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  • The chemical space for non-target analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Boris L. Milman, Inna K. Zhurkovich
  • Overview of experimental and computational methods for the determination of the pKa values of 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, imatinib and methotrexate
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Katarzyna Mioduszewska, Joanna Dołżonek, Dariusz Wyrzykowski, Łukasz Kubik, Paweł Wiczling, Celina Sikorska, Michał Toński, Zbigniew Kaczyński, Piotr Stepnowski, Anna Białk-Bielińska

    We present a review of the available literature concerning pKa values and methods for the determination of selected anticancer drugs as well as the most up-to-date knowledge on their different ionic forms depending on solution pH. Additionally, to clarify the existing state of knowledge we have presented an overview on the obtained pKa values with the use of experimental and computational methods. As a result, we have demonstrated and proposed acid-base equilibria of cyclophosphamide (CF), ifosfamide (IF), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX), and imatinib (IMT) in an aqueous solution, and their species distribution curves as a function of pH calculated on the basis of the acid dissociation constants, which are as follows:

  • Impact and practicability of recently introduced requirements on elemental impurities
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-18
    Pawel Pohl, Aleksandra Bielawska-Pohl, Anna Dzimitrowicz, Piotr Jamroz, Maja Welna

    Spectrochemical elemental analysis of pharmaceuticals and raw materials used for their production will be in the nearest future an obligatory part of quality and safety control for compliance with new standards announced by the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH Q3D). The present paper surveys R&D articles and scientific papers devoted to determination of the elemental impurities by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICP-OES and ICP-MS) in different pharmaceuticals products that have been published since 2000. In reference to recent changes described in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) general chapters <232> and <233>, different aspects of such measurements are presented, including appropriate sample preparation procedures, possible interferences and means of their avoidance, suitable calibration strategies and validation parameters that have to be assessed to prove reliability of the analytical results on the elemental impurities in pharmaceutical products.

  • Critical review of reports on impurity and degradation product profiling in the last decade
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-17
    Sándor Görög

    Drug impurity and degradation profiling mean the detection, structure elucidation and quantitative determination of impurities and degradation products in bulk drug materials and pharmaceutical formulations. This is today one of the most important fields of activities in pharmaceutical analysis. The reason for this is that unidentified, potentially toxic impurities are health hazards, and in order to increase the safety of drug therapy, impurities should be identified and determined by selective methods.The aim of this review is to characterise the state-of-art in the field of impurity and degradation profiling of drugs based on papers published in the last decade. The separation and determination of impurities and degradants with a known structure are discussed, but emphasis is placed on the structure elucidation and determination of new (unknown) impurities and degradation products by off-line and on-line chromatographic – spectroscopic methods. The analytical aspects of enantiomeric purity of chiral drugs are also discussed.

  • Sample treatment for the determination of emerging organic contaminants in aquatic organisms
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Mireia Núñez, Francesc Borrull, Eva Pocurull, Núria Fontanals

    Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has become an important tool for determining emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in environmental samples such as aquatic organisms. Sample treatment, which includes extraction and clean-up, continues to play an important role in the analysis of complex matrices. Indeed it often becomes a bottleneck in the compromise between time and efficiency when obtaining suitable extracts for analysis. This article focuses on the state of the art in the treatment of aquatic organism samples for determining EOCs. A review is carried out of the most recent relevant publications from 2011 up to the present, in which new methods for determining EOCs in aquatic organisms were developed. The most common extraction techniques employed in these studies, like pressurised liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, QuEChERS, microwave-assisted extraction and matrix solid-phase extraction along with the subsequent clean-up steps, are also examined. The most important parameters involving extraction and clean-up are discussed.

  • Advancement of sensitive sniffer bee technology
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Manjunatha D. Hadagali, Chua L. Suan

    Humans are being substantially benefitting from the use of honeybees. Honeybees are natural foragers; they travel long distances in search for water, nectar, propolis and pollen. Researchers aim to use these factors for the welfare of mankind, taking advantage of the behavioral characteristics of honeybees to use them as a basis for developing natural biosensors. Through the use of a honeybee sensor system, one can train thousands of bees to seek many kind of odor. This finally results in a very simple to use but powerful real biosensor, potentially much more efficient than any electronic sensor. This review briefly outlines the sniffer technology of honeybees for deploying them as highly sensitive, accurate and cost effective biosensors. This sniffer bee technology can be employed in various fields, such as theatres of war, identification of explosives, various chemicals, flowers/plants, food contamination, biomarkers in medicinal field, etc.

  • Fluorescent Nanobiosensors for the Targeted Detection of Foodborne Bacteria
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Neha Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K. Bhardwaj, Manoj K. Nayak, Jyotsana Mehta, Ki-Hyun Kim, Akash Deep

    Foodborne diseases caused by bacterial pathogens are severe threats to human health. Conventional culture based microbiologic methods for the analysis of bacterial contamination in food products are laborious, time consuming and require specific skills. Immunologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods are also costly, lack specificity, and may yield false results. As outlined in this review, fluorescent nanobiosensors have now become effective alternative tools for rapid and routine detection of foodborne bacteria. We provide an overview of the use of different fluorescent nanomaterials in the development of nanobiosensors with special emphasis on underlying detection principles, sensitivity, specificity, and their capability of multiplexed analysis. In summary, the diverse nanomaterials used for bacterial detection are critically analyzed with respect to their advantages and limitations for future applications in the diagnosis of foodborne bacteria.

  • The role of analytical chemistry in the study of the Anthropocene
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Agnieszka Gałuszka, Zdzisław Migaszewski, Jacek Namieśnik

    The term “Anthropocene” refers to not yet formalized epoch of geologic time during which geologic processes have been dominated by the human impact. This impact takes on many forms. Biological, physical and chemical changes to the Earth System caused by anthropogenic activity are recorded in natural archives either as new fossil assemblages (neobiota), anthropogenic deposits or a wide variety of pollutants emitted to the environment. With the current efforts to formalize the Anthropocene Epoch, a new trend in analytical chemistry has emerged. The use of different dating techniques combined with the study of chemical signals recorded in different natural archives, such as ice cores, marine and freshwater sediments, corals, tree rings, stalactites, allows us to reconstruct historic emission trends. This paper presents characteristics of specific samples to be analyzed and the pertinent analytical techniques to be applied for the purpose of gaining the knowledge required for formalizing the Anthropocene Epoch.

  • Application of additional factors supporting the microextraction process
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Małgorzata Rutkowska, Katarzyna Owczarek, Miguel de la Guardia, Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Jacek Namieśnik

    Due to the fact that green analytical chemistry is of high importance, the past two decades have witnessed a rapid growth in the sample preparation area with special emphasis on simplification, miniaturization and automation of extraction procedures. In addition, to accelerate the extraction processes and to improve the separation of analytes, several enhanced parameters are applied. These factors include, ultrasounds, microwaves, air, electrical potential and addition of surfactants. Application of these parameters into extraction techniques such like DLLME, EME, LPME bring many advantages including higher extraction efficiency, lower LOD and LOQ parameters, reduced environmental hazards, and consumption of less extracting solvent. Therefore, such techniques like ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, electro-enhanced hollow fiber membrane liquid phase microextraction, vortex-assisted matrix solid–liquid dispersive microextraction and others are extensively used in analytical practice.

  • Techniques for biological fingerprinting of traditional Chinese medicine
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Yi Tao, Xianghui Gu, Weidong Li, Hao Wu, Baochang Cai, Boli Zhang
  • Ultrasonically Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Functional Compounds from Plant Materials
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    M. Vinatoru, T.J. Mason, I. Calinescu

    In order to identify the chemical constituents of vegetal material it is important that an efficient extraction procedure is followed which provides both an efficient extraction and also limits the decomposition of extracted compounds during the process. Traditional methods such as distillation, solvent extraction and cold compression continue to be used but significant improvements can be achieved with the application of either ultrasound or microwave technologies. In this review we will discuss the development of these methods and review the advantages which can be achieved.

  • Nanopost Array Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NAPA-LDI MS): Gathering moss?
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Manikandan Muthu, Sechul Chun, Judy Gopal

    Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LDI MS), has grown in popularity solving the matrix interference problem that Matrix assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) faced. The silicon based nanostructure LDI platforms have manifested with hypes and spikes, yet have already started showing signs of premature decay or stagnation. Nanopost Array Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (NAPA LDI), the latest generation of the LDI variants has surfaced with an ability to overcome other LDI MS limitations. But, it is still confined within not more than tens of researchers. When MALDI MS has flourished inspite of the varied limitations; the slowing down of this technique inspite of no disclosed limitation, is what prompted this review. The current loss of enthusiasm with respect to this technique and the reasons behind the obvious lack of popularity inspite of this technique’s versatility are speculated.

  • Metal organic frameworks as advanced sorbents for the extraction and determination of pollutants from environmental, biological, and food media
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Beshare Hashemi, Parvin Zohrabi, Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim
  • Reprint of: Application of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approaches for food safety, quality and traceability ☆
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    María Castro-Puyana, Raquel Pérez-Míguez, Lidia Montero, Miguel Herrero

    The always more-demanding fields of food safety, quality and traceability are continuously fostering the development of robust, efficient, sensitive and cost-effective analytical methodologies. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is a key tool nowadays with great potential in many analytical fields and has been demonstrated to be capable of facing some important challenges related to these areas within the food science domain.The main aim of this review is to present a critical overview of the most recent applications of MS-based metabolomics approaches for food quality, safety and traceability assessment, covering the most relevant works published from 2014 to 2017. Information about the different steps needed to develop a MS-metabolomics approach, i.e. sample treatment, analytical platform, and data processing, is also provided and discussed.

  • Recent advances in liquid-phase microextraction techniques for the analysis of environmental pollutants
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-30
    Beshare Hashemi, Parvin Zohrabi, Ki-Hyun Kim, Mojtaba Shamsipur, Akash Deep, Jongki Hong
  • Fluorescein applications as fluorescent probes for the detection of analytes
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-26
    Fanyong Yan, Keqing Fan, Zhangjun Bai, Ruiqi Zhang, Fanlin Zu, Jinxia Xu, Xiang Li
  • Trends in Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy involving nanocomposite transducers: characterization, architecture surface and bio-sensing
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-25
    Jose Muñoz, Raquel Montes, Mireia Baeza

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has gained widespread application for the characterization of functionalized electrode surfaces and for the transduction of bio-sensing events. However, bio-sensors using EIS detection have to be carefully designed to minimize non-specific binding of the analyte. In this sense, surface engineering by using nanocomposite materials (NCs) is advantageous due to the increased electrode surface area, improved electrical conductivity of the sensing interface, chemical accessibility to the analyte and electroanalysis. Accordingly, this review summarizes the basis of the EIS technique as well as its implementation not only in common Faradaic EIS (impedimetric) bio-sensors using NCs as highly sensitive transducer platforms but also in not so conventional non-Faradaic EIS (capacitive) approaches. Finally, it is also highlighted the feasibility of EIS as an alternative characterization tool towards the optimization of NC electrodes in terms of loading ratios for electroanalytical improvements, summarizing the latest promising results in nanocomposite carbon paste electrodes.

  • Recent chemometrics advances for Foodomics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Marta Bevilacqua, Rasmus Bro, Federico Marini, Åsmund Rinnan, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Thomas Skov

    Foodomics is a newly developed discipline that has become more and more important in the last years where focus on food and the understanding of food systems has increased significantly. In this review, the flow of a typical foodomics study will be followed with a focus on the core components, where chemometric expertise is more deeply involved. These are: how to acquire sound data, how to exploit an experimental design, how to use classification in a proper way, how to look at more analytical platforms at the same time and, not the least, how to understand the limitations when interpreting the developed models. For each of these phases, the most common data issues will be highlighted and some of the most recent chemometric methods that are able to help solving them, will be presented.

  • Antibody based affinity capture LC-MS/MS in quantitative determination of proteins in biological matrices
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Trine Grønhaug Halvorsen, Léon Reubsaet

    Determination of proteins in complex biological matrices has massive attention and is exploited in many different scientific disciplines. Routinely, proteins are determined using antibody based immuno-metric assays. Although these assays are easy to perform and widely used, interpretation of the results is challenging: cross reactivity, high dose hook-effect, presence of heterophile- or auto-antibodies give rise to false results, sometimes with dramatic consequences. In the quest for more robust assays a combination of antibody sample clean-up, tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric determination is gaining more attention. This review discusses the advantages of antibody based affinity capture and subsequent LC-MS/MS in protein analysis like less false results and possibilities like multiplexing and isoform differentiation. It also considers the interplay between the analytical, biological and biochemical factors, which still give rise to false results, even with mass spectrometry as the ultimate selective detection step. The intention of this review is to point out both strengths and weaknesses of antibody based affinity capture LC-MS/MS in quantitative determination of proteins in biological matrices.

  • Core-shell molecularly imprinted particles
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Libin Wan, Zhiliang Chen, Chuixiu Huang, Xiantao Shen
  • Analytical methodology for identification of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the environment
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Ting Ruan, Guibin Jiang

    Continuing regulatory scrutiny of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has resulted in usage of fluorinated alternative products. Featured analytical methodologies are thus emerged recently for the identification of novel PFAS contaminants in environmental and biological matrices. In this review, protocols for tracing compositions of unidentified organofluorine components are summarized. Data-mining and chemical recognition techniques by high-resolution mass spectrometry are further overviewed. We also discuss knowledge gaps and future trends on separation and elucidation of emerging PFAS analogues with varied molecular structures.

  • The importance of speciation analysis in neurodegeneration research
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Bernhard Michalke, Desiree Willkommen, Evgenii Drobyshev, Nikolay Solovyev
  • Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based hybrid monolithic columns: Recent advances in preparation and its applications for capillary liquid chromatography
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-19
    Xiaoqiang Qiao, Rui Chen, Hongyuan Yan, Shigang Shen

    As a naturally molecular level organic-silica hybrid particle, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been proved to be a good choice for preparation of new hybrid monolithic columns with the merits of ease of fabrication, ultrahigh column efficiency and excellent separation selectivity. In this review, we summarize the recently reported POSS-based hybrid monolithic columns, especially those reported in the recent 5 years. These POSS-based hybrid monolithic columns are classified based on the reactive groups of POSSs as well as the introduced organically functionalized reagents, emphasizing the preparation methods and further applications in capillary liquid chromatography.

  • Applications of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials in Chiral Separation
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-17
    Qi Wu, Yaming Sun, Jie Gao, Shuqing Dong, Guoying Luo, Hui Li, Liang Zhao

    Abstract Chiral separation has always been a topic concerned by chemical and pharmaceutical communities. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials (HOIM), with high mechanical stability, large surface area, tailored pore size, controlled morphology and organic loading have shown superior chiral recognition performance in several kinds of chiral separation technologies. In this review, application progress of HOIM used as chiral stationary phases for HPLC, CEC/CLC and GC was discussed in detail. The developments of HOIM applied in membrane separation and electrochemistry discrimination were also summarized.

  • Technologies for Analysis of Circulating Tumor DNA: Progress and Promise
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-12
    Zhen Zou, Peng Qi, Zhihe Qing, Jing Zheng, Sheng Yang, Weiju Chen, Ronghua Yang

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) isolated from peripheral blood has recently been shown to be a biomarker to detect gene mutations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancer. Utilizing ctDNA as the liquid biopsy has significant potential to pave the way toward a better understanding of cancer at the molecular level and improve patient outcomes in the future. Over the past decades, a large number of efforts have been devoted to the development of valid methods for analyzing ctDNA, which provide researchers and clinicians a variety of tools to detect and monitor tumors. In this review, we displayed an overview of current representative technologies for the detection of ctDNA and discuss recent technical advancements. Then, the challenges and outlooks in this promising field are featured on the basis of its current development.

  • Anion sensing with chemosensors having multiple –NH recognition units
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-12
    Navneet Kaur, Gaganpreet Kaur, Umesh A. Fegade, Amanpreet Singh, Suban K. Sahoo, Anil S. Kuwar, Narinder Singh
  • Recent advances and applications of polydopamine-derived adsorbents for sample pretreatment
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-11
    Dandan Che, Jie Cheng, Zhongyin Ji, Shijuan Zhang, Guoliang Li, Zhiwei Sun, Jinmao You

    Sample pretreatment is a critical and essential step in almost all analytical procedures, especially for the analysis of biological and environmental samples with complex matrix. Dopamine molecules can easily selfpolymerize under weak alkaline conditions, leading to a facile deposition of polydopamine (PDA) coatings on various surfaces. Since 2011, PDA chemistry has undergone significant expansion in its applications and is becoming one of the most attractive areas within the materials field. Here, the recent advancements of PDA-derived adsorbents for sample pretreatment were reviewed, with especial focus on the surface modification strategies, extraction modes and application fields. In addition, the prospects of PDA-derived adsorbents for sample pretreatment are also proposed.

  • Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platforms for environmental monitoring
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Roberto Pol, Francisco Céspedes, David Gabriel, Mireia Baeza
  • Electromembrane Extraction
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-08
    Chuixiu Huang, Zhiliang Chen, Astrid Gjelstad, Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Xiantao Shen

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based on the nature of the SLM and the electrical field. EME has been applied for the separation of ionizable compounds from complex samples, and EME is currently considered as an active research topic in the area of sample preparation and analytical chemistry. We expect that EME will play important roles in future analytical laboratories. This review summarizes and highlights the advancements in EME from 2006 to 2016 with focuses on 1) fundamental aspects, 2) device and operation modes, 3) performance, and 4) hyphenation to other analytical sample preparation techniques. Meanwhile, this review indicates that the main objectives for future EME is to establish EME as tool for routine applications, and to stimulate for further research on sophisticated systems based on the EME principle.

  • Detecting semen stains on fabrics using near infrared hyperspectral images and multivariate models
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Carolina S. Silva, Maria Fernanda Pimentel, José Manuel Amigo, Ricardo S. Honorato, Celio Pasquini

    Identification of semen stains is a critical step in evidence analysis in cases of sexual assaults (rape, child molestation, sexual harassments, etc). Presumptive and confirmatory methodologies that are nondestructive and can be used at crime scenes are extremely needed to help forensic experts to collect useful evidences without compromising the integrity of the samples. In this work, we put forward the high potential of a fast, nondestructive and noninvasive methodology like Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI-NIR), together with adequate multivariate methodologies for exploratory data analysis and classification. Due to the high absorption of the substrate, an exhaustive data analysis is performed in order to test the most suitable tool for the detection and discrimination of semen stains in diverse fabrics. Samples of human semen, lubricants, breast milk and animal semen were placed on fabrics of different colors and compositions to create a stain and hyperspectral images were acquired. As identification tools, Principal Component Analysis and MCR-ALS were used. Moreover, Classification techniques such as PLS-DA, sPLS-DA and SVM-DA were used in order to differentiate human semen from other substances. Although the methodology developed depend on the substrate used, it has been proven that HSI-NIR can be used as presumptive and confirmatory method of analysis in the search for semen stains.

  • Could urinary retinol be used as a new biomarker of kidney damage?
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-04
    Kateřina Kučerová, Lenka Kujovská Krčmová, Ludmila Matysová, Petr Solich

    The importance of vitamin A and its various forms and metabolites for the human body, as well as their methods of analysis, has often been described previously. The excretion of retinol into the urine has been observed in diseases accompanied with kidney damage such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, and serious infections. This review summarizes all available information concerning the importance of the determination of retinol in urine. Analytical aspects such as sample collection, sample preparation, and analysis are discussed in detail, and the main emphasis is focused on the enormous potential of retinol as an early biomarker for the detection of renal failure.

  • Application of aptamers in detection and chromatographic purification of antibiotics in different matrices
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-03
    Yi Yang, Shuo Yin, Yongxin Li, Dan Lu, Jing Zhang, Chengjun Sun

    Antibiotic contamination and abuse are universal phenomena, accordingly antibiotic resistance has emerged as a serious issue globally in recent years. To detect antibiotics and their residues in the environment, foods, drugs and biological samples, numerous analytical techniques have been developed. Among them, aptamer-based methods are considered to be highly sensitive and selective and have been applied to the detection of various antibiotics in different samples. We present a systematical and critical review on the antibiotic-specific aptamers and their application in detection of antibiotics in different matrices, focusing on the recent advances in optical and electrochemical aptasensors, aptamer-affinity based sample purification, as well as the promising label-free and multiplex determination.

  • Developing aptasensors for forensic analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    James Gooch, Barbara Daniel, Mark Parkin, Nunzianda Frascione

    Aptamer-based biosensors may be of significant benefit to forensic analysis by allowing the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of molecular targets relevant to criminal investigation. However, despite the production efficiency, stability and cost effectiveness of aptamer recognition moieties, aptasensors have yet to find commercial employment within any area of forensic science. This review therefore attempts to encourage aptasensor development by initially identifying the methods of selection, sequence analysis and affinity measurement most appropriate for the discovery of suitable aptamers against analytes of forensic interest. A range of optical, electrochemical and mass-sensitive transduction platforms that may be considered amenable to current forensic testing procedures are then discussed. The specific analytical disciplines in which aptasensing technology is likely to be of greatest value, including forensic drug analysis, forensic toxicology and biological evidence and explosives detection are lastly highlighted to stimulate researchers to consider the development of sensors towards these particular target types.

  • Current Challenges and Future Prospects in Chromatographic Method Development for Pharmaceutical Research
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    Frederick T. Mattrey, Alexey A. Makarov, Erik L. Regalado, Frank Bernardoni, Margaret Figus, Michael B. Hicks, Jinjian Zheng, Lin Wang, Wes Schafer, Vincent Antonucci, Simon E. Hamilton, Kerstin Zawatzky, Christopher J. Welch

    A survey of different strategies for chromatographic method development in pharmaceutical research and development is presented. Owing to the widespread utilization of chromatography within diverse areas of pharmaceutical research, a variety of strategies for method development have arisen. We survey the current state of the art, discuss recent trends and approaches and highlight future prospects and capability gaps.

  • The role of derivatization techniques in the analysis of plant cannabinoids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    B. Fodor, I. Molnár-Perl

    Derivatization is the most powerful contribution to the identification and quantification of plant cannabinoids (p-CBDs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS): providing volatile derivatives with eminent properties (high selectivity, outstanding sensitivity and mass spectrometric peculiarities). These derivatives are excellent candidates to determine the main p-CBDs, like tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), tetrahydrocannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabicyclol (CBCL), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-THC (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). Identification and quantification of p-CBDs is required - partly as trace constituents in complex biological matrices of drug users, partly as main components in seizure samples: in both cases, in extremely different ratios. GC proposals published between 2000 and 2017, along with outstanding pioneer contributions, are reviewed. Procedures, without derivatization and applying various alkylsilyl, acylation and/or esterification techniques were listed, compared and criticized. Further sorting was based on the reagent type, on examined matrices, on enrichment/detection related acquisition protocols and on analytical performance characteristics.

  • Recent Developments in Inorganic Hg2+ Detection by Voltammetry
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Alex L. Suherman, Eden EL. Tanner, Richard G. Compton

    This review presents recent developments in electrochemical Hg2+ detection by voltammetry, summarizing and evaluating the use of different voltammetric techniques, working electrodes, and surface modifications. The remaining technical challenges are discussed and a future outlook offered.

  • Analysis of emerging contaminants and nanomaterials in plant materials following uptake from soils
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Yolanda Picó, Ahmed Alfarham, Damià Barceló

    The reuse of treated wastewater or wastewater-impacted river water is growing, particularly in arid areas, due to the climate change. As well, the disposal of sludges, biosolids or biochar as soil amendments to improve agricultural output is widely implemented in the EU. These practices can be a source of emerging contaminants and engineering nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment and condition their incorporation to food chain that could affect human beings. This review covers current analytical techniques, instruments and methodologies used to determine emerging contaminants and ENMs from irrigation water and/or soil amendments in plants. Trends regarding sample treatment, separation and detection approaches are addressed. Special emphasis is placed on in-situ characterization of ENMs (e.g. particle size distribution, shape, aggregation state, etc.). We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the analytical methods and techniques for determining emerging contaminants and fully ENMs characterization, and cover promising future prospects.

  • Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry-Based Detection to Determine Emerging Organic Contaminants in Environmental Samples
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-22
    Daniela Salas, Francesc Borrull, Núria Fontanals, Rosa Maria Marcé

    Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has gained widespread acceptance as an alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) for the retention and separation of polar compounds. Because a great number of emerging organic contaminants are polar, this represents progress in terms of solving most of the problems and limitations encountered in the conventional methods developed for their determination. In this review, recent HILIC applications developed in the environmental field are described, which are normally coupled with mass spectrometry, in order to reach the limits required to quantify contaminants present at trace levels and benefit from its capacity for confirmation. Special attention is paid to the stationary and mobile phases commonly used in terms of the advantages that they offer compared to reversed-phase columns and the high-water content mobile phases traditionally used in RPLC. The most important features related to the matrices and contaminants normally studied are also discussed, as well as the contribution of the HILIC mode towards reducing the matrix effect.

  • Deciphering the disease-related molecular networks using urine proteomics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-22
    Paulo André Dias Bastos, Antonia Vlahou, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Lúcio Lara Santos, Rita Ferreira, Rui Vitorino

    Despite the large number of studies focused on the impact of diseases on urine proteome, few outputs with clinical meaning were retrieved so far. The goal of this study was to identify the biological processes modulated in urine by distinct diseases to better understand disease pathogenesis and identify urinary proteins with potential diagnosis value. We searched PubMed and SCOPUS databases for mass spectrometry based experimental papers and pooled differentially expressed proteins by disease and target organic system.

  • Recent developments and applications of mass spectrometry for the quality and safety assessment of cooking oil
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Guodong Cao, Dongliang Ruan, Zhaobin Chen, Yanjun Hong, Zongwei Cai

    Cooking oil, composed of great variety of chemical constitutes, has been increasingly prevailing in public diet due to its functional and nutritional benefits to consumers. The long-term storage, deep frying process and repeated use of cooking oil will release numerous deterioration products, such as aldehydes, ketones, epoxides, polymerides and cyclic aromatic hydrogen compounds, which influences the quality of cooking oil and has emerged safety concerns on used cooking oil. Analyzing these components with complex molecular structures and dynamic concentration ranges in oil samples poses a big challenge to researchers. In this article, we review the recent developments of mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for quality assessment of cooking oil and highlight its increasing applications in authentication, aging and marker-detection of used cooking oil. Additionally, the current technical challenges and future prospects associated with these methodologies are provided.

  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of voltammetric and optical techniques for Inorganic Selenium Determination in Water
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-20
    Pooja Devi, Rishabh Jain, Anupma Thakur, Manish Kumar, Nitin K. Labhsetwar, Manoj Nayak, Praveen Kumar

    Selenium, a metalloid, commonly known for its essentiality has emerged out as a water pollutant of concern for environmentalist due to its presence in natural water resources above the permissible limit. The high level of selenium in the environment poses severe health and ecosystem threats, therefore, its monitoring in water is of paramount concern. The present contribution summarizes and critically analyzes the field promising techniques, in particular, voltammetry and optical approach, for selenium quantification in water. The role of sensor material (organic fluorophores, colorimetric dyes and quantum dots), electrode surface modifiers (Hg, Bi, polymers, nano materials, etc.), chelators, etc., to overcome various challenges and achieve better sensor performance in terms of detection limit, range, reproducibility, stability, selectivity, sensitivity, and so forth are critically discussed. To end with, the possible future developments are discussed towards the realization of a cost-effective & field deployable monitoring device for on-site selenium analysis.

  • Novel mass spectrometry approaches in Food Proteomics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Robin Korte, Jens Brockmeyer

    The application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to address different aspects of Food Quality and Food Safety is of hugely growing interest. This article reviews recent developments and applications in the field of food proteomics with special attention on food authentication, process-induced modification, nutriproteomics and different aspects of food safety such as allergen detection and celiac disease.

  • Omics methods as a tool for investigation of food allergies
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Uros Andjelković, Marija Gavrović-Jankulović, Tamara Martinović, Djuro Josić

    Use of foodomics, mostly proteomic and genomic based methods, for study of allergens in food is presented. Immunological methods and nucleic acid-based methods are still most frequently used for diagnosis of allergies and for qualitative and quantitative determination of food allergens. They are sensitive, and can be used for the determination of allergens in trace concentrations. However, lack of specificity and cross-reaction of some antibodies can still be a relevant source of bias. The epitopes of protein allergens with posttranslational modifications and their changes originated during food processing cannot be traced by use of nucleic acid-based strategies. Recent developments of both antibody and nucleic acid-based biosensors, their miniaturization and increasing application of nanotechnology, significantly supported further use of both strategies. Regarding accuracy, reliability and sensitivity, mass spectrometry-based methods bring important advantage over both above presented strategies. Furthermore, the increasing use of mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed. Combined with proper sample preparation, liquid chromatography (LC) and/or different electrophoretic methods, targeted approach in mass spectrometry-based allergen analysis brings an additional strategic advance. However, MS is still rarely used for high-throughput analyses and detection and quantification of allergens for the reasons of price and relatively long time necessary for analysis. Recent developments of new high-resolution instruments are encouraging and enable development in the direction of a high-throughput strategy. Consequently, fast, very sensitive, reliable and accurate detection and quantification of allergens in highly complex samples such as food matrices, and the use of MS in routine determination of allergens can be reached in near future.

  • Point-of-care-testing of nucleic acids by microfluidics
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Lu Zhang, Baozhi Ding, Qinghua Chen, Qiang Feng, Ling Lin, Jiashu Sun

    Nucleic acid detection offers critical information in diagnosing pathogen infection and monitoring disease treatment. Point-of-care testing (POCT), with ideal characteristics such as rapidness, user-friendly, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness, has drawn wide attention, especially in resource-poor settings where lack the healthcare infrastructure. Accompanied by the development of microfluidic technologies and new amplification methods, POCT of nucleic acids greatly improves health monitoring and prevents outbreak of infectious diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in diagnostics of nucleic acids in POC formats, and discusses challenges associated with POCT of nucleic acids.

  • Nontargeted screening of chemical contaminants and illegal additives in food based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Yanqing Fu, Chunxia Zhao, Xin Lu, Guowang Xu

    Nowadays food safety has become one of the focus topics all over the world. Illegal addition of additives and chemical contaminants are the prominent problems. Because of the advantages of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), the combination of liquid chromatography (LC) with HRMS has been more and more used in food safety analysis, but most of related analytical methods have been developed to detect the specific known compounds. For unknown harmful compounds in food, nontargeted screening method is a complementary one. However, there are still a lot of challenges in the nontargeted analysis. Here, the recent studies about sample preparation, LC-HRMS profiling analysis, data pretreatment, differential analysis, identification of unknown compounds in nontargeted screening of chemical contaminants and illegal additives in food are reviewed based on the papers published mainly in 2010-2017, which can be helpful for defining potential risk compounds in food analysis in the future.

  • Quantification of Lipoprotein Profiles by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Violetta Aru, Chloie Lam, Bekzod Khakimov, Huub C.J. Hoefsloot, Gooitzen Zwanenburg, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Hartmut Schäfer, John van Duynhoven, Doris M. Jacobs, Age K. Smilde, Søren B. Engelsen

    Lipoproteins and their subfraction profiles have been associated to diverse diseases including Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD). There is thus a great demand for measuring and quantifying the lipoprotein profile in an efficient and accurate manner.

  • Nanomaterial-based Aptasensors and bioaffinity sensors for quantitative detection of 17β-estradiol
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Alireza Nezami, Rahim Nosrati, Behrouz Golichenari, Ramin Rezaee, Georgios I. Chatzidakis, Aristides M. Tsatsakis, Gholamreza Karimi

    One of the most important endogenous estrogens is 17β-estradiol, which disturbed the endocrine system, and causing adverse effects on the growth, reproduction and development of the body. It is necessary to develop a convenient and rapid analytical method to detect estradiol with high sensitivity and selectivity. For determination of 17β-estradiol, methods such as high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used. However, these methods often need expensive instruments, complex pretreatment, large volumes of harmful solvents and professional operation. Aptamers have been used as a new biosensor platform for detection of 17β-estradiol in different samples. This article provides an overview of the applications of aptasensors in analysis and monitoring of 17β-estradiol. After a brief description of the steroids, recent advances and applications of aptamer-based biosensors are presented. We have paid attention to the potential role of bioaffinity systems in the detection and quantitative determination of 17β-estradiol.

  • Authentication of Tequilas Using Pattern Recognition and Supervised Classification
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    G. Pérez-Caballero, J.M. Andrade, P. Olmos, Y. Molina, I. Jiménez, J.J. Durán, C. Fernandez-Lozano, F. Miguel-Cruz

    Sales of reputed, Mexican tequila grown substantially in last years and, therefore, counterfeiting is increasing steadily. Hence, methodologies intended to characterize and authenticate commercial beverages are a real need. They require a combination of analytical characterization and chemometric tools. This work reports concisely on the former and focus on the chemometric tools employed so far in connection with them. Further, a practical case study presents the classification capabilities of nine supervised classification methods to differentiate white, rested, aged and extra-aged tequilas. The largest set of certified tequilas employed so far was considered. In general, non linear methods performed best than linear ones (accuracy higher than 94 % in both training and validation). The case study demonstrates that it is possible to develop fast, cheap, easy to implement and reliable analytical methodologies to authenticate and classify samples of tequilas.

  • Relevant aspects of unmixing/resolution analysis for the interpretation of biological vibrational hyperspectral images
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Víctor Olmos, Laura Benítez, Mónica Marro, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Benjamí Piña, Romà Tauler, Anna de Juan

    The use of multivariate unmixing/resolution methods for the analysis of biological vibrational hyperspectral images is crucial to characterize the morphology and spectral signatures of the different biological tissues or cell compartments. This work provides a general data analysis protocol to interpret Raman and FT-IR hyperspectral images of biological samples. To do so, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) is the core tool proposed.

  • Recent developments and emerging trends of mass spectrometry for herbal ingredients analysis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Aihua Zhang, Hui Sun, Guangli Yan, Xijun Wang

    Herbal preparation has recently increased health awareness and its efficacy is brought about by the multi-constituents. Therefore, the application of mass spectrometry (MS) in herbal preparation has been dramatically growing due to the improved detection capabilities. It offered high sensitivity, high-throughput and selectivity, has better accuracy, and can be utilized to quantitative, qualitative and imaging. High-throughput screening method integrated with MS platform is an excellent tool to analyse the multi-components of herbal preparation in the post-genomic era. For providing an up-to-date overview of MS application on the HM-derived compounds, the papers published in the latest years involving quantitative and qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and MS platform integrated with high-throughput screening method are summarized in this review. Examples of the application of MS in the HM sciences focusing on chemical analysis are highlighted, and new developments and future prospects are also highlighted.

  • Critical review and trends in forensic investigations of crossing ink lines
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-13
    Lívia Rodrigues e Brito, Angêlica Rocha Martins, André Braz, Amanda Belém Chaves, Jez Willian Braga, Maria Fernanda

    This manuscript presents a critical discussion of the methods and techniques proposed for determining the sequence of crossing ink lines and their advantages, limitations and effectiveness are compared. Some trends are described, such as examination of physical features using optical and electron microscopy in the 60’s and 70’s, the use of the lifting technique in the 80’s and the ESDA in the 90’s. The year 2000 introduced chemical analysis with IR and Raman spectroscopy and also surface analysis with 3D laser Profilometry, for more objective examinations. The last decade has seen the application of the VSC and hyperspectral imaging, combined with chemometrics for automated, more informative and representative examinations. Nevertheless, interpretations remain visual and blind testing can be used for method validation. Some studies addressed some of the factors affecting the crossing of two ink lines are addressed but much of the physicochemical aspects remain uncomprehended and understudied.

  • Clinical MALDI mass spectrometry for tuberculosis diagnostics: speculating the methodological blueprint and contemplating the obligation to improvise
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Muthu Manikandan, Anbarasu Deenadayalan, A. Vimala, Judy Gopal, Sechul Chun

    MALDI MS with its long history in clinical analysis, is a vital tool, well known for its versatility, rapidity and implementation ease. In tuberculosis research, MALDI has outstanding contributions on the pathogen detection aspect as well as disease diagnosis prospect. This article reviews the existing methods and achievements made employing MALDI MS in tuberculosis research. The challenges confronting and limiting MALDI MS based tuberculosis analysis are presented. An interesting yet intriguing lacuna is that almost none of the state-of-art MALDI MS variants, such as DIOS, NIMS, NALDI, NAPA have been implicated into MALDI based tuberculosis research. These nano platforms holding fabulous claims for pushing the limits of detection and avoiding matrix interferences, enhanced resolution, being kept away from this research arena is disturbing and is called to notice through this review.

  • Current applications and perspectives of Ion Mobility Spectrometry to answer chemical food safety issues
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-11
    Maykel Hernández-Mesa, Antoine Escourrou, Fabrice Monteau, Bruno Le Bizec, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has recently caught the attention of researchers from different fields including food safety. In general, IMS has been considered as analytical detection tool for the analysis of residues and contaminants in foodstuffs due to its high sensitivity, quick response and portability. However, IMS also provides an extra separation dimension when it is coupled to traditional liquid chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. Due to the enhancement of the resolving power, target analytes can be easier isolated from chemical background as well as isobaric and isomeric compounds are separated. In addition, collision cross section databases for residues and contaminants have been recently reported. It supposes the first attempt for considering this IMS-related parameter as an additional dimension for chemical structure elucidation in food safety control. This review presents an overview of the current state of IMS in the field and discusses its main perspectives in the area.

  • Recent applications of nanomaterials in food safety
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez, Javier González-Sálamo, Javier Hernández-Borges, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado

    The discovery of nanomaterials has produced a great impact in the improvement and development of Analytical Chemistry as a result of their particular properties. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene and quantum dots, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. This review article is aimed at summarizing the most recent applications of such nanomaterials in food safety (period 2013-2017), including their uses as sorbents, chromatographic stationary phases, sensors, etc. Particular attention has been paid to provide a general vision of the wide variety of materials that are currently being used in this field.

  • Ensuring food safety using aptamer based assays: Electroanalytical approach
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Hedieh Malekzad, Abolghasem Jouyban, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Nasrin Shadjou, Miguel de la Guardia

    Aptamers, are being increasingly employed as favorable receptors for constructing highly sensitive biosensors, for their remarkable affinities towards certain targets including a wide scope of biological or chemical substances, and their superiority over other biologic receptors. The selectivity and affinity of the aptamers have been integrated with the wise design of the assay, applying suitable modifications, such as nanomaterials on the electrode surface, employing oligonucleotide-specific amplification strategies or, their combinations. After successful performance of the electrochemical aptasensors for biomedical applications, the food sector with its direct implication for human health, which demands rapid and sensitive and economic analytical solutions for determination of health threatening contaminants in all stages of production process, is the next field of research for developing efficient electrochemical aptasensors. The aim of this review is to categorize and introduce food hazards and summarize the recent electrochemical aptasensors that have been developed to address these contaminants.

  • Phosphorene and black phosphorus for sensing and biosensing
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-05-19
    Martin Pumera

    Two dimensional (2D) materials exhibit highly useful materials properties. Graphene, single sheet transition metals dichalcogenides found plethora applications in various fields, including analytical chemistry. Layered black phosphorus and its single sheet variation (phosphorene) became popular material very recently due to its monoelemental composition, biocompatibility, electrochemical properties, tunable bandgap and resulting optical properties. Here we describe progress which was made towards analytical applications of black phosphorus and its single sheet counterpart, phosphorene.

  • Application of nanocomposite polymer hydrogels for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection of proteins in gel electrophoresis
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    Mohammad Zarei

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are a special class of materials which nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in a polymer matrix resulting in novel materials having unique physical and chemical properties. Successful combination of different properties of the NPs with the existing properties of polymers matrix became the goal of scientists. Gel electrophoresis is a gold standard analysis tool used as a routine and important separation technique for proteomics and genomics characterization of proteins and DNA samples. Various strategies were proposed for improving the parent method performance including incorporation of nanomaterials. This review focuses on the latest applications and achievements of using PNCs as separation medium in gel electrophoresis. For each type of nanomaterials, we describe different examples. Also, we propose strategies for improving the efficiency and influence of NPs in host polymer hydrogel matrix. Further, we discuss potential directions and issues worth exploring for application of novel PNCs in gel electrophoresis.

  • Prospects of ionic liquids application in electronic and bioelectronic nose instruments
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Tomasz Wasilewski, Jacek Gębicki, Wojciech Kamysz

    This paper addresses the problem of application of ionic liquids to chemical sensors and biosensors being an integral part of the electronic and bioelectronic-type instruments. The design and principle of operation of the electronic and bioelectronic noses are compared. Both the benefits and shortcomings of the application of ionic liquids in these type of instruments are described. The prospects of the development and application potential of the electronic and bioelectronic nose instruments containing ionic liquids are presented as well.

  • Cheap and disposable gold and silver electrodes: Trends in the application of compact discs and digital versatile discs for electroanalytical chemistry
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-05-17
    Kevin C. Honeychurch

    Increasingly more reports have focused on the use of digital versatile discs (DVDs) and compact discs (CDs) for the fabrication of electrodes. The majority of discs use Al to reflect the laser. However, a notable percentage utilise Au or Ag. This layer can be mechanically or chemically exposed allowing for the economic fabrication of otherwise expensive Ag and Au electrodes. Cleaning steps are not required due to the layer's mirror like surface. Mass production of these discs means they are available, reproducible and disposable. Modifications can be made by laser, inkjet printing, etching or xurography. Self-assembled monolayers and the attachment of functional groups can also be made. This review (97 references and 6 figures) is divided into four sections. The first describes the development of these electrodes and their fabrication and modification. The next three sections focused on applications for the determination of metal ions, biomedical and environmental analysis.

  • Recent achievements in element analysis of bee honeys by atomic and mass spectrometry methods
    Trends Anal. Chem. (IF 8.442) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Pawel Pohl, Aleksandra Bielawska-Pohl, Anna Dzimitrowicz, Piotr Jamroz, Maja Welna, Anna Lesniewicz, Anna Szymczycha-Madeja

    Consumption of honey cannot raise any concern about its wholesomeness, safety and quality in reference to the content of different contaminants, particularly trace and hazardous elements. Element analysis of honey by atomic and mass spectrometry methods is an important part of its quality and safety. The present paper comprehensively reviews recent achievements in element analysis of honey that have been reported since 2012. The survey is focused on different research aspects of such analysis, including assessment of biological and geographical origin of honey by using chemometric methods, quality and safety of honey, and sample preparation of honey prior to element analysis by atomic and mass spectrometry methods. Calibration strategies and ways of quality assurance and control of the results are surveyed as well.

Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.