显示样式:     当前分类: 医药    当前期刊: Journal of Virology    加入关注    导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Editorial Board
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01

    Rozanne M. Sandri-Goldin University of California, Irvine

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Role of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Matrix (M) Protein in Suppressing Host Transcription
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Qi Ke; Wade Weaver; Adam Pore; Bartolomeo Gorgoglione; Julia Halo Wildschutte; Peng Xiao; Brian S. Shepherd; Allyn Spear; Krishnamurthy Malathi; Carol A. Stepien; Vikram N. Vakharia; Douglas W. Leaman

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the Northern Hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral gene expression. By systematically screening each of the six VHSV structural and nonstructural genes, we identified matrix protein (M) as the virus' most potent antihost protein. Only M of VHSV genotype IV sublineage b (VHSV-IVb) suppressed mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and type I IFN-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. M also suppressed the constitutively active simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter and globally decreased cellular RNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies illustrated that M inhibited RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) recruitment to gene promoters and decreased RNAP II C-terminal domain (CTD) Ser2 phosphorylation during VHSV infection. However, transcription directed by RNAP I to III was suppressed by M. To identify regions of functional importance, M proteins from a variety of VHSV strains were tested in cell-based transcriptional inhibition assays. M of a particular VHSV-Ia strain, F1, was significantly less potent than IVb M at inhibiting SV40/luciferase (Luc) expression yet differed by just 4 amino acids. Mutation of D62 to alanine alone, or in combination with an E181-to-alanine mutation (D62A E181A), dramatically reduced the ability of IVb M to suppress host transcription. Introducing either M D62A or D62A E181A mutations into VHSV-IVb via reverse genetics resulted in viruses that replicated efficiently but exhibited less cytotoxicity and reduced antitranscriptional activities, implicating M as a primary regulator of cytopathicity and host transcriptional suppression. IMPORTANCE Viruses must suppress host antiviral responses to replicate and spread between hosts. In these studies, we identified the matrix protein of the deadly fish novirhabdovirus VHSV as a critical mediator of host suppression during infection. Our studies indicated that M alone could block cellular gene expression at very low expression levels. We identified several subtle mutations in M that were less potent at suppressing host transcription. When these mutations were engineered back into recombinant viruses, the resulting viruses replicated well but elicited less toxicity in infected cells and activated host innate immune responses more robustly. These data demonstrated that VHSV M plays an important role in mediating both virus-induced cell toxicity and viral replication. Our data suggest that its roles in these two processes can be separated to design effective attenuated viruses for vaccine candidates.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Integrity of the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton Is Required for Efficient Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Barbara G. Klupp; Teresa Hellberg; Harald Granzow; Kati Franzke; Beatriz Dominguez Gonzalez; Rose E. Goodchild; Thomas C. Mettenleiter

    Herpesvirus capsids assemble in the nucleus, while final virion maturation proceeds in the cytoplasm. This requires that newly formed nucleocapsids cross the nuclear envelope (NE), which occurs by budding at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), release of the primary enveloped virion into the perinuclear space (PNS), and subsequent rapid fusion with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). During this process, the NE remains intact, even at late stages of infection. In addition, the spacing between the INM and ONM is maintained, as is that between the primary virion envelope and nuclear membranes. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex consists of INM proteins with a luminal SUN (Sad1/UNC-84 homology) domain connected to ONM proteins with a KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, SYNE homology) domain and is thought to be responsible for spacing the nuclear membranes. To investigate the role of the LINC complex during herpesvirus infection, we generated cell lines constitutively expressing dominant negative (dn) forms of SUN1 and SUN2. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a significant expansion of the PNS and the contiguous intracytoplasmic lumen, most likely representing endoplasmic reticulum (ER), especially in cells expressing dn-SUN2. After infection, primary virions accumulated in these expanded luminal regions, also very distant from the nucleus. The importance of the LINC complex was also confirmed by reduced progeny virus titers in cells expressing dn-SUN2. These data show that the intact LINC complex is required for efficient nuclear egress of herpesviruses, likely acting to promote fusion of primary enveloped virions with the ONM. IMPORTANCE While the viral factors for primary envelopment of nucleocapsids at the inner nuclear membrane are known to the point of high-resolution structures, the roles of cellular components and regulators remain enigmatic. Furthermore, the machinery responsible for fusion with the outer nuclear membrane is unsolved. We show here that dominant negative SUN2 interferes with efficient herpesvirus nuclear egress, apparently by interfering with fusion between the primary virion envelope and outer nuclear membrane. This identifies a new cellular component important for viral egress and implicates LINC complex integrity in nonconventional nuclear membrane trafficking.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Cross-Linking of a CD4-Mimetic Miniprotein with HIV-1 Env gp140 Alters Kinetics and Specificities of Antibody Responses against HIV-1 Env in Macaques
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Xiaoying Shen; Willy M. Bogers; Nicole L. Yates; Guido Ferrari; Antu K. Dey; William T. Williams; Frederick H. Jaeger; Kevin Wiehe; Sheetal Sawant; S. Munir Alam; Celia C. LaBranche; David C. Montefiori; Loic Martin; Indresh Srivastava; Jonathan Heeney; Susan W. Barnett; Georgia D. Tomaras

    Evaluation of the epitope specificities, locations (systemic or mucosal), and effector functions of antibodies elicited by novel HIV-1 immunogens engineered to improve exposure of specific epitopes is critical for HIV-1 vaccine development. Utilizing an array of humoral assays, we evaluated the magnitudes, epitope specificities, avidities, and functions of systemic and mucosal immune responses elicited by a vaccine regimen containing Env cross-linked to a CD4-mimetic miniprotein (gp140-M64U1) in rhesus macaques. Cross-linking of gp140 Env to M64U1 resulted in earlier increases of both the magnitude and avidity of the IgG binding response than those with Env protein alone. Notably, IgG binding responses at an early time point correlated with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) function at the peak immunity time point, which was higher for the cross-linked Env group than for the Env group. In addition, the cross-linked Env group developed higher IgG responses against a linear epitope in the gp120 C1 region of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. These data demonstrate that structural modification of the HIV-1 envelope immunogen by cross-linking of gp140 with the CD4-mimetic M64U1 elicited an earlier increase of binding antibody responses and altered the specificity of the IgG responses, correlating with the rise of subsequent antibody-mediated antiviral functions. IMPORTANCE The development of an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine remains a global priority to prevent new cases of HIV-1 infection. Of the six HIV-1 efficacy trials to date, only one has demonstrated partial efficacy, and immune correlate analysis of that trial revealed a role for binding antibodies and antibody Fc-mediated effector functions. New HIV-1 envelope immunogens are being engineered to selectively expose the most vulnerable and conserved sites on the HIV-1 envelope, with the goal of eliciting antiviral antibodies. Evaluation of the humoral responses elicited by these novel immunogen designs in nonhuman primates is critical for understanding how to improve upon immunogen design to inform further testing in human clinical trials. Our results demonstrate that structural modifications of Env that aim to mimic the CD4-bound conformation can result in earlier antibody elicitation, altered epitope specificity, and increased antiviral function postimmunization.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Monoclonal Antibodies, Derived from Humans Vaccinated with the RV144 HIV Vaccine Containing the HVEM Binding Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D, Neutralize HSV Infection, Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity, and Protect Mice from Ocular Challenge with HSV-1
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Kening Wang; Georgia D. Tomaras; Sinthujan Jegaskanda; M. Anthony Moody; Hua-Xin Liao; Kyle N. Goodman; Phillip W. Berman; Supachai Rerks-Ngarm; Punnee Pitisuttithum; Sorachai Nitayapan; Jaranit Kaewkungwal; Barton F. Haynes; Jeffrey I. Cohen

    The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) so that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection, as well as antibodies to HSV. We derived monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from peripheral blood B cells of recipients of the RV144 HIV vaccine and showed that these antibodies neutralized HSV-1 infection in cells expressing HVEM, but not the other major virus receptor, nectin-1. The MAbs mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mice that received the MAbs and were then challenged by corneal inoculation with HSV-1 had reduced eye disease, shedding, and latent infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MAbs derived from human recipients of a vaccine that specifically target the HVEM binding site of gD. In summary, we found that monoclonal antibodies derived from humans vaccinated with the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD (i) neutralized HSV-1 infection in a cell receptor-specific manner, (ii) mediated ADCC, and (iii) reduced ocular disease in virus-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores and neonatal herpes and is a leading cause of blindness. Despite many trials, no HSV vaccine has been approved. Nectin-1 and HVEM are the two major cellular receptors for HSV. These receptors are expressed at different levels in various tissues, and the role of each receptor in HSV pathogenesis is not well understood. We derived human monoclonal antibodies from persons who received the HIV RV144 vaccine that contained the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD fused to HIV gp120. These antibodies were able to specifically neutralize HSV-1 infection in vitro via HVEM. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that HVEM-specific HSV-1 neutralizing antibodies protect mice from HSV-1 eye disease, indicating the critical role of HVEM in HSV-1 ocular infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Effects of Inner Nuclear Membrane Proteins SUN1/UNC-84A and SUN2/UNC-84B on the Early Steps of HIV-1 Infection
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Torsten Schaller; Lorenzo Bulli; Darja Pollpeter; Gilberto Betancor; Juliane Kutzner; Luis Apolonia; Nikolas Herold; Robin Burk; Michael H. Malim

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dividing and nondividing cells involves regulatory interactions with the nuclear pore complex (NPC), followed by translocation to the nucleus and preferential integration into genomic areas in proximity to the inner nuclear membrane (INM). To identify host proteins that may contribute to these processes, we performed an overexpression screen of known membrane-associated NE proteins. We found that the integral transmembrane proteins SUN1/UNC84A and SUN2/UNC84B are potent or modest inhibitors of HIV-1 infection, respectively, and that suppression corresponds to defects in the accumulation of viral cDNA in the nucleus. While laboratory strains (HIV-1NL4.3 and HIV-1IIIB) are sensitive to SUN1-mediated inhibition, the transmitted founder viruses RHPA and ZM247 are largely resistant. Using chimeric viruses, we identified the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein as a major determinant of sensitivity to SUN1, and in vitro-assembled capsid-nucleocapsid (CANC) nanotubes captured SUN1 and SUN2 from cell lysates. Finally, we generated SUN1−/− and SUN2−/− cells by using CRISPR/Cas9 and found that the loss of SUN1 had no effect on HIV-1 infectivity, whereas the loss of SUN2 had a modest suppressive effect. Taken together, these observations suggest that SUN1 and SUN2 may function redundantly to modulate postentry, nuclear-associated steps of HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 causes more than 1 million deaths per year. The life cycle of HIV-1 has been studied extensively, yet important steps that occur between viral capsid release into the cytoplasm and the expression of viral genes remain elusive. We propose here that the INM components SUN1 and SUN2, two members of the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, may interact with incoming HIV-1 replication complexes and affect key steps of infection. While overexpression of these proteins reduces HIV-1 infection, disruption of the individual SUN2 and SUN1 genes leads to a mild reduction or no effect on infectivity, respectively. We speculate that SUN1/SUN2 may function redundantly in early HIV-1 infection steps and therefore influence HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Effects of the NEDD8-Activating Enzyme Inhibitor MLN4924 on Lytic Reactivation of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Pey-Jium Chang; Lee-Wen Chen; Li-Yu Chen; Chien-Hui Hung; Ying-Ju Shih; Shie-Shan Wang

    The switch of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from latency to lytic replication is a key event for viral dissemination and pathogenesis. MLN4924, a novel neddylation inhibitor, reportedly causes the onset of KSHV reactivation but impairs later phases of the viral lytic program in infected cells. Thus far, the molecular mechanism involved in the modulation of the KSHV lytic cycle by MLN4924 is not yet fully understood. Here, we confirmed that treatment of different KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines with MLN4924 substantially induces viral lytic protein expression. Due to the key role of the virally encoded ORF50 protein in the latent-to-lytic switch, we investigated its transcriptional regulation by MLN4924. We found that MLN4924 activates the ORF50 promoter (ORF50p) in KSHV-positive cells (but not in KSHV-negative cells), and the RBP-Jκ-binding elements within the promoter are critically required for MLN4924 responsiveness. In KSHV-negative cells, reactivation of the ORF50 promoter by MLN4924 requires the presence of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). Under such a condition, LANA acts as a repressor to block the ORF50p activity, whereas MLN4924 treatment relieves LANA-mediated repression. Importantly, we showed that LANA is a neddylated protein and can be deneddylated by MLN4924. On the other hand, we revealed that MLN4924 exhibits concentration-dependent biphasic effects on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- or sodium butyrate (SB)-induced viral reactivation in PEL cell lines. In other words, low concentrations of MLN4924 promote activation of TPA- or SB-mediated viral reactivation, whereas high concentrations of MLN4924, conversely, inhibit the progression of TPA- or SB-mediated viral lytic program. IMPORTANCE MLN4924 is a neddylation (NEDD8 modification) inhibitor, which currently acts as an anti-cancer drug in clinical trials. Although MLN4924 has been reported to trigger KSHV reactivation, many aspects regarding the action of MLN4924 in regulating the KSHV lytic cycle are not fully understood. Since the KSHV ORF50 protein is the key regulator of viral lytic reactivation, we focus on its transcriptional regulation by MLN4924. We here show that activation of the ORF50 gene by MLN4924 involves the relief of LANA-mediated transcriptional repression. Importantly, we find that LANA is a neddylated protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that neddylation occurs in viral proteins. Additionally, we provide evidence that different concentrations of MLN4924 have opposite effects on TPA-mediated or SB-mediated KSHV lytic cycle activation. Therefore, in clinical application, we propose that MLN4924 needs to be used with caution in combination therapy to treat KSHV-positive subjects.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Permissivity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Orthologs to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Governed by Glycosylation and Other Complex Determinants
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Kayla M. Peck; Trevor Scobey; Jesica Swanstrom; Kara L. Jensen; Christina L. Burch; Ralph S. Baric; Mark T. Heise

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as an entry receptor. While bat, camel, and human DPP4 support MERS-CoV infection, several DPP4 orthologs, including mouse, ferret, hamster, and guinea pig DPP4, do not. Previous work revealed that glycosylation of mouse DPP4 plays a role in blocking MERS-CoV infection. Here, we tested whether glycosylation also acts as a determinant of permissivity for ferret, hamster, and guinea pig DPP4. We found that, while glycosylation plays an important role in these orthologs, additional sequence and structural determinants impact their ability to act as functional receptors for MERS-CoV. These results provide insight into DPP4 species-specific differences impacting MERS-CoV host range and better inform our understanding of virus-receptor interactions associated with disease emergence and host susceptibility. IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that is still circulating in the human population with an ∼35% mortality rate. With no available vaccines or therapeutics, the study of MERS-CoV pathogenesis is crucial for its control and prevention. However, in vivo studies are limited because MERS-CoV cannot infect wild-type mice due to incompatibilities between the virus spike and the mouse host cell receptor, mouse DPP4 (mDPP4). Specifically, mDPP4 has a nonconserved glycosylation site that acts as a barrier to MERS-CoV infection. Thus, one mouse model strategy has been to modify the mouse genome to remove this glycosylation site. Here, we investigated whether glycosylation acts as a barrier to infection for other nonpermissive small-animal species, namely, ferret, guinea pig, and hamster. Understanding the virus-receptor interactions for these DPP4 orthologs will help in the development of additional animal models while also revealing species-specific differences impacting MERS-CoV host range.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Genetic Stability of Parainfluenza Virus 5-Vectored Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Candidates after In Vitro and In Vivo Passage
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Shannon I. Phan; Carolyn M. Adam; Zhenhai Chen; Michael Citron; Xiaoping Liang; Amy S. Espeseth; Dai Wang; Biao He

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infections in children, but no licensed vaccine exists. Previously, we developed two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based RSV vaccine candidates that protect mice against RSV challenge. PIV5 was engineered to express either the RSV fusion protein (F) or the RSV major attachment glycoprotein (G) between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) genes of the PIV5 genome [PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) and PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L), respectively]. To investigate the stability of the vaccine candidates in vitro, they were passaged in Vero cells at high and low multiplicities of infection (MOIs) for 11 generations and the genome sequences, growth kinetics, and protein expression of the resulting viruses were compared with those of the parent viruses. Sporadic mutations were detected in the consensus sequences of the viruses after high-MOI passages, and mutation rates increased under low-MOI-passage conditions. None of the mutations abolished antigen expression. Increased numbers of mutations correlated with increased growth rates in vitro, indicating that the viruses evolved through the course of serial passages. We also examined the in vivo stability of the vaccine candidates after a single passage in African green monkeys. No mutations were detected in the consensus sequences of viruses collected from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the animals. In vivo, mutations in RSV G and PIV5 L were found in individual isolates of PIV5-RSV-G (HN-L), but plaque isolates of PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) had no mutations. To improve upon the PIV5-RSV-F (HN-L) candidate, additional vaccine candidates were generated in which the gene for RSV F was inserted into earlier positions in the PIV5 genome. These insertions did not negatively impact the sequence stability of the vaccine candidates. The results suggest that the RSV F and G gene insertions are stable in the PIV5 genome. However, the function of the foreign gene insertion may need to be considered when designing PIV5-based vaccines. IMPORTANCE The genetic stability of live viral vaccines is important for safety and efficacy. PIV5 is a promising live viral vector and has been used to develop vaccines. In this work, we examined the genetic stability of a PIV5-based RSV vaccine in vitro and in vivo. We found that insertions of foreign genes, such as the RSV F and G genes, were stably maintained in the PIV5 genome and there was no mutation that abolished the expression of RSV F or G. Interestingly, the function of the inserted gene may have an impact on PIV5 genome stability.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Wild-Type or Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Fusion Protein Protects Mice and Cotton Rats from RSV Challenge
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Shannon I. Phan; James R. Zengel; Huiling Wei; Zhuo Li; Dai Wang; Biao He

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and hospitalizations. RSV can also cause severe complications in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. There is no licensed vaccine. We previously generated a parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-vectored vaccine candidate expressing the RSV fusion protein (F) that was immunogenic and protective in mice. In this work, our goal was to improve the original vaccine candidate by modifying the PIV5 vector or by modifying the RSV F antigen. We previously demonstrated that insertion of a foreign gene at the PIV5 small hydrophobic (SH)–hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) junction or deletion of PIV5 SH increased vaccine efficacy. Additionally, other groups have demonstrated that antibodies against the prefusion conformation of RSV F have more potent neutralizing activity than antibodies against the postfusion conformation. Therefore, to improve on our previously developed vaccine candidate, we inserted RSV F at the PIV5 SH-HN gene junction or used RSV F to replace PIV5 SH. We also engineered PIV5 to express a prefusion-stabilized F mutant. The candidates were tested in BALB/c mice via the intranasal route and induced both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. They also protected against RSV infection in the mouse lung. When they were administered intranasally or subcutaneously in cotton rats, the candidates were highly immunogenic and reduced RSV loads in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. PIV5-RSV F was equally protective when administered intranasally or subcutaneously. In all cases, the prefusion F mutant did not induce higher neutralizing antibody titers than wild-type F. These results show that antibodies against both pre- and postfusion F are important for neutralizing RSV and should be considered when designing a vectored RSV vaccine. The findings also that indicate PIV5-RSV F may be administered subcutaneously, which is the preferred route for vaccinating infants, who may develop nasal congestion as a result of intranasal vaccination. IMPORTANCE Despite decades of research, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is still a major health concern for which there is no vaccine. A parainfluenza virus 5-vectored vaccine expressing the native RSV fusion protein (F) has previously been shown to confer robust immunity against RSV infection in mice, cotton rats, and nonhuman primates. To improve our previous vaccine candidate, we developed four new candidates that incorporate modifications to the PIV5 backbone, replace native RSV F with a prefusion-stabilized RSV F mutant, or combine both RSV F and PIV5 backbone modifications. In this work, we characterized the new vaccine candidates and tested their efficacies in both murine and cotton rat models of RSV infection. Most importantly, we found that PIV5-based RSV vaccine candidates were efficacious in preventing lower respiratory tract infection as well as in reducing the nasal viral load when administered via the subcutaneous route.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • The Translesion Polymerase Pol η Is Required for Efficient Epstein-Barr Virus Infectivity and Is Regulated by the Viral Deubiquitinating Enzyme BPLF1
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Ossie F. Dyson; Joseph S. Pagano; Christopher B. Whitehurst

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and lytic replication are known to induce a cellular DNA damage response. We previously showed that the virally encoded BPLF1 protein interacts with and regulates several members of the translesion synthesis (TLS) pathway, a DNA damage tolerance pathway, and that these cellular factors enhance viral infectivity. BPLF1 is a late lytic cycle gene, but the protein is also packaged in the viral tegument, indicating that BPLF1 may function both early and late during infection. The BPLF1 protein expresses deubiquitinating activity that is strictly conserved across the Herpesviridae; mutation of the active site cysteine results in a loss of enzymatic activity. Infection with an EBV BPLF1 knockout virus results in decreased EBV infectivity. Polymerase eta (Pol η), a specialized DNA repair polymerase, functions in TLS and allows for DNA replication complexes to bypass lesions in DNA. Here we report that BPLF1 interacts with Pol η and that Pol η protein levels are increased in the presence of functional BPLF1. BPLF1 promotes a nuclear relocalization of Pol η molecules which are focus-like in appearance, consistent with the localization observed when Pol η is recruited to sites of DNA damage. Knockdown of Pol η resulted in decreased production of infectious virus, and further, Pol η was found to bind to EBV DNA, suggesting that it may allow for bypass of damaged viral DNA during its replication. The results suggest a mechanism by which EBV recruits cellular repair factors, such as Pol η, to sites of viral DNA damage via BPLF1, thereby allowing for efficient viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and infects approximately 90% of the world's population. It causes lymphomas in individuals with acquired and innate immune disorders and is strongly associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and lymphomas that develop in organ transplant recipients. Cellular DNA damage is a major determinant in the establishment of oncogenic processes and is well studied, but there are few studies of endogenous repair of viral DNA. This work evaluates how EBV's BPLF1 protein and its conserved deubiquitinating activity regulate the cellular DNA repair enzyme polymerase eta and recruit it to potential sites of viral damage and replication, resulting in enhanced production of infectious virus. These findings help to establish how EBV enlists and manipulates cellular DNA repair factors during the viral lytic cycle, contributing to efficient infectious virion production.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • ISG15 Modulates Type I Interferon Signaling and the Antiviral Response during Hepatitis E Virus Replication
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Harini Sooryanarain; Adam J. Rogers; Dianjun Cao; Mary Etna R. Haac; Yogesh A. Karpe; Xiang-Jin Meng

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, generally causes self-limiting acute viral hepatitis, although chronic HEV infection has recently become a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals, especially in solid-organ transplant recipients. Innate immunity, via the type I interferon (IFN) response, plays an important role during the initial stages of a viral infection. IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an IFN-induced ubiquitin-like protein, is known to have an immunomodulatory role and can have a direct antiviral effect on a wide spectrum of virus families. In the present study, we investigated the antiviral effect as well as the potential immunomodulatory role of ISG15 during HEV replication. The results revealed that HEV induced high levels of ISG15 production both in vitro (Huh7-S10-3 liver cells) and in vivo (liver tissues from HEV-infected pigs); however, ISG15 is not required for virus replication. We also demonstrated that ISG15 silencing potentiates enhanced type I IFN-mediated signaling, resulting in an increase in the type I IFN-mediated antiviral effect during HEV replication. This observed enhanced type I IFN signaling correlated with an increase in IFN-stimulated gene expression levels during HEV replication. Furthermore, we showed that PKR and OAS1 played important roles in the ISG15-mediated type I IFN sensitivity of HEV. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that ISG15 plays an important immunomodulatory role and regulates HEV sensitivity to exogenous type I IFN. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection typically causes self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. However, chronic HEV infection has recently become a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised patients. Pegylated interferon (IFN) has been used to treat chronic HEV infection in solid-organ transplant patients with some success. However, the mechanism behind the type I IFN-mediated antiviral effect against HEV remains unclear. This report demonstrates that ISG15 induced by HEV replication in Huh7-S10-3 human liver cells plays an immunomodulatory role by negatively regulating type I IFN signaling and, thus, HEV sensitivity to type I IFN. Our results also show that PKR and OAS1 play important roles in the ISG15-mediated type I IFN sensitivity of HEV.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Species Specificity of Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein for the Bovine Classical Pathway Is Governed Primarily by Direct Interaction of Its Acidic Residues with Factor I
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Jitendra Kumar; Viveka Nand Yadav; Swastik Phulera; Ashish Kamble; Avneesh Kumar Gautam; Hemendra Singh Panwar; Arvind Sahu

    Poxviruses display species tropism—variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE (smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes) exhibits selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP (vaccinia virus complement control protein) displays selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species specificity of VCP and SPICE for the classical pathway (CP). We observed that VCP is ∼43-fold superior to SPICE in inhibiting bovine CP. Further, functional assays revealed that increased inhibitory activity of VCP for bovine CP is solely due to its enhanced cofactor activity, with no effect on decay of bovine CP C3-convertase. To probe the structural basis of this specificity, we utilized single- and multi-amino-acid substitution mutants wherein 1 or more of the 11 variant VCP residues were substituted in the SPICE template. Examination of these mutants for their ability to inhibit bovine CP revealed that E108, E120, and E144 are primarily responsible for imparting the specificity and contribute to the enhanced cofactor activity of VCP. Binding and functional assays suggested that these residues interact with bovine factor I but not with bovine C4(H2O) (a moiety conformationally similar to C4b). Mapping of these residues onto the modeled structure of bovine C4b-VCP-bovine factor I supported the mutagenesis data. Taken together, our data help explain why the vaccine strain of vaccinia virus was able to gain a foothold in domesticated animals. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus was used for smallpox vaccination. The vaccine-derived virus is now circulating and causing outbreaks in dairy cattle in India and Brazil. However, the reason for this tropism is unknown. It is well recognized that the virus is susceptible to neutralization by the complement classical pathway (CP). Because the virus encodes a soluble complement regulator, VCP, we examined whether this protein displays selectivity in targeting bovine CP. Our data show that it does exhibit selectivity in inhibiting the bovine CP and that this is primarily determined by its amino acids E108, E120, and E144, which interact with bovine serine protease factor I to inactivate bovine C4b—one of the two subunits of CP C3-convertase. Of note, the variola complement regulator SPICE contains positively charged residues at these positions. Thus, these variant residues in VCP help enhance its potency against the bovine CP and thereby the fitness of the virus in cattle.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Propagation of Astrovirus VA1, a Neurotropic Human Astrovirus, in Cell Culture
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Andrew B. Janowski; Irma K. Bauer; Lori R. Holtz; David Wang

    Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Studies of the pathogenicity of VA1 are currently impossible because there are no reported cell culture systems or in vivo models that support VA1 infection. Here, we describe successful propagation of VA1 in multiple human cell lines. The initial inoculum, a filtered clinical stool sample from the index gastroenteritis case cluster that led to the discovery of VA1, was first passaged in Vero cells. Serial blind passage in Caco-2 cells yielded increasing copies of VA1 RNA, and multistep growth curves demonstrated a >100-fold increase in VA1 RNA 72 h after inoculation. The full-length genomic and subgenomic RNA strands were detected by Northern blotting, and crystalline lattices of viral particles of ∼26-nm diameter were observed by electron microscopy in infected Caco-2 cells. Unlike other human astrovirus cell culture systems, which require addition of exogenous trypsin for continued propagation, VA1 could be propagated equally well with or without the addition of trypsin. Furthermore, VA1 was sensitive to the type I interferon (IFN-I) response, as VA1 RNA levels were reduced by pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with IFN-β1a. The ability to propagate VA1 in cell culture will facilitate studies of the neurotropism and neuropathogenesis of VA1. IMPORTANCE Astroviruses are an emerging cause of central nervous system infections in mammals, and astrovirus VA1/HMO-C is the most prevalent astrovirus in cases of human encephalitis. This virus has not been previously propagated, preventing elucidation of the biology of this virus. We describe the first cell culture system for VA1, a key step necessary for the study of its ability to cause disease.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Pseudorabies Virus US3-Induced Tunneling Nanotubes Contain Stabilized Microtubules, Interact with Neighboring Cells via Cadherins, and Allow Intercellular Molecular Communication
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Robert J. J. Jansens; Wim Van den Broeck; Steffi De Pelsmaeker; Jochen A. S. Lamote; Cliff Van Waesberghe; Liesbeth Couck; Herman W. Favoreel

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long bridge-like structures that connect eukaryotic cells and mediate intercellular communication. We found earlier that the conserved alphaherpesvirus US3 protein kinase induces long cell projections that contact distant cells and promote intercellular virus spread. In this report, we show that the US3-induced cell projections constitute TNTs. In addition, we report that US3-induced TNTs mediate intercellular transport of information (e.g., green fluorescent protein [GFP]) in the absence of other viral proteins. US3-induced TNTs are remarkably stable compared to most TNTs described in the literature. In line with this, US3-induced TNTs were found to contain stabilized (acetylated and detyrosinated) microtubules. Transmission electron microscopy showed that virus particles are individually transported in membrane-bound vesicles in US3-induced TNTs and are released along the TNT and at the contact area between a TNT and the adjacent cell. Contact between US3-induced TNTs and acceptor cells is very stable, which correlated with a marked enrichment in adherens junction components beta-catenin and E-cadherin at the contact area. These data provide new structural insights into US3-induced TNTs and how they may contribute to intercellular communication and alphaherpesvirus spread. IMPORTANCE Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) represent an important and yet still poorly understood mode of long-distance intercellular communication. We and others reported earlier that the conserved alphaherpesvirus US3 protein kinase induces long cellular protrusions in infected and transfected cells. Here, we show that US3-induced cell projections constitute TNTs, based on structural properties and transport of biomolecules. In addition, we report on different particular characteristics of US3-induced TNTs that help to explain their remarkable stability compared to physiological TNTs. In addition, transmission electron microscopy assays indicate that, in infected cells, virions travel in the US3-induced TNTs in membranous transport vesicles and leave the TNT via exocytosis. These data generate new fundamental insights into the biology of (US3-induced) TNTs and into how they may contribute to intercellular virus spread and communication.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • rgs-CaM Detects and Counteracts Viral RNA Silencing Suppressors in Plant Immune Priming
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Eun Jin Jeon; Kazuki Tadamura; Taiki Murakami; Jun-ichi Inaba; Bo Min Kim; Masako Sato; Go Atsumi; Kazuyuki Kuchitsu; Chikara Masuta; Kenji S. Nakahara

    Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM. We previously reported the antiviral function of rgs-CaM, which binds to and directs degradation of viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs), including CMV 2b, via autophagy. We found that rgs-CaM-mediated immunity is ineffective against CMV infection in normally growing tobacco plants but is activated as a result of SAR induction via salicylic acid signaling. We then analyzed the effect of overexpression of rgs-CaM on salicylic acid signaling. Overexpressed and ectopically expressed rgs-CaM induced defense reactions, including cell death, generation of reactive oxygen species, and salicylic acid signaling. Further analysis using a combination of the salicylic acid analogue benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 revealed that rgs-CaM functions as an immune receptor that induces salicylic acid signaling by simultaneously perceiving both viral RSS and Ca2+ influx as infection cues, implying its autoactivation. Thus, secondary infection of SAR-induced tobacco plants with CMV seems to be effectively inhibited through 2b recognition and degradation by rgs-CaM, leading to reinforcement of antiviral RNA silencing and other salicylic acid-mediated antiviral responses. IMPORTANCE Even without an acquired immune system like that in vertebrates, plants show enhanced whole-plant resistance against secondary infection with pathogens; this so-called systemic acquired resistance (SAR) has been known for more than half a century and continues to be extensively studied. SAR-induced plants strongly and rapidly express a number of antibiotics and pathogenesis-related proteins targeted against secondary infection, which can account for enhanced resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens but are not thought to control viral infection. This study showed that enhanced resistance against cucumber mosaic virus is caused by a tobacco calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM, which detects and counteracts the major viral virulence factor (RNA silencing suppressor) after SAR induction. rgs-CaM-mediated SAR illustrates the growth versus defense trade-off in plants, as it targets the major virulence factor only under specific biotic stress conditions, thus avoiding the cost of constitutive activation while reducing the damage from virus infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Enterovirus 3A Facilitates Viral Replication by Promoting Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIβ–ACBD3 Interaction
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Xia Xiao; Xiaobo Lei; Zhenzhen Zhang; Yijie Ma; Jianli Qi; Chao Wu; Yan Xiao; Li Li; Bin He; Jianwei Wang

    Like other enteroviruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) relies on phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) for genome RNA replication. However, how PI4KB is recruited to the genome replication sites of EV71 remains elusive. Recently, we reported that a host factor, ACBD3, is needed for EV71 replication by interacting with viral 3A protein. Here, we show that ACBD3 is required for the recruitment of PI4KB to RNA replication sites. Overexpression of viral 3A or EV71 infection stimulates the interaction of PI4KB and ACBD3. Consistently, EV71 infection induces the production of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). Furthermore, PI4KB, ACBD3, and 3A are all localized to the viral-RNA replication sites. Accordingly, PI4KB or ACBD3 depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) leads to a reduction in PI4P production after EV71 infection. I44A or H54Y substitution in 3A interrupts the stimulation of PI4KB and ACBD3. Further analysis suggests that stimulation of ACBD3-PI4KB interaction is also important for the replication of enterovirus 68 but disadvantageous to human rhinovirus 16. These results reveal a mechanism of enterovirus replication that involves a selective strategy for recruitment of PI4KB to the RNA replication sites. IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71, like other human enteroviruses, replicates its genome within host cells, where viral proteins efficiently utilize cellular machineries. While multiple factors are involved, it is largely unclear how viral replication is controlled. We show that the 3A protein of enterovirus 71 recruits an enzyme, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ, by interacting with ACBD3, which alters cellular membranes through the production of a lipid, PI4P. Consequently, the viral and host proteins form a large complex that is necessary for RNA synthesis at replication sites. Notably, PI4KB-ACBD3 interaction also differentially mediates the replication of enterovirus 68 and rhinovirus 16. These results provide new insight into the molecular network of enterovirus replication.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Pace of Coreceptor Tropism Switch in HIV-1-Infected Individuals after Recent Infection
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Muhammad Shoaib Arif; James Hunter; Ana Rachel Léda; Jean Paulo Lopes Zukurov; Sadia Samer; Michelle Camargo; Juliana Galinskas; Esper Georges Kallás; Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis; Luiz Mario Janini; Maria Cecilia Sucupira; Ricardo Sobhie Diaz

    HIV-1 entry into target cells influences several aspects of HIV-1 pathogenesis, including viral tropism, HIV-1 transmission and disease progression, and response to entry inhibitors. The evolution from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains in a given human host is still unpredictable. Here we analyzed timing and predictors for coreceptor evolution among recently HIV-1-infected individuals. Proviral DNA was longitudinally evaluated in 66 individuals using Geno2pheno[coreceptor]. Demographics, viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection, and HLA profiles were also evaluated. Ultradeep sequencing was performed on initial samples from 11 selected individuals. A tropism switch from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains was identified in 9/49 (18.4%) individuals. Only a low baseline false-positive rate (FPR) was found to be a significant tropism switch predictor. No minor CXCR4-using variants were identified in initial samples of 4 of 5 R5/non-R5 switchers. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with an FPR of >40.6% at baseline presented a stable FPR over time whereas lower FPRs tend to progressively decay, leading to emergence of CXCR4-using strains, with a mean evolution time of 27.29 months (range, 8.90 to 64.62). An FPR threshold above 40.6% determined by logistic regression analysis may make it unnecessary to further determine tropism for prediction of disease progression related to emergence of X4 strains or use of CCR5 antagonists. The detection of variants with intermediate FPRs and progressive FPR decay over time not only strengthens the power of Geno2pheno in predicting HIV tropism but also indirectly confirms a continuous evolution from earlier R5 variants toward CXCR4-using strains. IMPORTANCE The introduction of CCR5 antagonists in the antiretroviral arsenal has sparked interest in coreceptors utilized by HIV-1. Despite concentrated efforts, viral and human host features predicting tropism switch are still poorly understood. Limited longitudinal data are available to assess the influence that these factors have on predicting tropism switch and disease progression. The present study describes longitudinal tropism evolution in a group of recently HIV-infected individuals to determine the prevalence and potential correlates of tropism switch. We demonstrated here that a low baseline FPR determined by the Geno2pheno[coreceptor] algorithm can predict tropism evolution from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Selective Expression of CCR10 and CXCR3 by Circulating Human Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Michael T. Hensel; Tao Peng; Anqi Cheng; Stephen C. De Rosa; Anna Wald; Kerry J. Laing; Lichen Jing; Lichun Dong; Amalia S. Magaret; David M. Koelle

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is restricted to epithelial cells and neurons and is controlled by CD8 T cells. These cells both traffic to epithelial sites of recurrent lytic infection and to ganglia and persist at the dermal-epidermal junction for up to 12 weeks after lesion resolution. We previously showed that cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), a functional E-selectin ligand (ESL), is selectively expressed on circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T cells. CLA/ESL mediates adhesion of T cells to inflamed vascular endothelium. Later stages in T-cell homing involve chemokines (Ch) and lymphocyte chemokine receptors (ChR) for vascular wall arrest and diapedesis. Several candidate ChR have been implicated in skin homing. We measured cell surface ChR on HSV-specific human peripheral blood CD8 T cells and extended our studies to HSV-1. We observed preferential cell surface expression of CCR10 and CXCR3 by HSV-specific CD8 T cells compared to CD8 T cells specific for control viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), and compared to bulk memory CD8 T cells. CXCR3 ligand mRNA levels were selectively increased in skin biopsy specimens from persons with recurrent HSV-2, while the mRNA levels of the CCR10 ligand CCL27 were equivalent in lesion and control skin. Our data are consistent with a model in which CCL27 drives baseline recruitment of HSV-specific CD8 T cells expressing CCR10, while interferon-responsive CXCR3 ligands recruit additional cells in response to virus-driven inflammation. IMPORTANCE HSV-2 causes very localized recurrent infections in the skin and genital mucosa. Virus-specific CD8 T cells home to the site of recurrent infection and participate in viral clearance. The exit of T cells from the blood involves the use of chemokine receptors on the T-cell surface and chemokines that are present in infected tissue. In this study, circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T cells were identified using specific fluorescent tetramer reagents, and their expression of several candidate skin-homing-associated chemokine receptors was measured using flow cytometry. We found that two chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CCR10, are upregulated on HSV-specific CD8 T cells in blood. The chemokines corresponding to these receptors are also expressed in infected tissues. Vaccine strategies to prime CD8 T cells to home to HSV lesions should elicit these chemokine receptors if possible to increase the homing of vaccine-primed cells to sites of infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Increased, Durable B-Cell and ADCC Responses Associated with T-Helper Cell Responses to HIV-1 Envelope in Macaques Vaccinated with gp140 Occluded at the CD4 Receptor Binding Site
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Willy M. J. M. Bogers; Susan W. Barnett; Herman Oostermeijer; Ivonne G. Nieuwenhuis; Niels Beenhakker; Daniella Mortier; Petra Mooij; Gerrit Koopman; Edmund Remarque; Gregoire Martin; Rachel Pei-Jen Lai; Antu K. Dey; Yide Sun; Brian Burke; Guido Ferrari; David Montefiori; Loic Martin; David Davis; Indresh Srivastava; Jonathan L. Heeney

    Strategies are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope (Env) antigens (Ag) for more long-lived, efficacious HIV-1 vaccine-induced B-cell responses. HIV-1 Env gp140 (native or uncleaved molecules) or gp120 monomeric proteins elicit relatively poor B-cell responses which are short-lived. We hypothesized that Env engagement of the CD4 receptor on T-helper cells results in anergic effects on T-cell recruitment and consequently a lack of strong, robust, and durable B-memory responses. To test this hypothesis, we occluded the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of gp140 by stable cross-linking with a 3-kDa CD4 miniprotein mimetic, serving to block ligation of gp140 on CD4+ T cells while preserving CD4-inducible (CDi) neutralizing epitopes targeted by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector responses. Importantly, immunization of rhesus macaques consistently gave superior B-cell (P < 0.001) response kinetics and superior ADCC (P < 0.014) in a group receiving the CD4bs-occluded vaccine compared to those of animals immunized with gp140. Of the cytokines examined, Ag-specific interleukin-4 (IL-4) T-helper enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays of the CD4bs-occluded group increased earlier (P = 0.025) during the inductive phase. Importantly, CD4bs-occluded gp140 antigen induced superior B-cell and ADCC responses, and the elevated B-cell responses proved to be remarkably durable, lasting more than 60 weeks postimmunization. IMPORTANCE Attempts to develop HIV vaccines capable of inducing potent and durable B-cell responses have been unsuccessful until now. Antigen-specific B-cell development and affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers in lymphoid follicles through a critical interaction between B cells and T follicular helper cells. The HIV envelope binds the CD4 receptor on T cells as soluble shed antigen or as antigen-antibody complexes, causing impairment in the activation of these specialized CD4-positive T cells. We proposed that CD4-binding impairment is partly responsible for the relatively poor B-cell responses to HIV envelope-based vaccines. To test this hypothesis, we blocked the CD4 binding site of the envelope antigen and compared it to currently used unblocked envelope protein. We found superior and durable B-cell responses in macaques vaccinated with an occluded CD4 binding site on the HIV envelope antigen, demonstrating a potentially important new direction in future design of new HIV vaccines.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase Inhibits Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication through Enzyme Activity-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Wenting Ke; Liurong Fang; Huiyuan Jing; Ran Tao; Ting Wang; Yang Li; Siwen Long; Dang Wang; Shaobo Xiao

    Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) has recently been identified as a host restriction factor that exerts antiviral effects by catalyzing the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). CH25H can be rapidly induced upon infection with some viruses. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, has ranked among the most important swine pathogens since it was discovered in the late 1980s. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection significantly downregulated the expression of CH25H in cells by a so-far unknown mechanism, suggesting that CH25H exerts antiviral activity against PRRSV. Indeed, overexpression of CH25H inhibited PRRSV replication, whereas knockdown of CH25H by short interfering RNA (siRNA) promoted PRRSV infection. The anti-PRRSV effect of 25HC operates via inhibition of viral penetration. Interestingly, a CH25H mutant (CH25H-M) lacking hydroxylase activity still inhibited PRRSV infection. Screening using a yeast two-hybrid system followed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence colocalization analyses confirmed that both CH25H and CH25H-M interact with the nonstructural protein 1 alpha (nsp1α) of PRRSV. Unexpectedly, the expression of nsp1α decreased following coexpression with CH25H or CH25H-M. Detailed analyses demonstrated that CH25H/CH25H-M could degrade nsp1α through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that site K169 in the nsp1α protein is the key site of ubiquitination. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CH25H restricts PRRSV replication by targeting viral penetration as well as degrading nsp1α, revealing a novel antiviral mechanism used by CH25H. IMPORTANCE PRRSV has been a continuous threat to the global swine industry, and current vaccines are insufficient to provide sustainable control. CH25H has been found to exert a broad antiviral effect; thus, it is an attractive target for the development of anti-PRRSV drugs. Here, we demonstrate that CH25H is an interferon-stimulated gene that is highly expressed in porcine alveolar macrophages. CH25H exerts its anti-PRRSV effect not only via the production of 25HC to inhibit viral penetration but also by degrading viral protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, suggesting that CH25H is a candidate for the development of antiviral therapeutics. However, PRRSV infection appears to actively decrease CH25H expression to promote viral replication, highlighting the complex game between PRRSV and its host.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Whole-Genome Sequencing and Variant Analysis of Human Papillomavirus 16 Infections
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Pascal van der Weele; Chris J. L. M. Meijer; Audrey J. King

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a strongly conserved DNA virus, high-risk types of which can cause cervical cancer in persistent infections. The most common type found in HPV-attributable cancer is HPV16, which can be subdivided into four lineages (A to D) with different carcinogenic properties. Studies have shown HPV16 sequence diversity in different geographical areas, but only limited information is available regarding HPV16 diversity within a population, especially at the whole-genome level. We analyzed HPV16 major variant diversity and conservation in persistent infections and performed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) comparison between persistent and clearing infections. Materials were obtained in the Netherlands from a cohort study with longitudinal follow-up for up to 3 years. Our analysis shows a remarkably large variant diversity in the population. Whole-genome sequences were obtained for 57 persistent and 59 clearing HPV16 infections, resulting in 109 unique variants. Interestingly, persistent infections were completely conserved through time. One reinfection event was identified where the initial and follow-up samples clustered differently. Non-A1/A2 variants seemed to clear preferentially (P = 0.02). Our analysis shows that population-wide HPV16 sequence diversity is very large. In persistent infections, the HPV16 sequence was fully conserved. Sequencing can identify HPV16 reinfections, although occurrence is rare. SNP comparison identified no strongly acting effect of the viral genome affecting HPV16 infection clearance or persistence in up to 3 years of follow-up. These findings suggest the progression of an early HPV16 infection could be host related. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is the predominant type found in cervical cancer. Progression of initial infection to cervical cancer has been linked to sequence properties; however, knowledge of variants circulating in European populations, especially with longitudinal follow-up, is limited. By sequencing a number of infections with known follow-up for up to 3 years, we gained initial insights into the genetic diversity of HPV16 and the effects of the viral genome on the persistence of infections. A SNP comparison between sequences obtained from clearing and persistent infections did not identify strongly acting DNA variations responsible for these infection outcomes. In addition, we identified an HPV16 reinfection event where sequencing of initial and follow-up samples showed different HPV16 variants. Based on conventional genotyping, this infection would incorrectly be considered a persistent HPV16 infection. In the context of vaccine efficacy and monitoring studies, such infections could potentially cause reduced reported efficacy or efficiency.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Bam35 Tectivirus Intraviral Interaction Map Unveils New Function and Localization of Phage ORFan Proteins
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Mónica Berjón-Otero; Ana Lechuga; Jitender Mehla; Peter Uetz; Margarita Salas; Modesto Redrejo-Rodríguez

    The family Tectiviridae comprises a group of tailless, icosahedral, membrane-containing bacteriophages that can be divided into two groups by their hosts, either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. While the first group is composed of PRD1 and nearly identical well-characterized lytic viruses, the second one includes more variable temperate phages, like GIL16 or Bam35, whose hosts are Bacillus cereus and related Gram-positive bacteria. In the genome of Bam35, nearly half of the 32 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) have no homologs in databases (ORFans), being putative proteins of unknown function, which hinders the understanding of their biology. With the aim of increasing knowledge about the viral proteome, we carried out a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid analysis of all the putative proteins encoded by the Bam35 genome. The resulting protein interactome comprised 76 unique interactions among 24 proteins, of which 12 have an unknown function. These results suggest that the P17 protein is the minor capsid protein of Bam35 and P24 is the penton protein, with the latter finding also being supported by iterative threading protein modeling. Moreover, the inner membrane transglycosylase protein P26 could have an additional structural role. We also detected interactions involving nonstructural proteins, such as the DNA-binding protein P1 and the genome terminal protein (P4), which was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of recombinant proteins. Altogether, our results provide a functional view of the Bam35 viral proteome, with a focus on the composition and organization of the viral particle. IMPORTANCE Tailless viruses of the family Tectiviridae can infect commensal and pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, they have been proposed to be at the evolutionary origin of several groups of large eukaryotic DNA viruses and self-replicating plasmids. However, due to their ancient origin and complex diversity, many tectiviral proteins are ORFans of unknown function. Comprehensive protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of viral proteins can eventually disclose biological mechanisms and thus provide new insights into protein function unattainable by studying proteins one by one. Here we comprehensively describe intraviral PPIs among tectivirus Bam35 proteins determined using multivector yeast two-hybrid screening, and these PPIs were further supported by the results of coimmunoprecipitation assays and protein structural models. This approach allowed us to propose new functions for known proteins and hypothesize about the biological role of the localization of some viral ORFan proteins within the viral particle that will be helpful for understanding the biology of tectiviruses infecting Gram-positive bacteria.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Evaluation of the Biological Properties and Cross-Reactive Antibody Response to H10 Influenza Viruses in Ferrets
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Troy C. Sutton; Elaine W. Lamirande; Rita Czako; Kanta Subbarao

    The recent outbreak of avian origin H10N7 influenza among seals in northern Europe and two fatal human infections with an avian H10N8 virus in China have demonstrated that H10 viruses can spread between mammals and cause severe disease in humans. To gain insight into the potential for H10 viruses to cross the species barrier and to identify a candidate vaccine strain, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo properties and antibody response in ferrets to 20 diverse H10 viruses. H10 virus infection of ferrets caused variable weight loss, and all 20 viruses replicated throughout the respiratory tract; however, replication in the lungs was highly variable. In glycan-binding assays, the H10 viruses preferentially bound “avian-like” α2,3-linked sialic acids. Importantly, several isolates also displayed strong binding to long-chain “human-like” α2,6-linked sialic acids and exhibited comparable or elevated neuraminidase activity relative to human H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 viruses. In hemagglutination inhibition assays, 12 antisera cross-reacted with ≥14 of 20 H10 viruses, and 7 viruses induced neutralizing activity against ≥15 of the 20 viruses. By combining data on weight loss, viral replication, and the cross-reactive antibody response, we identified A/mallard/Portugal/79906/2009 (H10N7) as a suitable virus for vaccine development. Collectively, our findings suggest that H10 viruses may continue to sporadically infect humans and other mammals, underscoring the importance of developing an H10 vaccine for pandemic preparedness. IMPORTANCE Avian origin H10 influenza viruses sporadically infect humans and other mammals; however, little is known about viruses of this subtype. Thus, we characterized the biological properties of 20 H10 viruses in vitro and in ferrets. Infection caused mild to moderate weight loss (5 to 15%), with robust viral replication in the nasal tissues and variable replication in the lung. H10 viruses preferentially bind “avian-like” sialic acids, although several isolates also displayed binding to “human-like” sialic acid receptors. This is consistent with the ability of H10 viruses to cross the species barrier and warrants selection of an H10 vaccine strain. By evaluating the cross-reactive antibody response to the H10 viruses and combining this analysis with viral replication and weight loss findings, we identified A/mallard/Portugal/79906/2009 (H10N7) as a suitable H10 vaccine strain.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Experimental Transmission of the Chronic Wasting Disease Agent to Swine after Oral or Intracranial Inoculation
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    S. Jo Moore; M. Heather West Greenlee; Naveen Kondru; Sireesha Manne; Jodi D. Smith; Robert A. Kunkle; Anumantha Kanthasamy; Justin J. Greenlee

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. The potential for swine to serve as hosts for the agent of CWD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of swine to the CWD agent following experimental oral or intracranial inoculation. Crossbred piglets were assigned to three groups, intracranially inoculated (n = 20), orally inoculated (n = 19), and noninoculated (n = 9). At approximately the age at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (“market weight” groups). The remaining pigs (“aged” groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months postinoculation (mpi). Tissues collected at necropsy were examined for disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) by Western blotting (WB), antigen capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in vitro real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC). Brain samples from selected pigs were also bioassayed in mice expressing porcine prion protein. Four intracranially inoculated aged pigs and one orally inoculated aged pig were positive by EIA, IHC, and/or WB. By RT-QuIC, PrPSc was detected in lymphoid and/or brain tissue from one or more pigs in each inoculated group. The bioassay was positive in four out of five pigs assayed. This study demonstrates that pigs can support low-level amplification of CWD prions, although the species barrier to CWD infection is relatively high. However, detection of infectivity in orally inoculated pigs with a mouse bioassay raises the possibility that naturally exposed pigs could act as a reservoir of CWD infectivity. IMPORTANCE We challenged domestic swine with the chronic wasting disease agent by inoculation directly into the brain (intracranially) or by oral gavage (orally). Disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) was detected in brain and lymphoid tissues from intracranially and orally inoculated pigs as early as 8 months of age (6 months postinoculation). Only one pig developed clinical neurologic signs suggestive of prion disease. The amount of PrPSc in the brains and lymphoid tissues of positive pigs was small, especially in orally inoculated pigs. Regardless, positive results obtained with orally inoculated pigs suggest that it may be possible for swine to serve as a reservoir for prion disease under natural conditions.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Binding of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL20 to GODZ (DHHC3) Affects Its Palmitoylation and Is Essential for Infectivity and Proper Targeting and Localization of UL20 and Glycoprotein K
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Shaohui Wang; Kevin R. Mott; Kolja Wawrowsky; Konstantin G. Kousoulas; Bernhard Luscher; Homayon Ghiasi

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL20 plays a crucial role in the envelopment of the cytoplasmic virion and its egress. It is a nonglycosylated envelope protein that is regulated as a γ1 gene. Two-hybrid and pulldown assays demonstrated that UL20, but no other HSV-1 gene-encoded proteins, binds specifically to GODZ (also known as DHHC3), a cellular Golgi apparatus-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein. A catalytically inactive dominant-negative GODZ construct significantly reduced HSV-1 replication in vitro and affected the localization of UL20 and glycoprotein K (gK) and their interactions but not glycoprotein C (gC). GODZ is involved in palmitoylation, and we found that UL20 is palmitoylated by GODZ using a GODZ dominant-negative plasmid. Blocking of palmitoylation using 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) affected the virus titer and the interaction of UL20 and gK but did not affect the levels of these proteins. In conclusion, we have shown that binding of UL20 to GODZ in the Golgi apparatus regulates trafficking of UL20 and its subsequent effects on gK localization and virus replication. We also have demonstrated that GODZ-mediated UL20 palmitoylation is critical for UL20 membrane targeting and thus gK cell surface expression, providing new mechanistic insights into how UL20 palmitoylation regulates HSV-1 infectivity. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 UL20 is a nonglycosylated essential envelope protein that is highly conserved among herpesviruses. In this study, we show that (i) HSV-1 UL20 binds to GODZ (also known as DHHC3), a Golgi apparatus-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein; (ii) a GODZ dominant-negative mutant and an inhibitor of palmitoylation reduced HSV-1 titers and altered the localization of UL20 and glycoprotein K; and (iii) UL20 is palmitoylated by GODZ, and this UL20 palmitoylation is required for HSV-1 infectivity. Thus, blocking of the interaction of UL20 with GODZ, using a GODZ dominant-negative mutant or possibly GODZ shRNA, should be considered a potential alternative therapy in not only HSV-1 but also other conditions in which GODZ processing is an integral component of pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • A Unique T-Cell Receptor Amino Acid Sequence Selected by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax301-309-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells in HLA-A24:02-Positive Asymptomatic Carriers and Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Yuko Ishihara; Yukie Tanaka; Seiichiro Kobayashi; Koji Kawamura; Hideki Nakasone; Ayumi Gomyo; Jin Hayakawa; Masaharu Tamaki; Yu Akahoshi; Naonori Harada; Machiko Kusuda; Kazuaki Kameda; Tomotaka Ugai; Hidenori Wada; Kana Sakamoto; Miki Sato; Kiriko Terasako-Saito; Misato Kikuchi; Shun-ichi Kimura; Aki Tanihara; Shinichi Kako; Kaoru Uchimaru; Yoshinobu Kanda

    We previously reported that the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax301-309-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (Tax301-309-CTLs) was highly restricted and a particular amino acid sequence motif, the PDR motif, was conserved among HLA-A*24:02-positive (HLA-A*24:02+) adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Furthermore, we found that donor-derived PDR+ CTLs selectively expanded in ATL long-term HSCT survivors with strong CTL activity against HTLV-1. On the other hand, the TCR repertoires in Tax301-309-CTLs of asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) remain unclear. In this study, we directly identified the DNA sequence of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the TCR-β chain of Tax301-309-CTLs at the single-cell level and compared not only the TCR repertoires but also the frequencies and phenotypes of Tax301-309-CTLs between ACs and ATL patients. We did not observe any essential difference in the frequencies of Tax301-309-CTLs between ACs and ATL patients. In the single-cell TCR repertoire analysis of Tax301-309-CTLs, 1,458 Tax301-309-CTLs and 140 clones were identified in this cohort. Tax301-309-CTLs showed highly restricted TCR repertoires with a strongly biased usage of BV7, and PDR, the unique motif in TCR-β CDR3, was exclusively observed in all ACs and ATL patients. However, there was no correlation between PDR+ CTL frequencies and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL). In conclusion, we have identified, for the first time, a unique amino acid sequence, PDR, as a public TCR-CDR3 motif against Tax in HLA-A*24:02+ HTLV-1-infected individuals. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the role of the PDR+ CTL response in the progression from carrier state to ATL. IMPORTANCE ATL is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by HTLV-1 infection. The HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax aggressively promotes the proliferation of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes and is also a major target antigen for CD8+ CTLs. In our previous evaluation of Tax301-309-CTLs, we found that a unique amino acid sequence motif, PDR, in CDR3 of the TCR-β chain of Tax301-309-CTLs was conserved among ATL patients after allo-HSCT. Furthermore, the PDR+ Tax301-309-CTL clones selectively expanded and showed strong cytotoxic activities against HTLV-1. On the other hand, it remains unclear how Tax301-309-CTL repertoire exists in ACs. In this study, we comprehensively compared Tax-specific TCR repertoires at the single-cell level between ACs and ATL patients. Tax301-309-CTLs showed highly restricted TCR repertoires with a strongly biased usage of BV7, and PDR, the unique motif in TCR-β CDR3, was conserved in all ACs and ATL patients, regardless of clinical subtype in HTLV-1 infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Panels of HIV-1 Subtype C Env Reference Strains for Standardized Neutralization Assessments
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Peter Hraber; Cecilia Rademeyer; Carolyn Williamson; Michael S. Seaman; Raphael Gottardo; Haili Tang; Kelli Greene; Hongmei Gao; Celia LaBranche; John R. Mascola; Lynn Morris; David C. Montefiori; Bette Korber

    In the search for effective immunologic interventions to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection, standardized reference reagents are a cost-effective way to maintain robustness and reproducibility among immunological assays. To support planned and ongoing studies where clade C predominates, here we describe three virus panels, chosen from 200 well-characterized clade C envelope (Env)-pseudotyped viruses from early infection. All 200 Envs were expressed as a single round of replication pseudoviruses and were tested to quantify neutralization titers by 16 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and sera from 30 subjects with chronic clade C infections. We selected large panels of 50 and 100 Envs either to characterize cross-reactive breadth for sera identified as having potent neutralization activity based on initial screening or to evaluate neutralization magnitude-breadth distributions of newly isolated antibodies. We identified these panels by downselection after hierarchical clustering of bnAb neutralization titers. The resulting panels represent the diversity of neutralization profiles throughout the range of virus sensitivities identified in the original panel of 200 viruses. A small 12-Env panel was chosen to screen sera from vaccine trials or natural-infection studies for neutralization responses. We considered panels selected by previously described methods but favored a computationally informed method that enabled selection of viruses representing diverse neutralization sensitivity patterns, given that we do not a priori know what the neutralization-response profile of vaccine sera will be relative to that of sera from infected individuals. The resulting 12-Env panel complements existing panels. Use of standardized panels enables direct comparisons of data from different trials and study sites testing HIV-1 clade C-specific products. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 group M includes nine clades and many recombinants. Clade C is the most common lineage, responsible for roughly half of current HIV-1 infections, and is a focus for vaccine design and testing. Standard reference reagents, particularly virus panels to study neutralization by antibodies, are crucial for developing cost-effective and yet rigorous and reproducible assays against diverse examples of this variable virus. We developed clade C-specific panels for use as standardized reagents to monitor complex polyclonal sera for neutralization activity and to characterize the potency and breadth of cross-reactive neutralization by monoclonal antibodies, whether engineered or isolated from infected individuals. We chose from 200 southern African, clade C envelope-pseudotyped viruses with neutralization titers against 16 broadly neutralizing antibodies and 30 sera from chronic clade C infections. We selected panels to represent the diversity of bnAb neutralization profiles and Env neutralization sensitivities. Use of standard virus panels can facilitate comparison of results across studies and sites.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Expressing Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen (LANA) Reveals both Functional Conservation and Divergence in LANA Homologs
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Arundhati Gupta; Darby G. Oldenburg; Eduardo Salinas; Douglas W. White; J. Craig Forrest

    Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a multifunctional protein encoded by members of the Rhadinovirus genus of gammaherpesviruses. Studies using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) demonstrated that LANA is important for acute replication, latency establishment, and reactivation in vivo. Despite structural similarities in their DNA-binding domains (DBDs), LANA homologs from Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and MHV68 exhibit considerable sequence divergence. We sought to determine if KSHV and MHV68 LANA homologs are functionally interchangeable. We generated an MHV68 virus that encodes KSHV LANA (kLANA) in place of MHV68 LANA (mLANA) and evaluated the virus's capacity to replicate, establish and maintain latency, and reactivate. kLANA knock-in (KLKI) MHV68 was replication competent in vitro and in vivo but exhibited slower growth kinetics and lower titers than wild-type (WT) MHV68. Following inoculation of mice, KLKI MHV68 established and maintained latency in splenocytes and peritoneal cells but did not reactivate efficiently ex vivo. kLANA repressed the MHV68 promoter for ORF50, the gene that encodes the major lytic transactivator protein RTA, while mLANA did not, suggesting a likely mechanism for the KLKI MHV68 phenotypes. Bypassing this repression by providing MHV68 RTA in trans rescued KLKI MHV68 replication in tissue culture and enabled detection of KLKI MHV68 reactivation ex vivo. These data demonstrate that kLANA and mLANA are functionally interchangeable for establishment and maintenance of latency and suggest that repression of lytic replication by kLANA, as previously shown with KSHV, is a kLANA-specific function that is transferable to MHV68. IMPORTANCE Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) are members of the Rhadinovirus genus of gammaherpesviruses. These viruses establish lifelong infections that place their respective human and murine hosts at risk for cancer. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is a conserved Rhadinovirus protein that is necessary for long-term chronic infection by these viruses. To better understand the conserved functions performed by LANA homologs, we generated a recombinant MHV68 virus that encodes the KSHV LANA protein in place of the MHV68 LANA homolog. We determined that the KSHV LANA protein is capable of supporting MHV68 latency in a mouse model of chronic infection but also functions to repress viral replication. This work describes an in vivo model system for defining evolutionarily conserved and divergent functions of LANA homologs in Rhadinovirus infection and disease.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Identification of Vaccinia Virus Replisome and Transcriptome Proteins by Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Tatiana G. Senkevich; George C. Katsafanas; Andrea Weisberg; Lisa R. Olano; Bernard Moss

    Poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA and mRNA synthesis. To investigate poxvirus replication and transcription from a new perspective, we incorporated 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) into nascent DNA in cells infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). The EdU-labeled DNA was conjugated to fluor- or biotin-azide and visualized by confocal, superresolution, and transmission electron microscopy. Nuclear labeling decreased dramatically after infection, accompanied by intense labeling of cytoplasmic foci. The nascent DNA colocalized with the VACV single-stranded DNA binding protein I3 in multiple puncta throughout the interior of factories, which were surrounded by endoplasmic reticulum. Complexes containing EdU-biotin-labeled DNA cross-linked to proteins were captured on streptavidin beads. After elution and proteolysis, the peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins associated with nascent DNA. The known viral replication proteins, a telomere binding protein, and a protein kinase were associated with nascent DNA, as were the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and intermediate- and late-stage transcription initiation and elongation factors, plus the capping and methylating enzymes. These results suggested that the replicating pool of DNA is transcribed and that few if any additional viral proteins directly engaged in replication and transcription remain to be discovered. Among the host proteins identified by mass spectrometry, topoisomerases IIα and IIβ and PCNA were noteworthy. The association of the topoisomerases with nascent DNA was dependent on expression of the viral DNA ligase, in accord with previous proteomic studies. Further investigations are needed to determine possible roles for PCNA and other host proteins detected. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses, unlike many well-characterized animal DNA viruses, replicate entirely within the cytoplasm of animal cells, raising questions regarding the relative roles of viral and host proteins. We adapted newly developed procedures for click chemistry and iPOND (Isolation of proteins on nascent DNA) to investigate vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. Nuclear DNA synthesis ceased almost immediately following VACV infection, followed swiftly by the synthesis of viral DNA within discrete cytoplasmic foci. All viral proteins known from genetic and proteomic studies to be required for poxvirus DNA replication were identified in the complexes containing nascent DNA. The additional detection of the viral DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and intermediate and late transcription factors provided evidence for a temporal coupling of replication and transcription. Further studies are needed to assess the potential roles of host proteins, including topoisomerases IIα and IIβ and PCNA, which were found associated with nascent DNA.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Stability of Cucumber Necrosis Virus at the Quasi-6-Fold Axis Affects Zoospore Transmission
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Michael B. Sherman; Kishore Kakani; D'Ann Rochon; Wen Jiang; Neil R. Voss; Thomas J. Smith

    Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus. As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507–517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (M. Li et al., J Virol 87:12166–12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N termini of the C subunit at the quasi-6-fold axes. To better understand how this buried residue might affect vector transmission, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of wild-type CNV in the native and swollen state and of the transmission-defective mutant, P73G, under native conditions. With the wild-type CNV, the swollen structure demonstrated the expected expansion of the capsid. However, the zinc binding region at the quasi-6-fold at the β-annulus axes remained intact. By comparison, the zinc binding region of the P73G mutant, even under native conditions, was markedly disordered, suggesting that the β-annulus had been disrupted and that this could destabilize the capsid. This was confirmed with pH and urea denaturation experiments in conjunction with electron microscopy analysis. We suggest that the P73G mutation affects the zinc binding and/or the β-annulus, making it more fragile under neutral/basic pH conditions. This, in turn, may affect zoospore transmission. IMPORTANCE Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a member of the genus Tombusvirus, is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus Olpidium bornovanus. While a number of plant viruses are transmitted via insect vectors, little is known at the molecular level as to how the viruses are recognized and transmitted. As with many spherical plant viruses, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation that lies inside the capsid immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (Li et al., J Virol 87:12166–12175, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01965-13) blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (K. Kakani, R. Reade, and D. Rochon, J Mol Biol 338:507–517, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.008). Here, we show that the P73G mutant is less stable than the wild type, and this appears to be correlated with destabilization of the β-annulus at the icosahedral 3-fold axes. Therefore, the β-annulus appears not to be essential for particle assembly but is necessary for interactions with the transmission vector.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Patricia L. Earl; Jeffrey L. Americo; Bernard Moss

    The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 106 PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. In individual CAST mice, luciferase-expressing VACV was seen to replicate rapidly leading to death, whereas virus levels increased for a few days and then declined in BALB/c mice. Increases in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were delayed and low in CAST mice compared to BALB/c mice following VACV infection or poly(I-C) inoculation, consistent with differences in innate immune responses. In addition, naive CAST mice had considerably lower numbers of NK and T cells than BALB/c mice. The percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased following infection of CAST mice only after considerable virus spread, and the absolute cell numbers remained low. Administration of exogenous IFN-γ or -α to CAST mice before or during the first days of infection suppressed virus replication and prolonged survival, allowing the mice to make adaptive CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that were necessary to clear the virus after cessation of interferon treatment. Thus, insufficient innate cytokine and cellular immune responses contribute to the unique susceptibility of CAST mice to VACV, whereas the adaptive immune response can be protective only if virus replication is suppressed during the first several days of infection. IMPORTANCE Most inbred mouse strains are relatively resistant to orthopoxviruses. The castaneous (CAST) mouse is a notable exception, exhibiting extreme vulnerability to monkeypox virus, cowpox virus, and vaccinia virus and thus providing a unique model for studying pathogenicity, immunity, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. To fully utilize the CAST mouse for such purposes, it is necessary to understand the basis for virus susceptibility. We showed that naive CAST mice make low IFN-γ and TNF-α responses and have low levels of NK cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared to a resistant classical inbred mouse strain. Attenuating virus replication with one or more doses of exogenous IFN-α or -γ before or during the first few days of infection enabled the development of adaptive cellular immunity and clearance of virus. Further genetic studies may reveal the basis for the low innate immunity.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • NKp46 Recognizes the Sigma1 Protein of Reovirus: Implications for Reovirus-Based Cancer Therapy
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Yotam Bar-On; Yoav Charpak-Amikam; Ariella Glasner; Batya Isaacson; Alexandra Duev-Cohen; Pinchas Tsukerman; Alexander Varvak; Michal Mandelboim; Ofer Mandelboim

    The recent approval of oncolytic virus for therapy of melanoma patients has increased the need for precise evaluation of the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses affect tumor growth. Here we show that the human NK cell-activating receptor NKp46 and the orthologous mouse protein NCR1 recognize the reovirus sigma1 protein in a sialic-acid-dependent manner. We identify sites of NKp46/NCR1 binding to sigma1 and show that sigma1 binding by NKp46/NCR1 leads to NK cell activation in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate that NCR1 activation is essential for reovirus-based therapy in vivo. Collectively, we have identified sigma1 as a novel ligand for NKp46/NCR1 and demonstrated that NKp46/NCR1 is needed both for clearance of reovirus infection and for reovirus-based tumor therapy. IMPORTANCE Reovirus infects much of the population during childhood, causing mild disease, and hence is considered to be efficiently controlled by the immune system. Reovirus also specifically infects tumor cells, leading to tumor death, and is currently being tested in human clinical trials for cancer therapy. The mechanisms by which our immune system controls reovirus infection and tumor killing are not well understood. We report here that natural killer (NK) cells recognize a viral protein named sigma1 through the NK cell-activating receptor NKp46. Using several mouse tumor models, we demonstrate the importance of NK cells in protection from reovirus infection and in reovirus killing of tumors in vivo. Collectively, we identify a new ligand for the NKp46 receptor and provide evidence for the importance of NKp46 in the control of reovirus infections and in reovirus-based cancer therapy.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Structural and Functional Basis for an EBNA1 Hexameric Ring in Epstein-Barr Virus Episome Maintenance
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Julianna S. Deakyne; Kimberly A. Malecka; Troy E. Messick; Paul M. Lieberman

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a stable latent infection that can persist for the life of the host. EBNA1 is required for the replication, maintenance, and segregation of the latent episome, but the structural features of EBNA1 that confer each of these functions are not completely understood. Here, we have solved the X-ray crystal structure of an EBNA1 DNA-binding domain (DBD) and discovered a novel hexameric ring oligomeric form. The oligomeric interface pivoted around residue T585 as a joint that links and stabilizes higher-order EBNA1 complexes. Substitution mutations around the interface destabilized higher-order complex formation and altered the cooperative DNA-binding properties of EBNA1. Mutations had both positive and negative effects on EBNA1-dependent DNA replication and episome maintenance with OriP. We found that one naturally occurring polymorphism in the oligomer interface (T585P) had greater cooperative DNA binding in vitro, minor defects in DNA replication, and pronounced defects in episome maintenance. The T585P mutant was compromised for binding to OriP in vivo as well as for assembling the origin recognition complex subunit 2 (ORC2) and trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at OriP. The T585P mutant was also compromised for forming stable subnuclear foci in living cells. These findings reveal a novel oligomeric structure of EBNA1 with an interface subject to naturally occurring polymorphisms that modulate EBNA1 functional properties. We propose that EBNA1 dimers can assemble into higher-order oligomeric structures important for diverse functions of EBNA1. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is a human gammaherpesvirus that is causally associated with various cancers. Carcinogenic properties are linked to the ability of the virus to persist in the latent form for the lifetime of the host. EBNA1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is consistently expressed in EBV tumors and is the only viral protein required to maintain the viral episome during latency. The structural and biochemical mechanisms by which EBNA1 allows the long-term persistence of the EBV genome are currently unclear. Here, we have solved the crystal structure of an EBNA1 hexameric ring and characterized key residues in the interface required for higher-order complex formation and long-term plasmid maintenance.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Synthetic Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 Ligands Work Additively via MyD88 To Induce Protective Antiviral Immunity in Mice
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Peter H. Goff; Tomoko Hayashi; Wenqian He; Shiyin Yao; Howard B. Cottam; Gene S. Tan; Brian Crain; Florian Krammer; Karen Messer; Minya Pu; Dennis A. Carson; Peter Palese; Maripat Corr

    We previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small-molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin, inducing rapid and sustained immunity that is protective against influenza viruses in homologous, heterologous, and heterosubtypic murine challenge models. Combining the TLR4 and TLR7 ligands balances Th1 and Th2-type immune responses for long-lived cellular and neutralizing humoral immunity against the viral hemagglutinin. Here, we demonstrate that the protective response induced in mice by this combined adjuvant is dependent upon TLR4 and TLR7 signaling via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), indicating that the adjuvants function in vivo via their known receptors, with negligible off-target effects, to induce protective immunity. The combined adjuvant acts via MyD88 in both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived radioresistant cells to induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and protect mice against influenza virus challenge. The protective efficacy generated by immunization with this adjuvant and recombinant hemagglutinin antigen is transferable with serum from immunized mice to recipient mice in a homologous, but not a heterologous, H1N1 viral challenge model. Depletion of CD4+ cells after an established humoral response in immunized mice does not impair protection from a homologous challenge; however, it does significantly impair recovery from a heterologous challenge virus, highlighting an important role for vaccine-induced CD4+ cells in cross-protective vaccine efficacy. The combination of the two TLR agonists allows for significant dose reductions of each component to achieve a level of protection equivalent to that afforded by either single agent at its full dose. IMPORTANCE Development of novel adjuvants is needed to enhance immunogenicity to provide better protection from seasonal influenza virus infection and improve pandemic preparedness. We show here that several dose combinations of synthetic TLR4 and TLR7 ligands are potent adjuvants for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin antigen induction of humoral and cellular immunity against viral challenges. The components of the combined adjuvant work additively to enable both antigen and adjuvant dose sparing while retaining efficacy. Understanding an adjuvant's mechanism of action is a critical component for preclinical safety evaluation, and we demonstrate here that a combined TLR4 and TLR7 adjuvant signals via the appropriate receptors and the MyD88 adaptor protein. This novel adjuvant combination contributes to a more broadly protective vaccine while demonstrating an attractive safety profile.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • B Cell-Specific Expression of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Protein Kinase Promotes Chronic Gammaherpesvirus Infection
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Eric J. Darrah; Joseph M. Kulinski; Wadzanai P. Mboko; Gang Xin; Laurent P. Malherbe; Stephen B. Gauld; Weiguo Cui; Vera L. Tarakanova

    Manipulation of host cellular pathways is a strategy employed by gammaherpesviruses, including mouse gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), in order to negotiate a chronic infection. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a unique yet incompletely understood role in gammaherpesvirus infection, as it has both proviral and antiviral effects. Chronic gammaherpesvirus infection is poorly controlled in a host with global ATM insufficiency, whether the host is a mouse or a human. In contrast, ATM facilitates replication, reactivation, and latency establishment of several gammaherpesviruses in vitro, suggesting that ATM is proviral in the context of infected cell cultures. The proviral role of ATM is also evident in vivo, as myeloid-specific ATM expression facilitates MHV68 reactivation during the establishment of viral latency. In order to better understand the complex relationship between host ATM and gammaherpesvirus infection, we depleted ATM specifically in B cells, a cell type critical for chronic gammaherpesvirus infection. B cell-specific ATM deficiency attenuated the establishment of viral latency due to compromised differentiation of ATM-deficient B cells. Further, we found that during long-term infection, peritoneal B-1b, but not related B-1a, B cells display the highest frequency of gammaherpesvirus infection. While ATM expression did not affect gammaherpesvirus tropism for B-1 B cells, B cell-specific ATM expression was necessary to support viral reactivation from peritoneal cells during long-term infection. Thus, our study reveals a role of ATM as a host factor that promotes chronic gammaherpesvirus infection of B cells. IMPORTANCE Gammaherpesviruses infect a majority of the human population and are associated with cancer, including B cell lymphomas. ATM is a unique host kinase that has both proviral and antiviral roles in the context of gammaherpesvirus infection. Further, there is insufficient understanding of the interplay of these roles in vivo during chronic infection. In this study, we show that ATM expression by splenic B cells is required for efficient establishment of gammaherpesvirus latency. We also show that ATM expression by peritoneal B cells is required to facilitate viral reactivation during long-term infection. Thus, our study defines a proviral role of B cell-specific ATM expression during chronic gammaherpesvirus infection.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Rab5 and Rab11 Are Required for Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in BHK-21 Cells
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Chun-Chun Liu; Yun-Na Zhang; Zhao-Yao Li; Jin-Xiu Hou; Jing Zhou; Lin Kan; Bin Zhou; Pu-Yan Chen

    During infection Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) generally enters host cells via receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The trafficking of JEV within endosomes is controlled by Rab GTPases, but which Rab proteins are involved in JEV entry into BHK-21 cells is unknown. In this study, entry and postinternalization of JEV were analyzed using biochemical inhibitors, RNA interference, and dominant negative (DN) mutants. Our data demonstrate that JEV entry into BHK-21 cells depends on clathrin, dynamin, and cholesterol but not on caveolae or macropinocytosis. The effect on JEV infection of dominant negative (DN) mutants of four Rab proteins that regulate endosomal trafficking was examined. Expression of DN Rab5 and DN Rab11, but not DN Rab7 and DN Rab9, significantly inhibited JEV replication. These results were further tested by silencing Rab5 or Rab11 expression before viral infection. Confocal microscopy showed that virus particles colocalized with Rab5 or Rab11 within 15 min after virus entry, suggesting that after internalization JEV moves to early and recycling endosomes before the release of the viral genome. Our findings demonstrate the roles of Rab5 and Rab11 on JEV infection of BHK-21 cells through the endocytic pathway, providing new insights into the life cycle of flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) utilizes different endocytic pathways depending on the cell type being infected, the detailed mechanism of its entry into BHK-21 cells is unknown. Understanding the process of JEV endocytosis and postinternalization will advance our knowledge of JEV infection and pathogenesis as well as provide potential novel drug targets for antiviral intervention. With this objective, we used systematic approaches to dissect this process. The results show that entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells requires a low-pH environment and that the process occurs through dynamin-, actin-, and cholesterol-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis that requires Rab5 and Rab11. Our work provides a detailed picture of the entry of JEV into BHK-21 cells and the cellular events that follow.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • UV Radiation Activates Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression in Primary Human Keratinocytes, an Event Inhibited by Human Papillomavirus 38 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Laura Pacini; Maria Grazia Ceraolo; Assunta Venuti; Giusi Melita; Uzma A. Hasan; Rosita Accardi; Massimo Tommasino

    Several lines of evidence indicate that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types belonging to the beta genus of the HPV phylogenetic tree synergize with UV radiation in the development of skin cancer. Accordingly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from some beta HPV types are able to deregulate pathways related to immune response and cellular transformation. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in addition to playing a role in innate immunity, has been shown to be involved in the cellular stress response. Using primary human keratinocytes as experimental models, we have shown that UV irradiation (and other cellular stresses) activates TLR9 expression. This event is closely linked to p53 activation. Silencing the expression of p53 or deleting its encoding gene affected the activation of TLR9 expression after UV irradiation. Using various strategies, we have also shown that the transcription factors p53 and c-Jun are recruited onto a specific region of the TLR9 promoter after UV irradiation. Importantly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from beta HPV38, by inducing the accumulation of the p53 antagonist ΔNp73α, prevent the UV-mediated recruitment of these transcription factors onto the TLR9 promoter, with subsequent impairment of TLR9 gene expression. This study provides new insight into the mechanism that mediates TLR9 upregulation in response to cellular stresses. In addition, we show that HPV38 E6 and E7 are able to interfere with this mechanism, providing another explanation for the possible cooperation of beta HPV types with UV radiation in skin carcinogenesis. IMPORTANCE Beta HPV types have been suggested to act as cofactors in UV-induced skin carcinogenesis by altering several cellular mechanisms activated by UV radiation. We show that the expression of TLR9, a sensor of damage-associated molecular patterns produced during cellular stress, is activated by UV radiation in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). Two transcription factors known to be activated by UV radiation, p53 and c-Jun, play key roles in UV-activated TLR9 expression. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins from beta HPV38 strongly inhibit UV-activated TLR9 expression by preventing the recruitment of p53 and c-Jun to the TLR9 promoter. Our findings provide additional support for the role that beta HPV types play in skin carcinogenesis by preventing activation of specific pathways upon exposure of PHKs to UV radiation.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Classic Spotlight, 2004 and 2005: Articles of Significant Interest Selected from the Journal of Virology Archives by the Editors
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01

    Journal of Virology (JVI) marks its 50th year of publishing in 2017. To highlight particularly noteworthy JVI articles from over the years, 2017 issues are featuring Classic Spotlights selected from the archives by the editors. These Classic Spotlights are appearing chronologically, and in this issue, we have selected articles from 2004 and 2005.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Intracellular Colocalization of Influenza Viral RNA and Rab11A Is Dependent upon Microtubule Filaments
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    Eric Nturibi; Amar R. Bhagwat; Stefanie Coburn; Mike M. Myerburg; Seema S. Lakdawala

    Influenza A virus (IAV) consists of eight viral RNA (vRNA) segments that are replicated in the host cell nucleus and transported to the plasma membrane for packaging into progeny virions. We have previously proposed a model where subcomplexes of vRNA are exported from the nucleus and assembled en route to the plasma membrane. However, the role of host cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasmic assembly of IAV vRNA segments remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that IAV vRNA segments are transported via Rab11A-containing recycling endosomes (RE) and use both microtubules (MT) and actin. Rab11A RE transport primarily along MT; therefore, investigation of the role of MT in vRNA assembly is warranted. We explored the role of MT in vRNA assembly and replication by using multiple IAV strains in various cell types, including primary human airway epithelial cells. We observed that Rab11A localization was altered in the presence of MT-depolymerizing drugs, but growth of IAV in all of the cell types tested was unchanged. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to determine the role of MT in the assembly of multiple vRNA segments. Unexpectedly, we found that vRNA-vRNA association in cytoplasmic foci was independent of MT. Given the disparity of localization between Rab11A and vRNA segments in the absence of intact MT filaments, we analyzed the three-dimensional spatial relationship between Rab11A and vRNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Rab11A and vRNA colocalization is dependent upon dynamic MT filaments. Taken together, our data suggest that cytoplasmic transport of influenza vRNA may include a Rab11A RE-independent mechanism. IMPORTANCE IAV infections cause a large public health burden through seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. Pandemic IAVs emerge through reassortment of vRNA in animal or human hosts. Elucidation of the mechanism of intracellular dynamics of IAV assembly is necessary to understand reassortment. Our results describing the role of MT in vRNA transport and assembly expand upon previous studies characterizing vRNA assembly. This study is the first to assess the role of MT in influenza virus replication in human bronchial airway epithelial cells. In addition, we present novel data on the role of MT in facilitating the association between distinct vRNA segments. Interestingly, our results suggest that progressive assembly of vRNA segments may be cell type dependent and that vRNA may be transported through the cytoplasm without Rab11A RE in the absence of intact MT. These results enhance our understanding of vRNA assembly and the role of cytoskeletal proteins in that process.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Maintain High Levels of Infectivity in the Complete Absence of Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01
    James M. Termini; Elizabeth S. Church; Zachary A. Silver; Stuart M. Haslam; Anne Dell; Ronald C. Desrosiers

    A highly conserved threonine near the C terminus of gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was investigated for its contributions to envelope protein function and virion infectivity. When this highly conserved Thr residue was substituted with anything other than serine (the other amino acid that can accept O-glycosylation), the resulting virus was noninfectious. We found that this Thr was critical for the association of gp120 with the virion and that amino acid substitution increased the amount of dissociated gp120 in the cell culture supernatant. When HIV virions were generated in cells overexpressing polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAcT1), viral infectivity was increased 2.5-fold compared to that of virus produced in wild-type HEK293T cells; infectivity was increased 8-fold when the Thr499Ser mutant was used. These infectivity enhancements were not observed when GalNAcT3 was used. Using HEK293T knockout cell lines totally devoid of the ability to perform O-linked glycosylation, we demonstrated production of normal levels of virions and normal levels of infectivity in the complete absence of O-linked carbohydrate. Our data indicate that O-glycosylation is not necessary for the natural replication cycle of HIV and SIV. Nonetheless, it remains theoretically possible that the repertoire of GalNAc transferase isoforms in natural target cells for HIV and SIV in vivo could result in O-glycosylation of the threonine residue in question and that this could boost the infectivity of virions beyond the levels seen in the absence of such O-glycosylation. IMPORTANCE Approximately 50% of the mass of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of both HIV and SIV is N-linked carbohydrate. One of the contributions of this N-linked carbohydrate is to shield conserved peptide sequences from recognition by humoral immunity. This N-linked glycosylation is one of the reasons that primary isolates of HIV and SIV are so heavily resistant to antibody-mediated neutralization. Much less studied is any potential contribution from O-linked glycosylation. The literature on this topic to date is somewhat confusing and ambiguous. Our studies described in this report demonstrate unambiguously that O-linked glycosylation is not necessary for the natural replication cycle of HIV and SIV. However, the door is not totally closed because of the diversity of numerous GalNAc transferase enzymes that initiate O-linked carbohydrate attachment and the theoretical possibility that natural target cells for HIV and SIV in vivo could potentially complete such O-linked carbohydrate attachment to further increase infectivity.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Articles of Significant Interest Selected from This Issue by the Editors
    J. Virol. (IF 4.663) Pub Date : 2017-10-01

    Bam35 is the paradigm of the membrane-containing tectivirus group, which infect hosts from the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Due to their ancient origin and complex diversity, many tectiviral proteins are ORFans of unknown function. Using yeast-two hybrid analyses, Berjón-Otero et al. (e00870-17) defined a comprehensive intraviral interactome that reveals functions for many viral proteins and suggests biological roles and locations within the viral particle of viral ORFan proteins. These findings lead to many hypotheses for future work on tectivirus biology, diversity, and evolution. Intraviral protein-protein interaction map of bacteriophage Bam35 proteins.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
所有期刊列表A-Z