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  • High angular resolution gravitational wave astronomy
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-05-04
    John Baker, Tessa Baker, Carmelita Carbone, Giuseppe Congedo, Carlo Contaldi, Irina Dvorkin, Jonathan Gair, Zoltan Haiman, David F. Mota, Arianna Renzini, Ernst-Jan Buis, Giulia Cusin, Jose Maria Ezquiaga, Guido Mueller, Mauro Pieroni, John Quenby, Angelo Ricciardone, Ippocratis D. Saltas, Lijing Shao, Nicola Tamanini, Gianmassimo Tasinato, Miguel Zumalacárregui

    Since the very beginning of astronomy the location of objects on the sky has been a fundamental observational quantity that has been taken for granted. While precise two dimensional positional information is easy to obtain for observations in the electromagnetic spectrum, the positional accuracy of current and near future gravitational wave detectors is limited to between tens and hundreds of square

  • Voyage through the hidden physics of the cosmic web
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-05-03
    Aurora Simionescu, Stefano Ettori, Norbert Werner, Daisuke Nagai, Franco Vazza, Hiroki Akamatsu, Ciro Pinto, Jelle de Plaa, Nastasha Wijers, Dylan Nelson, Etienne Pointecouteau, Gabriel W. Pratt, Daniele Spiga, Giuseppe Vacanti, Erwin Lau, Mariachiara Rossetti, Fabio Gastaldello, Veronica Biffi, Esra Bulbul, Maximilien J. Collon, Jan-Willem den Herder, Dominique Eckert, Filippo Fraternali, Beatriz

    The majority of the ordinary matter in the local Universe has been heated by strong structure formation shocks and resides in a largely unexplored hot, diffuse, X-ray emitting plasma that permeates the halos of galaxies, galaxy groups and clusters, and the cosmic web. We propose a next-generation “Cosmic Web Explorer” that will permit a complete and exhaustive understanding of these unseen baryons

  • The missing link in gravitational-wave astronomy
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Manuel Arca Sedda, Christopher P. L. Berry, Karan Jani, Pau Amaro-Seoane, Pierre Auclair, Jonathon Baird, Tessa Baker, Emanuele Berti, Katelyn Breivik, Chiara Caprini, Xian Chen, Daniela Doneva, Jose M. Ezquiaga, K. E. Saavik Ford, Michael L. Katz, Shimon Kolkowitz, Barry McKernan, Guido Mueller, Germano Nardini, Igor Pikovski, Surjeet Rajendran, Alberto Sesana, Lijing Shao, Nicola Tamanini, Niels

    Since 2015 the gravitational-wave observations of LIGO and Virgo have transformed our understanding of compact-object binaries. In the years to come, ground-based gravitational-wave observatories such as LIGO, Virgo, and their successors will increase in sensitivity, discovering thousands of stellar-mass binaries. In the 2030s, the space-based LISA will provide gravitational-wave observations of massive

  • PHEMTO: the polarimetric high energy modular telescope observatory
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-27
    P. Laurent, F. Acero, V. Beckmann, S. Brandt, F. Cangemi, M. Civitani, M. Clavel, A. Coleiro, R. Curado, P. Ferrando, C. Ferrigno, F. Frontera, F. Gastaldello, D. Götz, C. Gouiffès, V. Grinberg, L. Hanlon, D. Hartmann, P. Maggi, F. Marin, A. Meuris, T. Okajima, G. Pareschi, G. W. Pratt, N. Rea, J. Rodriguez, M. Rossetti, D. Spiga, E. Virgilli, S. Zane

    Based upon dual focusing techniques, the Polarimetric High-Energy Modular Telescope Observatory (PHEMTO) is designed to have performance several orders of magnitude better than the present hard X-ray instruments, in the 1–600 keV energy range. This, together with its angular resolution of around one arcsecond, and its sensitive polarimetry measurement capability, will give PHEMTO the improvements in

  • A space mission to map the entire observable universe using the CMB as a backlight
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-26
    Kaustuv Basu, Mathieu Remazeilles, Jean-Baptiste Melin, David Alonso, James G. Bartlett, Nicholas Battaglia, Jens Chluba, Eugene Churazov, Jacques Delabrouille, Jens Erler, Simone Ferraro, Carlos Hernández-Monteagudo, J. Colin Hill, Selim C. Hotinli, Ildar Khabibullin, Mathew Madhavacheril, Tony Mroczkowski, Daisuke Nagai, Srinivasan Raghunathan, Jose Alberto Rubino Martin, Jack Sayers, Douglas Scott

    This Science White Paper, prepared in response to the ESA Voyage 2050 call for long-term mission planning, aims to describe the various science possibilities that can be realized with an L-class space observatory that is dedicated to the study of the interactions of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons with the cosmic web. Our aim is specifically to use the CMB as a backlight – and survey the

  • Algorithm for calculating anastigmatic three-mirror telescopes. II. Spherical primary mirror case
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-25
    V. Yu. Terebizh

    A version of the general algorithm (Terebizh 2019; 2020) for calculating anastigmatic three-mirror telescopes is presented, assuming a spherical shape of the primary mirror. This case is of particular interest in connection with the creation of large telescopes. The input parameters are the natural characteristics of the telescope: equivalent focal length and relative diameters of mirrors; the result

  • The Ariel ground segment and instrument operations science data centre
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Chris Pearson, Giuseppe Malaguti, Subhajit Sarkar, Andreas Papageorgiou, Matthijs Krijger, Enzo Pascale, Jean-Philippe Beaulieu, Josep Colomé, Emiliano Diolaiti, Vanessa Doublier, Paul Eccleston, Giusi Micela, Andrea Moneti, Juan Carlos Morales, Nariman Nakhjiri, Gianluca Polenta, Ignasi Ribas, Giovanna Tinetti, Ralf Kohley, Göran Pilbratt, Stephan Birkmann, Catarina Alves de Oliveira, Theresa Rank-Lüftinger

    The ground segment for the ESA M4 Ariel exoplanet space mission is introduced. The ground segment encompasses the framework necessary to support the development of the Ariel mission to launch, in-flight operations and calibration, data processing pipeline and data handling, including user support. The structure of the ground segment and assumed responsibilities between ESA and the Ariel mission consortium

  • A deep study of the high–energy transient sky
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    C. Guidorzi, F. Frontera, G. Ghirlanda, G. Stratta, C. G. Mundell, E. Virgilli, P. Rosati, E. Caroli, L. Amati, E. Pian, S. Kobayashi, G. Ghisellini, C. Fryer, M. Della Valle, R. Margutti, M. Marongiu, R. Martone, R. Campana, F. Fuschino, C. Labanti, M. Orlandini, J. B. Stephen, S. Brandt, R. Curado da Silva, P. Laurent, R. Mochkovitch, E. Bozzo, R. Ciolfi, L. Burderi, T. Di Salvo

    The coming decades will establish the exploration of the gravitational wave (GW) Universe over a broad frequency range by ground and space interferometers. Meanwhile, wide-field, high-cadence and sensitive surveys will span the electromagnetic spectrum from radio all the way up to TeV, as well as the high-energy neutrino window. Among the numerous classes of transients, γ–ray bursts (GRBs) have direct

  • Attitude determination for nano-satellites – I. Spherical projections for large field of view infrasensors
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-23
    Kornél Kapás, Tamás Bozóki, Gergely Dálya, János Takátsy, László Mészáros, András Pál

    Due to the advancement of nano-satellite technology, CubeSats and fleets of CubeSats can form an alternative to high-cost large-size satellite missions with the advantage of extended spatial coverage. One of these initiatives is the Cubesats Applied for MEasuring and LOcalising Transients (CAMELOT) mission concept, aimed at detecting and localizing gamma-ray bursts with an efficiency and accuracy comparable

  • Exploiting the transit timing capabilities of Ariel
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-21
    Luca Borsato, Valerio Nascimbeni, Giampaolo Piotto, Gyula Szabó

    The Transit Timing Variation (TTV) technique is a powerful dynamical tool to measure exoplanetary masses by analysing transit light curves. We assessed the transit timing performances of the Ariel Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS1/2) based on the simulated light curve of a bright, 55 Cnc, and faint, K2-24, planet-hosting star. We estimated through a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis the transit time uncertainty

  • Unveiling the faint ultraviolet Universe
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-20
    A. Zanella, C. Zanoni, F. Arrigoni-Battaia, A. Rubin, A. F. Pala, C. Peroux, R. Augustin, C. Circosta, E. Emsellem, E. George, D. Milaković, R. van der Burg, T. Kupfer

    With this paper we participate to the call for ideas issued by the European Space Agency to define the Science Program and plan for space missions from 2035 to 2050. In particular we present five science cases where major advancements can be achieved thanks to space-based spectroscopic observations at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. We discuss the possibility to (1) unveil the large-scale structures

  • The need for a multi-purpose, optical–NIR space facility after HST and JWST
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-18
    Knud Jahnke, Oliver Krause, Hans-Walter Rix, Frédéric Courbin, Adriano Fontana, Catherine Heymans, Nicolas Martin, Pascal Oesch, Andy Taylor, B. Scott Gaudi, Alina Kiessling, Bertrand Mennesson, Sara Seager, Daniel Stern, Keith Warfield

    In the early 2030s, after the end of operations for the epochal Hubble Space Telescope and the long-anticipated James Webb Space Telescope, astrophysics will lose access to a general purpose high-spatial resolution space observatory to cover the UV–optical–NIR wavelength range with a variety of imaging bandpasses and high-multiplexing mid-resolution spectroscopy. This will greatly impact astrophysical

  • A low-cost chopping system and uncooled microbolometer array for ground-based astronomy
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-16
    M. F. Rashman, I. A. Steele, S. D. Bates, J. H. Knapen

    Mid-Infrared imaging is vital for the study of a wide variety of astronomical phenomena, including evolved stars, exoplanets, and dust enshrouded processes such as star formation in galaxies. However, infrared detectors have traditionally been expensive and it is difficult to achieve the sensitivity needed to see beyond the overwhelming mid-infrared background. Here we describe the upgrade and commissioning

  • The Ariel 0.6 - 7.8 μ m stellar limb-darkening coefficients
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-12
    Giuseppe Morello, Camilla Danielski, Subhajit Sarkar

    We provide here tables of stellar limb-darkening coefficients (LDCs) for the Ariel ESA M4 space mission. These tables include LDCs corresponding to different wavelength bins and white bands for the NIRSpec, AIRS-Ch0 and AIRS-Ch1 spectrographs, and those corresponding to the VISPhot, FGS1 and FGS2 photometers. The LDCs are calculated with the open-source software ExoTETHyS for three complete grids of

  • Quantum correlations at earth-moon distance
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-04-10
    Jean Schneider

    Standard Quantum Physics states that the outcome of measurements for some distant entangled subsystems is instantaneously statistically correlated, whatever their mutual distance. This correlation presents itself as if there were a correlation at a distance with infinite speed. It is expressed by the Bell Theorem and has been experimentally verified over distances up to 1200 km (Yin et al. [14]) with

  • UVscope and its application aboard the ASTRI-Horn telescope
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Maria Concetta Maccarone, Giovanni La Rosa, Osvaldo Catalano, Salvo Giarrusso, Alberto Segreto, Benedetto Biondo, Pietro Bruno, Carmelo Gargano, Alessandro Grillo, Domenico Impiombato, Francesco Russo, Giuseppe Sottile

    UVscope is an instrument, based on a multi-pixel photon detector, developed to support experimental activities for high-energy astrophysics and cosmic ray research. The instrument, working in single photon counting mode, is designed to directly measure light flux in the wavelengths range 300-650 nm. The instrument can be used in a wide field of applications where the knowledge of the nocturnal environmental

    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-26
    Andrea Miglio, Léo Girardi, Frank Grundahl, Benoit Mosser, Nate Bastian, Angela Bragaglia, Karsten Brogaard, Gaël Buldgen, William Chantereau, William Chaplin, Cristina Chiappini, Marc-Antoine Dupret, Patrick Eggenberger, Mark Gieles, Robert Izzard, Daisuke Kawata, Christoffer Karoff, Nadège Lagarde, Ted Mackereth, Demetrio Magrin, Georges Meynet, Eric Michel, Josefina Montalbán, Valerio Nascimbeni

    In the last decade, the Kepler and CoRoT space-photometry missions have demonstrated the potential of asteroseismology as a novel, versatile and powerful tool to perform exquisite tests of stellar physics, and to enable precise and accurate characterisations of stellar properties, with impact on both exoplanetary and Galactic astrophysics. Based on our improved understanding of the strengths and limitations

  • A survey of exoplanet phase curves with Ariel
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-23
    Benjamin Charnay, João M. Mendonça, Laura Kreidberg, Nicolas B. Cowan, Jake Taylor, Taylor J. Bell, Olivier Demangeon, Billy Edwards, Carole A. Haswell, Giuseppe Morello, Lorenzo V. Mugnai, Enzo Pascale, Giovanna Tinetti, Pascal Tremblin, Robert T. Zellem

    The ESA-Ariel mission will include a tier dedicated to exoplanet phase curves corresponding to \(\sim 10\%\) of the science time. We present here the current observing strategy for studying exoplanet phase curves with Ariel. We define science questions, requirements and a list of potential targets. We also estimate the precision of phase curve reconstruction and atmospheric retrieval using simulated

  • The Voyage of Metals in the Universe from Cosmological to Planetary Scales: the need for a Very High-Resolution, High Throughput Soft X-ray Spectrometer
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-16
    F. Nicastro, J. Kaastra, C. Argiroffi, E. Behar, S. Bianchi, F. Bocchino, S. Borgani, G. Branduardi-Raymont, J. Bregman, E. Churazov, M. Diaz-Trigo, C. Done, J. Drake, T. Fang, N. Grosso, A. Luminari, M. Mehdipour, F. Paerels, E. Piconcelli, C. Pinto, D. Porquet, J. Reeves, J. Schaye, S. Sciortino, R. Smith, D. Spiga, R. Tomaru, F. Tombesi, N. Wijers, L. Zappacosta

    Metals form an essential part of the Universe at all scales. Without metals we would not exist, and the Universe would look completely different. Metals are primarily produced via nuclear processes in stars, and spread out through winds or explosions, which pollute the surrounding space. The wanderings of metals in-and-out of astronomical objects are crucial in determining their own evolution and thus

  • AEDGE: Atomic experiment for dark matter and gravity exploration in space
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-12
    Andrea Bertoldi, Kai Bongs, Philippe Bouyer, Oliver Buchmueller, Benjamin Canuel, Laurentiu-Ioan Caramete, Maria Luisa Chiofalo, Jonathon Coleman, Albert De Roeck, John Ellis, Peter W. Graham, Martin G. Haehnelt, Aurélien Hees, Jason Hogan, Wolf von Klitzing, Markus Krutzik, Marek Lewicki, Christopher McCabe, Achim Peters, Ernst Rasel, Albert Roura, Dylan Sabulsky, Stephan Schiller, Christian Schubert

    This article contains a summary of the White Paper submitted in 2019 to the ESA Voyage 2050 process, which was subsequently published in EPJ Quantum Technology (AEDGE Collaboration et al. EPJ Quant. Technol. 7,6 2020). We propose in this White Paper a concept for a space experiment using cold atoms to search for ultra-light dark matter, and to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range between

  • All-sky visible and near infrared space astrometry
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-11
    David Hobbs, Anthony Brown, Erik Høg, Carme Jordi, Daisuke Kawata, Paolo Tanga, Sergei Klioner, Alessandro Sozzetti, Łukasz Wyrzykowski, Nicholas Walton, Antonella Vallenari, Valeri Makarov, Jan Rybizki, Fran Jiménez-Esteban, José A. Caballero, Paul J. McMillan, Nathan Secrest, Roger Mor, Jeff J. Andrews, Tomaž Zwitter, Cristina Chiappini, Johan P. U. Fynbo, Yuan-Sen Ting, Daniel Hestroffer, Lennart

    The era of all-sky space astrometry began with the Hipparcos mission in 1989 and provided the first very accurate catalogue of apparent magnitudes, positions, parallaxes and proper motions of 120 000 bright stars at the milliarcsec (or milliarcsec per year) accuracy level. Hipparcos has now been superseded by the results of the Gaia mission. The second Gaia data release contained astrometric data for

  • The Ariel Instrument Control Unit
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-11
    M. Focardi, A. M. Di Giorgio, L. Naponiello, V. Noce, G. Preti, A. Lorenzani, A. Tozzi, C. Del Vecchio, E. Galli, M. Farina, G. Morgante, A. Scippa, G. Redigonda, G. Giusi, J. Amiaux, C. Cara, M. Berthe, R. Ottensamer, P. Eccleston, A. Caldwell, G. Bishop, L. Desjonqueres, R. Drummond, D. Brienza, E. Pace

    Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey mission (Tinetti 2019; Puig et al. 2018; Pascale et al. 2018), has been selected in March 2018 by ESA for the fourth medium-class mission (M4) launch opportunity of the Cosmic Vision Program, with an expected lift off in late 2028. It is the first mission dedicated to measuring the chemical composition and thermal structures of the

  • Detecting the gravito-magnetic field of the dark halo of the Milky Way - the LaDaHaD mission concept
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-09
    Angelo Tartaglia, Massimo Bassan, Lorenzo Casalino, Mariateresa Crosta, Mario Lattanzi, Enrico Lorenzini, David Lucchesi, Roberto Peron, Giuseppe Pucacco, Matteo Luca Ruggiero, Francesco Santoli, Pavol Valko, Alberto Vecchiato, Francesco Vespe, Massimo Visco

    We propose to locate transponders and atomic clocks in at least three of the Lagrange points of the Sun-Earth pair, with the aim of exploiting the time of flight asymmetry between electromagnetic signals travelling in opposite directions along polygonal loops having the Lagrange points at their vertices. The asymmetry is due to the presence of a gravito-magnetic field partly caused by the angular momentum

  • A preliminary design of the magnetic diverter on-board the eXTP observatory
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-09
    Liqiang Qi, Gang Li, Yupeng Xu, Yong Chen, Huilin He, Yusa Wang, Yanji Yang, Juan Zhang, Fangjun Lu

    Charged particles in the space environment can degrade the scientific performances of X-ray detectors in astronomical telescopes. An efficient countermeasure is to place a magnetic diverter at the exit pupil of optics to deflect charged particles away from the sensitive detection area. In this work, we have performed a preliminary design of the magnetic diverter on-board the enhanced X-ray Timing and

  • Determination of stellar parameters for Ariel targets: a comparison analysis between different spectroscopic methods
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-05
    Anna Brucalassi, Maria Tsantaki, Laura Magrini, Sergio Sousa, Camilla Danielski, Katia Biazzo, Giada Casali, Mathieu Van der Swaelmen, Monica Rainer, Vardan Adibekyan, Elisa Delgado-Mena, Nicoletta Sanna

    Ariel has been selected as the next ESA M4 science mission and it is expected to be launched in 2028. During its 4-year mission, Ariel will observe the atmospheres of a large and diversified population of transiting exoplanets. A key factor for the achievement of the scientific goal of Ariel is the selection strategy for the definition of the input target list. A meaningful choice of the targets requires

  • ExoSim: the Exoplanet Observation Simulator
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-03-05
    Subhajit Sarkar, Enzo Pascale, Andreas Papageorgiou, Luke J. Johnson, Ingo Waldmann

    A new generation of exoplanet research beckons and with it the need for simulation tools that accurately predict signal and noise in transit spectroscopy observations. We developed ExoSim: an end-to-end simulator that models noise and systematics in a dynamical simulation. ExoSim improves on previous simulators in the complexity of its simulation, versatility of use and its ability to be generically

  • Thermoelastic evaluation of the payload module of the ARIEL mission
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-02-19
    Andrés García-Pérez, Gustavo Alonso, Alejandro Gómez-San-Juan, Javier Pérez-Álvarez

    The ARIEL mission is a space project consisting of a spacecraft with the goal of detecting exoplanets and observing the characteristics of their atmospheres. One of the main sub-systems of the payload is the telescope that must operate under cryogenic conditions to guarantee its adequate performance and the mission success. One of the critical aspects in the development of a space telescope is the

  • A chemically etched corrugated feedhorn array for D-band CMB observations
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-02-12
    S. Mandelli, E. Manzan, A. Mennella, F. Cavaliere, D. Viganò, C. Franceschet, P. de Bernardis, M. Bersanelli, M. G. Castellano, A. Coppolecchia, A. Cruciani, M. Gervasi, L. Lamagna, A. Limonta, S. Masi, A. Paiella, A. Passerini, G. Pettinari, F. Piacentini, E. Tommasi, A. Volpe, M. Zannoni

    We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of a 37-element array of corrugated feedhorns for Cosmic Microwave Background CMB) measurements between 140 and 170 GHz. The array was designed to be coupled to Kinetic Inductance Detector arrays, either directly (for total power measurements) or through an orthomode transducer (for polarization measurements). We manufactured the array in platelets

  • An upper limit calculator (UL-CALC) for undetected extended sources with radio interferometers: radio halo upper limits
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-02-01
    Lijo T. George, Ruta Kale, Yogesh Wadadekar

    Radio halos are diffuse, extended sources of radio emission detected primarily in massive, merging galaxy clusters. In smaller and/or relaxed clusters, where no halos are detected, one can instead place upper limits to a possible radio emission. Detections and upper limits are both crucial to constrain theoretical models for the generation of radio halos. The upper limits are model dependent for radio

  • Application of a dielectric breakdown induced by high-power lasers for a laboratory simulation of meteor plasma
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-02-01
    Anna Křivková, Lukáš Petera, Vojtěch Laitl, Petr Kubelík, Elias Chatzitheodoridis, Libor Lenža, Jakub Koukal, Antonín Knížek, Roman Dudžák, Dan Páclík, Svatopluk Civiš, Miroslav Krůs, Martin Ferus

    Spectra of meteor plasma, their dynamics and dominant spectral features are usually a subject of mathematical modelling and computations. In our study, on the other hand, we describe and evaluate the advantages and limitations of the experimental techniques employed for meteor spectra simulations. The experiments are performed by ablating meteorite samples using a series of laser sources, i.e. a large

  • SARAS 3 CD/EoR radiometer: design and performance of the receiver
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-01-28
    Jishnu Nambissan T., Ravi Subrahmanyan, R. Somashekar, N. Udaya Shankar, Saurabh Singh, A. Raghunathan, B. S. Girish, K. S. Srivani, Mayuri Sathyanarayana Rao

    SARAS is an ongoing experiment aiming to detect the redshifted global 21-cm signal expected from Cosmic Dawn (CD) and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Standard cosmological models predict the signal to be present in the redshift range \(z \sim \)6–35, corresponding to a frequency range 40–200 MHz, as a spectral distortion of amplitude 20–200 mK in the 3 K cosmic microwave background. Since the signal

  • Detectability of Rocky-Vapour atmospheres on super-Earths with Ariel
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Yuichi Ito, Quentin Changeat, Billy Edwards, Ahmed Al-Refaie, Giovanna Tinetti, Masahiro Ikoma

    Ariel will mark the dawn of a new era as the first large-scale survey characterising exoplanetary atmospheres with science objectives to address fundamental questions about planetary composition, evolution and formation. In this study, we explore the detectability of atmospheres vaporised from magma oceans on dry, rocky Super-Earths orbiting very close to their host stars. The detection of such atmospheres

  • Experimental evaluation of complete safe coordination of astrobots for Sloan Digital Sky Survey V
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-12-19
    Matin Macktoobian, Ricardo Araújo, Loïc Grossen, Luzius Kronig, Mohamed Bouri, Denis Gillet, Jean-Paul Kneib

    The data throughput of massive spectroscopic surveys in the course of each observation is directly coordinated with the number of optical fibers which reach their target. In this paper, we evaluate the safety and the performance of the astrobots coordination in SDSS-V by conducting various experimental and simulated tests. We illustrate that our strategy provides a complete coordination condition which

  • Ariel – a window to the origin of life on early earth?
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Martin Ferus, Vojtěch Adam, Giuseppe Cassone, Svatopluk Civiš, Václav Čuba, Elias Chatzitheodoridis, Barbora Drtinová, Bertrand LeFloch, Alan Heays, Sohan Jheeta, Ákos Kereszturi, Antonín Knížek, Miroslav Krůs, Petr Kubelík, Helmut Lammer, Libor Lenža, Lukáš Nejdl, Adam Pastorek, Lukáš Petera, Paul Rimmer, Raffaele Saladino, Franz Saija, Laurenz Sproß, Jiří Šponer, Judit Šponer, Zoe Todd, Markéta Vaculovičová

    Is there life beyond Earth? An ideal research program would first ascertain how life on Earth began and then use this as a blueprint for its existence elsewhere. But the origin of life on Earth is still not understood, what then could be the way forward? Upcoming observations of terrestrial exoplanets provide a unique opportunity for answering this fundamental question through the study of other planetary

  • Ground calibration of Solar X-ray Monitor on board the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    N. P. S. Mithun, Santosh V. Vadawale, M. Shanmugam, Arpit R. Patel, Neeraj Kumar Tiwari, Hiteshkumar L. Adalja, Shiv Kumar Goyal, Tinkal Ladiya, Nishant Singh, Sushil Kumar, Manoj K. Tiwari, M. H. Modi, Biswajit Mondal, Aveek Sarkar, Bhuwan Joshi, P. Janardhan, Anil Bhardwaj

    Chandrayaan-2, the second Indian mission to the Moon, carries a spectrometer called the Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) to perform soft X-ray spectral measurements of the Sun while a companion payload, CLASS, measures the fluorescence emission from the Moon. Together these two payloads will provide quantitative estimates of elemental abundances on the lunar surface. The XSM with its high time cadence and

  • Study of particle multiplicity of cosmic ray events using 2 m × 2 m resistive plate chamber stack at IICHEP-Madurai
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Suryanarayan Mondal, V. M. Datar, Gobinda Majumder, N. K. Mondal, S. Pethuraj, K. C. Ravindran, B. Satyanarayana

    An experimental setup consisting of 12 layers of glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of size 2 m × 2 m has been built at IICHEP-Madurai (9∘56\(^{\prime }\)14.5\(^{\prime \prime }\) N 78∘0\(^{\prime }\)47.9\(^{\prime \prime }\) E) to study the long term performance and stability of RPCs produced on a large scale in Indian industry. This setup has been collecting data triggered by the passage of charged

  • Simulations of orbital debris clouds due to breakup events and their characterisation using the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-15
    Wynand Joubert, Steven Tingay

    In this paper we consider the use of wide field of view radar sensors such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), a low frequency radio telescope designed for astrophysics and cosmology, for rapid response observations of the debris clouds produced by collisions between objects in Earth orbit. With an increasing density of objects in Low Earth Orbit, including legacy assets used by the astronomy community

  • Technologies for tunable gamma-ray lenses
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Niels Lund

    The tunable gamma-ray lens has turned out to be a promising alternative to the classical fixed-energy Laue-lenses discussed in the past. We describe here our development work on a miniature pedestal with one-axis tilt adjustment. We also outline our design for an optical system, capable of monitoring the alignment of the many crystals needed. An added benefit of the tunable crystal pedestal is that

  • The CHEOPS mission
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    W. Benz, C. Broeg, A. Fortier, N. Rando, T. Beck, M. Beck, D. Queloz, D. Ehrenreich, P. F. L. Maxted, K. G. Isaak, N. Billot, Y. Alibert, R. Alonso, C. António, J. Asquier, T. Bandy, T. Bárczy, D. Barrado, S. C. C. Barros, W. Baumjohann, A. Bekkelien, M. Bergomi, F. Biondi, X. Bonfils, L. Borsato, A. Brandeker, M.-D. Busch, J. Cabrera, V. Cessa, S. Charnoz, B. Chazelas, A. Collier Cameron, C. Corral

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) was selected on October 19, 2012, as the first small mission (S-mission) in the ESA Science Programme and successfully launched on December 18, 2019, as a secondary passenger on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. CHEOPS is a partnership between ESA and Switzerland with important contributions by ten additional ESA Member States. CHEOPS

  • Wide band, tunable gamma-ray lenses
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Niels Lund

    A new concept for an astronomical telescope in the MeV energy band is presented. The concept builds on Bragg diffraction in crystals, which has been discussed in the past, but so far a design with good sensitivity over a wide energy range has seemed out of reach. In this paper we point out that if we find ways to adjust, in orbit, the individual tilt of all the crystals in the lens this would allow

  • Expanding the field of view: station design for the AAMID SKA radio telescope
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Jan Geralt Bij de Vaate, Dirk I. L. de Villiers, David B. Davidson, Wim A. van Cappellen

    The new generation radio telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) currently under construction, will use aperture array, technology for the low frequency regime. For SKA2, the second phase scheduled after the realization of SKA1, aperture array technology is proposed up to 1.4 GHz. The antenna element count, as well as the signal processing cost, of such a system will be high. In this paper

  • First light of SOVAG, a spectrograph for visible and near-infrared observation of asteroids
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    M. Birlan, F. Colas, F. Cochard, D. Darson, B. Carry, P. Vernazza, A. Nedelcu, J. Dubois, S. Fornasier, D. Perna, P. Morfin

    Spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared has been the main tool for characterising the surface properties of asteroids for decades. For a given target, the two wavelength regimes are usually acquired by different telescopes/instruments, separated by years. They are seldom obtained simultaneously. However, it is not straightforward to combine datasets from different sources because of the spectral

  • Scatter due to Ultraviolet (UV) photopolymerization of molecular contamination on optical surfaces
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Venkata Suresh Narra, Raghavendra Prasad Budihal, Pawan Kumar Somasundaram, Kathiravan Sriraman, Natarajan Venkatasubramanian, Umesh Kamath Padavu, Vishnu Tulasi Mani, Suresha Basavaraja, Rajesh Naik

    Molecular contamination on optical surfaces is a serious issue for space payloads. For ultraviolet (UV) payloads, molecular contamination results in loss of throughput. Whereas, for visible (VIS) payloads loss of throughput due to molecular contamination is not very critical. However, UV photopolymerization of molecular contamination can create serious problems to VIS payloads with stringent scatter

  • ArielRad: the Ariel radiometric model
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Lorenzo V. Mugnai, Enzo Pascale, Billy Edwards, Andreas Papageorgiou, Subhajit Sarkar

    ArielRad, the Ariel radiometric model, is a simulator developed to address the challenges in optimising the space mission science payload and to demonstrate its compliance with the performance requirements. Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey, has been selected by ESA as the M4 mission in the Cosmic Vision programme and, during its 4 years primary operation, will provide

  • CAPTURE: a continuum imaging pipeline for the uGMRT
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Ruta Kale, C. H. Ishwara-Chandra

    We present the first fully automated pipeline for making images from the interferometric data obtained from the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) called CAsa Pipeline-cum-Toolkit for Upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope data REduction - CAPTURE. It is a python program that uses tasks from the NRAO Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) to perform the steps of flagging of bad

  • Design of Pocket-GMT: an optical emulation of the Giant Magellan Telescope
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Josephine Munro, Marcus Lingham, Luke Gers, Nicholas Herrald, Tony Travouillon, Antonin Bouchez

    The concept design for a laboratory based telescope emulator for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is described here. The Giant Magellan Telescope has a primary mirror comprised of 7 segments, and a secondary mirror with matching segmentation. The phasing of the GMT is a complex problem; a phasing testbed, Pocket-GMT, has been designed by a group within the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • CHESS: An innovative concept for high-resolution, far-UV spectroscopy
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Keri Hoadley, Kevin France, Nicholas Nell, Robert Kane, Brian Fleming, Allison Youngblood, Matthew Beasley

    The space ultraviolet (UV) is a critical astronomical observing window, where a multitude of atomic, ionic, and molecular signatures provide crucial insight into planetary, interstellar, stellar, intergalactic, and extragalactic objects. The next generation of large space telescopes require highly sensitive, moderate-to-high resolution UV spectrograph. However, sensitive observations in the UV are

  • End to end simulators: a flexible and scalable cloud-based architecture
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    M. Genoni, M. Landoni, G. Pariani, M. Riva, A. Bianco, G. Li Causi, T. Marquart, F. A. Pepe, A. Marconi, E. Oliva

    Simulations of frames from existing and upcoming high-resolution spectrographs, targeted for high accuracy radial velocity measurements, are computationally demanding (both in time and space). We present in this paper an innovative approach based on both parallelization and distribution of the workload. By using NVIDIA CUDA custom-made kernels and state-of-the-art cloud-computing architectures in a

  • Energy sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 EAS array for primary cosmic ray protons
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    B. Hariharan, S. Ahmad, M. Chakraborty, A. Chandra, S. R. Dugad, S. K. Gupta, Y. Hayashi, H. Kojima, S. S. R. Inbanathan, P. Jagadeesan, A. Jain, P. Jain, V. B. Jhansi, S. Kawakami, P. K. Mohanty, S. D. Morris, P. K. Nayak, A. Oshima, D. Pattanaik, P. S. Rakshe, K. Ramesh, B. S. Rao, L. V. Reddy, S. Shibata, F. Varsi, M. Zuberi

    Low energy ground-based cosmic ray air shower experiments generally have energy threshold in the range of a few tens to a few hundreds of TeV. The shower observables are measured indirectly with an array of detectors. The atmospheric absorption of low energy secondaries limits their detection frequencies at the Earth’s surface. However, due to selection effects, a tiny fraction of low energy showers

  • Mapper of Narrow Galaxy Lines (MaNGaL): new tunable filter imager for Caucasian telescopes
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Alexei Moiseev, Aleksander Perepelitsyn, Dmitry Oparin

    We described the design and operation principles of a new tunable-filter photometer developed for the 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 2.5-m telescope of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute of the Moscow State University. The instrument is mounted on the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer operating in the tunable-filter mode in the

  • Photometry of exoplanetary transits at Osservatorio Polifunzionale del Chianti
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    L. Naponiello, L. Betti, A. Biagini, M. Focardi, E. Papini, R. Stanga, D. Trisciani, M. Agostini, V. Noce, L. Fini, E. Pace

    In this paper we report the observations of HD189733b, Kepler-41b, Kepler-42b, GJ 436b, WASP-77ab, HAT-P-32b and EPIC 211818569 as measured at the Osservatorio Polifunzionale del Chianti, a new astro-nomical site in Italy. Commissioning observing runs have been done in order to test capabilities, systematics and limits of the system and to improve its accuracy. For this purpose, a software algorithm

  • Baryon acoustic oscillations from Integrated Neutral Gas Observations: Broadband corrugated horn construction and testing
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    C. A. Wuensche, L. Reitano, M. W. Peel, I. W. A. Browne, B. Maffei, E. Abdalla, C. Radcliffe, F. Abdalla, L. Barosi, V. Liccardo, E. Mericia, G. Pisano, C. Strauss, F. Vieira, T. Villela, B. Wang

    The Baryon acoustic oscillations from Integrated Neutral Gas Observations (BINGO) telescope is a 40-m class radio telescope under construction that has been designed to measure the large-angular-scale intensity of Hi emission at 980–1260 MHz and hence to constrain dark energy parameters. A large focal plane array comprising of 1.7-metre diameter, 4.3-metre length corrugated feed horns is required in

  • Atmospheric Characterization via Broadband Color Filters on the PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) Mission
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    John Lee Grenfell, Mareike Godolt, Juan Cabrera, Ludmila Carone, Antonio Garcίa Muñoz, Daniel Kitzmann, Alexis M. S. Smith, Heike Rauer

    We assess broadband color filters for the two fast cameras on the PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) space mission with respect to exoplanetary atmospheric characterization. We focus on Ultra Hot Jupiters and Hot Jupiters placed 25pc and 100pc away from the Earth and warm Super-Earths placed 10pc and 25pc away. Our analysis takes as input literature values for the difference in transit

  • EREBUS: the EuRopean Extinction BUmp Survey
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    L. Capitanio, M. Bartylak, M. Cui, B. Engegaard, M. Gassner, S. G. Heinemann, G. Kargl, S. T. Latzko, P. G. Madonia, A. J. May, A. Postel, J. Rodriguez Munoz, G. J. Schwarzkopf, R. F. Shipman, R. Skalidis, V. Trivino Herrero, K. Wikman

    Dust in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) is intimately linked to the life cycle of stars. Despite being of such fundamental importance to galaxy evolution, the dynamic behaviour and composition of the ISM are not yet fully understood. Observations of reddened Milky Way OB stars have revealed a strong UV extinction feature around 2175 Å and a precipitous extinction rise to the far UV along the lines of

  • Design of a hybrid refractive-diffractive telescope for observations in UV
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-19
    Grzegorz Fluder

    Telescopes are one of the common types of satellite payloads. They are used both for Earth and astronomical observations. By using space telescopes it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of the atmosphere on image quality. Additionally, observations in some spectral ranges can be performed only from space due to absorption of certain wavelengths in the atmosphere. One such range is UV below

  • Creating a large aspheric primary mirror using spherical segments
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Annu Jacob, Padmakar Parihar, Melvin K. James

    The use of aspheric mirrors is a common practice to design astronomical telescopes with a few optical elements. In the most preferred optical design Ritchey Chretien (RC), both primary and secondary mirrors are hyperboloid. Nowadays large telescopes are being built using small mirror segments, however, making aspheric off-axis mirror segments is still a challenge. We have conducted a study in which

  • Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Bursts detection with SVOM/ECLAIRs
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Nicolas Dagoneau, Stéphane Schanne, Jean-Luc Atteia, Diego Götz, Bertrand Cordier

    Ultra-long Gamma-Ray Bursts (ulGRBs) are Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with an unusually long emission in X and gamma rays, reaching durations of thousands of seconds. They could form a specific class of high-energy transient events, whose origin is still under discussion. The current sample of known ulGRBs consists of a few tens of events which have been detected so far by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT)

  • On the optimal calibration of VVV photometry
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Gergely Hajdu, István Dékány, Márcio Catelan, Eva K. Grebel

    Prompted by some inconsistencies in the photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey, we conduct a revision of the standard calibration procedure of VISTA data in the J, H, and KS passbands. Two independent sources of bias in the photometric zero-points are identified: First, high sky backgrounds severely affect the H-band measurements, but this can mostly be minimized by strict

  • Optimized cutting off transit algorithm to study stellar rotation from PLATO mission light curves
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Leandro de Almeida, Francys Anthony, Ana Carolina Mattiuci, Matthieu Castro, Jefferson Soares da Costa, Réza Samadi, José Dias do Nascimento

    Measuring the stellar rotation of one of the components in eclipsing binaries (EBs) or planetary systems is a challenge task. The difficulty is mainly due to the complexity of analyzing, in the same light curve, the signal from the stellar rotation mixed with the transit signal of a stellar or substellar companion, like a brown dwarf or planet. There are many methods to correct the long-term trend

  • Estimating, monitoring and minimizing the travel footprint associated with the development of the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit: An on-line travel footprint calculator released to the science community.
    Exp. Astron. (IF 1.489) Pub Date : 2020-06-14
    Didier Barret

    Global warming imposes us to reflect on the way we carry research, embarking on the obligation to minimize the environmental impact of our research programs, with the reduction of our travel footprint being one of the easiest actions to implement, thanks to the advance of digital technology. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), the cryogenic spectrometer of the Athena space X-ray observatory of the

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