, focusing primarily on an important subset of immediate-early genes. We first discuss earlier studies that have illuminated the role of cis-acting elements within the promoters of immediate-early genes, the corresponding transcription factors that bind these elements, and the roles of major activity-regulated signaling pathways. However, our emphasis is on new studies that have revealed an important role for epigenetic and topological mechanisms, including enhancer-promoter interactions, enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and activity-induced DNA breaks, that have emerged as important factors that govern the temporal dynamics of activity-induced gene transcription.
The histone demethylase Kdm6b regulates a mature gene expression program in differentiating cerebellar granule neurons Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Ranjula Wijayatunge, Fang Liu, Karl B. Shpargel, Nicole J. Wayne, Urann Chan, Jane-Valeriane Boua, Terry Magnuson, Anne E. West
The histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Kdm6b (Jmjd3) can promote cellular differentiation, however its physiological functions in neurons remain to be fully determined. We studied the expression and function of Kdm6b in differentiating granule neurons of the developing postnatal mouse cerebellum. At postnatal day 7, Kdm6b is expressed throughout the layers of the developing cerebellar cortex, but its expression is upregulated in newborn cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Atoh1-Cre mediated conditional knockout of Kdm6b in CGN precursors either alone or in combination with Kdm6a did not disturb the gross morphological development of the cerebellum. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Kdm6b in cultured CGN precursors did not alter the induced expression of early neuronal marker genes upon cell cycle exit. By contrast, knockdown of Kdm6b significantly impaired the induction of a mature neuronal gene expression program, which includes gene products required for functional synapse maturation. Loss of Kdm6b also impaired the ability of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) to induce expression of Grin2c and Tiam1 in maturing CGNs. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown role for Kdm6b in the postmitotic stages of CGN maturation and suggest that Kdm6b may work, at least in part, by a transcriptional mechanism that promotes gene sensitivity to regulation by BDNF.
Chromatin remodeling and epigenetic regulation of oligodendrocyte myelination and myelin repair Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Elijah Koreman, Xiaowei Sun, Q. Richard Lu
Oligodendrocytes are essential for the development, function, and health of the vertebrate central nervous system. These cells maintain axon myelination to ensure saltatory propagation of action potentials. Oligodendrocyte develops from neural progenitor cells, in a step-wise process that involves oligodendrocyte precursor specification, proliferation, and differentiation. The lineage progression requires coordination of transcriptional and epigenetic circuits to mediate the stage-specific intricacies of oligodendrocyte development. Epigenetic mechanisms involve DNA methylation, histone modifications, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA modulation that regulate the chromatin state over regulatory genes, which must be expressed or repressed to establish oligodendrocyte identity and lineage progression. In this review, we will focus on epigenetic programming associated with histone modification enzymes, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs that regulate oligodendrocyte lineage progression, and discuss how these mechanisms might be harnessed to induce myelin repair for treatment of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
Neuron-specific alternative splicing of transcriptional machineries: Implications for neurodevelopmental disorders Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Robert S. Porter, Farris Jaamour, Shigeki Iwase
The brain has long been known to display the most complex pattern of alternative splicing, thereby producing diverse protein isoforms compared to other tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many alternative exons are neuron-specific, evolutionarily conserved, and found in regulators of transcription including DNA-binding protein and histone modifying enzymes. This raises a possibility that neurons adopt unique mechanisms of transcription. Given that transcriptional machineries are frequently mutated in neurodevelopmental disorders with cognitive dysfunction, it is important to understand how neuron-specific alternative splicing contributes to proper transcriptional regulation in the brain. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding how neuron-specific splicing events alter the function of transcriptional regulators and shape unique gene expression patterns in the brain and the implications of neuronal splicing to the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Chromatin in nervous system development and disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-15 Shigeki Iwase, Donna M. Martin
Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is critical during development of the central nervous system. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding epigenetic factors have been found to cause a wide variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Cancers affecting neuronal and glial cells in the brain have also been shown to exhibit somatic mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting chromatin-based links between regulated and dysregulated cellular proliferation and differentiation. In this special issue, six articles review recent discoveries implicating epigenetic modifiers in normal and disease states affecting the nervous system, and the underlying mechanisms by which these modifiers function. Two articles present new information about roles for chromatin regulators in nervous system development and cancer. Together, these manuscripts provide a concise overview of this rapidly growing field. In this introduction, we briefly summarize themes presented in the issue, and pose questions for ongoing research and discovery.
Trans ε-viniferin is an amyloid-β disaggregating and anti-inflammatory drug in a mouse primary cellular model of Alzheimer's disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-07 Elodie Vion, Guylène Page, Eric Bourdeaud, Marc Paccalin, Jérôme Guillard, Agnès Rioux Bilan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by several cellular and molecular damage. Therefore, the therapeutic interest of multi-target molecules is increasingly justified. Polyphenols presenting multiple pharmacological effects would be more efficient. In this study, beneficial effects of trans ε-viniferin, a natural polyphenol were thus evaluated. This study reported that this stilbenoid (1) induced the disaggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide and (2) rescued inflammation in murine primary neuronal cultures. These both effects are higher than those of resveratrol, and so, trans ε-viniferin could be a good therapeutic multi-target candidate.
Ca2+ mediates axotomy-induced necrosis and apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site in the isolated crayfish mechanoreceptor Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-08 Andrey Khaitin, Mikhail Rudkovskii, Anatoly Uzdensky
Impaired neurogenesis and associated gliosis in mouse brain with PEX13 deficiency Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-12-02 Rani Sadia Rahim, James A. St John, Denis I. Crane, Adrian C.B. Meedeniya
Zellweger syndrome (ZS), a neonatal lethal disorder arising from defective peroxisome biogenesis, features profound neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain dysfunction. Here we used mice with brain-restricted inactivation of the peroxisome biogenesis gene PEX13 to model the pathophysiological features of ZS, and determine the impact of peroxisome dysfunction on neurogenesis and cell maturation in ZS. In the embryonic and postnatal PEX13 mutant brain, we demonstrate key regions with altered brain anatomy, including enlarged lateral ventricles and aberrant cortical, hippocampal and hypothalamic organization. To characterize the underlying mechanisms, we show a significant reduction in proliferation, migration, differentiation, and maturation of neural progenitors in embryonic E12.5 through to P3 animals. An increasing reactive gliosis in the PEX13 mutant brain started at E14.5 in association with the pathology. Together with impaired neurogenesis and associated gliosis, our data demonstrate increased cell death contributing to the hallmark brain anatomy of ZS. We provide unique data where impaired neurogenesis and migration are shown as critical events underlying the neuropathology and altered brain function of mice with peroxisome deficiency.
Age-related epigenetic changes in hippocampal subregions of four animal models of Alzheimer's disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-04 Roy Lardenoije, Daniël L.A. van den Hove, Monique Havermans, Anne van Casteren, Kevin X. Le, Roberta Palmour, Cynthia A. Lemere, Bart P.F. Rutten
Both aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with widespread epigenetic changes, with most evidence suggesting global hypomethylation in AD. It is, however, unclear how these age-related epigenetic changes are linked to molecular aberrations as expressed in animal models of AD. Here, we investigated age-related changes of epigenetic markers of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in a range of animal models of AD, and their correlations with amyloid plaque load. Three transgenic mouse models, including the J20, APP/PS1dE9 and 3xTg-AD models, as well as Caribbean vervets (a non-transgenic non-human primate model of AD) were investigated. In the J20 mouse model, an age-related decrease in DNA methylation was found in the dentate gyrus (DG) and a decrease in the ratio between DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation was found in the DG and cornu ammonis (CA) 3. In the 3xTg-AD mice, an age-related increase in DNA methylation was found in the DG and CA1-2. No significant age-related alterations were found in the APP/PS1dE9 mice and non-human primate model. In the J20 model, hippocampal plaque load showed a significant negative correlation with DNA methylation in the DG, and with the ratio a negative correlation in the DG and CA3. For the APP/PS1dE9 model a negative correlation between the ratio and plaque load was observed in the CA3, as well as a negative correlation between DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) levels and plaque load in the DG and CA3. Thus, only the J20 model showed an age-related reduction in global DNA methylation, while DNA hypermethylation was observed in the 3xTg-AD model. Given these differences between animal models, future studies are needed to further elucidate the contribution of different AD-related genetic variation to age-related epigenetic changes.
Comparing the different response of PNS and CNS injured neurons to mesenchymal stem cell treatment Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Marianna Monfrini, Maddalena Ravasi, Daniele Maggioni, Elisabetta Donzelli, Giovanni Tredici, Guido Cavaletti, Arianna Scuteri
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult bone marrow-derived stem cells actually proposed indifferently for the therapy of neurological diseases of both the Central (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), as a panacea able to treat so many different diseases by their immunomodulatory ability and supportive action on neuronal survival. However, the identification of the exact mechanism of MSC action in the different diseases, although mandatory to define their real and concrete utility, is still lacking. Moreover, CNS and PNS neurons present many different biological properties, and it is still unclear if they respond in the same manner not only to MSC treatment, but also to injuries. For these reasons, in this study we compared the susceptibility of cortical and sensory neurons both to toxic drug exposure and to MSC action, in order to verify if these two neuronal populations can respond differently. Our results demonstrated that Cisplatin (CDDP), Glutamate, and Paclitaxel-treated sensory neurons were protected by the co-culture with MSCs, in different manners: through direct contact able to block apoptosis for CDDP- and Glutamate-treated neurons, and by the release of trophic factors for Paclitaxel-treated ones. A possible key soluble factor for MSC protection was Glutathione, spontaneously released by these cells. On the contrary, cortical neurons resulted more sensitive than sensory ones to the toxic action of the drugs, and overall MSCs failed to protect them. All these data identified for the first time a different susceptibility of cortical and sensory neurons, and demonstrated a protective action of MSCs only against drugs in peripheral neurotoxicity.
Exercise decreases BACE and APP levels in the hippocampus of a rat model of Alzheimer's disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Karim A. Alkadhi, An T. Dao
We investigated the effect of treadmill exercise training on the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein molecules in the DG and CA1 areas of a rat model of AD, i.c.v. infusion of Aβ1–42 peptide, 2 weeks (250 pmol/day). Aβ infusion markedly increased protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the secretase beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) and Aβ in the CA1 and DG areas. The results also revealed that 4 weeks of treadmill exercise prevented the increase in the levels of APP, BACE-1 and Aβ proteins in both hippocampal areas. Exercise, however, did not affect the levels of these proteins in normal rats. We suggest that exercise might be changing the equilibrium of APP processing pathway towards the nonpathogenic pathway most probably via increasing BDNF levels in the brain of AD model.
A proteomic investigation into mechanisms underpinning corticosteroid effects on neural stem cells Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-09 Rawaa S. Al-Mayyahi, Luke D. Sterio, Joanne B. Connolly, Christopher F. Adams, Wa'il A. Al-Tumah, Jon Sen, Richard D. Emes, Sarah R. Hart, Divya M. Chari
Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown. This is an important issue to address given the key roles NSCs play during brain development and as transplant cells for regenerative neurology. Here, we describe the use of label-free quantitative proteomics in conjunction with histological analyses to study CS effects on NSCs at the cellular and molecular levels, following treatment with methylprednisolone (MPRED). Immunocytochemical staining showed that both parent NSCs and newly generated daughter cells expressed the glucocorticoid receptor, with nuclear localisation of the receptor induced by MPRED treatment. MPRED markedly decreased NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation while accelerating the maturation of oligodendrocytes, without concomitant effects on cell viability and apoptosis. Parallel proteomic analysis revealed that MPRED induced downregulation of growth associated protein 43 and matrix metallopeptidase 16 with upregulation of the cytochrome P450 family 51 subfamily A member 1. Our findings support the hypothesis that some neurological deficits associated with CS use may be mediated via effects on NSCs, and highlight putative target mechanisms underpinning such effects.
Age-related changes in STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase levels: Regulation by BDNF Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-06 Silvia Cases, Ana Saavedra, Shiraz Tyebji, Albert Giralt, Jordi Alberch, Esther Pérez-Navarro
Recent results indicate that STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) levels are regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose expression changes during postnatal development and aging. Here, we studied STEP ontogeny in mouse brain and changes in STEP with age with emphasis on the possible regulation by BDNF. We found that STEP expression increased during the first weeks of life, reaching adult levels by 2–3 weeks of age in the striatum and cortex, and by postnatal day (P) 7 in the hippocampus. STEP protein levels were unaffected in BDNF+/− mice, but were significantly reduced in the striatum and cortex, but not in the hippocampus, of BDNF−/− mice at P7 and P14. In adult wild-type mice there were no changes in cortical and hippocampal STEP61 levels with age. Conversely, striatal STEP levels were reduced from 12 months of age, correlating with higher ubiquitination and increased BDNF content and signaling. Lower STEP levels in older mice were paralleled by increased phosphorylation of its substrates. Since altered STEP levels are involved in cellular malfunctioning events, its reduction in the striatum with increasing age should encourage future studies of how this imbalance might participate in the aging process.
miR-302/367-induced neurons reduce behavioral impairment in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-24 Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Amir Shojaei, Mohammad Gol, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Javan
Heat shock protein 70 suppresses neuroinflammation induced by α-synuclein in astrocytes Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (IF 3.084) Pub Date : 2017-11-26 Wen-Wen Yu, Sheng-Nan Cao, Cai-Xia Zang, Lu Wang, Han-Yu Yang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Dan Zhang
Neuroinflammation triggered by activation of glial cells plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Besides microglia, astrocytes are also critical in initiating and perpetuating inflammatory process associated with PD. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is originally described as intracellular chaperone, however, recent study revealed that it had anti-inflammatory effects as well. The present study is designed to investigate whether Hsp70 mediates neuroinflammation in astrocytes. By employing α-synuclein (α-Syn) (A53T) aggregates on primary cultured astrocytes of rats, we found that astrocytes were activated and neuroinflammatory response was triggered, as indicated by over-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The data also showed that the neuroinflammatory response accompanied up-regulated Hsp70 expression. Moreover, over-expression of Hsp70 through transfection of Hsp70 cDNA plasmids could significantly reduce the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and the expression of GFAP, COX-2 as well as iNOS. While inhibition of Hsp70 by VER155008 exacerbated neuroinflammatory response in astrocytes challenged by α-Syn aggregates. Further mechanistic study indicated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalings were responsible for the neuroinflammation, which was also regulated by Hsp70. These findings demonstrated that Hsp70 was an important modulator in astrocytes induced inflammation, and up-regulation of Hsp70 might be a potential regulating approach for neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD.
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