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  • Epicormic Resprouting in Fire-Prone Ecosystems
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-17
    Juli G. Pausas, Jon E. Keeley

    Many plants resprout from basal buds after disturbance, and this is common in shrublands subjected to high-intensity fires. However, resprouting after fire from epicormic (stem) buds is globally far less common. Unlike basal resprouting, post-fire epicormic resprouting is a key plant adaptation for retention of the arborescent skeleton after fire, allowing rapid recovery of the forest or woodland and leading to greater ecosystem resilience under recurrent high-intensity fires. Here we review the biogeography of epicormic resprouting, the mechanisms of protection, the fire regimes where it occurs, and the evolutionary drivers that shaped this trait. We propose that epicormic resprouting is adaptive in ecosystems with high fire frequency and relatively high productivity, at moderate–high fire intensities.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Non-26S Proteasome Endomembrane Trafficking Pathways in ABA Signaling
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-14
    Feifei Yu, Qi Xie

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital endogenous messenger that regulates diverse physiological processes in plants. The regulation of ABA signaling has been well studied at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Post-translational modification of key regulators in ABA signaling by the 26S ubiquitin proteasome pathway is well known. Recently, increasing evidence demonstrates that atypical turnover of key regulators by the endocytic trafficking pathway and autophagy also play vital roles in ABA perception, signaling, and action. We summarize and synthesize here recent findings in the field of ABA signaling.

    更新日期:2017-09-15
  • Epichloë Fungal Endophytes and Plant Defenses: Not Just Alkaloids
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-08
    Daniel A. Bastias, M. Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Carlos L. Ballaré, Pedro E. Gundel

    Although the role of fungal alkaloids in protecting grasses associated with Epichloë fungal endophytes has been extensively documented, the effects of the symbiont on the host plant’s immune responses have received little attention. We propose that, in addition to producing protective alkaloids, endophytes enhance plant immunity against chewing insects by promoting endogenous defense responses mediated by the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. We advance a model that integrates this dual effect of endophytes on plant defenses and test its predictions by means of a standard meta-analysis. This analysis supports a role of Epichloë endophytes in boosting JA-mediated plant defenses. We discuss the ecological scenarios where this effect of endophytes on plant defenses would be most beneficial for increasing plant fitness.

    更新日期:2017-09-09
  • Type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs Directly Activate WUSCHEL
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Fei Zhang, Alan May, Vivian F. Irish

    The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene is necessary for the maintenance of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem. Four recent reports show that cytokinin responsive type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs) directly activate WUS expression, providing a long-awaited explanation for how cytokinin influences the maintenance of the stem cell niche.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Divergence in How Genetic Pathways Respond to Environments
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Kathleen Donohue

    An upstream gene in the pathway that induces flowering in response to cold has been identified. The gene, RVR1, occurs in several plant lineages and operates in a pathway that exhibits functional divergence across development and across taxa. Such divergence can provide insight into how genetic pathways evolve.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Challenges towards Revitalizing Hemp: A Multifaceted Crop
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-05
    Craig Schluttenhofer, Ling Yuan

    Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids. Methods to manipulate the sex of hemp plants will also be important for optimizing yields of seed, fiber, and cannabinoids. Currently, research into trait improvement is hindered by the lack of molecular techniques adapted to hemp. Here we review how addressing these limitations will help advance our knowledge of plant biology and enable us to fully domesticate and maximize the agronomic potential of this promising crop.

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Determining Cellular Responses: Phytoglobins May Direct the Traffic
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-09-04
    Claudio Stasolla, Robert D. Hill

    How stem cells retain their undifferentiated state or how differentiated cells are capable of having dissimilar responses to perturbations are major open questions in plant biology. Cell-specific phytoglobin expression may be one mechanism determining cell fate by the modulation of nitric oxide (NO), affecting cellular hormonal responses and processes such as cell differentiation.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant–Pathogen Maneuvering over Apoplastic Sugars
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Muhammad Naseem, Meik Kunz, Thomas Dandekar

    The nutrient-rich extracellular plant compartment, the apoplast, is an attractive niche for attacks by microbial pathogens. Here, we highlight recent trends in plant–pathogen competition for apoplastic sugars in the context of innate immune responses in various plant–pathogen interaction systems.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant-derived Secondary Organic Material in the Air and Ecosystems
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-05
    J.K. Holopainen, M. Kivimäenpää, S.A. Nizkorodov

    Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and deposited secondary organic material (SOM) are formed by oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. Many SOA compounds have much longer chemical lifetimes than the original VOC, and may accumulate on plant surfaces and in soil as SOM because of their low volatility. This suggests that they may have important and presently unrecognized roles in plant adaptation. Using reactive plant terpenoids as a model we propose a three-tier (atmosphere–vegetation–soil) framework to better understand the ecological and evolutionary functions of SOM. In this framework, SOA in the atmosphere is known to affect solar radiation, SOM on the plant surfaces influences the interactive organisms, and wet and dry deposition of SOM on soil affects soil organisms.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant Hormones: Key Players in Gut Microbiota and Human Diseases?
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-22
    Emilie Chanclud, Benoît Lacombe

    It is well established that plant hormones such as auxins, cytokinins (CKs), and abscisic acid (ABA) not only govern important plant physiological traits but are key players in plant–microbe interactions. A poorly appreciated fact, however, is that both microbes and animals produce and perceive plant hormones and their mimics. Moreover, dietary plant hormones impact on human physiological process such as glucose assimilation, inflammation, and cell division. This leads us to wonder whether plant hormones could ensure functions in microbes per se as well as in animal–microbe interactions. We propose here and explore the hypothesis that plant hormones play roles in animal–microbiota relationships, with consequences for human health.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • A Conceptual Framework for Integrated Pest Management
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-04
    Johan A. Stenberg

    The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) has been accepted and incorporated in public policies and regulations in the European Union and elsewhere, but a holistic science of IPM has not yet been developed. Hence, current IPM programs may often be considerably less efficient than the sum of separately applied individual crop protection actions. Thus, there is a clear need to formulate general principles for synergistically combining traditional and novel IPM actions to improve efforts to optimize plant protection solutions. This paper addresses this need by presenting a conceptual framework for a modern science of IPM. The framework may assist attempts to realize the full potential of IPM and reduce risks of deficiencies in the implementation of new policies and regulations.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Steering Soil Microbiomes to Suppress Aboveground Insect Pests
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Ana Pineda, Ian Kaplan, T. Martijn Bezemer

    Soil-borne microbes affect aboveground herbivorous insects through a cascade of molecular and chemical changes in the plant, but knowledge of these microbe–plant–insect interactions is mostly limited to one or a few microbial strains. Yet, the soil microbial community comprises thousands of unique taxa interacting in complex networks, the so-called ‘microbiome’, which provides plants with multiple beneficial functions. There has been little exploration of the role and management of whole microbiomes in plant–insect interactions, calling for the integration of this complexity in aboveground–belowground research. Here, we propose holistic approaches to select soil microbiomes that can be used to protect plants from aboveground attackers.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Sensing Danger: Key to Activating Plant Immunity
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-02
    Andrea A. Gust, Rory Pruitt, Thorsten Nürnberger

    In both plants and animals, defense against pathogens relies on a complex surveillance system for signs of danger. Danger signals may originate from the infectious agent or from the host itself. Immunogenic plant host factors can be roughly divided into two categories: molecules which are passively released upon cell damage (‘classical’ damage-associated molecular patterns, DAMPs), and peptides which are processed and/or secreted upon infection to modulate the immune response (phytocytokines). We highlight the ongoing challenge to understand how plants sense various danger signals and integrate this information to produce an appropriate immune response to diverse challenges.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Cytokinins in Symbiotic Nodulation: When, Where, What For?
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Pascal Gamas, Mathias Brault, Marie-Françoise Jardinaud, Florian Frugier

    Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of early stages of the symbiotic interaction between legume plants and rhizobium bacteria. Those include the specific recognition of symbiotic partners, the initiation of bacterial infection in root hair cells, and the inception of a specific organ in the root cortex, the nodule. Increasingly complex regulatory networks have been uncovered in which cytokinin (CK) phytohormones play essential roles in different aspects of early symbiotic stages. Intriguingly, these roles can be either positive or negative, cell autonomous or non-cell autonomous, and vary, depending on time, root tissues, and possibly legume species. Recent developments on CK symbiotic functions and interconnections with other signaling pathways during nodule initiation are the focus of this review.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Multiple Routes of Light Signaling during Root Photomorphogenesis
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Hyo-Jun Lee, Young-Joon Park, Jun-Ho Ha, Ian T. Baldwin, Chung-Mo Park

    Plants dynamically adjust their architecture to optimize growth and performance under fluctuating light environments, a process termed photomorphogenesis. A variety of photomorphogenic responses have been studied extensively in the shoots, where diverse photoreceptors and signaling molecules have been functionally characterized. Notably, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the underground roots also undergo photomorphogenesis, raising the question of how roots perceive and respond to aboveground light. Recent findings indicate that root photomorphogenesis is mediated by multiple signaling routes, including shoot-to-root transmission of mobile signaling molecules, direct sensing of light by the roots, and light channeling through the plant body. In this review we discuss recent advances in how light signals are transmitted to the roots to trigger photomorphogenic responses.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant ESCRT Complexes: Moving Beyond Endosomal Sorting
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-31
    Caiji Gao, Xiaohong Zhuang, Jinbo Shen, Liwen Jiang

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is an ancient system that deforms membrane and severs membrane necks from the inside. Extensive evidence has accumulated to demonstrate the conserved functions of plant ESCRTs in multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and MVB-mediated membrane protein sorting. In addition, recent exciting findings have uncovered unique plant ESCRT components and point to emerging roles for plant ESCRTs in non-endosomal sorting events such as autophagy, cytokinesis, and viral replication. Plant-specific processes, such as abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and chloroplast turnover, provide further evidence for divergences in the functions of plant ESCRTs during evolution. We summarize the multiple roles and current working models for plant ESCRT machinery and speculate on future ESCRT studies in the plant field.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Strigolactones and Gibberellins: A New Couple in the Phytohormone World?
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Marek Marzec

    Strigolactones (SLs) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that share some unique aspects of their perception and signalling pathways. Recent discoveries indicate that these two phytohormones may act together in processes of plant development and that SL biosynthesis is regulated by GAs.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Exploiting DELLA Signaling in Cereals
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Karel Van De Velde, Philip Ruelens, Koen Geuten, Antje Rohde, Dominique Van Der Straeten

    The spectacular yield increases in rice and wheat during the green revolution were partly realized by reduced gibberellin (GA) synthesis or sensitivity, both causing the accumulation of DELLA proteins. Although insights into the regulation of plant growth and development by DELLA proteins advanced rapidly in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), DELLA-mediated regulation of downstream responses in cereals has received little attention to date. Furthermore, translating this research from arabidopsis to cereals is challenging given their different growth patterns and our phylogenetic analysis which reveals that DELLA-related DGLLA proteins exist in cereals but not in arabidopsis. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of DELLA function in cereals holds great potential to improve yield. In this review, we propose to extend the focus of DELLA functional research to cereals, and highlight the appropriate tools that are now available to achieve this.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • To Stimulate or Inhibit? That Is the Question for the Function of Abscisic Acid
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
    Jan F. Humplík, Véronique Bergougnoux, Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh

    Physiologically, abscisic acid (ABA) is believed to be a general inhibitor of plant growth, including during the crucial early development of seedlings. However, this view contradicts many reports of stimulatory effects of ABA that, so far, have not been considered in the debate concerning ABA’s function in plant development. To address this apparent contradiction, we propose a hypothetical mechanism to explain how ABA might contribute to the promotion of cell expansion. We wish to overturn conventional views on ABA’s role during juvenile plant development and put forward the idea that, as for other phytohormones, the role of ABA is determined by dose and sensitivity and ranges from stimulatory to inhibitory effects.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Landscaping Crossover Interference Across a Genome
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-16
    Lidan Sun, Jing Wang, Mengmeng Sang, Libo Jiang, Bingyu Zhao, Tangran Cheng, Qixiang Zhang, Rongling Wu

    The evolutionary success of eukaryotic organisms crucially depends on the capacity to produce genetic diversity through reciprocal exchanges of each chromosome pair, or crossovers (COs), during meiosis. It has been recognized that COs arise more evenly across a given chromosome than at random. This phenomenon, termed CO interference, occurs pervasively in eukaryotes and may confer a selective advantage. We describe here a multipoint linkage analysis procedure for segregating families to quantify the strength of CO interference over the genome, and extend this procedure to illustrate the landscape of CO interference in natural populations. We further discuss the crucial role of CO interference in amplifying and maintaining genetic diversity through sex-, stress-, and age-induced differentiation.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Climate Change, CO2, and Defense: The Metabolic, Redox, and Signaling Perspectives
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-12
    Graham Noctor, Amna Mhamdi

    Ongoing human-induced changes in the composition of the atmosphere continue to stimulate interest in the effects of high CO2 on plants, but its potential impact on inducible plant defense pathways remains poorly defined. Recently, several studies have reported that growth at elevated CO2 is sufficient to induce defenses such as the salicylic acid pathway, thereby increasing plant resistance to pathogens. These reports contrast with evidence that defense pathways can be promoted by photorespiration, which is inhibited at high CO2. Here, we review signaling, metabolic, and redox processes modulated by CO2 levels and discuss issues to be resolved in elucidating the relationships between primary metabolism, inducible defense, and biotic stress resistance.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root–Soil Interaction
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    Kemo Jin, Philip J. White, William R. Whalley, Jianbo Shen, Lei Shi

    Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots–soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root–soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • New Beginnings: Mitochondrial Renewal by Massive Mitochondrial Fusion
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Ray J. Rose, David W. McCurdy

    Massive mitochondrial fusion (MMF) in germinating arabidopsis seeds, together with earlier studies, suggests a significant role for MMF in the life cycle of flowering plants. MMF is likely to facilitate nucleoid transmission, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination, and the homogenization of mitochondrial components, thus providing a type of quality control for mitochondrial populations in new generations.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Boosting Rice Yield by Fine-Tuning SPL Gene Expression
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-21
    Lei Wang, Qifa Zhang

    Plant architecture is an important determinant of crop yield. Recent studies showed that SPL family genes regulate the architecture of rice plants. SPLs inhibit tillering in general, but promote panicle branching at optimal expression levels to increase grain number. Fine-tuning the expression of SPL genes may provide useful strategies for crop improvement.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Autophagy: A Double-Edged Sword to Fight Plant Viruses
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-17
    Marion Clavel, Simon Michaeli, Pascal Genschik

    In metazoans, autophagy is an essential component of host defense against viruses, orchestrating their degradation. Such antiviral functions for autophagy have also been long suspected in the green lineage. Two recent reports provide molecular insights on how plants selectively send viral proteins and even particles to the vacuole.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • On Plant Modularity Traits: Functions and Challenges
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Gianluigi Ottaviani, Jana Martínková, Tomáš Herben, Juli G. Pausas, Jitka Klimešová

    On-spot persistence, space occupancy, and recovery after damage are key plant functions largely understudied. Traits relevant to these functions are difficult to assess because of their relationships to plant modularity. We suggest that developing collection protocols for these traits is feasible and could facilitate their inclusion in global syntheses.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Diet of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Bread and Butter?
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Mélanie K. Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt

    Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner. This hypothesis is supported by the concerted induction of host genes involved in lipid metabolism. We explore the possible roles of lipids in the light of recent literature on AM symbiosis.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • How Plant Root Exudates Shape the Nitrogen Cycle
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-07
    Devrim Coskun, Dev T. Britto, Weiming Shi, Herbert J. Kronzucker

    Although the global nitrogen (N) cycle is largely driven by soil microbes, plant root exudates can profoundly modify soil microbial communities and influence their N transformations. A detailed understanding is now beginning to emerge regarding the control that root exudates exert over two major soil N processes – nitrification and N2 fixation. We discuss recent breakthroughs in this area, including the identification of root exudates as nitrification inhibitors and as signaling compounds facilitating N-acquisition symbioses. We indicate gaps in current knowledge, including questions of how root exudates affect newly discovered microbial players and N-cycle components. A better understanding of these processes is urgent given the widespread inefficiencies in agricultural N use and their links to N pollution and climate change.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Revisiting Pivotal-Differential Genome Evolution in Wheat
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    Ghader Mirzaghaderi, Annaliese S. Mason

    An interesting and possibly unique pattern of genome evolution following polyploidy can be observed among allopolyploids of the Triticum and Aegilops genera (wheat group). Most polyploids in this group are presumed to share a common unaltered (pivotal) subgenome (U, D, or A) together with one or two modified (differential) subgenomes, a status that has been referred to as ‘pivotal-differential’ genome evolution. In this review we discuss various mechanisms that could be responsible for this evolutionary pattern, as well as evidence for and against the putative evolutionary mechanisms involved. We suggest that, in light of recent advances in genome sequencing and related technologies in the wheat group, the time has come to reopen the investigation into pivotal-differential genome evolution.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Quantitatively Understanding Plant Signaling: Novel Theoretical–Experimental Approaches
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Sophia L. Samodelov, Matias D. Zurbriggen

    With the need to respond to and integrate a multitude of external and internal stimuli, plant signaling is highly complex, exhibiting signaling component redundancy and high interconnectedness between individual pathways. We review here novel theoretical–experimental approaches in manipulating plant signaling towards the goal of a comprehensive understanding and targeted quantitative control of plant processes. We highlight approaches taken in the field of synthetic biology used in other systems and discuss their applicability in plants. Finally, we introduce existing tools for the quantitative analysis and monitoring of plant signaling and the integration of experimentally obtained quantitative data into mathematical models. Incorporating principles of synthetic biology into plant sciences more widely will lead this field forward in both fundamental and applied research.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Angiosperm Plant Desiccation Tolerance: Hints from Transcriptomics and Genome Sequencing
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Valentino Giarola, Quancan Hou, Dorothea Bartels

    Desiccation tolerance (DT) in angiosperms is present in the small group of resurrection plants and in seeds. DT requires the presence of protective proteins, specific carbohydrates, restructuring of membrane lipids, and regulatory mechanisms directing a dedicated gene expression program. Many components are common to resurrection plants and seeds; however, some are specific for resurrection plants. Understanding how each component contributes to DT is challenging. Recent transcriptome analyses and genome sequencing indicate that increased expression is essential of genes encoding protective components, recently evolved, species-specific genes and non-protein-coding RNAs. Modification and reshuffling of existing cis-regulatory promoter elements seems to play a role in the rewiring of regulatory networks required for increased expression of DT-related genes in resurrection species.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant SAM-Domain Proteins Start to Reveal Their Roles
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Grégoire Denay, Gilles Vachon, Renaud Dumas, Chloe Zubieta, François Parcy

    Proteins often act in complexes assembled via protein–protein interaction domains. The sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain is one of the most prominent interaction domains in animals and is present in proteins of diverse functions. This domain allows head-to-tail closed oligomerisation or polymer formation resulting in homo- and/or heterocomplexes that have been shown to be important for proper protein localisation and function. In plants this domain is also present but has been poorly studied except for recent studies on the LEAFY floral regulator and the tRNA import component (TRIC)1/2 proteins. Here we catalogue SAM domain-containing proteins from arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), compare plant and other eukaryotic SAM domains, and perform homology modelling to probe plant SAM domain interaction capabilities.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • The Algal Revolution
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-10
    Juliet Brodie, Cheong Xin Chan, Olivier De Clerck, J. Mark Cock, Susana M. Coelho, Claire Gachon, Arthur R. Grossman, Thomas Mock, John A. Raven, Alison G. Smith, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya

    Algae are (mostly) photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy multiple branches of the tree of life, and are vital for planet function and health. In this review, we highlight a transformative period in studies of the evolution and functioning of this extraordinary group of organisms and their potential for novel applications, wrought by high-throughput ‘omic’ and reverse genetic methods. We cover the origin and diversification of algal groups, explore advances in understanding the link between phenotype and genotype, consider algal sex determination, and review progress in understanding the roots of algal multicellularity. Experimental evolution studies to determine how algae evolve in changing environments are highlighted, as is their potential as production platforms for compounds of commercial interest, such as biofuel precursors, nutraceuticals, or therapeutics.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Emerging Insights into the Functions of Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-22
    Susan Breen, Simon J. Williams, Megan Outram, Bostjan Kobe, Peter S. Solomon

    The members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are among the most abundantly produced proteins in plants on pathogen attack, and PR-1 gene expression has long been used as a marker for salicylic acid-mediated disease resistance. However, despite considerable interest over several decades, their requirement and role in plant defence remains poorly understood. Recent reports have emerged demonstrating that PR-1 proteins possess sterol-binding activity, harbour an embedded defence signalling peptide, and are targeted by plant pathogens during host infection. These studies have re-energised the field and provided long-awaited insights into a possible PR-1 function. Here we review the current status of PR-1 proteins and discuss how these recent advances shed light on putative roles for these enigmatic proteins.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Diversifying Food Systems in the Pursuit of Sustainable Food Production and Healthy Diets
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Sangam L. Dwivedi, Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren, Salvatore Ceccarelli, Stefania Grando, Hari D. Upadhyaya, Rodomiro Ortiz

    Increasing demand for nutritious, safe, and healthy food because of a growing population, and the pledge to maintain biodiversity and other resources, pose a major challenge to agriculture that is already threatened by a changing climate. Diverse and healthy diets, largely based on plant-derived food, may reduce diet-related illnesses. Investments in plant sciences will be necessary to design diverse cropping systems balancing productivity, sustainability, and nutritional quality. Cultivar diversity and nutritional quality are crucial. We call for better cooperation between food and medical scientists, food sector industries, breeders, and farmers to develop diversified and nutritious cultivars that reduce soil degradation and dependence on external inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, and to increase adaptation to climate change and resistance to emerging pests.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • CRISPR-Cpf1: A New Tool for Plant Genome Editing
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-19
    Syed Shan-e-Ali Zaidi, Magdy M. Mahfouz, Shahid Mansoor

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas), a groundbreaking genome-engineering tool, has facilitated targeted trait improvement in plants. Recently, CRISPR-CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) has emerged as a new tool for efficient genome editing, including DNA-free editing in plants, with higher efficiency, specificity, and potentially wider applications than CRISPR-Cas9.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • RSL4 Takes Control: Multiple Signals, One Transcription Factor
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-06
    Eliana Marzol, Cecilia Borassi, Silvina Paola Denita Juárez, Silvina Mangano, José M. Estevez

    Root hair growth dramatically expands the root surface area, thus facilitating water and nutrient uptake. Until recently, the molecular mechanism underlying root hair growth was unknown. Recent studies have revealed that the transcription factor ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 6 LIKE 4 (RSL4) coordinates hormonal, environmental, and developmental factors to trigger polar growth.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant Breeding Goes Microbial
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-04
    Zhong Wei, Alexandre Jousset

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the transmission of endophytic microbiota to the next plant generation.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Image Analysis in Plant Sciences: Publish Then Perish
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-29
    Guillaume Lobet

    Image analysis has become a powerful technique for most plant scientists. In recent years dozens of image analysis tools have been published in plant science journals. These tools cover the full spectrum of plant scales, from single cells to organs and canopies. However, the field of plant image analysis remains in its infancy. It still has to overcome important challenges, such as the lack of robust validation practices or the absence of long-term support. In this Opinion article, I: (i) present the current state of the field, based on data from the plant-image-analysis.org database; (ii) identify the challenges faced by its community; and (iii) propose workable ways of improvement.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Is There an Upper Limit to Genome Size?
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-12
    Oriane Hidalgo, Jaume Pellicer, Maarten Christenhusz, Harald Schneider, Andrew R. Leitch, Ilia J. Leitch

    At 50-fold the size of the human genome (3 Gb), the staggeringly huge genome of 147.3 Gb recently discovered in the fern Tmesipteris obliqua is comparable in size to those of the other plant and animal record-holders (i.e., Paris japonica, a flowering plant with a genome size of 148.8 Gb, and Protopterus aethiopicus, a lungfish with a genome of 130 Gb). The synthesis of available information on giant genomes suggests that the biological limit to genome size expansion in eukaryotes may have been reached. We propose several explanations for why the genomes of ferns, flowering plants, and lungfish, all of which have independently undergone dramatic increases in genome size through a variety of mechanisms, do not exceed 150 Gb.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Sublocalization of Cytochrome b6f Complexes in Photosynthetic Membranes
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    Helmut Kirchhoff, Meng Li, Sujith Puthiyaveetil

    It is well established that the majority of energy-converting photosynthetic protein complexes in plant thylakoid membrane are nonhomogenously distributed between stacked and unstacked membrane regions. Yet, the sublocalization of the central cytochrome b6f complex remains controversial. We present a structural model that explains the variation in cytochrome b6f sublocalization data. Small changes in the distance between adjacent membranes in stacked grana regions either allow or restrict access of cytochrome b6f complexes to grana. If the width of the gap falls below a certain threshold, then the steric hindrance prevents cytochrome b6f access to grana. Evidence is presented that the width of stromal gap is variable, demonstrating that the postulated mechanism can regulate the lateral distribution of the cytochrome b6f complexes.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Let the Core Microbiota Be Functional
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    Philippe Lemanceau, Manuel Blouin, Daniel Muller, Yvan Moënne-Loccoz

    The microbial community that is systematically associated with a given host plant is called the core microbiota. The definition of the core microbiota was so far based on its taxonomic composition, but we argue that it should also be based on its functions. This so-called functional core microbiota encompasses microbial vehicles carrying replicators (genes) with essential functions for holobiont (i.e., plant plus microbiota) fitness. It builds up from enhanced horizontal transfers of replicators as well as from ecological enrichment of their vehicles. The transmission pathways of this functional core microbiota vary over plant generations according to environmental constraints and its added value for holobiont fitness.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Turning Over a New Leaf in Lipid Droplet Biology
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-04-25
    Michal Pyc, Yingqi Cai, Michael S. Greer, Olga Yurchenko, Kent D. Chapman, John M. Dyer, Robert T. Mullen

    Lipid droplets (LDs) in plants have long been viewed as storage depots for neutral lipids that serve as sources of carbon, energy, and lipids for membrane biosynthesis. While much of our knowledge of LD function in plants comes from studies of oilseeds, a recent surge in research on LDs in non-seed cell types has led to an array of new discoveries. It is now clear that both evolutionarily conserved and kingdom-specific mechanisms underlie the biogenesis of LDs in eukaryotes, and proteomics and homology-based approaches have identified new protein players. This review highlights some of these recent discoveries and other new areas of plant LD research, including their role in stress responses and as targets of metabolic engineering strategies aimed at increasing oil content in bioenergy crops.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Epigenetics for Plant Improvement: Current Knowledge and Modeling Avenues
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-06-03
    Philippe Gallusci, Zhanwu Dai, Michel Génard, Arnaud Gauffretau, Nathalie Leblanc-Fournier, Céline Richard-Molard, Denis Vile, Sophie Brunel-Muguet

    Epigenetic variations are involved in the control of plant developmental processes and participate in shaping phenotypic plasticity to the environment. Intense breeding has eroded genetic diversity, and epigenetic diversity now emerge as a new source of phenotypic variations to improve adaptation to changing environments and ensure the yield and quality of crops. Here, we review how the characterization of the stability and heritability of epigenetic variations is required to drive breeding strategies, which can be assisted by process-based models. We propose future directions to hasten the elucidation of complex epigenetic regulatory networks that should help crop modelers to take epigenetic modifications into account and assist breeding strategies for specific agronomical traits.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Emerging Avenues for Utilization of Exotic Germplasm
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-02
    Cuiling Wang, Songlin Hu, Candice Gardner, Thomas Lübberstedt

    Breeders have been successful in increasing crop performance by exploiting genetic diversity over time. However, the reported annual yield increases are not sufficient in view of rapid human population growth and global environmental changes. Exotic germplasm possesses high levels of genetic diversity for valuable traits. However, only a small fraction of naturally occurring genetic diversity is utilized. Moreover, the yield gap between elite and exotic germplasm widens, which increases the effort needed to use exotic germplasm and to identify beneficial alleles and for their introgression. The advent of high-throughput genotyping and phenotyping technologies together with emerging biotechnologies provide new opportunities to explore exotic genetic variation. This review will summarize potential challenges for utilization of exotic germplasm and provide solutions.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Nanosheets for Delivery of Biomolecules into Plant Cells
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-04-13
    Wenlong Bao, Yinglang Wan, František Baluška

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are sheet-formed nanoparticles (NPs) of adjustable size. It has recently been reported that LDHs have the ability to deliver biomolecules into intact plant cells. LDHs show promise as a novel and powerful tool for plant cell studies and similar applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Cooling Down Thermomorphogenesis by UV-B Signaling
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-04-21
    Ruohe Yin

    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) is a key transcriptional regulator promoting plant responses to elevated ambient temperatures. A recent study reported that the ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) photoreceptor UVR8 signaling pathway inhibits PIF4 via multiple mechanisms to repress plant responses to high ambient temperatures.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Plant RNA Interactome Capture: Revealing the Plant RBPome
    Trends Plant. Sci. (IF 11.911) Pub Date : 2017-05-03
    Marcel Bach-Pages, Alfredo Castello, Gail M. Preston

    The application of RNA interactome capture to plants has enabled comprehensive determination of the plant RNA-binding proteome and the identification of novel families of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). The technique is providing insight into the evolution of the eukaryotic repertoire of RBPs and will enhance prospects for engineering RBPs to improve crop traits.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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