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  • Plant Biodiversity Change Across Scales During the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Mark Vellend, Lander Baeten, Antoine Becker-Scarpitta, Véronique Boucher-Lalonde, Jenny L. McCune, Julie Messier, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Dov F. Sax

    Plant communities have undergone dramatic changes in recent centuries, although not all such changes fit with the dominant biodiversity-crisis narrative used to describe them. At the global scale, future declines in plant species diversity are highly likely given habitat conversion in the tropics, although few extinctions have been documented for the Anthropocene to date (<0.1%). Nonnative species introductions have greatly increased plant species richness in many regions of the world at the same time that they have led to the creation of new hybrid polyploid species by bringing previously isolated congeners into close contact. At the local scale, conversion of primary vegetation to agriculture has decreased plant diversity, whereas other drivers of change—e.g., climate warming, habitat fragmentation, and nitrogen deposition—have highly context-dependent effects, resulting in a distribution of temporal trends with a mean close to zero. These results prompt a reassessment of how conservation goals are defined and justified.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • The Role of Plant Innate Immunity in the Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Yangrong Cao, Morgan K. Halane, Walter Gassmann, Gary Stacey

    A classic view of the evolution of mutualism is that it derives from a pathogenic relationship that attenuated over time to a situation in which both partners can benefit. If this is the case for rhizobia, then one might uncover features of the symbiosis that reflect this earlier pathogenic state. For example, as with plant pathogens, it is now generally assumed that rhizobia actively suppress the host immune response to allow infection and symbiosis establishment. Likewise, the host has retained mechanisms to control the nutrient supply to the symbionts and the number of nodules so that they do not become too burdensome. The open question is whether such events are strictly ancillary to the central symbiotic nodulation factor signaling pathway or are essential for rhizobial host infection. Subsequent to these early infection events, plant immune responses can also be induced inside nodules and likely play a role in, for example, nodule senescence. Thus, a balanced regulation of innate immunity is likely required throughout rhizobial infection, symbiotic establishment, and maintenance. In this review, we discuss the significance of plant immune responses in the regulation of symbiotic associations with rhizobia, as well as rhizobial evasion of the host immune system.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Trade-Offs Between Plant Growth and Defense Against Insect Herbivory: An Emerging Mechanistic Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Tobias Züst, Anurag A. Agrawal

    Costs of defense are central to our understanding of interactions between organisms and their environment, and defensive phenotypes of plants have long been considered to be constrained by trade-offs that reflect the allocation of limiting resources. Recent advances in uncovering signal transduction networks have revealed that defense trade-offs are often the result of regulatory “decisions” by the plant, enabling it to fine-tune its phenotype in response to diverse environmental challenges. We place these results in the context of classic studies in ecology and evolutionary biology, and propose a unifying framework for growth–defense trade-offs as a means to study the plant's allocation of limiting resources. Pervasive physiological costs constrain the upper limit to growth and defense traits, but the diversity of selective pressures on plants often favors negative correlations at intermediate trait levels. Despite the ubiquity of underlying costs of defense, the current challenge is using physiological and molecular approaches to predict the conditions where they manifest as detectable trade-offs.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Defense Priming: An Adaptive Part of Induced Resistance
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ivan Baccelli, Estrella Luna, Victor Flors

    Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves the defensive capacity of plants. This phenomenon is marked by an enhanced activation of induced defense mechanisms. Stimuli from pathogens, beneficial microbes, or arthropods, as well as chemicals and abiotic cues, can trigger the establishment of priming by acting as warning signals. Upon stimulus perception, changes may occur in the plant at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels. This phase is called the priming phase. Upon subsequent challenge, the plant effectively mounts a faster and/or stronger defense response that defines the postchallenge primed state and results in increased resistance and/or stress tolerance. Priming can be durable and maintained throughout the plant's life cycle and can even be transmitted to subsequent generations, therefore representing a type of plant immunological memory.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Novel Insights into Tree Biology and Genome Evolution as Revealed Through Genomics
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    David B. Neale, Pedro J. Martínez-García, Amanda R. De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei

    Reference genome sequences are the key to the discovery of genes and gene families that determine traits of interest. Recent progress in sequencing technologies has enabled a rapid increase in genome sequencing of tree species, allowing the dissection of complex characters of economic importance, such as fruit and wood quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the number of reference genome sequences for trees lags behind those for other plant species, it is not too early to gain insight into the unique features that distinguish trees from nontree plants. Our review of the published data suggests that, although many gene families are conserved among herbaceous and tree species, some gene families, such as those involved in resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and in the synthesis and transport of sugars, are often expanded in tree genomes. As the genomes of more tree species are sequenced, comparative genomics will further elucidate the complexity of tree genomes and how this relates to traits unique to trees.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • New Strategies and Tools in Quantitative Genetics: How to Go from the Phenotype to the Genotype
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Christos Bazakos, Mathieu Hanemian, Charlotte Trontin, José M. Jiménez-Gómez, Olivier Loudet

    Quantitative genetics has a long history in plants: It has been used to study specific biological processes, identify the factors important for trait evolution, and breed new crop varieties. These classical approaches to quantitative trait locus mapping have naturally improved with technology. In this review, we show how quantitative genetics has evolved recently in plants and how new developments in phenotyping, population generation, sequencing, gene manipulation, and statistics are rejuvenating both the classical linkage mapping approaches (for example, through nested association mapping) as well as the more recently developed genome-wide association studies. These strategies are complementary in most instances, and indeed, one is often used to confirm the results of the other. Despite significant advances, an emerging trend is that the outcome and efficiency of the different approaches depend greatly on the genetic architecture of the trait in the genetic material under study.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Genomics, Physiology, and Molecular Breeding Approaches for Improving Salt Tolerance
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Abdelbagi M. Ismail, Tomoaki Horie

    Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing. However, little progress has been made in developing salt-tolerant varieties of crop species using standard (but slow) breeding approaches. The genetic diversity available within cultivated crops and their wild relatives provides rich sources for trait and gene discovery that has yet to be sufficiently utilized. Transforming this knowledge into modern approaches using genomics and molecular tools for precision breeding will accelerate the development of tolerant cultivars and help sustain food production.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • The Life and Death of a Plant Cell
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Mehdi Kabbage, Ryan Kessens, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Brett Williams

    Like all eukaryotic organisms, plants possess an innate program for controlled cellular demise termed programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the functional conservation of PCD across broad evolutionary distances, an understanding of the molecular machinery underpinning this fundamental program in plants remains largely elusive. As in mammalian PCD, the regulation of plant PCD is critical to development, homeostasis, and proper responses to stress. Evidence is emerging that autophagy is key to the regulation of PCD in plants and that it can dictate the outcomes of PCD execution under various scenarios. Here, we provide a broad and comparative overview of PCD processes in plants, with an emphasis on stress-induced PCD. We also discuss the implications of the paradox that is functional conservation of apoptotic hallmarks in plants in the absence of core mammalian apoptosis regulators, what that means, and whether an equivalent form of death occurs in plants.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Guilt by Association: A Phenotype-Based View of the Plant Phosphoinositide Network
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Katharina Gerth, Feng Lin, Wilhelm Menzel, Praveen Krishnamoorthy, Irene Stenzel, Mareike Heilmann, Ingo Heilmann

    Eukaryotic membranes contain small amounts of phospholipids that have regulatory effects on the physiological functions of cells, tissues, and organs. Phosphoinositides (PIs)—the phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol—are one example of such regulatory lipids. Although PIs were described in plants decades ago, their contribution to the regulation of physiological processes in plants is not well understood. In the past few years, evidence has emerged that PIs are essential for plant function and development. Recently reported phenotypes associated with the perturbation of different PIs suggest that some subgroups of PIs influence specific processes. Although the molecular targets of PI-dependent regulation in plants are largely unknown, the effects of perturbed PI metabolism can be used to propose regulatory modules that involve particular downstream targets of PI regulation. This review summarizes phenotypes associated with the perturbation of the plant PI network to categorize functions and suggest possible downstream targets of plant PI regulation.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Zooming In on Plant Hormone Analysis: Tissue- and Cell-Specific Approaches
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Ondřej Novák, Richard Napier, Karin Ljung

    Plant hormones are a group of naturally occurring, low-abundance organic compounds that influence physiological processes in plants. Our knowledge of the distribution profiles of phytohormones in plant organs, tissues, and cells is still incomplete, but advances in mass spectrometry have enabled significant progress in tissue- and cell-type-specific analyses of phytohormones over the last decade. Mass spectrometry is able to simultaneously identify and quantify hormones and their related substances. Biosensors, on the other hand, offer continuous monitoring; can visualize local distributions and real-time quantification; and, in the case of genetically encoded biosensors, are noninvasive. Thus, biosensors offer additional, complementary technologies for determining temporal and spatial changes in phytohormone concentrations. In this review, we focus on recent advances in mass spectrometry–based quantification, describe monitoring systems based on biosensors, and discuss validations of the various methods before looking ahead at future developments for both approaches.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Strigolactone Signaling and Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Mark T. Waters, Caroline Gutjahr, Tom Bennett, David C. Nelson

    Strigolactones are a structurally diverse class of plant hormones that control many aspects of shoot and root growth. Strigolactones are also exuded by plants into the rhizosphere, where they promote symbiotic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and germination of root parasitic plants in the Orobanchaceae family. Therefore, understanding how strigolactones are made, transported, and perceived may lead to agricultural innovations as well as a deeper knowledge of how plants function. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past decade. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms, core developmental roles, and evolutionary history of strigolactone signaling. We also propose potential translational applications of strigolactone research to agriculture.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Plastoglobuli: Plastid Microcompartments with Integrated Functions in Metabolism, Plastid Developmental Transitions, and Environmental Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Klaas J. van Wijk, Felix Kessler

    Plastoglobuli (PGs) are plastid lipoprotein particles surrounded by a membrane lipid monolayer. PGs contain small specialized proteomes and metabolomes. They are present in different plastid types (e.g., chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and elaioplasts) and are dynamic in size and shape in response to abiotic stress or developmental transitions. PGs in chromoplasts are highly enriched in carotenoid esters and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism. PGs in chloroplasts are associated with thylakoids and contain ∼30 core proteins (including six ABC1 kinases) as well as additional proteins recruited under specific conditions. Systems analysis has suggested that chloroplast PGs function in metabolism of prenyl lipids (e.g., tocopherols, plastoquinone, and phylloquinone); redox and photosynthetic regulation; plastid biogenesis; and senescence, including recycling of phytol, remobilization of thylakoid lipids, and metabolism of jasmonate. These functionalities contribute to chloroplast PGs’ role in responses to stresses such as high light and nitrogen starvation. PGs are thus lipid microcompartments with multiple functions integrated into plastid metabolism, developmental transitions, and environmental adaptation. This review provides an in-depth overview of PG experimental observations, summarizes the present understanding of PG features and functions, and provides a conceptual framework for PG research and the realization of opportunities for crop improvement.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Plant Mitochondrial Genomes: Dynamics and Mechanisms of Mutation
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    José M. Gualberto, Kathleen J. Newton

    The large mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are unusually dynamic because of recombination activities involving repeated sequences. These activities generate subgenomic forms and extensive genomic variation even within the same species. Such changes in genome structure are responsible for the rapid evolution of plant mitochondrial DNA and for the variants associated with cytoplasmic male sterility and abnormal growth phenotypes. Nuclear genes modulate these processes, and over the past decade, several of these genes have been identified. They are involved mainly in pathways of DNA repair by homologous recombination and mismatch repair, which appear to be essential for the faithful replication of the mitogenome. Mutations leading to the loss of any of these activities release error-prone repair pathways, resulting in increased ectopic recombination, genome instability, and heteroplasmy. We review the present state of knowledge of the genes and pathways underlying mitochondrial genome stability.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Chemical Genetic Dissection of Membrane Trafficking
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Lorena Norambuena, Ricardo Tejos

    The plant endomembrane system is an extensively connected functional unit for exchanging material between compartments. Secretory and endocytic pathways allow dynamic trafficking of proteins, lipids, and other molecules, regulating a myriad of biological processes. Chemical genetics—the use of compounds to perturb biological processes in a fast, tunable, and transient manner—provides elegant tools for investigating this system. Here, we review how chemical genetics has helped to elucidate different aspects of membrane trafficking. We discuss different strategies for uncovering the modes of action of such compounds and their use in unraveling membrane trafficking regulators. We also discuss how the bioactive chemicals that are currently used as probes to interrogate endomembrane trafficking were discovered and analyze the results regarding membrane trafficking and pathway crosstalk. The integration of different expertises and the rational implementation of chemical genetic strategies will improve the identification of molecular mechanisms that drive intracellular trafficking and our understanding of how trafficking interfaces with plant physiology and development.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Phloem-Mobile RNAs as Systemic Signaling Agents
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Byung-Kook Ham, William J. Lucas

    The plant vascular system plays a central role in coordinating physiological and developmental events through delivery of both essential nutrients and long-distance signaling agents. The enucleate phloem sieve tube system of the angiosperms contains a broad spectrum of RNA species. Grafting and transcriptomics studies have indicated that several thousand mRNAs move long distances from source organs to meristematic sink tissues. Ribonucleoprotein complexes play a pivotal role as stable RNA-delivery systems for systemic translocation of cargo RNA. In this review, we assess recent progress in the characterization of phloem and plasmodesmal transport as an integrated local and systemic communication network. We discuss the roles of phloem-mobile small RNAs in epigenetic events, including meristem development and genome stability, and the delivery of mRNAs to specific tissues in response to environmental inputs. A large body of evidence now supports a model in which phloem-mobile RNAs act as critical components of gene regulatory networks involved in plant growth, defense, and crop yield at the whole-plant level.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • The Structural Basis of Ligand Perception and Signal Activation by Receptor Kinases
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Ulrich Hohmann, Kelvin Lau, Michael Hothorn

    Plants have evolved a family of unique membrane receptor kinases to orchestrate the growth and development of their cells, tissues, and organs. Receptor kinases also form the first line of defense of the plant immune system and allow plants to engage in symbiotic interactions. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding, at the molecular level, how receptor kinases with lysin-motif or leucine-rich-repeat ectodomains have evolved to sense a broad spectrum of ligands. We summarize and compare the established receptor activation mechanisms for plant receptor kinases and dissect how ligand binding at the cell surface leads to activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Our review highlights that one family of plant membrane receptors has diversified structurally to fulfill very different signaling tasks.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Cell Biology of the Plant Nucleus
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Iris Meier, Eric J. Richards, David E. Evans

    The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis. Although many of these aspects are less well understood for the nuclei of plants than for those of animals or fungi, several recent discoveries have begun to place our understanding of plant nuclei firmly into this broader cell-biological context.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Retrograde Signals: Integrators of Interorganellar Communication and Orchestrators of Plant Development
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Amancio de Souza, Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh

    Interorganellar cooperation maintained via exquisitely controlled retrograde-signaling pathways is an evolutionary necessity for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. This signaling feature has therefore attracted much research attention aimed at improving understanding of the nature of these communication signals, how the signals are sensed, and ultimately the mechanism by which they integrate targeted processes that collectively culminate in organellar cooperativity. The answers to these questions will provide insight into how retrograde-signal-mediated regulatory mechanisms are recruited and which biological processes are targeted, and will advance our understanding of how organisms balance metabolic investments in growth against adaptation to environmental stress. This review summarizes the present understanding of the nature and the functional complexity of retrograde signals as integrators of interorganellar communication and orchestrators of plant development, and offers a perspective on the future of this critical and dynamic area of research.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • The Epigenome and Transcriptional Dynamics of Fruit Ripening
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    James Giovannoni, Cuong Nguyen, Betsy Ampofo, Silin Zhong, Zhangjun Fei

    Fruit has evolved myriad forms that facilitate seed dispersal in varied environmental and ecological contexts. Because fleshy fruits become attractive and nutritious to seed-dispersing animals, the transition from unripe to ripe fruit represents a dramatic shift in survival strategy—from protecting unripe fruit against damaging animals to making it appealing to those same animals once ripened. For optimal fitness, ripening therefore must be tightly controlled and coordinated with seed development. Fruits, like many vegetative tissues of plants that contribute to human diets, are also subject to decay, which is enhanced as a consequence of the ripening transition. As such, ripening control has enormous relevance for both plant biology and food security. Here, we review the complex interactions of hormones and transcription factors during fleshy-fruit ripening, with an emphasis on the recent discovery that epigenome dynamics are a critical and early regulator of the cascade of molecular events that ultimately contribute to fruit maturation and ripening.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Biogenesis and Metabolic Maintenance of Rubisco*
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Andreas Bracher, Spencer M. Whitney, F. Ulrich Hartl, Manajit Hayer-Hartl

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) mediates the fixation of atmospheric CO2 in photosynthesis by catalyzing the carboxylation of the 5-carbon sugar ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP). Rubisco is a remarkably inefficient enzyme, fixing only 2–10 CO2 molecules per second. Efforts to increase crop yields by bioengineering Rubisco remain unsuccessful, owing in part to the complex cellular machinery required for Rubisco biogenesis and metabolic maintenance. The large subunit of Rubisco requires the chaperonin system for folding, and recent studies have shown that assembly of hexadecameric Rubisco is mediated by specific assembly chaperones. Moreover, Rubisco function can be inhibited by a range of sugar-phosphate ligands, including RuBP. Metabolic repair depends on remodeling of Rubisco by the ATP-dependent Rubisco activase and hydrolysis of inhibitory sugar phosphates by specific phosphatases. Here, we review our present understanding of the structure and function of these auxiliary factors and their utilization in efforts to engineer more catalytically efficient Rubisco enzymes.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
  • Firmly Planted, Always Moving
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 22.808) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Natasha V. Raikhel

    I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside. I discuss implementing a new vision as the first and (so far) only female editor in chief of Plant Physiology, as well as how my laboratory helped develop chemical genomics tools to study the functions of essential plant proteins. Always wanting to give back what I received, I discuss my present efforts to develop female scientist leadership in Chinese universities and a constant theme throughout my life: a love of art and travel.

    更新日期:2017-08-23
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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