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  • Reading Faces: From Features to Recognition
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-09-19
    J. Swaroop Guntupalli, M. Ida Gobbini

    Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces.

    更新日期:2017-09-20
  • Flexible Planning in Ravens?
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-09-15
    Jonathan Redshaw, Alex H. Taylor, Thomas Suddendorf

    Across two different contexts, Kabadayi and Osvath found that ravens preferentially selected items that could be used to obtain future rewards. Do these results demand a rethink of the evolution of flexible planning, or are there leaner alternative explanations for the performance of ravens?

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • An Integrative Interdisciplinary Perspective on Social Dominance Hierarchies
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-09-12
    Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher

    In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates. We also review neuropharmacological findings showing how dopamine, serotonin, and testosterone influence social hierarchies and we emphasize their key clinical implications on vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Constructing Experience: Event Models from Perception to Action
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-09-09
    Lauren L. Richmond, Jeffrey M. Zacks

    Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning. It also suggests how the growing science base can be deployed to diagnose impairments in event perception and memory, and to improve memory for everyday events.

    更新日期:2017-09-10
  • Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play?
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-29
    Angeline S. Lillard

    Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans.

    更新日期:2017-08-30
  • Origins of the Belief in Good True Selves
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-07
    Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel

    Despite differences in beliefs about the self across cultures and relevant individual differences, recent evidence suggests that people universally believe in a ‘true self’ that is morally good. We propose that this belief arises from a general tendency: psychological essentialism (PE).

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Evidence from Blindness for a Cognitively Pluripotent Cortex
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-16
    Marina Bedny

    Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind–brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, ‘visual’ cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics. We propose that human cortices are cognitively pluripotent, that is, capable of assuming a wide range of cognitive functions. Specialization is driven by input during development, which is itself constrained by connectivity and experience.‘The child who methodically adds two numbers from right to left, carrying a digit when necessary, may be using the same algorithm that is implemented by the wires and transistors of the cash register in the neighborhood supermarket…’▓▓Vision, 1982, David Marr

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-24
    Tomer D. Ullman, Elizabeth Spelke, Peter Battaglia, Joshua B. Tenenbaum

    We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several ‘physics illusions’, and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Sex-Linked Behavior: Evolution, Stability, and Variability
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-15
    Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel

    Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-20
    Emily B. Falk, Danielle S. Bassett

    How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain? Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Foraging Cognition: Reviving the Ecological Intelligence Hypothesis
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
    Alexandra G. Rosati

    What are the origins of intelligent behavior? The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that ‘foraging cognition’ – skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control – varies adaptively across primates. These findings provide a new framework for the evolution of human cognition, given our species’ dependence on costly, high-value food resources. Understanding the origins of the human mind will require an integrative theory accounting for how humans are unique in both our sociality and our ecology.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Mechanisms of Connectome Development
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-10
    Marcus Kaiser

    At the centenary of D’Arcy Thompson’s seminal work ‘On Growth and Form’, pioneering the description of principles of morphological changes during development and evolution, recent experimental advances allow us to study change in anatomical brain networks. Here, we outline potential principles for connectome development. We will describe recent results on how spatial and temporal factors shape connectome development in health and disease. Understanding the developmental origins of brain diseases in individuals will be crucial for deciding on personalized treatment options. We argue that longitudinal studies, experimentally derived parameters for connection formation, and biologically realistic computational models are needed to better understand the link between brain network development, network structure, and network function.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Crowdsourcing Samples in Cognitive Science
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-10
    Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci

    Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times. We close with comments about the high levels of experience of many participants and an emerging tragedy of the commons.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Comparing Parietal Quantity-Processing Mechanisms between Humans and Macaques
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-09
    Ben M. Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A. Orban

    Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS. Extensive functional similarities support this novel homology of physical quantity processing. Human IPS instead houses a network responding to comparisons of physical quantities, symbolic numbers, and other stimulus features. This network likely reflects interactions between physical quantity processing, spatial processing, and (in humans) linguistic processing.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-08-05
    Paul H. Thibodeau, Rose K. Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Retrieval as a Fast Route to Memory Consolidation
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    James W. Antony, Catarina S. Ferreira, Kenneth A. Norman, Maria Wimber

    Retrieval-mediated learning is a powerful way to make memories last, but its neurocognitive mechanisms remain unclear. We propose that retrieval acts as a rapid consolidation event, supporting the creation of adaptive hippocampal–neocortical representations via the ‘online’ reactivation of associative information. We describe parallels between online retrieval and offline consolidation and offer testable predictions for future research.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • A Closer Look at the Hippocampus and Memory
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
    Joel L. Voss, Donna J. Bridge, Neal J. Cohen, John A. Walker

    Current interpretations of hippocampal memory function are blind to the fact that viewing behaviors are pervasive and complicate the relationships among perception, behavior, memory, and brain activity. For example, hippocampal activity and associative memory demands increase with stimulus complexity. Stimulus complexity also strongly modulates viewing. Associative processing and viewing thus are often confounded, rendering interpretation of hippocampal activity ambiguous. Similar considerations challenge many accounts of hippocampal function. To explain relationships between memory and viewing, we propose that the hippocampus supports the online memory demands necessary to guide visual exploration. The hippocampus thus orchestrates memory-guided exploration that unfolds over time to build coherent memories. This new perspective on hippocampal function harmonizes with the fact that memory formation and exploratory viewing are tightly intertwined.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • The Dorsal Frontoparietal Network: A Core System for Emulated Action
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Radek Ptak, Armin Schnider, Julia Fellrath

    The dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN) of the human brain assumes a puzzling variety of functions, including motor planning and imagery, mental rotation, spatial attention, and working memory. How can a single network engage in such a diversity of roles? We propose that cognitive computations relying on the dFPN can be pinned down to a core function underlying offline motor planning: action emulation. Emulation creates a dynamic representation of abstract movement kinematics, sustains the internal manipulation of this representation, and ensures its maintenance over short time periods. Based on these fundamental characteristics, the dFPN has evolved from a pure motor control network into a domain-general system supporting various cognitive and motor functions.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Default Rules Are Better Than Active Choosing (Often)
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-25
    Cass R. Sunstein

    In recent years, governments have become keenly interested in behavioral science; new findings in psychology and behavioral economics have led to bold initiatives in areas that involve poverty, consumer protection, savings, health, the environment, and much more. Private institutions have used behavioral findings as well. But there is a pervasive and insufficiently explored question: when is it best to ask people to make active choices, and when is it best to use a default rule, which means that people need not make any choice at all? The answer depends on a form of cost–benefit analysis, which means that it is necessary to investigate whether choosing is a burden or a pleasure, whether learning is important, and whether a default rule would satisfy the informed preferences or all of most people.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Meta-Reasoning: Monitoring and Control of Thinking and Reasoning
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
    Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A. Thompson

    Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving. In that context, we recently developed a Meta-Reasoning framework, used here to review existing findings, consider their consequences, and frame questions for future research.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-24
    Asaf Gilboa, Hannah Marlatte

    Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration. Recent studies demonstrate distinctive neurobiological processes underlying schema-related learning. Interactions between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, angular gyrus (AG), and unimodal associative cortices support context-relevant schema instantiation and schema mnemonic effects. The vmPFC and hippocampus may compete (as suggested by some models) or synchronize (as suggested by others) to optimize schema-related learning depending on the specific operationalization of schema memory. This highlights the need for more precise definitions of memory schemas.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Reevaluating the Sensory Account of Visual Working Memory Storage
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-31
    Yaoda Xu

    Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain. Collectively, the evidence shows that prefrontal and parietal regions, rather than sensory areas, play more significant roles in VWM storage.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Mapping the Consequences of Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Schizophrenia through Development: An Integrative Model for Diverse Clinical Features
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Jennifer K. Forsyth, David A. Lewis

    Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia. Key gaps in the literature and future directions for testing this framework are discussed.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Do Intelligent Robots Need Emotion?
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-20
    Luiz Pessoa

    What is the place of emotion in intelligent robots? Researchers have advocated the inclusion of some emotion-related components in the information-processing architecture of autonomous agents. It is argued here that emotion needs to be merged with all aspects of the architecture: cognitive–emotional integration should be a key design principle.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-12
    James R. Kubricht, Keith J. Holyoak, Hongjing Lu

    Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Agency and the Calibration of Motivated Behavior
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-07
    Justin M. Moscarello, Catherine A. Hartley

    The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-06
    Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann, Johan Wagemans, Raymond van Ee

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Serial Dependence across Perception, Attention, and Memory
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    Anastasia Kiyonaga, Jason M. Scimeca, Daniel P. Bliss, David Whitney

    Information that has been recently perceived or remembered can bias current processing. This has been viewed as both a corrupting (e.g., proactive interference in short-term memory) and stabilizing (e.g., serial dependence in perception) phenomenon. We hypothesize that this bias is a generally adaptive aspect of brain function that leads to occasionally maladaptive outcomes.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • The Coding Question
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    C.R. Gallistel

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question – how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Metastability in Senescence
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    Shruti Naik, Arpan Banerjee, Raju S. Bapi, Gustavo Deco, Dipanjan Roy

    The brain during healthy aging exhibits gradual deterioration of structure but maintains a high level of cognitive ability. These structural changes are often accompanied by reorganization of functional brain networks. Existing neurocognitive theories of aging have argued that such changes are either beneficial or detrimental. Despite numerous empirical investigations, the field lacks a coherent account of the dynamic processes that occur over our lifespan. Taking advantage of the recent developments in whole-brain computational modeling approaches, we hypothesize that the continuous process of aging can be explained by the concepts of metastability − a theoretical framework that gives a systematic account of the variability of the brain. This hypothesis can bridge the gap between existing theories and the empirical findings on age-related changes.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-24
    Jordan W. Suchow, David D. Bourgin, Thomas L. Griffiths

    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • An Update on Memory Reconsolidation Updating
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-08
    Jonathan L.C. Lee, Karim Nader, Daniela Schiller

    The reactivation of a stored memory in the brain can make the memory transiently labile. During the time it takes for the memory to restabilize (reconsolidate) the memory can either be reduced by an amnesic agent or enhanced by memory enhancers. The change in memory expression is related to changes in the brain correlates of long-term memory. Many have suggested that such retrieval-induced plasticity is ideally placed to enable memories to be updated with new information. This hypothesis has been tested experimentally, with a translational perspective, by attempts to update maladaptive memories to reduce their problematic impact. We review here progress on reconsolidation updating studies, highlighting their translational exploitation and addressing recent challenges to the reconsolidation field.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Social Fear Learning: from Animal Models to Human Function
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Jacek Debiec, Andreas Olsson

    Learning about potential threats is critical for survival. Learned fear responses are acquired either through direct experiences or indirectly through social transmission. Social fear learning (SFL), also known as vicarious fear learning, is a paradigm successfully used for studying the transmission of threat information between individuals. Animal and human studies have begun to elucidate the behavioral, neural and molecular mechanisms of SFL. Recent research suggests that social learning mechanisms underlie a wide range of adaptive and maladaptive phenomena, from supporting flexible avoidance in dynamic environments to intergenerational transmission of trauma and anxiety disorders. This review discusses recent advances in SFL studies and their implications for basic, social and clinical sciences.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • The Origins of Social Categorization
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    Zoe Liberman, Amanda L. Woodward, Katherine D. Kinzler

    Forming conceptually-rich social categories helps people to navigate the complex social world by allowing them to reason about the likely thoughts, beliefs, actions, and interactions of others, as guided by group membership. Nevertheless, social categorization often has nefarious consequences. We suggest that the foundation of the human ability to form useful social categories is in place in infancy: social categories guide the inferences infants make about the shared characteristics and social relationships of other people. We also suggest that the ability to form abstract social categories may be separable from the eventual negative downstream consequences of social categorization, including prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping. Although a tendency to form inductively-rich social categories appears early in ontogeny, prejudice based on each particular category dimension may not be inevitable.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Chinese versus English: Insights on Cognition during Reading
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-07-01
    Lili Yu, Erik D. Reichle

    Chinese reading experiments have introduced important caveats to theories of reading that have been largely informed by studies of English reading – especially in relation to our understanding of lexical processing and eye-movement control. This article provides a brief primer on Chinese reading and examples of questions that arise from its study.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Associative Learning Should Go Deep
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-06-28
    Esther Mondragón, Eduardo Alonso, Niklas Kokkola

    Conditioning, how animals learn to associate two or more events, is one of the most influential paradigms in learning theory. It is nevertheless unclear how current models of associative learning can accommodate complex phenomena without ad hoc representational assumptions. We propose to embrace deep neural networks to negotiate this problem.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Mixed Signals: On Separating Brain Signal from Noise
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-04-28
    Lucina Q. Uddin

    Accurate description of human brain function requires the separation of true neural signal from noise. Recent work examining spatial and temporal properties of whole-brain fMRI signals demonstrates how artifacts from a variety of sources can persist after rigorous processing, and highlights the lack of consensus on how to address this challenge.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-04-23
    Michael E. Hasselmo

    Humans regularly perform new learning without losing memory for previous information, but neural network models suffer from the phenomenon of catastrophic forgetting in which new learning impairs prior function. A recent article presents an algorithm that spares learning at synapses important for previously learned function, reducing catastrophic forgetting.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Is There Really an Evolved Capacity for Number?
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-16
    Rafael E. Núñez

    Humans and other species have biologically endowed abilities for discriminating quantities. A widely accepted view sees such abilities as an evolved capacity specific for number and arithmetic. This view, however, is based on an implicit teleological rationale, builds on inaccurate conceptions of biological evolution, downplays human data from non-industrialized cultures, overinterprets results from trained animals, and is enabled by loose terminology that facilitates teleological argumentation. A distinction between quantical (e.g., quantity discrimination) and numerical (exact, symbolic) cognition is needed: quantical cognition provides biologically evolved preconditions for numerical cognition but it does not scale up to number and arithmetic, which require cultural mediation. The argument has implications for debates about the origins of other special capacities – geometry, music, art, and language.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • The Importance of Falsification in Computational Cognitive Modeling
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-05-02
    Stefano Palminteri, Valentin Wyart, Etienne Koechlin

    In the past decade the field of cognitive sciences has seen an exponential growth in the number of computational modeling studies. Previous work has indicated why and how candidate models of cognition should be compared by trading off their ability to predict the observed data as a function of their complexity. However, the importance of falsifying candidate models in light of the observed data has been largely underestimated, leading to important drawbacks and unjustified conclusions. We argue here that the simulation of candidate models is necessary to falsify models and therefore support the specific claims about cognitive function made by the vast majority of model-based studies. We propose practical guidelines for future research that combine model comparison and falsification.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-04-08
    Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R. Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft

    Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print–speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks. Neural excitability and neural noise are fundamental to these timing mechanisms. Here, we propose that neural noise stemming from increased neural excitability in cortical networks implicated in reading is one key distal contributor to RD.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Prioritizing Information during Working Memory: Beyond Sustained Internal Attention
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-04-25
    Nicholas E. Myers, Mark G. Stokes, Anna C. Nobre

    Working memory (WM) has limited capacity. This leaves attention with the important role of allowing into storage only the most relevant information. It is increasingly evident that attention is equally crucial for prioritizing representations within WM as the importance of individual items changes. Retrospective prioritization has been proposed to result from a focus of internal attention highlighting one of several representations. Here, we suggest an updated model, in which prioritization acts in multiple steps: first orienting towards and selecting a memory, and then reconfiguring its representational state in the service of upcoming task demands. Reconfiguration sets up an optimized perception–action mapping, obviating the need for sustained attention. This view is consistent with recent literature, makes testable predictions, and links WM with task switching and action preparation.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
  • Brain Mechanisms of Reality Monitoring
    Trends Cogn. Sci. (IF 15.402) Pub Date : 2017-04-24
    Jon S. Simons, Jane R. Garrison, Marcia K. Johnson

    Reality monitoring processes are necessary for discriminating between internally generated information and information that originated in the outside world. They help us to identify our thoughts, feelings, and imaginations, and to distinguish them from events we may have experienced or have been told about by someone else. Reality monitoring errors range from confusions between real and imagined experiences, that are byproducts of normal cognition, to symptoms of mental illness such as hallucinations. Recent advances support an emerging neurocognitive characterization of reality monitoring that provides insights into its underlying operating principles and neural mechanisms, the differing ways in which impairment may occur in health and disease, and the potential for rehabilitation strategies to be devised that might help those who experience clinically significant reality monitoring disruption.

    更新日期:2017-08-24
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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