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  • Machine learning approaches for the prediction of materials properties
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Siwar Chibani; François-Xavier Coudert

    We give here a brief overview of the use of machine learning (ML) in our field, for chemists and materials scientists with no experience with these techniques. We illustrate the workflow of ML for computational studies of materials, with a specific interest in the prediction of materials properties. We present concisely the fundamental ideas of ML, and for each stage of the workflow, we give examples

  • Electroresistance and electro-optic effects in molecular ferroelectrics
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Yong Hu; Shenqiang Ren

    Molecular ferroelectrics are often considered as an alternative to inorganic ferroelectrics due to their structural diversity, optical transparency, and low-temperature solution processing. A significant amount of molecular ferroelectrics have been developed and studied for their fundamental mechanisms and potential applications in electronic devices. This review will report the recent findings in

  • Large structure-dependent room temperature exchange bias in self-assembled BiFeO3nanoparticles
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Sudipta Goswami; Aditi Sahoo; Dipten Bhattacharya; Ozgur Karci; P. K. Mohanty

    We studied the magnetic properties of self-assembled aggregates of BiFeO3 nanoparticles (∼20 nm–40 nm). The aggregates formed two different structures—one with limited and another with massive crosslinking—via the “drying-mediated self-assembly” process following dispersion of the nanoparticles within different organic solvents. They exhibit large coercivity HC (>1000 Oe) and exchange bias field HE

  • Fluorescent diamond microparticle doped glass fiber for magnetic field sensing
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    D. Bai; M. H. Huynh; D. A. Simpson; P. Reineck; S. A. Vahid; A. D. Greentree; S. Foster; H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem; B. C. Gibson

    Diamond containing the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is emerging as a significant sensing platform. However, most NV sensors require microscopes to collect the fluorescence signals and therefore are limited to laboratory settings. By embedding micron-scale diamond particles at an annular interface within the cross section of a silicate glass fiber, we demonstrate a robust fiber material capable of sensing

  • Cathodoluminescence and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of ScN: Dopant, defects, and band structure
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Micah S. Haseman; Brenton A. Noesges; Seth Shields; John S. Cetnar; Amber N. Reed; Hayder A. Al-Atabi; James H. Edgar; Leonard J. Brillson

    We have studied the optical band and defect transitions of ScN, a group IIIB transition metal nitride semiconductor with electronic and optoelectronic applications. Recent works have focused on the degenerate nature of ScN by substitutional impurities ON and FN, which shift the direct (X–X) gap transition to higher energies via the Burstein–Moss effect. We used cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CLS)

  • Cation diffusion in polycrystalline thin films of monoclinic HfO2deposited by atomic layer deposition
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Michael P. Mueller; Katrin Pingen; Alexander Hardtdegen; Stephan Aussen; Andreas Kindsmueller; Susanne Hoffmann-Eifert; Roger A. De Souza

    Though present in small amounts and migrating at low rates, intrinsic cation defects play a central role in governing the operational lifetime of oxide-ion conducting materials through slow degradation processes such as interdiffusion, kinetic demixing, grain growth, and creep. In this study, a new experimental approach to characterizing the behavior of such slow-moving, minority defects is presented

  • High-yield green fabrication of colloidal silicon quantum dots by low-temperature thermal cracking of porous silicon
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Toshihiro Nakamura; Nobuyoshi Koshida; Ze Yuan; Jun Otsubo

    We developed high-yield green fabrication of colloidal silicon quantum dots (QDs) only by low-temperature treatment of porous silicon (PSi) flakes in a reactive organic solution. Heat treatment at ∼50 °C of the PSi flakes in unsaturated hydrocarbon solution mixed with hydrofluoric acid (HF) yields the organically self-surface-passivated Si QD, which exhibit efficient photoluminescence compared with

  • Stability of epitaxial BiXO3phases by density-functional theory
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Michael R. Walden; Cristian V. Ciobanu; Geoff L. Brennecka

    The bismuth-based perovskites are an interesting class of materials that exhibit a variety of coupled ferroic properties. Through epitaxial growth in the (001) pseudo-cubic [(001)pc] orientation, various phases with variable ferroelectric polarization can be stabilized. Using density-functional theory calculations, we predict the phase stability of the bismuth-based perovskite oxides as a function

  • Below bandgap photoluminescence of an AlN crystal: Co-existence of two different charging states of a defect center
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Qin Zhou; Zhaofu Zhang; Hui Li; Sergii Golovynskyi; Xi Tang; Honglei Wu; Jiannong Wang; Baikui Li

    The below bandgap optical transitions of an aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal grown on a tungsten (W) substrate by physical vapor transport (PVT) are investigated by below-bandgap-excited photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Oxygen (O) is the only impurity in the AlN-on-W crystal grown by PVT. By analyzing the excitation-power-, excitation-photon-energy-, and temperature-dependence

  • Role of the ferroelastic strain in the optical absorption of BiVO4
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Christina Hill; Mads C. Weber; Jannis Lehmann; Tariq Leinen; Manfred Fiebig; Jens Kreisel; Mael Guennou

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has recently been under focus for its potential use in photocatalysis thanks to its well-suited absorption edge in the visible light range. Here, we characterize the optical absorption of a BiVO4 single crystal as a function of temperature and polarization direction by reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. The optical bandgap is found to be very sensitive to the temperature

  • Eu3+-doped Bi7O5F11microplates with simultaneous luminescence and improved photocatalysis
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Donglei Wei; Yanlin Huang; Hyo Jin Seo

    Doping of rare-earth ions in a host is one of the important strategies to modify the microstructure and electrical and optical properties. This work demonstrated the significant improvement of luminescence and photocatalytic performances of Bi7O5F11 via Eu3+ doping. Bi7O5F11 has a typical Sillén–Aurivillius structure, which shows an intrinsic luminescence band peaked at 527 nm with a decay time of

  • Suitability of binary oxides for molecular-beam epitaxy source materials: A comprehensive thermodynamic analysis
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Kate M. Adkison; Shun-Li Shang; Brandon J. Bocklund; Detlef Klimm; Darrell G. Schlom; Zi-Kui Liu

    We have conducted a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of the volatility of 128 binary oxides to evaluate their suitability as source materials for oxide molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). 16 solid or liquid oxides are identified that evaporate nearly congruently from stable oxide sources to gas species: As2O3, B2O3, BaO, MoO3, OsO4, P2O5, PbO, PuO2, Rb2O, Re2O7, Sb2O3, SeO2, SnO, ThO2, Tl2O, and WO3

  • High-throughput production of force-fields for solid-state electrolyte materials
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Ryo Kobayashi; Yasuhiro Miyaji; Koki Nakano; Masanobu Nakayama

    An automatic and high-throughput method to produce interatomic force-fields for solid-state electrolyte materials is proposed. The proposed method employs the cuckoo search algorithm with an automatic update of search space to optimize parameters in empirical potentials to reproduce radial and angular distribution functions and equilibrium volume obtained from the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

  • New perspectives on emerging advanced materials for sustainability
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll; Ram Seshadri; Anthony Cheetham

    An introduction to the APL Materials Special Issue on “New Perspectives on Emerging Advanced Materials for Sustainability,” by the Guest Editors.

  • Understanding the interplay of stability and efficiency in A-site engineered lead halide perovskites
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Feray Ünlü; Eunhwan Jung; Jinane Haddad; Ashish Kulkarni; Senol Öz; Heechae Choi; Thomas Fischer; Sudip Chakraborty; Thomas Kirchartz; Sanjay Mathur

    Organic–inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites have gained significant attention as light-harvesting materials in thin-film photovoltaics due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties and simple fabrication process. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has surged beyond 25% in a short time span. Their transition to commercial market is a “work in progress” due to

  • Atomic-resolution analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy of topological insulators with a layered tetradymite structure
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    Danielle Reifsnyder Hickey; K. Andre Mkhoyan

    The recent discovery of topological insulators has uncovered exciting new quantum materials with potential applications in the emergent fields of topological spintronics and topological quantum computation. At the heart of uncovering the new physical properties of these materials is the characterization of their atomic structures, composition, defects, and interfaces. The technique of atomic-resolution

  • 2D graphene oxide liquid crystal for real-world applications: Energy, environment, and antimicrobial
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Taeyeong Yun; Geong Hwa Jeong; Suchithra Padmajan Sasikala; Sang Ouk Kim

    The wonder material, graphene, is now on the stage from academic research to real-world industrial application. Graphene oxide (GO), an oxygenated form of monolayer graphene platelet, is playing a crucial role for the large-scale production of minimal layer stacked graphene. Effective purification of GO by removing acidic and ionic impurities is the essential step for high dispersibility and long-term

  • A film-texture driven piezoelectricity of AlN thin films grown at low temperatures by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Tai Nguyen; Noureddine Adjeroud; Sebastjan Glinsek; Yves Fleming; Jérôme Guillot; Patrick Grysan; Jérôme Polesel-Maris

    Simultaneously inducing preferred crystalline orientation with a strong piezoelectric response in polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films by atomic layer deposition is a technical challenge due to the upscaling of the integration of piezoelectric functionalities, such as sensing and actuation, in micro-devices without any poling process. Utilizing low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer

  • Redox-inactive samarium(III) acetylacetonate as dopant enabling cation substitution and interfacial passivation for efficient and stable CsPbI2Br perovskite solar cells
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Yang Yang; Dong-Wei Han; Ying Yang; Si-Wei Yi; Quan Yuan; Dong-Ying Zhou; Lai Feng

    All-inorganic (CsPbX3) perovskites by replacing the volatile organic components with cesium cations allow extending the long-term thermal stability of perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) vs their organic–inorganic hybrid counterparts. However, the stability of α-CsPbI3 and α-CsPbI2Br still remains to be improved. In this work, we incorporate redox-inactive samarium acetylacetonate [Sm(acac)3] into CsPbI2Br

  • Gate tunability of highly efficient spin-to-charge conversion by spin Hall effect in graphene proximitized with WSe2
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Franz Herling; C. K. Safeer; Josep Ingla-Aynés; Nerea Ontoso; Luis E. Hueso; Fèlix Casanova

    The proximity effect opens ways to transfer properties from one material into another and is especially important in two-dimensional (2D) materials. In van der Waals heterostructures, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) can be used to enhance the spin–orbit coupling of graphene leading to the prediction of gate controllable spin-to-charge conversion (SCC). Here, we report for the first time and

  • Multi-heterostructured spin-valve junction of vertical FLG/MoSe2/FLG
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Muhammad Farooq Khan; Shania Rehman; Malik Abdul Rehman; Rizwan Ur Rehman Sagar; Deok-kee Kim; H. M. Waseem Khalil; Pragati A. Shinde; Najam ul Hassan; Pradeep Raj Sharma; Jonghwa Eom; Seong Chan Jun

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials and their heterostructures have opened a new avenue for next-generation spintronic applications, benefited by their unique electronic properties and high crystallinity with an atomically flat surface. Here, we report magnetoresistance of vertical magnetic spin-valve devices with multi-layer (ML) MoSe2 and its heterostructures with few-layer graphene (FLG). We

  • Rational design of 2D organic magnets with giant magnetic anisotropy based on two-coordinate 5d transition metals
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Jianpei Xing; Peng Wang; Zhou Jiang; Xue Jiang; Yi Wang; Jijun Zhao

    As a new class of single-molecule magnets, two-coordinate complexes of open-shell transition metals are comparatively rare and have attracted interest due to their high degree of coordinative unsaturation. However, the dynamic distortion associated with the low coordination number of the metal center hinders the applications of high-density information storage, quantum computing, and spintronics. Here

  • Sensing of explosive vapor by hybrid perovskites: Effect of dimensionality
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    J. R. Harwell; J. M. E. Glackin; N. J. L. K. Davis; R. N. Gillanders; D. Credgington; G. A. Turnbull; I. D. W. Samuel

    Lead halide perovskites are very promising materials for many optoelectronic devices. They are low cost, photostable, and strongly photoluminescent materials, but so far have been little studied for sensing. In this article, we explore hybrid perovskites as sensors for explosive vapor. We tune the dimensionality of perovskite films in order to modify their exciton binding energy and film morphology

  • Multiple optical impacts of anion doping in epitaxial barium titanate films
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    M. Tyunina; O. Vetokhina; N. Nepomniashchaia; O. Pacherova; S. Cichon; T. Kocourek; M. Jelinek; A. Dejneka

    Multiple strong impacts of anion doping Λ (Λ = oxygen vacancy, nitrogen, or hydrogen) on the optical properties in the near-infrared to vacuum ultraviolet spectral range are experimentally revealed in cube-on-cube-type epitaxial perovskite BaTiO3−δΛδ films (δ ≤ 0.01) grown on (001)SrTiO3 substrates. Compared to the reference undoped films and bulk crystal, the anion-doped films exhibit massive changes

  • Phase separation in amorphous tantalum oxide from first principles
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Christian Søndergaard Pedersen; Jin Hyun Chang; Yang Li; Nini Pryds; Juan Maria Garcia Lastra

    The transition between Ta2O5 and TaO2 governs resistive switching in tantalum oxide-based resistive random access memory. Despite its importance, the Ta2O5–TaO2 transition is scarcely described in the literature, in part because the tantalum oxide layer in devices is amorphous, which makes it difficult to characterize. In this paper, we use first-principles calculations to construct the convex hull

  • Solvent-controlled crystalline beta-phase formation in electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) fibers for enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Miso Kim; Sooun Lee; Yong-il Kim

    Electrospun piezoelectric polymer fibers, which offer mechanical flexibility, light weight, and relatively low temperature processing, have emerged as a strong solution to shape-adaptive energy harvesting and sensing applications for smart electronics at multi-scales. In this work, we aim to enhance the electrospun fiber-based piezoelectric energy harvesting performance by elucidating the role of the

  • Understanding the interplay of surface structure and work function in oxides: A case study on SrTiO3
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Tianyu Ma; Ryan Jacobs; John Booske; Dane Morgan

    The work function is one of the most fundamental surface properties of a material, and understanding and controlling its value is of central importance for manipulating electron flow in applications ranging from high power vacuum electronics to oxide electronics and solar cells. Recent computational studies using Density Functional Theory (DFT) have demonstrated that DFT-calculated work function values

  • Theoretical maximum photogeneration efficiency and performance characterization of InxGa1−xN/Si tandem water-splitting photoelectrodes
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Yannick K. Gaudy; Žarko Gačević; Sophia Haussener

    InxGa1−xN is a promising material for flexible and efficient water-splitting photoelectrodes since the bandgap is tunable by modifying the indium content. We investigate the potential of an InxGa1−xN/Si tandem used as a water-splitting photoelectrode. We predict a maximum theoretical photogeneration efficiency of 27% for InxGa1−xN/Si tandem photoelectrodes by computing electromagnetic wave propagation

  • In situthermal preparation of oxide surfaces
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Wolfgang Braun; Maren Jäger; Gennadii Laskin; Prosper Ngabonziza; Wolfgang Voesch; Pascal Wittlich; Jochen Mannhart

    Substrate surfaces terminated with a specific surface reconstruction are a prerequisite for the controlled epitaxial growth of most materials. Focusing on SrTiO3 (001) substrates, it has recently been shown that in situ substrate termination by thermal annealing has decisive advantages over standard termination methods. We report here that in situ substrate termination is a generally applicable method

  • Scattering mechanisms and mobility enhancement in epitaxial BaSnO3thin films probed via electrolyte gating
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Helin Wang; Abhinav Prakash; Konstantin Reich; Koustav Ganguly; Bharat Jalan; Chris Leighton

    The wide-gap semiconducting perovskite BaSnO3 has attracted attention since the discovery of outstanding mobility at high electron densities, spurred on by potential applications in oxide, transparent, and power electronics. Despite progress, much remains to be understood in terms of mobility-limiting scattering in BaSnO3 thin films and thus mobility optimization. Here, we apply solid-state ion-gel-based

  • Interfacing topological insulators and ferrimagnets: Bi2Te3and Fe3O4heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    V. M. Pereira; C. N. Wu; C.-A. Knight; A. Choa; L. H. Tjeng; S. G. Altendorf

    Relying on the magnetism induced by the proximity effect in heterostructures of topological insulators and magnetic insulators is one of the promising routes to achieve the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Here, we investigate heterostructures of Bi2Te3 and Fe3O4. By growing two different types of heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, Fe3O4 on Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3 on Fe3O4, we explore differences

  • Ultrasonication-assisted trace amount solvent synthesis of Cs4PbBr6crystal with ultra-bright green light emission
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Jintian Jiang; Daoyuan Wang; Mingfang Wu; Ping Peng; Fang-Fang Li; Faqian Liu; Renwei Jing; Xuedan Ma; Yan Chao; Zhili Xiao; Qinglong Jiang

    Cs4PbBr6 crystals have been synthesized by an ultrasonication-assisted trace amount polar solvent method. The prepared green Cs4PbBr6 material was found to have high photoluminescence (PL) brightness and 10 ns PL lifetime. The prepared green light emitting device can achieve the maximum brightness of 3.8 × 109 cd/m2, which is nearly 100 times higher than a wick. The white light emitting device based

  • P-block metal-based (Sn, In, Bi, Pb) electrocatalysts for selective reduction of CO2to formate
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Zhenni Yang; Freddy E. Oropeza; Kelvin H. L. Zhang

    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to fuels and chemical feedstocks using renewable electricity provides a promising approach toward artificial carbon recycling to address the global challenges in energy and sustainability. The most crucial step for this technique is to develop efficient electrocatalysts capable of reducing CO2 to valuable hydrocarbon products at a low overpotential with high selectivity

  • Thermoelectric porous MOF based hybrid materials
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Engelbert Redel; Helmut Baumgart

    Porous hybrid materials and MOF (Metal–Organic-Framework) films represent modern designer materials that exhibit many requirements of a near ideal and tunable future thermoelectric (TE) material. In contrast to traditional semiconducting bulk TE materials, porous hybrid MOF templates can be used to overcome some of the constraints of physics in bulk TE materials. These porous hybrid systems are amenable

  • Rare-earth based half-Heusler topological quantum materials: A perspective
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Ashutosh Kumar Singh; S. D. Ramarao; Sebastian C. Peter

    Topological insulator (TI) materials which are conductive at the surface but insulating in the bulk have drawn much attention in the past decade due to their fascinating properties and potential application in the field of spintronics, quantum computing, topological superconductivity and next generation electronics. In the search of three-dimensional TIs, half-Heusler compounds are the new entrants

  • Recent advances on visible-light-driven CO2reduction: Strategies for boosting solar energy transformation
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Jin Yuan; Yaping Du; Hongbo Zhang

    The massive emission of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted great attention due to its impact on global warming. Researchers have been working on this project for a long time and found that photocatalytic CO2 reduction has shown great potential in developing cost-effective clean energy resources. However, the efficiency of CO2 photo-reduction is low because of limited light absorption

  • Influence of post-deposition annealing on the photoelectrochemical performance of CuBi2O4thin films
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Marlene Lamers; Michael Sahre; Matthias J. Müller; Daniel Abou-Ras; Roel van de Krol; Fatwa F. Abdi

    Complex metal oxide semiconductors are promising candidates to be used as photoelectrodes in solar water splitting devices. One particular example is copper bismuth oxide (CuBi2O4), which is a p-type semiconductor with an ideal bandgap of 1.6–1.8 eV and suitable band positions. However, the performance has been reported to be limited by photocorrosion and the mismatch between its optical absorption

  • Vibrational properties of LaNiO3films in the ultrathin regime
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Alexander Schober; Jennifer Fowlie; Mael Guennou; Mads C. Weber; Hongjian Zhao; Jorge Íñiguez; Marta Gibert; Jean-Marc Triscone; Jens Kreisel

    Collective rotations and tilts of oxygen polyhedra play a crucial role in the physical properties of complex oxides such as magnetism and conductivity. Such rotations can be tuned by preparing thin films in which dimensionality, strain, and interface effects come into play. However, little is known of the tilt and rotational distortions in films a few unit cells thick including the question of if coherent

  • Two-dimensional growth of conductive ultra-thin Sn films on insulating substrate with an Fe buffer layer
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Dingheng Zheng; Junichi Shiogai; Hisashi Inoue; Seigo Souma; Takafumi Sato; Atsushi Tsukazaki

    Two-dimensional (2D) growth of ultra-thin Sn films is a prerequisite for examining exotic quantum phenomena as one of their crystallized forms is a promising candidate for topological materials. In this study, we have investigated the ultra-thin film growth of Sn at room temperature with a Fe buffer layer on an insulating Al2O3 substrate using molecular-beam epitaxy. By the insertion of a 2- or 4-nm-thick

  • Material informatics for layered high-TCsuperconductors
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Zhong-Li Liu; Peng Kang; Yu Zhu; Lei Liu; Hong Guo

    Superconductors were typically discovered by trial-and-error aided by the knowledge and intuition of individual researchers. In this work, using materials informatics aided by machine learning (ML), we build an ML model of superconductors, which is based on several material descriptors with apparent physical meanings to efficiently predict critical superconducting temperature TC. The descriptors include

  • Aero-ZnS architectures with dual hydrophilic–hydrophobic properties for microfluidic applications
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Irina Plesco; Tudor Braniste; Niklas Wolff; Leonid Gorceac; Viola Duppel; Boris Cinic; Yogendra Kumar Mishra; Andrei Sarua; Rainer Adelung; Lorenz Kienle; Ion Tiginyanu

    Here, we report on a new aero-material, called aero-ZnS, representing self-organized architectures made of ZnS hollow micro-tetrapod structures with nanoscale thin walls. The fabrication process is based on the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of CdS on sacrificial micro-tetrapods of ZnO with simultaneous or subsequent transformation of CdS into ZnS and removal of the sacrificial ZnO crystals. The nanostructure

  • A comprehensive ARPES study on the type-II Dirac semimetal candidate Ir1−xPtxTe2
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Juan Jiang; Sangjae Lee; Fucong Fei; Fengqi Song; Elio Vescovo; Konstantine Kaznatcheev; Frederick J. Walker; Charles H. Ahn

    The transition metal dichalcogenide Ir1−xPtxTe2 displays both superconductivity and a topological band structure. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we obtain a comprehensive understanding of the three-dimensional electronic structure in the normal state of Ir1−xPtxTe2 for doping levels from x = 0.1 to 0.4, which spans the composition range of a superconducting state to a non-superconducting

  • Control of spin orientation in antiferromagnetic NiO by epitaxial strain and spin–flop coupling
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    A. Kozioł-Rachwał; M. Ślęzak; M. Zając; P. Dróżdż; W. Janus; M. Szpytma; H. Nayyef; T. Ślęzak

    A ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AFM) Fe/NiO bilayer was grown using molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(001) and Cr buffered MgO(001) substrates. X-ray linear dichroism measurements showed a dominating out-of-plane component for the NiO spins in Fe/NiO/MgO and an in-plane spin direction for NiO layers grown on the Cr buffer. Furthermore, systematic studies on the magnetic properties of Fe/NiO grown on

  • Origins of infrared transparency in highly conductive perovskite stannate BaSnO3
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Y. Smirnov; J. Holovsky; G. Rijnders; M. Morales-Masis

    Near-infrared absorption in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) is usually caused by electronic intraband transition at high doping levels. Improved infrared transparency is commonly explained by enhanced drift mobility in these TCOs. Here, an alternative cause behind the high infrared transparency of La-doped barium stannate (LBSO) transparent electrodes is presented. Following the Drude model formalism

  • Toward understanding and optimizing Au-hyperdoped Si infrared photodetectors
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    S. Q. Lim; C. T.-K. Lew; P. K. Chow; J. M. Warrender; J. S. Williams; B. C. Johnson

    Au-hyperdoped Si absorbs near-infrared (NIR) light and recent efforts have successfully produced Si-based NIR photodetectors based on this property but with low detection efficiencies. Here, we investigate the differences between the optical and photocurrent properties of Au-hyperdoped Si. Although defects introduced during fabrication of these materials may not exhibit significant optical absorption

  • All-silicon polarized light source based on electrically excited whispering gallery modes in inversely tapered photonic resonators
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Sebastian W. Schmitt; Klaus Schwarzburg; George Sarau; Silke H. Christiansen; Sven Wiesner; Catherine Dubourdieu

    As a result of its indirect bandgap, emitting photons from silicon in an efficient way remains challenging. Silicon light emitters that can be integrated seamlessly on a CMOS platform have been demonstrated; however, none satisfies an ensemble of key requirements such as a small footprint, room-temperature operation at low voltages, and emission of narrow and polarized lines with a high spectral power

  • Large visible-light-driven photostriction in Bi(Ni2/3Nb1/3)O3–PbTiO3ferroelectrics
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Xiu Li; Chen Chen; Faqiang Zhang; Xintang Huang; Zhiguo Yi

    Photostrictive effect that has been discovered for over half a century is getting renewed interest in recent years in view of the great potentials for optomechanical applications. Ferroelectric materials represented by lead lanthanum zirconated titanate have been widely studied in this field because of their relatively large photostriction and fast photoresponse, but their wide bandgaps with limit

  • Low voltage, high gain inverters based on amorphous zinc tin oxide on flexible substrates
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    P. Schlupp; S. Vogt; H. von Wenckstern; M. Grundmann

    Deposition of semiconductors on bendable substrates is a crucial step toward flexible circuitry and deposition by a roll-to-roll process. Since most bendable substrates have limited temperature stability (normally degradation starts between 150 °C and 300 °C), processing temperatures are typically below that of rigid substrates. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) such as indium gallium zinc oxide

  • Physiological stability and renal clearance of ultrasmall zwitterionic gold nanoparticles: Ligand length matters.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-04-19
    Xuhui Ning,Chuanqi Peng,Eric S. Li,Jing Xu,Rodrigo D. Vinluan III,Mengxiao Yu,Jie Zheng

  • Electron beam-based metrology after CMOS.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    J A Liddle,B D Hoskins,A E Vladár,J S Villarrubia

    The magnitudes of the challenges facing electron-based metrology for post-CMOS technology are reviewed. Directed selfassembly, nanophotonics/plasmonics, and resistive switches and selectors, are examined as exemplars of important post-CMOS technologies. Materials, devices, and architectures emerging from these technologies pose new metrology requirements: defect detection, possibly subsurface, in soft

  • Research Update: Materials design of implantable nanogenerators for biomechanical energy harvesting.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2017-12-23
    Jun Li,Xudong Wang

    Implantable nanogenerators are rapidly advanced recently as a promising concept for harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo. This review article presents an overview of the most current progress of implantable piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) and triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with a focus on materials selection, engineering, and assembly. The evolution of the PENG materials is discussed from

  • Self-powered p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on plastic substrates.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2016-02-24
    Md Rezaul Hasan,Ting Xie,Sara C Barron,Guannan Liu,Nhan V Nguyen,Abhishek Motayed,Mulpuri V Rao,Ratan Debnath

    A self-powered ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) based on p-NiO and n-ZnO was fabricated using low-temperature sputtering technique on indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The p-n heterojunction showed very fast temporal photoresponse with excellent quantum efficiency of over 63% under UV illumination at an applied reverse bias of 1.2 V. The engineered

  • The process of EDC-NHS Cross-linking of reconstituted collagen fibres increases collagen fibrillar order and alignment.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2014-12-17
    D V Shepherd,J H Shepherd,S Ghose,S J Kew,R E Cameron,S M Best

    We describe the production of collagen fibre bundles through a multi-strand, semi-continuous extrusion process. Cross-linking using an EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide), NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) combination was considered. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy focused on how cross-linking affected the collagen fibrillar structure. In the cross-linked fibres, a clear

  • Invited Article: Emerging soft bioelectronics for cardiac health diagnosis and treatment.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2019-03-01
    Faheem Ershad,Kyoseung Sim,Anish Thukral,Yu Shrike Zhang,Cunjiang Yu

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional technologies for diagnosing and treating lack the compliance and comfort necessary for those living with life-threatening conditions. Soft electronics presents a promising outlet for conformal, flexible, and stretchable devices that can overcome the mechanical mismatch that is often associated with conventional technologies

  • Magnetic field control of charge excitations in CoFe2O4.
    APL Mater. (IF 3.819) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Brian S Holinsworth,Nathan C Harms,Shiyu Fan,Dipanjan Mazumdar,Arun Gupta,Stephen A McGill,Janice L Musfeldt

    We combine magnetic circular dichroism and photoconductivity with prior optical absorption and first principles calculations to unravel spin-charge interactions in the high Curie temperature magnet CoFe2O4. In addition to revising the bandgap hierarchy, we reveal a broad set of charge transfer excitations in the spin down channel which are sensitive to the metamagnetic transition involving the spin

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