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  • Paradox Research in Management Science: Looking Back to Move Forward
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-15
    Jonathan Schad, Marianne W. Lewis, Sebastian Raisch, Wendy K. Smith

    Paradox studies offer vital and timely insights into an array of organizational tensions. Yet this field stands at a critical juncture. Over the past 25 years, management scholars have drawn foundational insights from philosophy and psychology to apply a paradox lens to organizational phenomena. Yet extant studies selectively leverage ancient wisdom, adopting some key insights while abandoning others. Using a structured content analysis to review the burgeoning management literature, we surface six key themes, which represent the building blocks of a meta-theory of paradox. These six themes received varying attention in extant studies: paradox scholars emphasize types of paradoxes, collective approaches, and outcomes, but pay less attention to relationships within paradoxes, individual approaches, and dynamics. As this analysis suggests, management scholars have increasingly simplified the intricate, often messy phenomena of paradox. Greater simplicity renders phenomena understandable and testable, however, oversimplifying complex realities can foster reductionist and incomplete theories. We therefore propose a future research agenda targeted at enriching a meta-theory of paradox by reengaging these less developed themes. Doing so can sharpen the focus of this field, while revisiting its rich conceptual roots to capture the intricacies of paradox. This future research agenda leverages the potential of paradox across diverse streams of management science.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Contradictions, Dialectics, and Paradoxes in Organizations: A Constitutive Approach† †. In Academy of Management Annals, 10 (1), 2016, edited by Sim B. Sitkin and Laurie R. Weingart. View all notes
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-19
    Linda L. Putnam, Gail T. Fairhurst, Scott Banghart

    This article presents a constitutive approach to the study of organizational contradictions, dialectics, paradoxes, and tensions. In particular, it highlights five constitutive dimensions (i.e., discourse, developmental actions, socio-historical conditions, presence in multiples, and praxis) that appear across the literature in five metatheoretical traditions—process-based systems, structuration, critical, postmodern, and relational dialectics. In exploring these dimensions, it defines and distinguishes among key constructs, links research to process outcomes, and sets forth a typology of alternative ways of responding to organizational tensions. It concludes by challenging researchers to sharpen their focus on time in process studies, privilege emotion in relation to rationality, and explore the dialectic between order and disorder.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Three Lenses on Occupations and Professions in Organizations: Becoming, Doing, and Relating
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-02-16
    Michel Anteby, Curtis K. Chan, Julia DiBenigno

    Management and organizational scholarship is overdue for a reappraisal of occupations and professions as well as a critical review of past and current work on the topic. Indeed, the field has largely failed to keep pace with the rising salience of occupational and professional (as opposed to organizational) dynamics in work life. Moreover, not only is there a dearth of studies that explicitly take occupational or professional categories into account, but there is also an absence of a shared analytical framework for understanding what occupations and professions entail. Our goal is therefore two-fold: first, to offer guidance to scholars less familiar with this terrain who encounter occupational or professional dynamics in their own inquiries and, second, to introduce a three-part framework for conceptualizing occupations and professions to help guide future inquiries. We suggest that occupations and professions can be understood through lenses of “becoming”, “doing”, and “relating”. We develop this framework as we review past literature and discuss the implications of each approach for future research and, more broadly, for the field of management and organizational theory.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • A Systems Perspective on Forgiveness in Organizations
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2015-12-21
    Robert J. Bies, Laurie J. Barclay, Thomas M. Tripp, Karl Aquino

    Despite the widespread interest in forgiveness across a diversity of disciplines, the study of forgiveness has been strongly influenced by a psychological (i.e. individual-level) approach. Although this has provided many fruitful insights, it has also resulted in a fragmented literature that has underemphasized the multilevel and contextual nature of this phenomenon. Drawing upon a broad multidisciplinary approach, we provide a singular definition of forgiveness and integrate research on forgiveness into a multilevel systems approach. In doing so, we demonstrate that a deeper understanding can be realized by conceptualizing forgiveness as a part of a system of interconnecting psychological, social, structural, and cultural relations. By embedding forgiveness into context, our systems perspective provides novel insights into the factors that facilitate and constrain forgiveness at multiple levels of analysis, how the interplay between contextual levels can shape forgiveness at lower levels (e.g. individual level), and how examining forgiveness in organizational contexts can highlight the importance of examining other outcomes (e.g. reconciliation, peaceful co-existence, and détente) as well as facilitate the development of actionable theory.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Are Boards Designed to Fail? The Implausibility of Effective Board Monitoring
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-01-28
    Steven Boivie, Michael K. Bednar, Ruth V. Aguilera, Joel L. Andrus

    In this review, we challenge the idea that directors are well positioned to be effective monitors of management. Moving beyond the logic of incentives and ability, we conceptualize a model based on the premise of boards as groups of individuals obtaining, processing and sharing information and explain how variation in information-processing demands at the director, board and firm level may challenge effective monitoring. We draw on multiple theoretical perspectives to identify these barriers to effective board monitoring. Our goal in reviewing these barriers is to help us take stock of existing research in corporate governance and to better explain board behavior beyond traditional agency and resource dependency accounts. We also aim to uncover gaps in the conceptual and empirical research and suggest areas of fruitful future research.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Good Night, and Good Luck: Perspectives on Luck in Management Scholarship
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-01-27
    Chengwei Liu, Mark de Rond

    It is not insignificant that seminal contributions to management scholarship have highlighted luck as an alternative explanation for performance differences between individuals and organizations. Yet it has rarely taken center-stage in scholarship. The principal purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the application of luck in the management literature and in such foundation disciplines as economics, sociology, and psychology. Our analysis finds five common perspectives on luck: (a) luck as Attribution; (b) luck as Randomness; (c) luck as Counterfactual; (d) luck as Undeserved; and (e) luck as Serendipity. We outline various ways in which research on luck may be advanced along each of these perspectives, and develop an underexplored, sixth, perspective on (f) luck as Leveler to provide a possible solution to such issues as social inequality and (unwarranted) executive compensation.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • A Dynamic Perspective on Diverse Teams: Moving from the Dual-Process Model to a Dynamic Coordination-based Model of Diverse Team Performance
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-01-27
    Kannan Srikanth, Sarah Harvey, Randall Peterson

    The existing literature on diverse teams suggests that diversity is both helpful to teams in making more information available and encouraging creativity and damaging to teams in reducing cohesion and information sharing. Thus the extant literature suggests that diversity within teams is a double-edged sword that leads to both positive and negative effects simultaneously. This literature has not, however, fully embraced the increasing calls in the broader groups literature to take account of time in understanding how groups function [e.g. Cronin, M. A., Weingart, L. R., & Todorova, G. (2011). Dynamics in groups: Are we there yet? The Academy of Management Annals, 5, 571–612]. We review the literature on diverse teams employing this lens to develop a dynamic perspective that takes account of the timing and flow of diversity's effects. Our review suggests that diversity in groups has different short-term and long-term effects in ways that are not fully captured by the currently dominant double-edged sword metaphor. We identify an emerging perspective that suggests a tropical depression metaphor—that has the potential, over time, to develop either into a dangerous hurricane or diffuse into a rainstorm that gives way to sunshine, as more apt to capture the dynamic effects of diversity in teams. We conclude by outlining an agenda for redirecting future research on diverse teams using this more dynamic perspective.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Narratives as Sources of Stability and Change in Organizations: Approaches and Directions for Future Research
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-03-16
    Eero Vaara, Scott Sonenshein, David Boje

    Although narrative analysis has made significant advances in organization and management studies, scholars have not yet unleashed its full potential. This review provides an understanding of key issues in organizational narrative analysis with a focus on the role of narratives in organizational stability and change. We start by elaborating on the characteristics of organizational narratives to provide a conceptual framework for organizational narrative analysis. We elaborate on three key approaches to narrative analysis on stability and change: realist, interpretative, and poststructuralist. We then review several topic areas where narrative analysis has so far offered the most promise: organizational change, identity, strategy, entrepreneurship, and personal change. Finally, we identify important issues that warrant attention in future research, both theoretically and methodologically.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Conceptualizing Emergent States: A Strategy to Advance the Study of Group Dynamics
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-01-27
    Mary J. Waller, Gerardo A. Okhuysen, Marzieh Saghafian

    In this review, we aim to advance work on group and team dynamics by examining how important elements of dynamism are embedded in the current literature on emergent states in groups. We use the concept of emergence as an organizing frame, building block, and critical lens, first summarizing key aspects of the extant literature on emergence, and then drawing four core characteristics of emergent phenomena from this literature. We use these characteristics to organize our review and examine how emergent states are portrayed in the past decade of groups literature. We end by exploring challenges to the development of a more dynamic perspective and by offering specific suggestions to guide and advance future work on groups and teams.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • The Bright Side of Being Prosocial at Work, and the Dark Side, Too: A Review and Agenda for Research on Other-Oriented Motives, Behavior, and Impact in Organizations
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-08
    Mark C. Bolino, Adam M. Grant

    More than a quarter century ago, organizational scholars began to explore the implications of prosociality in organizations. Three interrelated streams have emerged from this work, which focus on prosocial motives (the desire to benefit others or expend effort out of concern for others), prosocial behaviors (acts that promote/protect the welfare of individuals, groups, or organizations), and prosocial impact (the experience of making a positive difference in the lives of others through one's work). Prior studies have highlighted the importance of prosocial motives, behaviors, and impact, and have enhanced our understanding of each of them. However, there has been little effort to systematically review and integrate these related lines of work in a way that furthers our understanding of prosociality in organizations. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of the literature, highlight key findings, identify major research themes, and address important controversies and debates. We call for an expanded view of prosocial behavior and a sharper focus on the costs and unintended consequences of prosocial phenomena. We conclude by suggesting a number of avenues for future research that will address unanswered questions and should provide a more complete understanding of prosociality in the workplace.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Social Activism in and Around Organizations
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-15
    Forrest Briscoe, Abhinav Gupta

    Organizations are frequent targets for social activists aiming to influence society by first altering organizational policies and practices. Reflecting a steady rise in research on this topic, we review recent literature and advance an insider-outsider framework to help explicate the diverse mechanisms and pathways involved. Our framework distinguishes between different types of activists based on their relationship with targeted organizations. For example, “insider” activists who are employees of the target organization have certain advantages and disadvantages when compared with “outsider” activists who are members of independent social movement organizations. We also distinguish between the direct and indirect (or spillover) effects of social activism. Much research has focused on the direct effects of activism on targeted organizations, but often the effects on non-targeted organizations matter more for activists goals of achieving widespread change. Drawing on this framework, we identify and discuss eight specific areas that are in need of further scholarly attention.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Resilience: A Review Using a Grounded Integrated Occupational Approach
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-08
    Ellen Ernst Kossek, Matthew B. Perrigino

    Resilience, the ability to adapt to adversity and endure job demands, is growing in prominence in the management literature with limited regard to occupational influences. Often examined at the individual level with fragmented conceptualizations, it can be a trait, capacity, or a process. We conduct a review of (1) management studies and (2) content from O*NET for 11 occupations and disciplinary studies taking a grounded approach to synthesize themes to develop an integrated occupational resilience framework. Our review suggests that resilience is individually and occupationally determined as part of a multi-level system. Our review shows that specific occupational tasks and contextual demands imply different connotations of what exactly “resilience” means and how contexts may constrain or foster resiliency. Occupational resilience involves (1) multiple conceptual strands related to accessing resources (trait, capacity, and processes); (2) positive and negative triggers that are occupationally distinguished; (3) different resilience types (cognitive, emotional, and physical) that vary in need, breadth, and importance across occupations; (4) a dynamic phenomenon that occurs within and across career stages; (5) both content-general, and job-specific occupational tensions; and (6) work and nonwork domains. Multi-level occupational-specific and comparative studies, adaptive performance and risk taking across the work–nonwork interface are highlighted areas for future research.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Leadership and Affect: Moving the Hearts and Minds of Followers
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-03-17
    Daan van Knippenberg, Gerben A. van Kleef

    We provide an integrative review of the empirical literature on leadership and affect (emotion, mood, and affective dispositions), which is first and foremost a literature on leader displays of affect. We conclude that the influence of leader affective displays can be understood through the mediation paths of emotional contagion and cognitive interpretation of affect in combination with the first- and second-stage moderators of these paths. We also conclude that the common yet overly simplistic notion that leader displays of positive affect are more effective than leader displays of negative affect can in important part be attributed to an overreliance on subjective ratings as indicators of leadership effectiveness, whereas behavioral indicators of leadership effectiveness suggest a more contingent view of the effectiveness of positive and negative affective displays. We propose that to bolster and further develop these conclusions, we need (a) more research focusing on moderation in dual-path mediation; (b) development of theory about cognitive interpretations following leader affective displays; and (c) more sophisticated models of the difference amongst different affective states to better capture the complexity of their effects. We also outline how evidence regarding the role of follower affect in response to leadership more generally points to the potential for integration of affective and non-affective models of leadership.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Career Mobility in a Global Era: Advances in Managing Expatriation and Repatriation
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-18
    Yehuda Baruch, Yochanan Altman, Rosalie L. Tung

    The surge of interest in expatriation and repatriation within the broader discourse on labor mobility of professionals and high-skilled labor, human capital development, and the theory and practice of people management serves as the backdrop to this paper. We propose that expatriation and repatriation be framed in the context of global careers and embedded in the wider social-economic environment of globalization through the lens of a career ecosystem theory. We chart the evolution of scholarly publications on career mobility over the past four decades and highlight current trends, in particular the emergence of self-initiated expatriation as a pivotal change in the direction of expatriation studies and derived practice. We assess the rigor of empirical findings, weigh theoretical underpinnings, offer a research agenda for future research, and outline managerial implications.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Contextualization and Context Theorizing in Teams Research: A Look Back and a Path Forward
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-27
    Mary M. Maloney, Henrik Bresman, Mary E. Zellmer-Bruhn, Gregory R. Beaver

    In this paper we review recent field research on teams in the workplace with the objective to help advance research about teams and their external context. We investigate contextualization by reviewing the research settings in which teams have been studied, and we investigate context theorizing by reviewing work where external context variables have been explicitly modeled. We propose guidelines to improve contextualization and avenues to explore context theorizing.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Construct Mixology: Forming New Management Constructs by Combining Old Ones
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-15
    Daniel A. Newman, David A. Harrison, Nichelle C. Carpenter, Shannon M. Rariden

    We review the practice of building new psychological constructs by combining older constructs (a process we refer to as construct mixology), with a focus on the impact, methodology, and substantive knowledge implications of this practice. Our review suggests that some of the most influential micro-level constructs in the field of management are either new compound constructs or old constituent constructs that have been used in some form of mixology. Furthermore, we review a range of methodological approaches that researchers have employed when conducting construct mixology over the last 30 years. These strategies range from disavowing the role of the constituent constructs to explicitly acknowledging and modeling the relationships between constituent constructs and their corresponding (superordinate) compound constructs. The scientific consequences of these approaches include both unrecognized redundancy (reinventing the wheel, or confirming classic findings without realizing it) and heightened explanatory power (resulting from using broad compound constructs). To illustrate the variation of methods and implications, we review several exemplars of compound constructs that have enjoyed popularity in OB/HR, including work engagement, emotional intelligence, organizational commitment, and core self-evaluations. We also highlight seven cardinal construct domains that are often sampled during construct mixology. Prescriptions for future construct mixology efforts are provided.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • The Architecture of Dynamic Capability Research Identifying the Building Blocks of a Configurational Approach
    Acad. Manag. Ann. (IF 11.115) Pub Date : 2016-04-13
    Ralf Wilden, Timothy M. Devinney, Grahame R. Dowling

    The dynamic capability view (DCV) of the firm has become one of the leading frameworks aimed at identifying drivers of long-term firm survival and growth. Yet, despite considerable academic interest, there are many questions about what dynamic capabilities (DCs) are, how they relate to other organizational operations, and how they relate to firm performance. In this article, we provide a unique and comprehensive examination of the DCV literature that goes beyond past reviews by combining text-based analysis with surveys of, and interviews with, researchers in the field. With this approach, we are able to examine the evolution of the DCV in written literature and identify missing research themes. Based on this review, we argue that future research will benefit from integrating the DCV with configuration theory and the recent micro foundational thinking. We encapsulate this discussion via an architectural model of the DCV (entitled “House of Dynamic Capabilities”) that combines micro foundations underlying DCs at the varying levels of analysis (individual, business unit, and organizational) while also accounting for important enablers of DCs and firm strategic orientation. We also show how this logic requires a completely different set of methodological approaches to those currently in use.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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