Hypoxia inducible factor as a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-09-20 Tanmay Jain, Eleni Aliki Nikolopoulou, Aijuan Qu, Qingbo Xu
Atherosclerosis is a highly prevalent disease that can significantly increase the risk of major vascular events, such as myocardial or cerebral infarctions. The anoxemia theory states that a disparity between oxygen supply and demand contributes to atherosclerosis. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric protein, part of the basic helix-loop-helix family and one of the main regulators of cellular responses in a low‑oxygen environment. It plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis through cell-specific responses, acting on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. Through the upregulation of VEGF, NO, ROS and PDGF, HIF-1 is able to cause endothelial cell dysfunction, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. Activation of the NF-kB pathway in endothelial cells is an important contributor to inflammation and positively feedbacks to HIF-1. HIF-1 also plays a significant role in both the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells – two important features of atherosclerosis, while the formation of foam cells (lipid-laden macrophages) is also a critical step in atherosclerosis and mediated by HIF-1 through various mechanisms such as dysfunctional efflux pathways in macrophages. Overall, HIF-1 exerts its effect on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis via a variety of molecular and cellular events in the process. In this review article, we examine the effects HIF-1 on vascular cells and macrophages in the development of atherosclerosis, highlighting the environmental cues and signalling pathways that control HIF-1 expression/activation within the vasculature. We will highlight the potential of HIF-1 as a therapeutic target on the disease development.
Immunoproteasome-selective and non selective inhibitors: A promising approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-09-11 Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development.For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment.In addition to the constitutive proteasome, which is expressed in all cells and tissues, higher organisms such as vertebrates possess two immune-type proteasomes, the thymoproteasome and the immunoproteasome. The thymoproteasome is specifically expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells and has a role in positive selection of CD8 + T cells, whereas the immunoproteasome is predominantly expressed in monocytes and lymphocytes and is responsible for the generation of antigenic peptides for cell-mediated immunity. Recent studies demonstrated that the immunoproteasome has a preservative role during oxidative stress and is up-regulated in a number of pathological disorders including cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. As a consequence, immunoproteasome-selective inhibitors are currently the focus of anticancer drug design. At present, the commercially available proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib which have been validated in multiple myeloma and other model systems, appear to target both the constitutive and immunoproteasomes, indiscriminately. This lack of specificity may, in part, explain some of the side effects of these agents, such as peripheral neuropathy and gastrointestinal effects, which may be due to targeting of the constitutive proteasome in these tissues. In contrast, by selectively inhibiting the immunoproteasome, it may be possible to maintain the antimyeloma and antilymphoma efficacy while reducing these toxicities, thereby increasing the therapeutic index.This review article will be focused on the discussion of the most promising immunoproteasome specific inhibitors which have been developed in recent years. Particular attention will be devoted to the description of their mechanism of action, their structure-activity relationship, and their potential application in therapy.
Paving the Rho in cancer metastasis: Rho GTPases and beyond Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-09-11 Sepp Jansen, Reinoud Gosens, Thomas Wieland, Martina Schmidt
Malignant carcinomas are often characterized by metastasis, the movement of carcinoma cells from a primary site to colonize distant organs. For metastasis to occur, carcinoma cells first must adopt a pro-migratory phenotype and move through the surrounding stroma towards a blood or lymphatic vessel. Currently, there are very limited possibilities to target these processes therapeutically.The family of Rho GTPases is an ubiquitously expressed division of GTP-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular signaling. The best characterized members of the Rho family GTPases are RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42. Abnormalities in Rho GTPase function have major consequences for cancer progression. Rho GTPase activation is driven by cell surface receptors that activate GTP exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on Rho GTPase function in the regulation of metastasis. We will focus on key discoveries in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), cell-cell junctions, formation of membrane protrusions, plasticity of cell migration and adaptation to a hypoxic environment. In addition, we will emphasize on crosstalk between Rho GTPase family members and other important oncogenic pathways, such as cyclic AMP-mediated signaling, canonical Wnt/β-catenin, Yes-associated protein (YAP) and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and provide an overview of the advancements and challenges in developing pharmacological tools to target Rho GTPase and the aforementioned crosstalk in the context of cancer therapeutics.
Bevacizumab-induced hypertension: Clinical presentation and molecular understanding Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-09-04 Megan Li, Deanna L. Kroetz
Bevacizumab is a vascular endothelial growth factor-A-specific angiogenesis inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to chemotherapy for the treatment of several types of cancer. Hypertension is commonly observed during bevacizumab treatment, and high-grade toxicity can limit therapy and lead to other cardiovascular complications. The factors that contribute to interindividual variability in blood pressure response to bevacizumab treatment are not well understood. In this review, we outline research efforts to understand the mechanisms and pathophysiology of hypertension resulting from bevacizumab treatment. Moreover, we highlight current knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of bevacizumab-induced hypertension, which may be used to develop strategies to prevent or minimize this toxicity.
The role of osteoprotegerin in the crosstalk between vessels and bone: Its potential utility as a marker of cardiometabolic diseases Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-09-01 Luc Rochette, Alexandre Meloux, Eve Rigal, Marianne Zeller, Yves Cottin, Catherine Vergely
Among the numerous molecules that are being studied for their potential utility as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, much interest has been shown in the superfamily of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors. Members of this family include osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, which are receptor activators of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). These signals may be expressed and regulated, and their functions could be involved in several physiological and pathological processes. The relationship between bone regulatory proteins and vascular biology has attracted attention, and it has been suggested that OPG may mediate vascular calcification and cardiometabolic diseases. OPG is steadily released from vascular endothelial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli, suggesting that it plays a modulatory role in vascular injury, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Vascular calcification, a hallmark of atherosclerosis, is similar to bone remodeling. It is an actively regulated mechanism that includes both inductive and inhibitory processes. There is a temporal link between the development of osteoporosis and vascular calcification, which is particularly marked in post-menopausal women and the elderly. The precise nature of the link between bone metabolism, vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease is largely unknown but increasing evidence suggests that the triad of RANK/RANKL/OPG may be important in the initiation of various diseases. An increased release of OPG is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and it is suggested that increased OPG levels resulting from vascular damage correspond to a protective mechanism. Circulating OPG levels could be used as independent biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in patients with acute or chronic cardiometabolic disease and thus an improved prognosis.
Cannabis Use during Pregnancy: Pharmacokinetics and Effects on Child Development Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-25 Kimberly S. Grant, Rebekah Petroff, Nina Isoherranen, Nephi Stella, Thomas M. Burbacher
The broad-based legalization of cannabis use has created a strong need to understand its impact on human health and behavior. The risks that may be associated with cannabis use, particularly for sensitive subgroups such as pregnant women, are difficult to define because of a paucity of dose-response data and the recent increase in cannabis potency. Although there is a large body of evidence detailing the mode of action of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adults, little work has focused on understanding how cannabis use during pregnancy may impact the development of the fetal nervous system and whether additional plant-derived cannabinoids might participate. This manuscript presents an overview of the historical and contemporary literature focused on the mode of action of THC in the developing brain, comparative pharmacokinetics in both pregnant and nonpregnant model systems and neurodevelopmental outcomes in exposed offspring. Despite growing public health significance, pharmacokinetic studies of THC have focused on nonpregnant adult subjects and there are few published reports on disposition parameters during pregnancy. Data from preclinical species show that THC readily crosses the placenta although fetal exposures appear lower than maternal exposures. The neurodevelopmental data in human and preclinical species suggest that prenatal exposure to THC may lead to subtle, persistent changes in targeted aspects of higher-level cognition and psychological well-being. There is an urgent need for well-controlled studies in humans and preclinical models on THC as a developmental neurotoxicant. Until more information is available, pregnant women should not assume that using cannabis during pregnancy is safe.
Non-canonical function of Tat in regulating host microtubule dynamics: Implications for the pathogenesis of lentiviral infections Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-25 Min Liu, Xin Du, Jun Zhou
Lentiviruses are a class of genetically unique retroviruses that share similar features, despite their wide variety of host species. Transactivator of transcription (Tat) proteins of lentiviruses are critical for the regulation of viral transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrate that in addition to mediating transactivation, Tat binds to the microtubule cytoskeleton of the host cell and interferes with microtubule dynamics, ultimately triggering apoptosis. This non-canonical function of Tat appears to be critical for the pathogenesis of lentiviral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Here, we compare the structure and activity of Tat proteins from three different types of lentiviruses, focusing on the roles of these proteins in the alteration of host microtubule dynamics and induction of apoptosis. We propose that further investigation of the Tat-microtubule interaction will provide important insight into the process of lentiviral pathogenesis and elucidate new avenues for the development of antiviral therapies.
Pharmacotherapeutic potential of ginger and its compounds in age-related neurological disorders Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-24 Jin Gyu Choi, Sun Yeou Kim, Minsun Jeong, Myung Sook Oh
Age-related neurological disorders (ANDs), including neurodegenerative diseases, are multifactorial disorders with a risk that increases with aging. ANDs are generally characterized by common neuropathological conditions of the central nervous system, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and protein misfolding. Recently, efforts have been made to overcome ANDs because of the increase in age-dependent prevalence. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular food spice and has a long history of use in traditional medicine for treating various disease symptoms. The structure-activity relationships of ginger phytochemicals show that ginger can be used to treat ANDs by targeting different ligand sites. This review shows that ginger and its constituents, such as 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-paradol, zingerone, and dehydrozingerone, are effective for ameliorating the neurological symptoms and pathological conditions of ANDs through by modulating cell death or cell survival signaling molecules. From this review, we conclude that the active ingredients in ginger have therapeutic potential in ANDs.
Oxidative stress and cellular pathways of asthma and inflammation: Therapeutic strategies and pharmacological targets Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-23 Vikas Mishra, Jaspreet Banga, Patricia Silveyra
Asthma is a complex inflammatory disease characterized by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms associated with the development and progression of asthma have been widely studied in multiple populations and animal models, and these have revealed involvement of various cell types and activation of intracellular signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory genes. Significant contributions of Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and transcription factors such as NF-кB, have been reported as major contributors to inflammatory pathways. These have also recently been associated with mechanisms of oxidative biology. This is of important clinical significance as the observed inefficacy of current available treatments for severe asthma is widely attributed to oxidative stress. Therefore, targeting oxidizing molecules in conjunction with inflammatory mediators and transcription factors may present a novel therapeutic strategy for asthma. In this review, we summarize TLRs and NF-кB pathways in the context of exacerbation of asthma pathogenesis and oxidative biology, and we discuss the potential use of polyphenolic flavonoid compounds, known to target these pathways and possess antioxidant activity, as potential therapeutic agents for asthma.
T cell engaging bispecific antibody (T-BsAb): from technology to therapeutics Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-20 Zhihao Wu, Nai-Kong V. Cheung
Harnessing the power of the human immune system to treat cancer is the essence of immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies engage the innate immune system to destroy targeted cells. For the last 30 years, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity have been the main mechanisms of anti-tumor action of unconjugated antibody drugs. Efforts to exploit the potentials of other immune cells, in particular T cells, culminated in the recent approval of two T cell engaging bispecific antibody (T-BsAb) drugs, thereby stimulating new efforts to accelerate similar platforms through preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we have compiled the worldwide effort in exploring T cell engaging bispecific antibodies. Our special emphasis is on the lessons learned, with the hope to derive insights in this fast evolving field with tremendous clinical potential.
EMT: mechanisms and therapeutic implications Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-20 Mohini Singh, Nicolas Yelle, Chitra Venugopal, Sheila K. Singh
Metastasis, the dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumors, represents a major hurdle in the treatment of cancer. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been studied in normal mammalian development for decades, and it has been proposed as a critical mechanism during cancer progression and metastasis. EMT is tightly regulated by several internal and external cues that orchestrate the shifting from an epithelial-like phenotype into a mesenchymal phenotype, relying on a delicate balance between these two stages to promote metastatic development. EMT is thought to be induced in a subset of metastatic cancer stem cells (MCSCs), bestowing this population with the ability to spread throughout the body and contributing to therapy resistance. The EMT pathway is of increasing interest as a novel therapeutic avenue in the treatment of cancer, and could be targeted to prevent tumor cell dissemination in early stage patients or to eradicate existing metastatic cells in advanced stages. In this review, we describe the sequence of events and defining mechanisms that take place during EMT, and how these interactions drive cancer cell progression into metastasis. We summarize clinical interventions focused on targeting various aspects of EMT and their contribution to preventing cancer dissemination.
The Role of the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor in Neuroprotective Signaling Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Stephanie M. Davis, Keith R. Pennypacker
Several neurotropic cytokines relay their signaling through the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor. This 190 kDa subunit couples with the 130 kDa gp130 subunit to transduce intracellular signaling in neurons and oligodendrocytes that leads to expression of genes associated with neurosurvival. Moreover, activation of this receptor alters the phenotype of immune cells to an anti-inflammatory one. Although cytokines that activate the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor have been studied in the context of neurodegenerative disease, therapeutic targeting of the specific receptor subunit has been understudied in by comparison. This review examines the role of this receptor in the CNS and immune system, and its application in the treatment in stroke and other brain pathologies.
Members of FOX family could be drug targets of cancers Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Jinhua Wang, Wan Li, Ying Zhao, De Kang, Weiqi Fu, Xiangjin Zheng, Xiaocong Pang, Guanhua Du
FOX families play important roles in biological processes, including metabolism, development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOX members in cancers, FOX members and drug resistance, FOX members and stem cells. Finally, FOX members as drug targets of cancer treatment were discussed. Future perspectives of FOXC1 research were described in the end.
Binge-eating disorder: Clinical and therapeutic advances Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Peter H. Hutson, Iris M. Balodis, Marc N. Potenza
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder with estimates of 2–5% of the general adult population. Nonetheless, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Furthermore, there exist few therapeutic options for its effective treatment. Here we review the current state of binge-eating neurobiology and pharmacology, drawing from clinical therapeutic, neuroimaging, cognitive, human genetic and animal model studies. These studies, which are still in their infancy, indicate that while there are many gaps in our knowledge, several key neural substrates appear to underpin binge-eating and may be conserved between human and animals. This observation suggests that behavioral intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes relevant to BED may be modeled in animals, facilitating the identification and testing of novel pharmacological targets. The development of novel, safe and effective pharmacological therapies for the treatment of BED will enhance the ability of clinicians to provide optimal care for people with BED.
The potential for targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks in COPD as a new therapeutic approach Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Dan-Dan Wu, Juan Song, Sabine Bartel, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Marianne G. Rots, Machteld N. Hylkema
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an age and smoking related progressive, pulmonary disorder presenting with poorly reversible airflow limitation as a result of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The prevalence, disease burden for the individual, and mortality of COPD continues to increase, whereas no effective treatment strategies are available. For many years now, a combination of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids has been most widely used for therapeutic management of patients with persistent COPD. However, this approach has had disappointing results as a large number of COPD patients are corticosteroid resistant. In patients with COPD, there is emerging evidence showing aberrant expression of epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs in blood, sputum and lung tissue. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches may exist using epigenetic therapy. This review aims to describe and summarize current knowledge of aberrant expression of epigenetic marks in COPD. In addition, tools available for restoration of epigenetic marks are described, as well as delivery mechanisms of epigenetic editors to cells. Targeting epigenetic marks might be a very promising tool for treatment and lung regeneration in COPD in the future.
Endothelial and cardiac progenitor cells for cardiovascular repair: A controversial paradigm in cell therapy Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Vanessa Bianconi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Petri Kovanen, Francesco Bagaglia, Biagio Ricciuti, Paolo Calabrò, Giuseppe Patti, Matteo Pirro
Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into cardiovascular cell lineages and to stimulate tissue regeneration in a paracrine/autocrine manner; thus, they have been extensively studied as candidate cell sources for cardiovascular regeneration. Several preclinical and clinical studies addressing the therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in cardiovascular diseases have been performed. For instance, autologous EPC transplantation and EPC mobilization through pharmacological agents contributed to vascular repair and neovascularization in different animal models of limb ischemia and myocardial infarction. Also, CPC administration and in situ stimulation of resident CPCs have been shown to improve myocardial survival and function in experimental models of ischemic heart disease. However, clinical studies using EPC- and CPC-based therapeutic approaches have produced mixed results. In this regard, intracoronary, intra-myocardial or intramuscular injection of either bone marrow-derived or peripheral blood progenitor cells has improved pathological features of tissue ischemia in humans, despite modest or no clinical benefit has been observed in most cases. Also, the intriguing scientific background surrounding the potential clinical applications of EPC capture stenting is still waiting for a confirmatory proof. Moreover, clinical findings on the efficacy of CPC-based cell therapy in heart diseases are still very preliminary and based on small-size studies.Despite promising evidence, widespread clinical application of both EPCs and CPCs remains delayed due to several unresolved issues. The present review provides a summary of the different applications of EPCs and CPCs for cardiovascular cell therapy and underlies their advantages and limitations.
Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic implications in pediatric high-grade gliomas Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-19 Tareq A. Juratli, Nan Qin, Daniel P. Cahill, Mariella G. Filbin
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common malignant brain tumors in the pediatric population and account for a large subset of all pediatric central nervous system neoplasms. The management of pediatric HGG continues to be challenging, with poor outcome in many cases despite aggressive treatments. Consequently, parallel research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying genetic and biological basis of pediatric HGG in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification as well as identify new treatment targets. These cutting-edge advances have revolutionized pediatric neuro-oncology and have revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Promising treatments – including pathway-targeting small molecules as well as epigenetic therapy – are being evaluated in clinical trials, and recent genomic discoveries in rare glioma subgroups have led to the identification of additional new potentially-actionable alterations. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the molecular characterization of pediatric HGG in correlation to the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification, as well as provides an overview of some targeted treatment approaches in the modern clinical management of high-grade gliomas.
Cardiac metabolism – a promising therapeutic target for heart failure Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-08-15 Hannah Noordali, Brodie L. Loudon, Michael P. Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although many established pharmacological interventions exist for those patients with HFrEF, hospitalization and death rates remain high, and in those with HFpEF (over half of all heart failure patients), there are no effective therapies. Recently, the role of impaired cardiac energetic status in heart failure has gained increasing recognition with the identification of reduced metabolic capacity for carbohydrates and fatty acids, impaired function of the electron transport chain, reduced capacity to transfer ATP to the cytosol, and inefficient utilization of the energy produced. These nodes in the genesis of cardiac energetic impairment provide potential therapeutic targets, and there is promising data from recent experimental and early-phase clinical studies evaluating modulators such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitors, partial fatty acid oxidation inhibitors and mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants. Metabolic modulation may provide significant symptomatic and prognostic benefit for patients suffering from heart failure above and beyond guideline-directed therapy, but further clinical trials are needed.
Emerging understanding of the mechanism of action of Bronchial Thermoplasty in asthma Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-27 J.N.S. d'Hooghe, N.H.T. ten Hacken, E.J.M. Weersink, P.J. Sterk, J.T. Annema, P.I. Bonta
Bronchial Thermoplasty (BT) is an endoscopic treatment for moderate-to-severe asthma patients who are uncontrolled despite optimal medical therapy. Effectiveness of BT has been demonstrated in several randomized clinical trials. However, the asthma phenotype that benefits most of this treatment is unclear, partly because the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. BT was designed to reduce the amount of airway smooth muscle (ASM), but additional direct and indirect effects on airway pathophysiology are expected. This review will provide an overview of the different components of airway pathophysiology including remodeling, with the ASM as the key player. Current concepts in the understanding of BT clinical effectiveness with a focus on its impact on airway remodeling will be reviewed.
Antibody drug conjugates for treatment of breast cancer: Novel targets and diverse approaches in ADC design Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-27 Pamela A. Trail, Gene M. Dubowchik, Timothy B. Lowinger
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with a spectrum of molecular subtypes, pathologies and outcomes that together comprise the most common non-cutaneous cancer in women. Currently, over 80% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed at relatively early stages of disease where there are encouraging data on outcomes and long term survival. However, there is currently no curative option for those patients with metastatic disease and there is a substantial medical need to identify effective and safe treatment options for these patients. One approach to improve cancer therapy is by designing therapeutics directed against targets with differential levels of expression on malignant versus normal cells with the goal of improving tumor selectivity and reducing damage to normal tissues. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are a rapidly evolving therapeutic class that exploits the target-selectivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to deliver cytotoxic drugs to antigen-expressing cells (Lambert & Morris, 2017; Senter, 2009; Thomas, Teicher, & Hassan, 2016; Trail, 2013). The regulatory approval of ADCs for both hematologic malignancies (brentuximab vedotin) (Younes et al., 2010) and solid tumors (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) (Amiri-Kordestani et al., 2014; Verma et al., 2012) clearly demonstrates the clinical potential of ADCs. This review will focus on targets under consideration for breast cancer directed ADCs and on the technology modifications being considered to improve ADC efficacy and safety.
The central serotonin2B receptor as a new pharmacological target for the treatment of dopamine-related neuropsychiatric disorders: Rationale and current status of research Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-27 Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders.Thus, the present review, by compiling molecular, biochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral findings from the literature of the past twenty years, aims at providing a sound analysis of the current knowledge supporting the interest of the central 5-HT2BR for future therapeutic avenues. First, we recall the neuroanatomical and functional data supporting the therapeutic relevance of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS. Thereafter, after a short overview of the central expression and molecular properties of the 5-HT2BR, as well as of the 5-HT2BR agonists and antagonists available in the market, we will focus on the functional role of this receptor in the control of 5-HT, DA and neuroglia activity in the rodent brain. Finally, the therapeutic potential of 5-HT2BR antagonists for improved treatment of schizophrenia and drug addiction will be discussed.
Polymyxins for CNS infections: Pharmacology and neurotoxicity Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-25 Tony Velkov, Chongshan Dai, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Roberto Cappai, Daniel Hoyer, Jian Li
Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria present a major health and economic burden worldwide. Due to the nearly empty antibiotic discovery pipeline, polymyxins (i.e. polymyxin B and colistin) are used as the last-line therapy against Gram-negative ‘superbugs’ when all other treatment modalities have failed. The treatment of CNS infections due to multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria is problematic and associated with high mortality rates. Colistin shows significant efficacy for the treatment of CNS infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to all other antibiotics. In particular, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae which are resistant to expanded-spectrum and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and aminoglycosides, represent a major therapeutic challenge, although they can be treated with colistin or polymyxin B. However, current dosing recommendations of intrathecal/intraventricular polymyxins are largely empirical, as we have little understanding of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and, importantly, we are only starting to understand the mechanisms of potential neurotoxicity. This review covers the current knowledge-base on the mechanisms of disposition and potential neurotoxicity of polymyxins as well as the combined use of neuroprotective agents to alleviate polymyxins-related neurotoxicity. Progress in this field will provide the urgently needed pharmacological information for safer and more efficacious intrathecal/intraventricular polymyxin therapy against life-threatening CNS infections caused by Gram-negative ‘superbugs’.
Multifunctional molecule ERp57: From cancer to neurodegenerative diseases Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Ronghan Liu, Chuan-ju Liu
The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) gene family is a protein family classically characterized by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization and isomerase and redox activity. ERp57, a prominent multifunctional member of the PDI family, is detected at various levels in multiple cellular localizations outside of the ER. ERp57 has been functionally linked to a host of physiological processes and numerous studies have demonstrated altered expression and aberrant functionality of ERp57 in association with diverse pathological states. Here, we summarize available knowledge of ERp57's functions in subcellular compartments and the roles of dysregulated ERp57 in various diseases toward an emphasis on the potential utility of therapeutic development of ERp57.
Unravelling the pharmacologic opportunities and future directions for targeted therapies in gastro-intestinal cancers part 2: Neuroendocrine tumours, hepatocellular carcinoma, and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Cindy Neuzillet, Louis de Mestier, Benoît Rousseau, Olivier Mir, Mohamed Hebbar, Hemant M. Kocher, Philippe Ruszniewski, Christophe Tournigand
Until the 1990s, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of medical therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Better understanding of the cancer cell molecular biology has led to the therapeutic revolution of targeted therapies, i.e. monoclonal antibodies or small molecule inhibitors directed against proteins that are specifically overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. These agents, being more specific to cancer cells, were expected to be less toxic than conventional cytotoxic agents.However, their effects have sometimes been disappointing, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, or to an activity restricted to some tumour settings, illustrating the importance of patient selection and early identification of predictive biomarkers of response to these therapies.Targeted agents have provided clinical benefit in many GI cancer types. Particularly, some GI tumours are considered chemoresistant and targeted therapies have offered a new therapeutic base for their management. Hence, somatostatin receptor-directed strategies, sorafenib, and imatinib have revolutioned the management of neuroendocrine tumours (NET), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), respectively, and are now used as first-line treatment in many patients affected by these tumours. However, these agents face problems of resistances and identification of predictive biomarkers from imaging and/or biology.We propose a comprehensive two-part review providing a panoramic approach of the successes and failures of targeted agents in GI cancers to unravel the pharmacologic opportunities and future directions for these agents in GI oncology. In this second part, we will focus on NET, HCC, and GIST, whose treatment relies primarily on targeted therapies.
The challenges and promise of targeting the Liver X Receptors for treatment of inflammatory disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Michael B. Fessler
The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated transcription factors that upregulate a suite of genes that together promote coordinated mobilization of excess cholesterol from cells and from the body. The LXRs, like other nuclear receptors, are anti-inflammatory, inhibiting signal-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory genes by nuclear factor-κB, activating protein-1, and other transcription factors. Synthetic LXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate atherosclerosis and a wide range of inflammatory disorders in preclinical animal models. Although this has suggested potential for application to human disease, systemic LXR activation is complicated by hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia, consequences of lipogenic gene induction in the liver by LXRα. The past several years have seen the development of multiple advanced LXR therapeutics aiming to avoid hepatic lipogenesis, including LXRβ-selective agonists, tissue-selective agonists, and transrepression-selective agonists. Although several synthetic LXR agonists have made it to phase I clinical trials, none have progressed due to unforeseen adverse reactions or undisclosed reasons. Nonetheless, several sophisticated pharmacologic strategies, including structure-guided drug design, cell-specific drug targeting, as well as non-systemic drug routes have been initiated and remain to be comprehensively explored. In addition, recent studies have identified potential utility for targeting the LXRs during therapy with other agents, such as glucocorticoids and rexinoids. Despite the pitfalls encountered to date in translation of LXR agonists to human disease, it appears likely that this accelerating field will ultimately yield effective and safe applications for LXR targeting in humans.
Stable isotope-based flux studies in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Arthur McCullough, Stephen Previs, Takhar Kasumov
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with the worldwide epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD ranges from benign fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis which can progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-coupled stable isotope-based flux studies provide new insights into the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis and the disease progression. This review focuses mainly on the utilization of mass spectrometry-based methods for the understanding of metabolic abnormalities in the different stages of NAFLD. For example, stable isotope-based flux studies demonstrated multi-organ insulin resistance, dysregulated glucose, lipids and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with NAFLD. We also review recent developments in the stable isotope-based technologies for the study of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and fibrogenesis in NAFLD. We highlight the limitations of current methodologies, discuss the emerging areas of research in this field, and future directions for the applications of stable isotopes to study NAFLD and its complications.
Pharmacology of human trace amine-associated receptors: Therapeutic opportunities and challenges☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Mark D. Berry, Raul R. Gainetdinov, Marius C. Hoener, Mohammed Shahid
The discovery in 2001 of a G protein-coupled receptor family, subsequently termed trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), triggered a resurgence of interest in so-called trace amines. Initial optimism quickly faded, however, as the TAAR family presented a series of challenges preventing the use of standard medicinal chemistry and pharmacology technologies. Consequently the development of basic tools for probing TAAR and translating findings from model systems to humans has been problematic. Despite these challenges the last 5 years have seen considerable advances, in particular with respect to TAAR1, which appears to function as an endogenous rheostat, maintaining central neurotransmission within defined physiological limits, in part through receptor heterodimerization yielding biased signaling outputs. Regulation of the dopaminergic system is particularly well understood and clinical testing of TAAR1 directed ligands for schizophrenia and psychiatric disorders have begun. In addition, pre-clinical animal models have identified TAAR1 as a novel target for drug addiction and metabolic disorders. Growing evidence also suggests a role for TAARs in regulating immune function. This review critically discusses the current state of TAAR research, highlighting recent developments and focussing on human TAARs, their functions, and clinical implications. Current gaps in knowledge are identified, along with the research reagents and translational tools still required for continued advancement of the field. Through this, a picture emerges of an exciting field on the cusp of significant developments, with the potential to identify new therapeutic leads for some of the major unmet medical needs in the areas of neuropsychiatry and metabolic disorders.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a treatment strategy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Donald B. Jump, Kelli A. Lytle, Christopher M. Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The goal of this review is to provide background on the disease process, discuss human studies and preclinical models that have examined treatment options. We also provide an in-depth rationale for the use of dietary ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω3 PUFA) supplements as a treatment option for NAFLD. This focus is based on recent studies indicating that NASH patients and preclinical mouse models of NASH have low levels of hepatic C20–22 ω3 PUFA. This decline in hepatic PUFA may account for the major phenotypic features associated with NASH, including steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Finally, our discussion will address the strengths and limitations of ω3 PUFA supplements use in NAFLD therapy.
Biological responses to immobilized microscale and nanoscale surface topographies Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-16 Shelby A. Skoog, Girish Kumar, Roger J. Narayan, Peter L. Goering
Cellular responses are highly influenced by biochemical and biomechanical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Due to the impact of ECM architecture on cellular responses, significant research has been dedicated towards developing biomaterials that mimic the physiological environment for design of improved medical devices and tissue engineering scaffolds. Surface topographies with microscale and nanoscale features have demonstrated an effect on numerous cellular responses, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, gene expression, protein production, and differentiation; however, relationships between biological responses and surface topographies are difficult to establish due to differences in cell types and biomaterial surface properties. Therefore, it is important to optimize implant surface feature characteristics to elicit desirable biological responses for specific applications. The goal of this work was to review studies investigating the effects of microstructured and nanostructured biomaterials on in vitro biological responses through fabrication of microscale and nanoscale surface topographies, physico-chemical characterization of material surface properties, investigation of protein adsorption dynamics, and evaluation of cellular responses in specific biomedical applications.
Oncogenic pathways that affect antitumor immune response and immune checkpoint blockade therapy Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-15 Xianda Zhao, Subbaya Subramanian
Mechanistic insights of cancer immunology have led to the development of immune checkpoint blockade therapy (ICBT), which has elicited a remarkable clinical response in some cancer patients. Increasing evidence suggests that activation of oncogenic pathways, such as RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K signaling, impairs the antitumor immune response. Such oncogenic signaling, in turn, activates many inhibitory factors, including expression of immune checkpoint genes—allowing active infiltration of immunosuppressive cells into the tumor environment and inducing resistance against T-cell killing. In preclinical tumor models, effective targeting of oncogenic pathways has enhanced the response to ICBT. Ongoing clinical trials are now evaluating combination therapy (i.e., the use of oncogenic pathway inhibitors in combination with ICBT). However, more translational and clinical research is needed, to optimize ICBT doses and sequence, minimize toxicity, and assess the impact on study participants of certain genetic backgrounds. Also, it is crucial to understand whether wild-type tumors with elevated oncogenic signaling will respond to combination therapy. Insights gained through current and future translational studies will provide the scientific premise and rationale to target 1 or more oncogenic pathways in ICBT-resistant tumors, thus enabling more human patients to benefit from combination therapy.
Significance of A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts modulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-15 Masataka Nakano, Miki Nakajima
RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that alters the nucleotide sequence of RNA transcripts to generate transcriptome diversity. Among the various types of RNA editing, adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is the most frequent type of RNA editing in mammals. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, ADAR1 and ADAR2, convert adenosines in double-stranded RNA structures into inosines by hydrolytic deamination. Inosine forms a base pair with cytidine as if it were guanosine; therefore, the conversion may affect the amino acid sequence, splicing, microRNA targeting, and miRNA maturation. It became apparent that disrupted RNA editing or abnormal ADAR expression is associated with several diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, metabolic diseases, viral infections, and autoimmune disorders. The biological significance of RNA editing in pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD)-related genes is starting to be demonstrated. The authors conducted pioneering studies to reveal that RNA editing modulates drug metabolism potencies in the human liver, as well as the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy agents. Awareness of the importance of RNA editing in drug therapy is growing. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the RNA editing that affects the expression and function of drug response-related genes. Continuing studies on the RNA editing that regulates pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics would provide new beneficial information for personalized medicine.
Inhibitors of connexin and pannexin channels as potential therapeutics Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-15 Joost Willebrords, Michaël Maes, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Mathieu Vinken
While gap junctions support the exchange of a number of molecules between neighboring cells, connexin hemichannels provide communication between the cytosol and the extracellular environment of an individual cell. The latter equally holds true for channels composed of pannexin proteins, which display an architecture reminiscent of connexin hemichannels. In physiological conditions, gap junctions are usually open, while connexin hemichannels and, to a lesser extent, pannexin channels are typically closed, yet they can be activated by a number of pathological triggers. Several agents are available to inhibit channels built up by connexin and pannexin proteins, including alcoholic substances, glycyrrhetinic acid, anesthetics and fatty acids. These compounds not always strictly distinguish between gap junctions, connexin hemichannels and pannexin channels, and may have effects on other targets as well. An exception lies with mimetic peptides, which reproduce specific amino acid sequences in connexin or pannexin primary protein structure. In this paper, a state-of-the-art overview is provided on inhibitors of cellular channels consisting of connexins and pannexins with specific focus on their mode-of-action and therapeutic potential.
Toxicity profiles of immunotherapy☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-07-15 S. Cousin, J. Seneschal, A. Italiano
Immunotherapies are changing the landscape of advanced solid tumor treatment. These therapies have different mechanisms of action and include oncolytic viruses, checkpoint inhibitors, such as CTLA-4 or PD1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies, and CSF-1R antibodies. Given the growing therapeutic impact of these agents in oncology, it is important to better understand their properties. Immunotherapies generate new toxicity profiles that are called immune-related adverse events and require specific management. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action of such side effects, as well as their description and their general management.
Purinergic P2Y receptors: Molecular diversity and implications for treatment of cardiovascular diseases Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-23 Akiyuki Nishimura, Caroline Sunggip, Sayaka Oda, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Makoto Tsuda, Motohiro Nishida
Purinergic signaling, mediated mainly by G protein-coupled P2Y receptors (P2YRs), is now attracting attention as a new therapeutic target for preventing or treating cardiovascular diseases. Observations using mice with genetically modified P2YRs and/or treated with a pharmacological P2YR inhibitor have helped us understand the physiological and pathological significance of P2YRs in the cardiovascular system. P2YR-mediated biological functions are predominantly activated by mononucleotides released from non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve endings or non-secretory tissues in response to physical stress or cell injury, though recent studies have suggested the occurrence of ligand-independent P2YR function through receptor-receptor interactions (oligomerization) in several biological processes. In this review, we introduce the functions of P2YRs and possible dimerization with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the cardiovascular system. We focus especially on the crosstalk between uridine nucleotide-responsive P2Y6R and angiotensin (Ang) II type1 receptor (AT1R) signaling, and introduce our recent finding that the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578 interrupts heterodimerization between P2Y6R and AT1R, thereby reducing the risk of AT1R-stimulated hypertension in mice. These results strongly suggest that targeting P2Y6R oligomerization could be an effective new strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Novel pharmacotherapies for cardiac amyloidosis☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-22 Kevin M. Alexander, Avinainder Singh, Rodney H. Falk
Amyloidosis refers to a range of protein misfolding disorders that can cause organ dysfunction through progressive fibril deposition. Cardiac involvement often leads to significant morbidity and mortality and increasingly has been recognized as an important cause of heart failure. The two main forms of cardiac amyloidosis, light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, have distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis. Recent insights have led to the development of novel pharmacotherapies with the potential to significantly impact each disease. This review will summarize the preclinical and clinical data for these emerging treatments for AL and ATTR amyloidosis.
Glucagon-like peptide 1: A potential anti-inflammatory pathway in obesity-related asthma Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-22 Dan-Vinh Nguyen, Angela Linderholm, Angela Haczku, Nicholas Kenyon
Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). l-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation. The GLP-1 pathway, while comprehensively studied in the endocrine and cardiovascular literature, is under-recognized in pulmonary research. Insights into GLP-1 and the lung may lead to novel treatments for obesity-related asthma.
Anti-TNFα therapy in inflammatory lung diseases Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-19 Rama Malaviya, Jeffrey D. Laskin, Debra L. Laskin
Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α have been linked to a number of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sarcoidosis, and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). TNFα plays multiple roles in disease pathology by inducing an accumulation of inflammatory cells, stimulating the generation of inflammatory mediators, and causing oxidative and nitrosative stress, airway hyperresponsiveness and tissue remodeling. TNFα-targeting biologics, therefore, present a potentially highly efficacious treatment option. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of TNFα in pulmonary disease pathologies, with a focus on the therapeutic potential of TNFα-targeting agents in treating inflammatory lung diseases.
Contrast-induced nephropathy: Basic concepts, pathophysiological implications and prevention strategies☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-19 Charalampos Mamoulakis, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Irini Fragkiadoulaki, Ioannis Heretis, Martin F. Wilks, Demetrios A. Spandidos, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Aristides Tsatsakis
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is reversible acute renal failure observed following administration of iodinated contrast media (CM) during angiographic or other medical procedures such as urography. There are various mechanisms through which CM develop their nephrotoxic effects, including oxidative stress and apoptosis. CIN is a real-life, albeit not very rare, entity. Exact pathophysiology remains obscure and no standard diagnostic criteria apply. The Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria was recently employed but its incidence/clinical significance warrants further clarification based on recent methodological advancements, because most published studies to date were contaminated by bias. The current study is a comprehensive review conducted to provide an overview of the basic concepts of CIN and summarize recent knowledge on its pathophysiology and the evidence supporting potential prevention strategies. CIN is expected to increase morbidity, hospital stay and mortality, while all patients scheduled to receive CM should undergo risk assessment for CIN and high-risk patients may be considered candidates for prevention strategies. The value of using compounds with antioxidant properties other than sodium bicarbonate, remains controversial, warranting further clinical investigation.
Targeting inflammation for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease☆☆☆★★ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-19 Ming-Jiang Xu, Zhou Zhou, Richard Parker, Bin Gao
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with a wide spectrum of manifestations including simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver injury in ALD is caused by chronic inflammation, which has been actively investigated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ALD for over the last four decades. In this review, we summarize a wide variety of inflammatory mediators that have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of ALD, and discuss the therapeutic potential of these mediators for the treatment of ALD.
Soluble epoxide hydrolase as a therapeutic target for pain, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-19 Karen M. Wagner, Cindy B. McReynolds, William K. Schmidt, Bruce D. Hammock
Eicosanoids are biologically active lipid signaling molecules derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Many of the actions of eicosanoid metabolites formed by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes have been characterized, however, the epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs) formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes are newly described by comparison. The EpFA metabolites modulate a diverse set of physiologic functions that include inflammation and nociception among others. Regulation of EpFAs occurs primarily via release, biosynthesis and enzymatic transformation by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Targeting sEH with small molecule inhibitors has enabled observation of the biological activity of the EpFAs in vivo in animal models, greatly contributing to the overall understanding of their role in the inflammatory response. Their role in modulating inflammation has been demonstrated in disease models including cardiovascular pathology and inflammatory pain, but extends to neuroinflammation and neuroinflammatory disease. Moreover, while EpFAs demonstrate activity against inflammatory pain, interestingly, this action extends to blocking chronic neuropathic pain as well. This review outlines the role of modulating sEH and the biological action of EpFAs in models of pain and inflammatory diseases.
Analysis of natural product regulation of cannabinoid receptors in the treatment of human disease☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-03 S. Badal, K.N. Smith, R. Rajnarayanan
The organized, tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer. While endogenous ligands are crucial for dispatching messages through the ECS, there are also commonalities in binding affinities with copious exogenous ligands, both natural and synthetic. Therefore, this review provides a comparative analysis of both types of exogenous ligands with emphasis on natural products given their putative safer efficacy and the role of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in uncovering the ECS. Efficacy is congruent to both types of compounds but noteworthy is the effect of a combination therapy to achieve efficacy without unideal side-effects. An example is Sativex that displayed promise in treating Huntington's disease (HD) in preclinical models allowing for its transition to current clinical investigation. Despite the in vitro and preclinical efficacy of Δ9-THC to treat neurodegenerative ailments, its psychotropic effects limit its clinical applicability to treating feeding disorders. We therefore propose further investigation of other compounds and their combinations such as the triterpene, α,β-amyrin that exhibited greater binding affinity to CB1 than CB2 and was more potent than Δ9-THC and the N-alkylamides that exhibited CB2 selective affinity; the latter can be explored towards peripherally exclusive ECS modulation. The synthetic CB1 antagonist, Rimonabant was pulled from commercial markets for the treatment of diabetes, however its analogue SR144528 maybe an ideal lead molecule towards this end and HU-210 and Org27569 are also promising synthetic small molecules.
MicroRNA and chronic pain: From mechanisms to therapeutic potential Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-01 María José López-González, Marc Landry, Alexandre Favereaux
Chronic pain is a major public health issue with an incidence of 20–25% worldwide that can take different forms like neuropathic, cancer-related or inflammatory pain. Chronic pain often limits patients in their daily activities leading to despair. Thus, the goal of treatments is to relieve pain sufficiently to enable patients to go back to a normal life. Unfortunately, few patients with chronic pain obtain complete relief from the analgesics that are currently available. It is thus of prime importance to get a better understanding of chronic pain mechanisms to design new therapeutic strategies and pain-killers. In this sense, the study of microRNA (miRNAs) in chronic pain conditions could lead to a breakthrough in pain management. miRNAs have emerged as master regulators of gene expression in the nervous system where they contribute to neuronal network plasticity. The involvement of miRNAs in the maladaptive plasticity mechanisms of chronic pain is now well documented. Here, we review studies conducted in different animal models and in patients that screened chronic pain-related miRNAs and their targets. Clinical studies suggest that miRNAs expression could reflect the high variability among pain patients that could help to categorize patients and finally lead to personalized therapies. We also point out the different strategies investigated to design miRNA-based analgesics. Finally, we highlight the current miRNA-based clinical trials to hypothesize their potential as therapeutic tool for chronic pain.
Targeting cysteine proteases in trypanosomatid disease drug discovery Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-01 Leonardo G. Ferreira, Adriano D. Andricopulo
Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis are endemic conditions in Latin America and Africa, respectively, for which no effective and safe therapy is available. Efforts in drug discovery have focused on several enzymes from these protozoans, among which cysteine proteases have been validated as molecular targets for pharmacological intervention. These enzymes are expressed during the entire life cycle of trypanosomatid parasites and are essential to many biological processes, including infectivity to the human host. As a result of advances in the knowledge of the structural aspects of cysteine proteases and their role in disease physiopathology, inhibition of these enzymes by small molecules has been demonstrated to be a worthwhile approach to trypanosomatid drug research. This review provides an update on drug discovery strategies targeting the cysteine peptidases cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi and rhodesain and cathepsin B from Trypanosoma brucei. Given that current chemotherapy for Chagas disease and human African trypanosomiasis has several drawbacks, cysteine proteases will continue to be actively pursued as valuable molecular targets in trypanosomatid disease drug discovery efforts.
Treatment advances in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-06-01 Saiama N. Waqar, Daniel Morgensztern
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor characterized by rapid doubling time and high propensity for early development of disseminated disease. Although most patients respond to initial therapy with a platinum doublet, the majority of those with limited stage and virtually all patients with metastatic disease eventually develop tumor progression for which there are limited treatment options. There have been no recent changes in the treatment of SCLC, with platinum plus etoposide and topotecan as the standard first-line and second-line respectively, neither showing survival benefit over the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine, which was developed in the 1970s. More recently, a new understanding of the biology of SCLC has led to the development of novel drugs, of which the most promising are the immune checkpoint inhibitors and the antibody drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in cancer: FGF traps as a new therapeutic approach Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-28 Marco Presta, Paola Chiodelli, Arianna Giacomini, Marco Rusnati, Roberto Ronca
Originally characterized as angiogenic factors, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are pleiotropic factors that exert autocrine and paracrine functions on tumor and stromal cells. Thus, they may represent key players in the complex crosstalk among angiogenesis, inflammation, tumor growth, and drug resistance, all contributing to tumor progression. Given the multiple activities of FGFs, inhibitors of the FGF/FGFR system may act as “two compartment” targeting drugs able to exert a deep impact on the growth of FGF/FGFR-driven tumors. To date, the discovery of drugs targeting the FGF/FGFR system has focused mainly on the development of selective and non-selective tyrosine kinase FGFR inhibitors. Recently, a different approach has been emerging, aimed at the development of extracellular “FGF ligand traps” able to bind and sequester FGFs, thus preventing their interaction with cognate signaling receptors. This approach is based on the identification of natural FGF ligands followed by the development of small molecule mimetics endowed with a significant FGF binding/neutralizing capacity. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of the role of the FGF/FGFR system in cancer and a comprehensive analysis of the process, based on the study of the FGF interactome, which has led to the identification and characterization of FGF ligand traps. This approach has allowed the development of promising FGF-targeting molecules with potential implications for the therapy of FGF-driven tumors.
Cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids and heart function Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-25 K. Lockhart Jamieson, Tomoko Endo, Ahmed M. Darwesh, Victor Samokhvalov, John M. Seubert
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system (CYP) is a multigene superfamily of enzymes, which are important in the metabolism of foreign and endogenous compounds. CYP isoforms metabolize a number of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA), arachidonic acid (20:4n6, AA), ecosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA) into bioactive lipid mediators, termed eicosanoids. CYP-derived eicosanoids have numerous effects toward physiological and pathophysiological events within the body, which depends on the type, quantity and timing of metabolites produced. Alterations in fatty acid composition and concentrations have been shown to have a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The functional role of CYP isozymes and CYP-derived eicosanoids toward physiological and pathophysiological processes in the heart is a rapidly expanding field of research. Numerous studies have investigated the beneficial and detrimental effects of CYP epoxygenase derived metabolites of AA, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) and CYP ω-hydroxylase products, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), toward both cardiac and vascular function and disease. Emerging research is revealing the importance of other lipid mediators generated from CYP isozymes, such as epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQ) and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDP), formed from the metabolism of EPA and DHA and metabolites of LA. Important determinants such as genetics, gender and age have a role in regulating the CYP-derived eicosanoids produced from the metabolism n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Obtaining a better understanding of the complex role CYP-derived eicosanoids have within the heart will provide valuable insight for both basic and clinical researchers investigation CVD.
Emerging roles of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in pancreatic cancer progression and therapy☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-23 Richard L. Sleightholm, Beth K. Neilsen, Jing Li, Maria M. Steele, Rakesh K. Singh, Michael A. Hollingsworth, David Oupicky
Chemokine networks regulate a variety of cellular, physiological, and immune processes. These normal functions can become appropriated by cancer cells to facilitate a more hospitable niche for aberrant cells by enhancing growth, proliferation, and metastasis. This is especially true in pancreatic cancer, where chemokine signaling is a vital component in the development of the supportive tumor microenvironment and the signaling between the cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells. Although expression patterns vary among cancer types, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in nearly every major malignancy and plays a prominent role in pancreatic cancer development and progression. This receptor, in conjunction with its primary chemokine ligand CXCL12, promotes pancreatic cancer development, invasion, and metastasis through the management of the tumor microenvironment via complex crosstalk with other pathways. Thus, CXCR4 likely contributes to the poor prognoses observed in patients afflicted with this malignancy. Recent exploration of combination therapies with CXCR4 antagonists have demonstrated improved outcomes, and abolishing the contribution of this pathway may prove crucial to effectively treat pancreatic cancer at both the primary tumor and metastases.
Prolactin receptor targeting in breast and prostate cancers: New insights into an old challenge☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-23 Vincent Goffin
In the era of precision medicine, the identification of new targets is a constant challenge to improve cancer therapy. Preclinical investigations, epidemiological studies and analyses of tissue specimens from patients strongly support the contribution of prolactin receptor (PRLR) signaling to breast and prostate tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Although a clear causative link with mutations of the genes encoding prolactin or its receptor is lacking, increased PRLR signaling in these cancers can be assessed by the overexpression of cognate proteins and is often confirmed by over-activation of downstream signaling effectors. Nevertheless, the PRLR neutralizing antibody LFA102 tested recently in a Phase I trial in advanced, PRLR-positive prostate cancer and breast cancer patients failed to provide any clinical benefit. This underlines the need to better understand the actual impact of PRLR signaling on the progression of these cancers. Canonical PRLR-triggered signaling cascades include STAT5A/B, ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt, FAK and Src family kinases. Recent studies suggested that the nature and the outcome of PRLR signaling might be markedly different in breast than in prostate cancer. In the latter, like in many organs, PRLR/STAT5 signaling acts as a pro-tumorigenic pathway. In particular, it promotes the amplification of treatment-resistant prostate stem/progenitor cells, predicts early cancer recurrence and favors metastatic dissemination. In contrast, PRLR/STAT5 signaling was recently proposed to prevent breast cancer cell dissemination and to predict favorable clinical outcomes. While there is no evidence that pathways other than STAT5 are activated by prolactin in the prostate, these alternate signaling cascades may be primarily responsible for the pro-tumorigenic effects of prolactin in breast cancer. If these conclusions are confirmed in future studies, the therapeutic targeting of PRLR signaling in breast and prostate cancer may warrant the development of organ-specific strategies.
Targeting nuclear receptors for the treatment of fatty liver disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-23 Naoki Tanaka, Toshifumi Aoyama, Shioko Kimura, Frank J. Gonzalez
Ligand-activated nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), pregnane X receptor, and constitutive androstane receptor, were first identified as key regulators of the responses against chemical toxicants. However, numerous studies using mouse disease models and human samples have revealed critical roles for these receptors and others, such as PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and liver X receptor (LXR), in maintaining nutrient/energy homeostasis in part through modulation of the gut-liver-adipose axis. Recently, disorders associated with disrupted nutrient/energy homeostasis, e.g., obesity, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), are increasing worldwide. Notably, in NAFLD, a progressive subtype exists, designated as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that is characterized by typical histological features resembling alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), and NASH/ASH are recognized as major causes of hepatitis virus-unrelated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since hepatic steatosis is basically caused by an imbalance between fat/energy influx and utilization, abnormal signaling of these nuclear receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. Standard therapeutic interventions have not been fully established for fatty liver disease, but some new agents that activate or inhibit nuclear receptor signaling have shown promise as possible therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the roles of nuclear receptors in fatty liver disease and discuss future perspectives to develop promising pharmacological strategies targeting nuclear receptors for NAFLD/NASH.
Mechanisms of tolerance and potential therapeutic interventions in Alopecia Areata☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-22 Gabriel Skogberg, Sonya Jackson, Annika Åstrand
This review aims to address the mechanisms of compromised immune tolerance contributing to the development and maintenance of Alopecia Areata (AA). Our goal is to also highlight future treatment opportunities and therapeutics that will safely and efficiently restore hair growth and maintain patients in remission.AA is a presumptive autoimmune disorder that coincides and genetically clusters to several other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we pay attention to the learnings from the mechanistic research and drug development in these other autoimmune conditions. Interestingly, most of these diseases have been linked to compromised central and peripheral tolerance, and increased intestinal inflammation with enhanced gut permeability. Break of tolerance and priming of the autoreactive T-cells to attack antigenic epitopes in the hair follicle most likely requires several steps which include escape from negative selection and compromised peripheral tolerance. Local skin-related changes are also of importance due to the patchy manifestation of the skin areas with loss of hair, particularly in the early disease. Here, we discuss the defective mechanisms of tolerance, both central and peripheral, and hypothesize that the disease is driven by areas of tolerance break, and that these could be targeted for successful therapeutic interventions.
Targeting GPNMB with glembatumumab vedotin: Current developments and future opportunities for the treatment of cancer☆ Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-22 April A.N. Rose, Marco Biondini, Rafael Curiel, Peter M. Siegel
GPNMB has emerged as an immunomodulator and an important positive mediator of tumor progression and metastasis in numerous solid cancers. Tumor intrinsic GPNMB-mediated effects on cellular signaling, coupled with the ability of GPNMB to influence the primary tumor and metastatic microenvironments in a non-cell autonomous fashion, combine to augment malignant cancer phenotypes. In addition, GPNMB is often overexpressed in a variety of cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this regard, glembatumumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets GPNMB, is currently in clinical trials as a single agent in multiple cancers.In this review, we will describe the physiological functions of GPNMB in normal tissues and summarize the processes through which GPNMB augments tumor growth and metastasis. We will review the pre-clinical and clinical development of glembatumumab vedotin, evaluate on-going clinical trials, explore emerging opportunities for this agent in new disease indications and discuss exciting possibilities for this ADC in the context of combination therapies.
Mechanisms of the amplifying pathway of insulin secretion in the β cell Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Michael A. Kalwat, Melanie H. Cobb
Pancreatic islet β cells secrete insulin in response to nutrient secretagogues, like glucose, dependent on calcium influx and nutrient metabolism. One of the most intriguing qualities of β cells is their ability to use metabolism to amplify the amount of secreted insulin independent of further alterations in intracellular calcium. Many years studying this amplifying process have shaped our current understanding of β cell stimulus-secretion coupling; yet, the exact mechanisms of amplification have been elusive. Recent studies utilizing metabolomics, computational modeling, and animal models have progressed our understanding of the metabolic amplifying pathway of insulin secretion from the β cell. New approaches will be discussed which offer in-roads to a more complete model of β cell function. The development of β cell therapeutics may be aided by such a model, facilitating the targeting of aspects of the metabolic amplifying pathway which are unique to the β cell.
Cytochrome P450 eicosanoids in cerebrovascular function and disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Catherine M. Davis, Xuehong Liu, Nabil J. Alkayed
Cytochrome P450 eicosanoids play important roles in brain function and disease through their complementary actions on cell-cell communications within the neurovascular unit (NVU) and mechanisms of brain injury. Epoxy- and hydroxyeicosanoids, respectively formed by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and ω-hydroxylases, play opposing roles in cerebrovascular function and in pathological processes underlying neural injury, including ischemia, neuroinflammation and oxidative injury. P450 eicosanoids also contribute to cerebrovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes. We summarize studies investigating the roles P450 eicosanoids in cerebrovascular physiology and disease to highlight the existing balance between these important lipid signaling molecules, as well as their roles in maintaining neurovascular homeostasis and in acute and chronic neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.
Adverse outcome pathways: Application to enhance mechanistic understanding of neurotoxicity Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Anna Bal-Price, M.E. (Bette) Meek
Recent developments have prompted the transition of empirically based testing of late stage toxicity in animals for a range of different endpoints including neurotoxicity to more efficient and predictive mechanistically based approaches with greater emphasis on measurable key events early in the progression of disease. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) has been proposed as a simplified organizational construct to contribute to this transition by linking molecular initiating events and earlier (more predictive) key events at lower levels of biological organization to disease outcomes. As such, AOPs are anticipated to facilitate the compilation of information to increase mechanistic understanding of pathophysiological pathways that are responsible for human disease.In this review, the sequence of key events resulting in adverse outcome (AO) defined as parkinsonian motor impairment and learning and memory deficit in children, triggered by exposure to environmental chemicals has been briefly described using the AOP framework. These AOPs follow convention adopted in an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) AOP development program, publically available, to permit tailored application of AOPs for a range of different purposes.Due to the complexity of disease pathways, including neurodegenerative disorders, a specific symptom of the disease (e.g. parkinsonian motor deficit) is considered as the AO in a developed AOP. Though the description is necessarily limited by the extent of current knowledge, additional characterization of involved pathways through description of related AOPs interlinked into networks for the same disease has potential to contribute to more holistic and mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiological pathways involved, possibly leading to the mechanism-based reclassification of diseases, thus facilitating more personalized treatment.
Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Wouter H. van Geffen, Huib A.M. Kerstjens, Dirk-Jan Slebos
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA) and long acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA). More recently bronchoscopic treatments are emerging for COPD. Among them endobronchial valves (EBV) and endobronchial coils (EBC), next to endobronchial stents, sclerosing agents, targeted lung denervation and liquid nitrogen metered cryospray. In this review we aim to summarize the new emerging bronchoscopic treatments and their effect sizes compared with lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies.
Cholinergic modulation of the immune system presents new approaches for treating inflammation Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-05-18 Donald B. Hoover
The nervous system and immune system have broad and overlapping distributions in the body, and interactions of these ubiquitous systems are central to the field of neuroimmunology. Over the past two decades, there has been explosive growth in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that mediate central modulation of immune functions through the autonomic nervous system. A major catalyst for growth in this field was the discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) caused a prominent attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin in experimental animals. This effect was mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation of nicotinic receptors on splenic macrophages. Hence, the circuit was dubbed the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway”. Subsequent work identified the α7 nicotinic ACh receptor (α7nAChR) as the crucial target for attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release from macrophages and dendritic cells. Further investigation made the important discovery that cholinergic T cells within the spleen and not cholinergic nerve cells were the source of ACh that stimulated α7 receptors on splenic macrophages. Given the important role that inflammation plays in numerous disease processes, cholinergic anti-inflammatory mechanisms are under intensive investigation from a basic science perspective and in translational studies of animal models of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. This basic work has already fostered several clinical trials examining the efficacy of VNS and cholinergic therapeutics in human inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of basic and translational aspects of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response and relevant pharmacology of drugs acting at the α7nAChR.
Mitophagy and age-related pathologies: Development of new therapeutics by targeting mitochondrial turnover Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-04-29 Konstantinos Palikaras, Ioanna Daskalaki, Maria Markaki, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria are highly dynamic and semi-autonomous organelles, essential for many fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, metabolite synthesis, ion homeostasis, lipid metabolism and initiation of apoptotic cell death. Proper mitochondrial physiology is a prerequisite for health and survival. Generation of new and removal of damaged or unwanted mitochondria are tightly controlled processes that need to be accurately coordinated for the maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy is a conserved, mitochondria-specific autophagic clearance process. An intricate regulatory network balances mitophagy with mitochondrial biogenesis. Proper coordination of these opposing processes is important for stress resistance and longevity. Age-dependent decline of mitophagy both inhibits removal of dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial biogenesis resulting in progressive mitochondrial accretion and consequently, deterioration of cell function. Nodal regulatory factors that contribute to mitochondrial homeostasis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated pathologies, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders and cancer, among others. Thus, mitophagy is emerging as a potential target for therapeutic interventions against diseases associated with ageing. In this review, we survey the molecular mechanisms that govern and interface mitophagy with mitochondrial biogenesis, focusing on key elements that hold promise for the development of pharmacological approaches towards enhancing healthspan and quality of life in the elderly.
The clinical pharmacology of non-sedating antihistamines Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-04-27 Kazuhiko Yanai, Takeo Yoshikawa, Ai Yanai, Tadaho Nakamura, Tomomitsu Iida, Rob Leurs, Manabu Tashiro
We previously reported on brain H1 receptor occupancy measurements of antihistamines in human brain using [11C]doxepin and positron emission tomography (PET). We proposed the use of brain H1 receptor occupancy to classify antihistamines objectively into three categories of sedating, less-sedating, and non-sedating antihistamines according to their sedative effects. Non-sedating antihistamines are recommended for the treatment of allergies such as pollinosis and atopic dermatitis because of their low penetration into the central nervous system. Physicians and pharmacists are responsible for fully educating patients about the risks of sedating antihistamines from pharmacological points of view. If a sedating antihistamine must be prescribed, its sedative effects should be thoroughly considered before choosing the drug. Non-sedating antihistamines should be preferentially used whenever possible as most antihistamines are equally efficacious, while adverse effects of sedating antihistamines can be serious. This review summarizes the pharmacological properties of clinically useful non-sedating antihistamines from the perspective of histamine function in the CNS.
Inhaled efficacious dose translation from rodent to human: A retrospective analysis of clinical standards for respiratory diseases Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-04-23 J.E. Phillips
Clinical pharmacologists and toxicologists are often faced with predicting equivalent dosages for humans from biological observations in laboratory animals. Allometric scaling has been used extensively as the basis for extrapolation of drug dosage that might be expected to produce the equivalent biological effects. Allometry is the study of size and its consequences and it is based on the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical similarities between animals. In this review, retrospective analyses have been performed based on data reported in the literature in an attempt to determine the utility of allometric scaling for human dose projections from pre-clinical data for compounds that are delivered by inhalation. The limited pre-clinical efficacy data available on inhaled drugs that are also used clinically supports the current method of scaling using a fixed allometric exponent of 0.67. An example of the utility of the human inhaled dose projections for planning inhaled toxicology studies is also presented.
Antimicrobial peptides: Role in human disease and potential as immunotherapies Pharmacol. Therapeut. (IF 11.127) Pub Date : 2017-04-21 César de la Fuente-Núñez, Osmar N. Silva, Timothy K. Lu, Octavio Luiz Franco
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved through billions of years as part of our innate immune system. These agents are produced by various cells throughout the human body and play important roles in our ability to respond to infections. In this review, we outline evidence linking AMP expression with a range of inflammatory and autoimmune human diseases. Finally, we highlight the promise of endogenous AMP induction for the treatment of disease (i.e., host-directed therapy) and briefly mention the different peptide drugs that are currently undergoing clinical trials.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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