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  • Genetic programs can be compressed and autonomously decompressed in live cells
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Nicolas Lapique, Yaakov Benenson

    Fundamental computer science concepts have inspired novel information-processing molecular systems in test tubes1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 and genetically encoded circuits in live cells14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21. Recent research has shown that digital information storage in DNA, implemented using deep sequencing and conventional software, can approach the maximum Shannon information capacity22 of two bits per nucleotide23. In nature, DNA is used to store genetic programs, but the information content of the encoding rarely approaches this maximum24. We hypothesize that the biological function of a genetic program can be preserved while reducing the length of its DNA encoding and increasing the information content per nucleotide. Here we support this hypothesis by describing an experimental procedure for compressing a genetic program and its subsequent autonomous decompression and execution in human cells. As a test-bed we choose an RNAi cell classifier circuit25 that comprises redundant DNA sequences and is therefore amenable for compression, as are many other complex gene circuits15,18,26,27,28. In one example, we implement a compressed encoding of a ten-gene four-input AND gate circuit using only four genetic constructs. The compression principles applied to gene circuits can enable fitting complex genetic programs into DNA delivery vehicles with limited cargo capacity, and storing compressed and biologically inert programs in vivo for on-demand activation.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Genetic programs can be compressed and autonomously decompressed in live cells
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Nicolas Lapique, Yaakov Benenson

    Fundamental computer science concepts have inspired novel information-processing molecular systems in test tubes1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 and genetically encoded circuits in live cells14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21. Recent research has shown that digital information storage in DNA, implemented using deep sequencing and conventional software, can approach the maximum Shannon information capacity22 of two bits per nucleotide23. In nature, DNA is used to store genetic programs, but the information content of the encoding rarely approaches this maximum24. We hypothesize that the biological function of a genetic program can be preserved while reducing the length of its DNA encoding and increasing the information content per nucleotide. Here we support this hypothesis by describing an experimental procedure for compressing a genetic program and its subsequent autonomous decompression and execution in human cells. As a test-bed we choose an RNAi cell classifier circuit25 that comprises redundant DNA sequences and is therefore amenable for compression, as are many other complex gene circuits15,18,26,27,28. In one example, we implement a compressed encoding of a ten-gene four-input AND gate circuit using only four genetic constructs. The compression principles applied to gene circuits can enable fitting complex genetic programs into DNA delivery vehicles with limited cargo capacity, and storing compressed and biologically inert programs in vivo for on-demand activation.

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Drug delivery: Lean by design
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Chiara Pastore

    Drug delivery: Lean by designDrug delivery: Lean by design, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.225

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mapped
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Giacomo Prando

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mappedScanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mapped, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.227

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • High-performance semiconductor quantum-dot single-photon sources
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Pascale Senellart, Glenn Solomon, Andrew White

    Single photons are a fundamental element of most quantum optical technologies. The ideal single-photon source is an on-demand, deterministic, single-photon source delivering light pulses in a well-defined polarization and spatiotemporal mode, and containing exactly one photon. In addition, for many applications, there is a quantum advantage if the single photons are indistinguishable in all their degrees of freedom. Single-photon sources based on parametric down-conversion are currently used, and while excellent in many ways, scaling to large quantum optical systems remains challenging. In 2000, semiconductor quantum dots were shown to emit single photons, opening a path towards integrated single-photon sources. Here, we review the progress achieved in the past few years, and discuss remaining challenges. The latest quantum dot-based single-photon sources are edging closer to the ideal single-photon source, and have opened new possibilities for quantum technologies.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Chemical self-assembly: A nonlinear breaking strain
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Our choice from the recent literatureOur choice from the recent literature, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.224

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Skin to e-skin
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01

    Skin to e-skinSkin to e-skin, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.228NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Research in skin-integrated electronic technologies has the potential to produce breakthroughs in wearable health monitoring and diagnostics., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Solar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get close
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Adam Weingarten

    Solar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get closeSolar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get close, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.226

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • How to build an educational bridge
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Pierfrancesco Riccardi, Claudio Goletti

    How to build an educational bridgeHow to build an educational bridge, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.221NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=How can school pupils be introduced to materials science and nanotechnology? Pierfrancesco Riccardi and Claudio Goletti illustrate the advantages of extracurricular activities designed by researchers and teachers., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Drug delivery: Lean by design
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Chiara Pastore

    Drug delivery: Lean by designDrug delivery: Lean by design, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.225

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mapped
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Giacomo Prando

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mappedScanning tunnelling microscopy: Orbital ordering mapped, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.227

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • High-performance semiconductor quantum-dot single-photon sources
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Pascale Senellart, Glenn Solomon, Andrew White

    Single photons are a fundamental element of most quantum optical technologies. The ideal single-photon source is an on-demand, deterministic, single-photon source delivering light pulses in a well-defined polarization and spatiotemporal mode, and containing exactly one photon. In addition, for many applications, there is a quantum advantage if the single photons are indistinguishable in all their degrees of freedom. Single-photon sources based on parametric down-conversion are currently used, and while excellent in many ways, scaling to large quantum optical systems remains challenging. In 2000, semiconductor quantum dots were shown to emit single photons, opening a path towards integrated single-photon sources. Here, we review the progress achieved in the past few years, and discuss remaining challenges. The latest quantum dot-based single-photon sources are edging closer to the ideal single-photon source, and have opened new possibilities for quantum technologies.

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Chemical self-assembly: A nonlinear breaking strain
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Our choice from the recent literatureOur choice from the recent literature, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.224

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Skin to e-skin
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01

    Skin to e-skinSkin to e-skin, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.228NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=Research in skin-integrated electronic technologies has the potential to produce breakthroughs in wearable health monitoring and diagnostics., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Solar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get close
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-07
    Adam Weingarten

    Solar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get closeSolar-fuel photocatalysis: Carbon nitrides get close, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.226

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • How to build an educational bridge
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-01
    Pierfrancesco Riccardi, Claudio Goletti

    How to build an educational bridgeHow to build an educational bridge, Published online: 07 November 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.221NatureArticleSnippet(type=standfirst, markup=How can school pupils be introduced to materials science and nanotechnology? Pierfrancesco Riccardi and Claudio Goletti illustrate the advantages of extracurricular activities designed by researchers and teachers., isJats=true)

    更新日期:2017-11-07
  • Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Tosan Omabegho, Pinar S. Gurel, Clarence Y. Cheng, Laura Y. Kim, Paul V. Ruijgrok, Rhiju Das, Gregory M. Alushin, Zev Bryant

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure–function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3,4,5 and modified natural protein motors6,7,8,9,10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11,12,13,14,15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10–20 nm s−1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Tosan Omabegho, Pinar S. Gurel, Clarence Y. Cheng, Laura Y. Kim, Paul V. Ruijgrok, Rhiju Das, Gregory M. Alushin, Zev Bryant

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure–function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3,4,5 and modified natural protein motors6,7,8,9,10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11,12,13,14,15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10–20 nm s−1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

    更新日期:2017-11-06
  • Direct measurement of Kramers turnover with a levitated nanoparticle
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Loïc Rondin, Jan Gieseler, Francesco Ricci, Romain Quidant, Christoph Dellago, Lukas Novotny

    Direct measurement of Kramers turnover with a levitated nanoparticle Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.198 The influence of damping on the transition rate of a bistable system has been measured with an optically levitated nanoparticle.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Ya-Qing Bie, Gabriele Grosso, Mikkel Heuck, Marco M. Furchi, Yuan Cao, Jiabao Zheng, Darius Bunandar, Efren Navarro-Moratalla, Lin Zhou, Dmitri K. Efetov, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Jing Kong, Dirk Englund, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.209 Optical interconnect components based on bilayer MoTe2 p–n junctions can be directly integrated with silicon photonics

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Levitated nanoparticles: Nanoparticles jumping high
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Nikolai Kiesel, Eric Lutz

    Thermally activated escape underlies processes in chemistry, physics and biology. Experiments with levitated nanoparticles now confirm the underlying theory in the hitherto unmapped turnover regime.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Electric polarization switching in an atomically thin binary rock salt structure
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Jose Martinez-Castro, Marten Piantek, Sonja Schubert, Mats Persson, David Serrate, Cyrus F. Hirjibehedin

    Inducing and controlling electric dipoles is hindered in the ultrathin limit by the finite screening length of surface charges at metal–insulator junctions1,2,3, although this effect can be circumvented by specially designed interfaces4. Heterostructures of insulating materials hold great promise, as confirmed by perovskite oxide superlattices with compositional substitution to artificially break the structural inversion symmetry5,6,7,8. Bringing this concept to the ultrathin limit would substantially broaden the range of materials and functionalities that could be exploited in novel nanoscale device designs. Here, we report that non-zero electric polarization can be induced and reversed in a hysteretic manner in bilayers made of ultrathin insulators whose electric polarization cannot be switched individually. In particular, we explore the interface between ionic rock salt alkali halides such as NaCl or KBr and polar insulating Cu2N terminating bulk copper. The strong compositional asymmetry between the polar Cu2N and the vacuum gap breaks inversion symmetry in the alkali halide layer, inducing out-of-plane dipoles that are stabilized in one orientation (self-poling). The dipole orientation can be reversed by a critical electric field, producing sharp switching of the tunnel current passing through the junction.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Nanomaterials: 2D materials for silicon photonics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Yanhao Tang, Kin Fai Mak

    Nanomaterials: 2D materials for silicon photonics Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.230 Integration of 2D semiconductor optoelectronics with silicon photonics opens a new path for on-chip point-to-point optical communications.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Direct measurement of Kramers turnover with a levitated nanoparticle
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Loïc Rondin, Jan Gieseler, Francesco Ricci, Romain Quidant, Christoph Dellago, Lukas Novotny

    Direct measurement of Kramers turnover with a levitated nanoparticle Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.198 The influence of damping on the transition rate of a bistable system has been measured with an optically levitated nanoparticle.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Ya-Qing Bie, Gabriele Grosso, Mikkel Heuck, Marco M. Furchi, Yuan Cao, Jiabao Zheng, Darius Bunandar, Efren Navarro-Moratalla, Lin Zhou, Dmitri K. Efetov, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Jing Kong, Dirk Englund, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 23 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.209 Optical interconnect components based on bilayer MoTe2 p–n junctions can be directly integrated with silicon photonics

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Levitated nanoparticles: Nanoparticles jumping high
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Nikolai Kiesel, Eric Lutz

    Thermally activated escape underlies processes in chemistry, physics and biology. Experiments with levitated nanoparticles now confirm the underlying theory in the hitherto unmapped turnover regime.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Electric polarization switching in an atomically thin binary rock salt structure
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Jose Martinez-Castro, Marten Piantek, Sonja Schubert, Mats Persson, David Serrate, Cyrus F. Hirjibehedin

    Inducing and controlling electric dipoles is hindered in the ultrathin limit by the finite screening length of surface charges at metal–insulator junctions1,2,3, although this effect can be circumvented by specially designed interfaces4. Heterostructures of insulating materials hold great promise, as confirmed by perovskite oxide superlattices with compositional substitution to artificially break the structural inversion symmetry5,6,7,8. Bringing this concept to the ultrathin limit would substantially broaden the range of materials and functionalities that could be exploited in novel nanoscale device designs. Here, we report that non-zero electric polarization can be induced and reversed in a hysteretic manner in bilayers made of ultrathin insulators whose electric polarization cannot be switched individually. In particular, we explore the interface between ionic rock salt alkali halides such as NaCl or KBr and polar insulating Cu2N terminating bulk copper. The strong compositional asymmetry between the polar Cu2N and the vacuum gap breaks inversion symmetry in the alkali halide layer, inducing out-of-plane dipoles that are stabilized in one orientation (self-poling). The dipole orientation can be reversed by a critical electric field, producing sharp switching of the tunnel current passing through the junction.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Nanomaterials: 2D materials for silicon photonics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-23
    Yanhao Tang, Kin Fai Mak

    Integration of 2D semiconductor optoelectronics with silicon photonics opens a new path for on-chip point-to-point optical communications.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Zohar Pode, Ronny Peri-Naor, Joseph M. Georgeson, Tal Ilani, Vladimir Kiss, Tamar Unger, Barak Markus, Haim M. Barr, Leila Motiei, David Margulies

    Fluorescent molecular probes have become valuable tools in protein research; however, the current methods for using these probes are less suitable for analysing specific populations of proteins in their native environment. In this study, we address this gap by developing a unimolecular fluorescent probe that combines the properties of small-molecule-based probes and cross-reactive sensor arrays (the so-called chemical ‘noses/tongues’). On the one hand, the probe can detect different proteins by generating unique identification (ID) patterns, akin to cross-reactive arrays. On the other hand, its unimolecular scaffold and selective binding enable this ID-generating probe to identify combinations of specific protein families within complex mixtures and to discriminate among isoforms in living cells, where macroscopic arrays cannot access. The ability to recycle the molecular device and use it to track several binding interactions simultaneously further demonstrates how this approach could expand the fluorescent toolbox currently used to detect and image proteins.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • Towards zero-threshold optical gain using charged semiconductor quantum dots
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Kaifeng Wu, Young-Shin Park, Jaehoon Lim, Victor I. Klimov

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are attractive materials for the realization of solution-processable lasers. However, their applications as optical-gain media are complicated by a non-unity degeneracy of band-edge states, because of which multiexcitons are required to achieve the lasing regime. This increases the lasing thresholds and leads to very short optical gain lifetimes limited by nonradiative Auger recombination. Here, we show that these problems can be at least partially resolved by employing not neutral but negatively charged quantum dots. By applying photodoping to specially engineered quantum dots with impeded Auger decay, we demonstrate a considerable reduction of the optical gain threshold due to suppression of ground-state absorption by pre-existing carriers. Moreover, by injecting approximately one electron per dot on average, we achieve a more than twofold reduction in the amplified spontaneous emission threshold, bringing it to the sub-single-exciton level. These measurements indicate the feasibility of ‘zero-threshold’ gain achievable by completely blocking the band-edge state with two electrons.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • DNA nanotechnology: On-command molecular Trojans
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Christof M. Niemeyer

    DNA nanotechnology: On-command molecular Trojans Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.222 Lipid-motif-decorated DNA nanocapsules filled with photoresponsive polymers are capable of delivering signalling molecules into target organisms for biological perturbations at high spatiotemporal resolution.

    更新日期:2017-10-30
  • DNA nanotechnology: On-command molecular Trojans
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-10-16
    Christof M. Niemeyer

    Lipid-motif-decorated DNA nanocapsules filled with photoresponsive polymers are capable of delivering signalling molecules into target organisms for biological perturbations at high spatiotemporal resolution.

    更新日期:2017-10-18
  • Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Zohar Pode, Ronny Peri-Naor, Joseph M. Georgeson, Tal Ilani, Vladimir Kiss, Tamar Unger, Barak Markus, Haim M. Barr, Leila Motiei, David Margulies

    Protein recognition by a pattern-generating fluorescent molecular probe Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.175 A molecule-sized ‘nose’ capable of producing unique fluorescence signatures for different proteins can detect combinations of biomarkers in biofluids, track several binding interactions simultaneously, and identify isoforms in living cells inaccessible to comparable macroscopic analytical devices.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Towards zero-threshold optical gain using charged semiconductor quantum dots
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Kaifeng Wu, Young-Shin Park, Jaehoon Lim, Victor I. Klimov

    Towards zero-threshold optical gain using charged semiconductor quantum dots Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 16 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.189 Blocking band-edge absorption of compositionally graded quantum dots with suppressed Auger recombination by pre-existing electrons allows for demonstrating near-zero-threshold optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission at sub-single-exciton pump levels.

    更新日期:2017-10-16
  • Hot carrier-enhanced interlayer electron–hole pair multiplication in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Fatemeh Barati, Max Grossnickle, Shanshan Su, Roger K. Lake, Vivek Aji, Nathaniel M. Gabor

    Hot carrier-enhanced interlayer electron–hole pair multiplication in 2D semiconductor heterostructure photocells Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 9 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.203 Highly efficient interlayer e–h pair multiplication process in two-dimensional TMD heterostructures leads to strong enhancement of the optoelectronic responsivity.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Multifunctional high-performance van der Waals heterostructures
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Mingqiang Huang, Shengman Li, Zhenfeng Zhang, Xiong Xiong, Xuefei Li, Yanqing Wu

    A range of novel two-dimensional materials have been actively explored for More Moore and More-than-Moore device applications because of their ability to form van der Waals heterostructures with unique electronic properties. However, most of the reported electronic devices exhibit insufficient control of multifunctional operations. Here, we leverage the band-structure alignment properties of narrow-bandgap black phosphorus and large-bandgap molybdenum disulfide to realize vertical heterostructures with an ultrahigh rectifying ratio approaching 106 and on–off ratio up to 107. Furthermore, we design and fabricate tunable multivalue inverters, in which the output logic state and window of the mid-logic can be controlled by specific pairs of channel length and, most importantly, by the electric field, which shifts the band-structure alignment across the heterojunction. Finally, high gains over 150 are achieved in the inverters with optimized device geometries, showing great potential for future logic applications.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Our choice from the recent literature
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Wenjie Sun

    Electrocatalytic nanomaterials: Reactivity mapping Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.213

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Science policy in the days of Trump
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Chris Toumey

    Science policy in the days of Trump Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.211 Chris Toumey explains why the actions on science policy taken so far by the current US administration are cause for concern.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • 2D materials: Some like it hot
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Olga Bubnova

    2D materials: Some like it hot Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.215

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Science outreach in the post-truth age
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 

    Science outreach in the post-truth age Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.217 Outreach activities, like those related to National Nanotechnology Day, contribute to building a science culture, narrowing the gap between science and the public.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Optoelectronics: Letting photons out of the gate
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    James F. Cahoon

    Optoelectronics: Letting photons out of the gate Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.199 The unique photoresponse of a porous silicon nanowire can be harnessed to make a highly efficient photon-gated transistor with an on–off ratio comparable to that of a conventional electronic switch.

    更新日期:2017-10-11
  • Single-molecule DNA sequencing: Getting to the bottom of the well
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Hagan Bayley

    Single-molecule DNA sequencing: Getting to the bottom of the well Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.205 Large DNA molecules are rapidly loaded into nanoscale wells from dilute solution for single-molecule sequencing.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Reply to 'Absence of redshift in the direct bandgap of silicon nanocrystals with reduced size'
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Wieteke de Boer, Dolf Timmerman, Irina Yassievich, Antonio Capretti, Tom Gregorkiewicz

    Reply to 'Absence of redshift in the direct bandgap of silicon nanocrystals with reduced size' Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.202

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Focal molography is a new method for the in situ analysis of molecular interactions in biological samples
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Volker Gatterdam, Andreas Frutiger, Klaus-Peter Stengele, Dieter Heindl, Thomas Lübbers, Janos Vörös, Christof Fattinger

    Focal molography is a next-generation biosensor that visualizes specific biomolecular interactions in real time. It transduces affinity modulation on the sensor surface into refractive index modulation caused by target molecules that are bound to a precisely assembled nanopattern of molecular recognition sites, termed the ‘mologram’. The mologram is designed so that laser light is scattered at specifically bound molecules, generating a strong signal in the focus of the mologram via constructive interference, while scattering at nonspecifically bound molecules does not contribute to the effect. We present the realization of molograms on a chip by submicrometre near-field reactive immersion lithography on a light-sensitive monolithic graft copolymer layer. We demonstrate the selective and sensitive detection of biomolecules, which bind to the recognition sites of the mologram in various complex biological samples. This allows the label-free analysis of non-covalent interactions in complex biological samples, without a need for extensive sample preparation, and enables novel time- and cost-saving ways of performing and developing immunoassays for diagnostic tests.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Nanoscopic control and quantification of enantioselective optical forces
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Yang Zhao, Amr A. E. Saleh, Marie Anne van de Haar, Brian Baum, Justin A. Briggs, Alice Lay, Olivia A. Reyes-Becerra, Jennifer A. Dionne

    Nanoscopic control and quantification of enantioselective optical forces Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.180 A plasmonic tweezer selectively attracts or repels enantiomers based on their handedness.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Bicontinuous structured liquids with sub-micrometre domains using nanoparticle surfactants
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Caili Huang, Joe Forth, Weiyu Wang, Kunlun Hong, Gregory S. Smith, Brett A. Helms, Thomas P. Russell

    Bicontinuous structured liquids with sub-micrometre domains using nanoparticle surfactants Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.182 Polymer–nanoparticle binding stabilizes bijels with sub-micrometre domain size.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Absence of redshift in the direct bandgap of silicon nanocrystals with reduced size
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Jun-Wei Luo, Shu-Shen Li, Ilya Sychugov, Federico Pevere, Jan Linnros, Alex Zunger

    Absence of redshift in the direct bandgap of silicon nanocrystals with reduced size Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 25 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.190

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Atomically precise graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions from a single molecular precursor
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Giang D. Nguyen, Hsin-Zon Tsai, Arash A. Omrani, Tomas Marangoni, Meng Wu, Daniel J. Rizzo, Griffin F. Rodgers, Ryan R. Cloke, Rebecca A. Durr, Yuki Sakai, Franklin Liou, Andrew S. Aikawa, James R. Chelikowsky, Steven G. Louie, Felix R. Fischer, Michael F. Crommie

    The rational bottom-up synthesis of atomically defined graphene nanoribbon (GNR) heterojunctions represents an enabling technology for the design of nanoscale electronic devices. Synthetic strategies used thus far have relied on the random copolymerization of two electronically distinct molecular precursors to yield GNR heterojunctions. Here we report the fabrication and electronic characterization of atomically precise GNR heterojunctions prepared through late-stage functionalization of chevron GNRs obtained from a single precursor. Post-growth excitation of fully cyclized GNRs induces cleavage of sacrificial carbonyl groups, resulting in atomically well-defined heterojunctions within a single GNR. The GNR heterojunction structure was characterized using bond-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, which enables chemical bond imaging at T = 4.5 K. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals that band alignment across the heterojunction interface yields a type II heterojunction, in agreement with first-principles calculations. GNR heterojunction band realignment proceeds over a distance less than 1 nm, leading to extremely large effective fields.

    更新日期:2017-09-25
  • Tuning a circular p–n junction in graphene from quantum confinement to optical guiding
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Yuhang Jiang, Jinhai Mao, Dean Moldovan, Massoud Ramezani Masir, Guohong Li, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Francois M. Peeters, Eva Y. Andrei

    A transition from optical transport to quantum confinement, observed in a size-tunable circular graphene p–n junction could enable switching and guiding of Dirac electrons.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Conformation-based signal transfer and processing at the single-molecule level
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Chao Li, Zhongping Wang, Yan Lu, Xiaoqing Liu, Li Wang

    A specific molecular conformation serves as an information carrier for signal transfer and processing in a molecular device.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Riccardo Scott, Jan Heckmann, Anatol V. Prudnikau, Artsiom Antanovich, Aleksandr Mikhailov, Nina Owschimikow, Mikhail Artemyev, Juan I. Climente, Ulrike Woggon, Nicolai B. Grosse, Alexander W. Achtstein

    Strong anisotropy of the electronic Bloch functions observed in CdSe nanoplatelets enables efficient directional emission.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Coplanar semiconductor–metal circuitry defined on few-layer MoTe2 via polymorphic heteroepitaxy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Ji Ho Sung, Hoseok Heo, Saerom Si, Yong Hyeon Kim, Hyeong Rae Noh, Kyung Song, Juho Kim, Chang-Soo Lee, Seung-Young Seo, Dong-Hwi Kim, Hyoung Kug Kim, Han Woong Yeom, Tae-Hwan Kim, Si-Young Choi, Jun Sung Kim, Moon-Ho Jo

    Crystal polymorphism selectively stabilizes the electronic phase of atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) as metallic or semiconducting, suggesting the potential to integrate these polymorphs as circuit components in two-dimensional electronic circuitry. Developing a selective and sequential growth strategy for such two-dimensional polymorphs in the vapour phase is a critical step in this endeavour. Here, we report on the polymorphic integration of distinct metallic (1T′) and semiconducting (2H) MoTe2 crystals within the same atomic planes by heteroepitaxy. The realized polymorphic coplanar contact is atomically coherent, and its barrier potential is spatially tight-confined over a length of only a few nanometres, with a lowest contact barrier height of ∼25 meV. We also demonstrate the generality of our synthetic integration approach for other TMDC polymorph films with large areas.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Internet of things: Sensing without power
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Vladimir A. Aksyuk

    Internet of things: Sensing without power Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.185 A thermally activated micromechanical switch delivers an electrical readout signal only when irradiated by a narrowband mid-infrared light, thanks to a metamaterial element that converts light into heat.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Kidney physiology: A size bandpass filter
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Yue Lu, Zhen Gu

    Kidney physiology: A size bandpass filter Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.200 Size matters when it comes to developing next-generation precision medications and diagnostic tools.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Glomerular barrier behaves as an atomically precise bandpass filter in a sub-nanometre regime
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Bujie Du, Xingya Jiang, Anindita Das, Qinhan Zhou, Mengxiao Yu, Rongchao Jin, Jie Zheng

    The glomerular filtration barrier is known as a ‘size cutoff’ slit, which retains nanoparticles or proteins larger than 6–8 nm in the body and rapidly excretes smaller ones through the kidneys. However, in the sub-nanometre size regime, we have found that this barrier behaves as an atomically precise ‘bandpass’ filter to significantly slow down renal clearance of few-atom gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with the same surface ligands but different sizes (Au18, Au15 and Au10-11). Compared to Au25 (∼1.0 nm), just few-atom decreases in size result in four- to ninefold reductions in renal clearance efficiency in the early elimination stage, because the smaller AuNCs are more readily trapped by the glomerular glycocalyx than larger ones. This unique in vivo nano–bio interaction in the sub-nanometre regime also slows down the extravasation of sub-nanometre AuNCs from normal blood vessels and enhances their passive targeting to cancerous tissues through an enhanced permeability and retention effect. This discovery highlights the size precision in the body's response to nanoparticles and opens a new pathway to develop nanomedicines for many diseases associated with glycocalyx dysfunction.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Length-independent DNA packing into nanopore zero-mode waveguides for low-input DNA sequencing
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Joseph Larkin, Robert Y. Henley, Vivek Jadhav, Jonas Korlach, Meni Wanunu

    Compared with conventional methods, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing exhibits longer read lengths than conventional methods, less GC bias, and the ability to read DNA base modifications. However, reading DNA sequence from sub-nanogram quantities is impractical owing to inefficient delivery of DNA molecules into the confines of zero-mode waveguides—zeptolitre optical cavities in which DNA sequencing proceeds. Here, we show that the efficiency of voltage-induced DNA loading into waveguides equipped with nanopores at their floors is five orders of magnitude greater than existing methods. In addition, we find that DNA loading is nearly length-independent, unlike diffusive loading, which is biased towards shorter fragments. We demonstrate here loading and proof-of-principle four-colour sequence readout of a polymerase-bound 20,000-base-pair-long DNA template within seconds from a sub-nanogram input quantity, a step towards low-input DNA sequencing and mammalian epigenomic mapping of native DNA samples.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Zero-power infrared digitizers based on plasmonically enhanced micromechanical photoswitches
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-9-11
    Zhenyun Qian, Sungho Kang, Vageeswar Rajaram, Cristian Cassella, Nicol E. McGruer, Matteo Rinaldi

    Zero-power infrared digitizers based on plasmonically enhanced micromechanical photoswitches Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.147 Infrared light of specific wavelength triggers a passive microsystem capable of producing a digitized output bit.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Supramolecular chemistry: Interlocked benzenes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Supramolecular chemistry: Interlocked benzenes Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.193

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Multiscale technologies for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Morteza Mahmoudi, Mikyung Yu, Vahid Serpooshan, Joseph C. Wu, Robert Langer, Richard T. Lee, Jeffrey M. Karp, Omid C. Farokhzad

    The adult mammalian heart possesses only limited capacity for innate regeneration and the response to severe injury is dominated by the formation of scar tissue. Current therapy to replace damaged cardiac tissue is limited to cardiac transplantation and thus many patients suffer progressive decay in the heart's pumping capacity to the point of heart failure. Nanostructured systems have the potential to revolutionize both preventive and therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease. Here, we outline recent advancements in nanotechnology that could be exploited to overcome the major obstacles in the prevention of and therapy for heart disease. We also discuss emerging trends in nanotechnology affecting the cardiovascular field that may offer new hope for patients suffering massive heart attacks.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • A cautionary note on graphene anti-corrosion coatings
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Chenlong Cui, Alane Tarianna O. Lim, Jiaxing Huang

    A cautionary note on graphene anti-corrosion coatings Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.187 Despite graphene's apparent potential for anti-corrosion coatings, it is cathodic to most metals and can promote corrosion at exposed graphene–metal interfaces. This may accelerate dangerous localized corrosion that can seriously weaken the coated metals.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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