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  • Tuning a circular p–n junction in graphene from quantum confinement to optical guiding
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Yuhang Jiang, Jinhai Mao, Dean Moldovan, Massoud Ramezani Masir, Guohong Li, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Francois M. Peeters, Eva Y. Andrei

    A transition from optical transport to quantum confinement, observed in a size-tunable circular graphene p–n junction could enable switching and guiding of Dirac electrons.

    更新日期:2017-09-19
  • Conformation-based signal transfer and processing at the single-molecule level
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Chao Li, Zhongping Wang, Yan Lu, Xiaoqing Liu, Li Wang

    A specific molecular conformation serves as an information carrier for signal transfer and processing in a molecular device.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Directed emission of CdSe nanoplatelets originating from strongly anisotropic 2D electronic structure
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Riccardo Scott, Jan Heckmann, Anatol V. Prudnikau, Artsiom Antanovich, Aleksandr Mikhailov, Nina Owschimikow, Mikhail Artemyev, Juan I. Climente, Ulrike Woggon, Nicolai B. Grosse, Alexander W. Achtstein

    Strong anisotropy of the electronic Bloch functions observed in CdSe nanoplatelets enables efficient directional emission.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Coplanar semiconductor–metal circuitry defined on few-layer MoTe2 via polymorphic heteroepitaxy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Ji Ho Sung, Hoseok Heo, Saerom Si, Yong Hyeon Kim, Hyeong Rae Noh, Kyung Song, Juho Kim, Chang-Soo Lee, Seung-Young Seo, Dong-Hwi Kim, Hyoung Kug Kim, Han Woong Yeom, Tae-Hwan Kim, Si-Young Choi, Jun Sung Kim, Moon-Ho Jo

    Crystal polymorphism selectively stabilizes the electronic phase of atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) as metallic or semiconducting, suggesting the potential to integrate these polymorphs as circuit components in two-dimensional electronic circuitry. Developing a selective and sequential growth strategy for such two-dimensional polymorphs in the vapour phase is a critical step in this endeavour. Here, we report on the polymorphic integration of distinct metallic (1T′) and semiconducting (2H) MoTe2 crystals within the same atomic planes by heteroepitaxy. The realized polymorphic coplanar contact is atomically coherent, and its barrier potential is spatially tight-confined over a length of only a few nanometres, with a lowest contact barrier height of ∼25 meV. We also demonstrate the generality of our synthetic integration approach for other TMDC polymorph films with large areas.

    更新日期:2017-09-18
  • Internet of things: Sensing without power
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Vladimir A. Aksyuk

    Internet of things: Sensing without power Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.185 A thermally activated micromechanical switch delivers an electrical readout signal only when irradiated by a narrowband mid-infrared light, thanks to a metamaterial element that converts light into heat.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Kidney physiology: A size bandpass filter
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Yue Lu, Zhen Gu

    Kidney physiology: A size bandpass filter Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.200 Size matters when it comes to developing next-generation precision medications and diagnostic tools.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Glomerular barrier behaves as an atomically precise bandpass filter in a sub-nanometre regime
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Bujie Du, Xingya Jiang, Anindita Das, Qinhan Zhou, Mengxiao Yu, Rongchao Jin, Jie Zheng

    The glomerular filtration barrier is known as a ‘size cutoff’ slit, which retains nanoparticles or proteins larger than 6–8 nm in the body and rapidly excretes smaller ones through the kidneys. However, in the sub-nanometre size regime, we have found that this barrier behaves as an atomically precise ‘bandpass’ filter to significantly slow down renal clearance of few-atom gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with the same surface ligands but different sizes (Au18, Au15 and Au10-11). Compared to Au25 (∼1.0 nm), just few-atom decreases in size result in four- to ninefold reductions in renal clearance efficiency in the early elimination stage, because the smaller AuNCs are more readily trapped by the glomerular glycocalyx than larger ones. This unique in vivo nano–bio interaction in the sub-nanometre regime also slows down the extravasation of sub-nanometre AuNCs from normal blood vessels and enhances their passive targeting to cancerous tissues through an enhanced permeability and retention effect. This discovery highlights the size precision in the body's response to nanoparticles and opens a new pathway to develop nanomedicines for many diseases associated with glycocalyx dysfunction.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Length-independent DNA packing into nanopore zero-mode waveguides for low-input DNA sequencing
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Joseph Larkin, Robert Y. Henley, Vivek Jadhav, Jonas Korlach, Meni Wanunu

    Compared with conventional methods, single-molecule real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing exhibits longer read lengths than conventional methods, less GC bias, and the ability to read DNA base modifications. However, reading DNA sequence from sub-nanogram quantities is impractical owing to inefficient delivery of DNA molecules into the confines of zero-mode waveguides—zeptolitre optical cavities in which DNA sequencing proceeds. Here, we show that the efficiency of voltage-induced DNA loading into waveguides equipped with nanopores at their floors is five orders of magnitude greater than existing methods. In addition, we find that DNA loading is nearly length-independent, unlike diffusive loading, which is biased towards shorter fragments. We demonstrate here loading and proof-of-principle four-colour sequence readout of a polymerase-bound 20,000-base-pair-long DNA template within seconds from a sub-nanogram input quantity, a step towards low-input DNA sequencing and mammalian epigenomic mapping of native DNA samples.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Zero-power infrared digitizers based on plasmonically enhanced micromechanical photoswitches
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-9-11
    Zhenyun Qian, Sungho Kang, Vageeswar Rajaram, Cristian Cassella, Nicol E. McGruer, Matteo Rinaldi

    Zero-power infrared digitizers based on plasmonically enhanced micromechanical photoswitches Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 11 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.147 Infrared light of specific wavelength triggers a passive microsystem capable of producing a digitized output bit.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Supramolecular chemistry: Interlocked benzenes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Alberto Moscatelli

    Supramolecular chemistry: Interlocked benzenes Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.193

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • Multiscale technologies for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Morteza Mahmoudi, Mikyung Yu, Vahid Serpooshan, Joseph C. Wu, Robert Langer, Richard T. Lee, Jeffrey M. Karp, Omid C. Farokhzad

    The adult mammalian heart possesses only limited capacity for innate regeneration and the response to severe injury is dominated by the formation of scar tissue. Current therapy to replace damaged cardiac tissue is limited to cardiac transplantation and thus many patients suffer progressive decay in the heart's pumping capacity to the point of heart failure. Nanostructured systems have the potential to revolutionize both preventive and therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease. Here, we outline recent advancements in nanotechnology that could be exploited to overcome the major obstacles in the prevention of and therapy for heart disease. We also discuss emerging trends in nanotechnology affecting the cardiovascular field that may offer new hope for patients suffering massive heart attacks.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • A cautionary note on graphene anti-corrosion coatings
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 
    Chenlong Cui, Alane Tarianna O. Lim, Jiaxing Huang

    A cautionary note on graphene anti-corrosion coatings Nature Nanotechnology, Published online: 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/nnano.2017.187 Despite graphene's apparent potential for anti-corrosion coatings, it is cathodic to most metals and can promote corrosion at exposed graphene–metal interfaces. This may accelerate dangerous localized corrosion that can seriously weaken the coated metals.

    更新日期:2017-09-13
  • The power of the tiniest shoot
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06

    The publication of a white paper on nanoscience in China sets the scene for the country's future in the field.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • A cautionary note on graphene anti-corrosion coatings
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Chenlong Cui, Alane Tarianna O. Lim, Jiaxing Huang

    Despite graphene's apparent potential for anti-corrosion coatings, it is cathodic to most metals and can promote corrosion at exposed graphene–metal interfaces. This may accelerate dangerous localized corrosion that can seriously weaken the coated metals.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Wearable electronics: Nanomesh on-skin electronics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    John A. Rogers

    Hollow, nanoscale metal filaments in open-mesh architectures provide soft, shape-conformal electrical interfaces to the skin as the basis for high-precision, irritation-free sensing platforms.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Nanolasing: Multimode superlattice arrays
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Päivi Törmä

    A superlattice of gold nanoparticles shows stable lasing at different frequencies.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • 2D materials: Brightening the dark excitons
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Kian Ping Loh

    Two independent methods using near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons and magnetic brightening allow the observation of dark excitons in WSe2.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • DNA computing: Spatially localized DNA domino
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    André Estevez-Torres, Yannick Rondelez

    Fast and scalable molecular logic circuits have been constructed by spatially localizing DNA hairpins on DNA origami scaffolds.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Cancer Immunotherapy: From local to global
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Willem J. M. Mulder, Sacha Gnjatic

    Nanoparticles that capture antigens produced in situ by tumours induce the 'abscopal' effect, improving the treatment of distant cancer lesions.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Multiscale technologies for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Morteza Mahmoudi, Mikyung Yu, Vahid Serpooshan, Joseph C. Wu, Robert Langer, Richard T. Lee, Jeffrey M. Karp, Omid C. Farokhzad

    The adult mammalian heart possesses only limited capacity for innate regeneration and the response to severe injury is dominated by the formation of scar tissue. Current therapy to replace damaged cardiac tissue is limited to cardiac transplantation and thus many patients suffer progressive decay in the heart's pumping capacity to the point of heart failure. Nanostructured systems have the potential to revolutionize both preventive and therapeutic approaches for treating cardiovascular disease. Here, we outline recent advancements in nanotechnology that could be exploited to overcome the major obstacles in the prevention of and therapy for heart disease. We also discuss emerging trends in nanotechnology affecting the cardiovascular field that may offer new hope for patients suffering massive heart attacks.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    You Zhou, Giovanni Scuri, Dominik S. Wild, Alexander A. High, Alan Dibos, Luis A. Jauregui, Chi Shu, Kristiaan De Greve, Kateryna Pistunova, Andrew Y. Joe, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Philip Kim, Mikhail D. Lukin, Hongkun Park

    Near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons enables the observation of spin-forbidden dark excitonic states in monolayer WSe2.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Shu-Jen Han, Jianshi Tang, Bharat Kumar, Abram Falk, Damon Farmer, George Tulevski, Keith Jenkins, Ali Afzali, Satoshi Oida, John Ott, James Hannon, Wilfried Haensch

    High-performance, CMOS-compatible ring-oscillators based on carbon nanotubes are fabricated by scalable and fully manufacturable processes.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Xiaoge Liu, Ju-Hyung Kang, Hongtao Yuan, Junghyun Park, Soo Jin Kim, Yi Cui, Harold Y. Hwang, Mark L. Brongersma

    A blue shift in the surface plasmon resonance of an indium tin oxide layer is observed—and electrically tuned—where a classical description would predict a red shift.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Photo-excited hot carrier dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon imaged by 4D electron microscopy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Bolin Liao, Ebrahim Najafi, Heng Li, Austin J. Minnich, Ahmed H. Zewail

    Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy provides new insights into hot carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Antigen-capturing nanoparticles improve the abscopal effect and cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Yuanzeng Min, Kyle C. Roche, Shaomin Tian, Michael J. Eblan, Karen P. McKinnon, Joseph M. Caster, Shengjie Chai, Laura E. Herring, Longzhen Zhang, Tian Zhang, Joseph M. DeSimone, Joel E. Tepper, Benjamin G. Vincent, Jonathan S. Serody, Andrew Z. Wang

    Nanoparticles can be utilized to capture tumour antigens and improve their presentation, which in turn improves the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Magnetic brightening and control of dark excitons in monolayer WSe2
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Ting Cao, Zhengguang Lu, Yu-Chuan Lin, Fan Zhang, Ying Wang, Zhiqiang Li, James C. Hone, Joshua A. Robinson, Dmitry Smirnov, Steven G. Louie, Tony F. Heinz

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide crystals, as direct-gap materials with strong light–matter interactions, have attracted much recent attention. Because of their spin-polarized valence bands and a predicted spin splitting at the conduction band edges, the lowest-lying excitons in WX2 (X = S, Se) are expected to be spin-forbidden and optically dark. To date, however, there has been no direct experimental probe of these dark excitons. Here, we show how an in-plane magnetic field can brighten the dark excitons in monolayer WSe2 and permit their properties to be observed experimentally. Precise energy levels for both the neutral and charged dark excitons are obtained and compared with ab initio calculations using the GW-BSE approach. As a result of their spin configuration, the brightened dark excitons exhibit much-increased emission and valley lifetimes. These studies directly probe the excitonic spin manifold and reveal the fine spin-splitting at the conduction band edges.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Band-edge engineering for controlled multi-modal nanolasing in plasmonic superlattices
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-10
    Danqing Wang, Ankun Yang, Weijia Wang, Yi Hua, Richard D. Schaller, George C. Schatz, Teri W. Odom

    Single band-edge states can trap light and function as high-quality optical feedback for microscale lasers and nanolasers. However, access to more than a single band-edge mode for nanolasing has not been possible because of limited cavity designs. Here, we describe how plasmonic superlattices—finite-arrays of nanoparticles (patches) grouped into microscale arrays—can support multiple band-edge modes capable of multi-modal nanolasing at programmed emission wavelengths and with large mode spacings. Different lasing modes show distinct input–output light behaviour and decay dynamics that can be tailored by nanoparticle size. By modelling the superlattice nanolasers with a four-level gain system and a time-domain approach, we reveal that the accumulation of population inversion at plasmonic hot spots can be spatially modulated by the diffractive coupling order of the patches. Moreover, we show that symmetry-broken superlattices can sustain switchable nanolasing between a single mode and multiple modes.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Ultrafast lithium diffusion in bilayer graphene
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-05
    Matthias Kühne, Federico Paolucci, Jelena Popovic, Pavel M. Ostrovsky, Joachim Maier, Jurgen H. Smet

    Solids that simultaneously conduct electrons and ions are key elements for the mass transfer and storage required in battery electrodes. Single-phase materials with a high electronic and high ionic conductivity at room temperature are hard to come by, and therefore multiphase systems with separate ion and electron channels have been put forward instead. Here we report on bilayer graphene as a single-phase mixed conductor that demonstrates Li diffusion faster than in graphite and even surpassing the diffusion of sodium chloride in liquid water. To measure Li diffusion, we have developed an on-chip electrochemical cell architecture in which the redox reaction that forces Li intercalation is localized only at a protrusion of the device so that the graphene bilayer remains unperturbed from the electrolyte during operation. We performed time-dependent Hall measurements across spatially displaced Hall probes to monitor the in-plane Li diffusion kinetics within the graphene bilayer and measured a diffusion coefficient as high as 7 × 10–5 cm2 s–1.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p–n junctions
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Dong Li, Mingyuan Chen, Zhengzong Sun, Peng Yu, Zheng Liu, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Zengxing Zhang

    Semiconductor p–n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p–n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p–n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p–n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Inflammation-free, gas-permeable, lightweight, stretchable on-skin electronics with nanomeshes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Akihito Miyamoto, Sungwon Lee, Nawalage Florence Cooray, Sunghoon Lee, Mami Mori, Naoji Matsuhisa, Hanbit Jin, Leona Yoda, Tomoyuki Yokota, Akira Itoh, Masaki Sekino, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Tamotsu Ebihara, Masayuki Amagai, Takao Someya

    Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects. As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure. A one-week skin patch test revealed that the risk of inflammation caused by on-skin sensors can be significantly suppressed by using the nanomesh sensors. Furthermore, a wireless system that can detect touch, temperature and pressure is successfully demonstrated using a nanomesh with excellent mechanical durability. In addition, electromyogram recordings were successfully taken with minimal discomfort to the user.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Monitoring the orientation of rare-earth-doped nanorods for flow shear tomography
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Jongwook Kim, Sébastien Michelin, Michiel Hilbers, Lucio Martinelli, Elodie Chaudan, Gabriel Amselem, Etienne Fradet, Jean-Pierre Boilot, Albert M. Brouwer, Charles N. Baroud, Jacques Peretti, Thierry Gacoin

    Rare-earth phosphors exhibit unique luminescence polarization features originating from the anisotropic symmetry of the emitter ion's chemical environment. However, to take advantage of this peculiar property, it is necessary to control and measure the ensemble orientation of the host particles with a high degree of precision. Here, we show a methodology to obtain the photoluminescence polarization of Eu-doped LaPO4 nanorods assembled in an electrically modulated liquid-crystalline phase. We measure Eu3+ emission spectra for the three main optical configurations (σ, π and α, depending on the direction of observation and the polarization axes) and use them as a reference for the nanorod orientation analysis. Based on the fact that flowing nanorods tend to orient along the shear strain profile, we use this orientation analysis to measure the local shear rate in a flowing liquid. The potential of this approach is then demonstrated through tomographic imaging of the shear rate distribution in a microfluidic system.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • A spatially localized architecture for fast and modular DNA computing
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Gourab Chatterjee, Neil Dalchau, Richard A. Muscat, Andrew Phillips, Georg Seelig

    Cells use spatial constraints to control and accelerate the flow of information in enzyme cascades and signalling networks. Synthetic silicon-based circuitry similarly relies on spatial constraints to process information. Here, we show that spatial organization can be a similarly powerful design principle for overcoming limitations of speed and modularity in engineered molecular circuits. We create logic gates and signal transmission lines by spatially arranging reactive DNA hairpins on a DNA origami. Signal propagation is demonstrated across transmission lines of different lengths and orientations and logic gates are modularly combined into circuits that establish the universality of our approach. Because reactions preferentially occur between neighbours, identical DNA hairpins can be reused across circuits. Co-localization of circuit elements decreases computation time from hours to minutes compared to circuits with diffusible components. Detailed computational models enable predictive circuit design. We anticipate our approach will motivate using spatial constraints for future molecular control circuit designs.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Enter the Nanoman
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-09-06
    Nicole Steinmetz

    How do you explain a topic like cancer nanotechnology to non-experts? Nicole Steinmetz illustrates an approach combining science and the performing arts.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Water treatment: A scalable graphene-based membrane
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-28
    Ivan V. Vlassiouk

    An improved industrial manufacturability has been achieved for a hybrid water-treatment membrane that exhibits high water permeance, prolonged high salt and dye rejection under cross-flow conditions and better resistance to chlorine treatment.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • DNA computing: Spatially localized DNA domino
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    André Estevez-Torres, Yannick Rondelez

    Fast and scalable molecular logic circuits have been constructed by spatially localizing DNA hairpins on DNA origami scaffolds.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Donor qubits in silicon: Electrical control of nuclear spins
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Andrea Morello

    One-dimensional microwave Bragg gratings make it possible to coherently control donor nuclear spins in silicon by purely electrical means.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Spintronics: Anatomy of spin–orbit torques
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Kei Yamamoto, Hidekazu Kurebayashi

    The use of time-resolved X-ray microscopy allows a direct visualization of the magnetization switching for nanomagnets under the effect of spin–orbit torques.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Molecular diodes: Breaking the Landauer limit
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Nicolas Clement, Akira Fujiwara

    A diode made of a self-assembly monolayer with ferrocenyl termini shows an on/off ratio of ∼105.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Wearable electronics: Nanomesh on-skin electronics
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    John A. Rogers

    Hollow, nanoscale metal filaments in open-mesh architectures provide soft, shape-conformal electrical interfaces to the skin as the basis for high-precision, irritation-free sensing platforms.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Photodetectors: A heated junction
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Ming Zhou, Zongfu Yu

    Resonant photonic structures made of thermoelectric materials can convert light into electricity without wavelength limitations.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Cancer therapy: Neutrophils traffic in cancer nanodrugs
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-19
    Satoru Osuka, Erwin G. Van Meir

    Neutrophils loaded with cationic liposomal paclitaxel migrate across the blood/brain barrier to deliver chemotherapeutic nanoparticles in the inflamed post-surgical tumour margin.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • 2D materials: Brightening the dark excitons
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Kian Ping Loh

    Two independent methods using near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons and magnetic brightening allow the observation of dark excitons in WSe2.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Neuromorphic computation: Sparse codes from memristor grids
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-05-22
    Bruno A. Olshausen, Christopher J. Rozell

    The adjustable resistive state of memristors makes it possible to implement sparse coding algorithms naturally and efficiently.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Room-temperature current blockade in atomically defined single-cluster junctions
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Giacomo Lovat, Bonnie Choi, Daniel W. Paley, Michael L. Steigerwald, Latha Venkataraman, Xavier Roy

    Electric conductance through an atomic cluster shows signatures of a Coulomb blockade effect with an on/off ratio of ∼600.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • All-electric control of donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-14
    Anthony J. Sigillito, Alexei M. Tyryshkin, Thomas Schenkel, Andrew A. Houck, Stephen A. Lyon

    Coplanar photonic bandgap resonators are used to implement an all-electrical method for controlling neutral 31P and 75As donor nuclear spins in silicon.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Topical tissue nano-transfection mediates non-viral stroma reprogramming and rescue
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Daniel Gallego-Perez, Durba Pal, Subhadip Ghatak, Veysi Malkoc, Natalia Higuita-Castro, Surya Gnyawali, Lingqian Chang, Wei-Ching Liao, Junfeng Shi, Mithun Sinha, Kanhaiya Singh, Erin Steen, Alec Sunyecz, Richard Stewart, Jordan Moore, Thomas Ziebro, Robert G. Northcutt, Michael Homsy, Paul Bertani, Wu Lu, Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Cameron Rink, Vishnu Baba Sundaresan, Jose J. Otero, L. James Lee, Chandan K. Sen

    Arrayed nanochannels can be used to controllably transfect and reprogram tissues in vivo for applications in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Photon-triggered nanowire transistors
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Jungkil Kim, Hoo-Cheol Lee, Kyoung-Ho Kim, Min-Soo Hwang, Jin-Sung Park, Jung Min Lee, Jae-Pil So, Jae-Hyuck Choi, Soon-Hong Kwon, Carl J. Barrelet, Hong-Gyu Park

    Porous silicon nanowires enable optical switching and electrical current amplification in a photon-triggered transistor.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Magnetic quantum phase transition in Cr-doped Bi2(SexTe1−x)3 driven by the Stark effect
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-07
    Zuocheng Zhang, Xiao Feng, Jing Wang, Biao Lian, Jinsong Zhang, Cuizu Chang, Minghua Guo, Yunbo Ou, Yang Feng, Shou-Cheng Zhang, Ke He, Xucun Ma, Qi-Kun Xue, Yayu Wang

    The electric field generated by a gate electrode is exploited to trigger a reversible ferromagnetic–paramagnetic phase transition in a magnetic topological insulator close to a quantum critical point.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • High-speed logic integrated circuits with solution-processed self-assembled carbon nanotubes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Shu-Jen Han, Jianshi Tang, Bharat Kumar, Abram Falk, Damon Farmer, George Tulevski, Keith Jenkins, Ali Afzali, Satoshi Oida, John Ott, James Hannon, Wilfried Haensch

    High-performance, CMOS-compatible ring-oscillators based on carbon nanotubes are fabricated by scalable and fully manufacturable processes.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Photo-excited hot carrier dynamics in hydrogenated amorphous silicon imaged by 4D electron microscopy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-03
    Bolin Liao, Ebrahim Najafi, Heng Li, Austin J. Minnich, Ahmed H. Zewail

    Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy provides new insights into hot carrier dynamics in amorphous semiconductors.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Antigen-capturing nanoparticles improve the abscopal effect and cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Yuanzeng Min, Kyle C. Roche, Shaomin Tian, Michael J. Eblan, Karen P. McKinnon, Joseph M. Caster, Shengjie Chai, Laura E. Herring, Longzhen Zhang, Tian Zhang, Joseph M. DeSimone, Joel E. Tepper, Benjamin G. Vincent, Jonathan S. Serody, Andrew Z. Wang

    Nanoparticles can be utilized to capture tumour antigens and improve their presentation, which in turn improves the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    You Zhou, Giovanni Scuri, Dominik S. Wild, Alexander A. High, Alan Dibos, Luis A. Jauregui, Chi Shu, Kristiaan De Greve, Kateryna Pistunova, Andrew Y. Joe, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Philip Kim, Mikhail D. Lukin, Hongkun Park

    Near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons enables the observation of spin-forbidden dark excitonic states in monolayer WSe2.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Electrical tuning of a quantum plasmonic resonance
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Xiaoge Liu, Ju-Hyung Kang, Hongtao Yuan, Junghyun Park, Soo Jin Kim, Yi Cui, Harold Y. Hwang, Mark L. Brongersma

    A blue shift in the surface plasmon resonance of an indium tin oxide layer is observed—and electrically tuned—where a classical description would predict a red shift.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Effective NaCl and dye rejection of hybrid graphene oxide/graphene layered membranes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-28
    Aaron Morelos-Gomez, Rodolfo Cruz-Silva, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Josue Ortiz-Medina, Takumi Araki, Tomoyuki Fukuyo, Syogo Tejima, Kenji Takeuchi, Takuya Hayashi, Mauricio Terrones, Morinobu Endo

    Carbon nanomaterials are robust and possess fascinating properties useful for separation technology applications, but their scalability and high salt rejection when in a strong cross flow for long periods of time remain challenging. Here, we present a graphene-based membrane that is prepared using a simple and environmentally friendly method by spray coating an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide/few-layered graphene/deoxycholate. The membranes were robust enough to withstand strong cross-flow shear for a prolonged period (120 h) while maintaining NaCl rejection near 85% and 96% for an anionic dye. Experimental results and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that the presence of deoxycholate enhances NaCl rejection in these graphene-based membranes. In addition, these novel hybrid-layered membranes exhibit better chlorine resistance than pure graphene oxide membranes. The desalination performance and aggressive shear and chlorine resistance of these scalable graphene-based membranes are promising for use in practical water separation applications.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin–orbit torques
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Manuel Baumgartner, Kevin Garello, Johannes Mendil, Can Onur Avci, Eva Grimaldi, Christoph Murer, Junxiao Feng, Mihai Gabureac, Christian Stamm, Yves Acremann, Simone Finizio, Sebastian Wintz, Jörg Raabe, Pietro Gambardella

    Current-induced spin–orbit torques are one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices, and hold promise for fast switching applications in non-volatile memory and logic units. Here, we report the direct observation of spin–orbit-torque-driven magnetization dynamics in Pt/Co/AlOx dots during current pulse injection. Time-resolved X-ray images with 25 nm spatial and 100 ps temporal resolution reveal that switching is achieved within the duration of a subnanosecond current pulse by the fast nucleation of an inverted domain at the edge of the dot and propagation of a tilted domain wall across the dot. The nucleation point is deterministic and alternates between the four dot quadrants depending on the sign of the magnetization, current and external field. Our measurements reveal how the magnetic symmetry is broken by the concerted action of the damping-like and field-like spin–orbit torques and the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, and show that reproducible switching events can be obtained for over 1012 reversal cycles.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Cell-targetable DNA nanocapsules for spatiotemporal release of caged bioactive small molecules
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-08-21
    Aneesh T. Veetil, Kasturi Chakraborty, Kangni Xiao, Myles R. Minter, Sangram S. Sisodia, Yamuna Krishnan

    Achieving triggered release of small molecules with spatial and temporal precision at designated cells within an organism remains a challenge. By combining a cell-targetable, icosahedral DNA-nanocapsule loaded with photoresponsive polymers, we show cytosolic delivery of small molecules with the spatial resolution of single endosomes in specific cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our technology can report on the extent of small molecules released after photoactivation as well as pinpoint the location at which uncaging of the molecules occurred. We apply this technology to release dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid that promotes neurogenesis and neuron survival, and determined the timescale of neuronal activation by DHEA, using light-induced release of DHEA from targeted DNA nanocapsules. Importantly, sequestration inside the DNA capsule prevents photocaged DHEA from activating neurons prematurely. Our methodology can in principle be generalized to diverse neurostimulatory molecules.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • A spatially localized architecture for fast and modular DNA computing
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-24
    Gourab Chatterjee, Neil Dalchau, Richard A. Muscat, Andrew Phillips, Georg Seelig

    Cells use spatial constraints to control and accelerate the flow of information in enzyme cascades and signalling networks. Synthetic silicon-based circuitry similarly relies on spatial constraints to process information. Here, we show that spatial organization can be a similarly powerful design principle for overcoming limitations of speed and modularity in engineered molecular circuits. We create logic gates and signal transmission lines by spatially arranging reactive DNA hairpins on a DNA origami. Signal propagation is demonstrated across transmission lines of different lengths and orientations and logic gates are modularly combined into circuits that establish the universality of our approach. Because reactions preferentially occur between neighbours, identical DNA hairpins can be reused across circuits. Co-localization of circuit elements decreases computation time from hours to minutes compared to circuits with diffusible components. Detailed computational models enable predictive circuit design. We anticipate our approach will motivate using spatial constraints for future molecular control circuit designs.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Controlling energy flow in multimetallic nanostructures for plasmonic catalysis
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Umar Aslam, Steven Chavez, Suljo Linic

    It has been shown that photoexcitation of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au and Cu) can induce direct photochemical reactions. However, the widespread application of this technology in catalysis has been limited by the relatively poor chemical reactivity of noble metal surfaces. Despite efforts to combine plasmonic and catalytic metals, the physical mechanisms that govern energy transfer from plasmonic metals to catalytic metals remain unclear. Here we show that hybrid core–shell nanostructures in which a core plasmonic metal harvests visible-light photons can selectively channel that energy into catalytically active centres on the nanostructure shell. To accomplish this, we developed a synthetic protocol to deposit a few monolayers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. This model system allows us to conclusively separate the optical and catalytic functions of the hybrid nanomaterial and determine that the flow of energy is strongly biased towards the excitation of energetic charge carriers in the Pt shell. We demonstrate the utility of these nanostructures for photocatalytic chemical reactions in the preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2. Our data demonstrate that the reaction occurs exclusively on the Pt surface.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing from monolayer molybdenum ditelluride integrated with a silicon nanobeam cavity
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Yongzhuo Li, Jianxing Zhang, Dandan Huang, Hao Sun, Fan Fan, Jiabin Feng, Zhen Wang, C. Z. Ning

    Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have the potential to become efficient optical-gain materials for low-energy-consumption nanolasers with the smallest gain media because of strong excitonic emission. However, until now TMD-based lasing has been realized only at low temperatures. Here we demonstrate for the first time a room-temperature laser operation in the infrared region from a monolayer of molybdenum ditelluride on a silicon photonic-crystal cavity. The observation is enabled by the unique combination of a TMD monolayer with an emission wavelength transparent to silicon, and a high-Q cavity of the silicon nanobeam. The laser is pumped by a continuous-wave excitation, with a threshold density of 6.6 W cm–2. Its linewidth is as narrow as 0.202 nm with a corresponding Q of 5,603, the largest value reported for a TMD laser. This demonstration establishes TMDs as practical materials for integrated TMD–silicon nanolasers suitable for silicon-based nanophotonic applications in silicon-transparent wavelengths.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
  • Inflammation-free, gas-permeable, lightweight, stretchable on-skin electronics with nanomeshes
    Nat. Nanotech. (IF 38.986) Pub Date : 2017-07-17
    Akihito Miyamoto, Sungwon Lee, Nawalage Florence Cooray, Sunghoon Lee, Mami Mori, Naoji Matsuhisa, Hanbit Jin, Leona Yoda, Tomoyuki Yokota, Akira Itoh, Masaki Sekino, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Tamotsu Ebihara, Masayuki Amagai, Takao Someya

    Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects. As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure. A one-week skin patch test revealed that the risk of inflammation caused by on-skin sensors can be significantly suppressed by using the nanomesh sensors. Furthermore, a wireless system that can detect touch, temperature and pressure is successfully demonstrated using a nanomesh with excellent mechanical durability. In addition, electromyogram recordings were successfully taken with minimal discomfort to the user.

    更新日期:2017-09-06
Some contents have been Reproduced with permission of the American Chemical Society.
Some contents have been Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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