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  • Temporal imaging with a high filling factor
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Avi Klein; Inbar Sibony; Sara Meir; Hamootal Duadi; Michelle Y. Sander; Moti Fridman

    We demonstrate a temporal imaging system that can capture events with unknown time-of-arrival in the time domain without the need to synchronize the signal. The temporal imaging system is based on a time-lens that uses a high repetition-rate fiber laser for the pump wave together with a time-stretch scheme. After dispersion, the timing between adjacent pump pulses is smaller than the pulse width. Therefore

  • Engineering photonics solutions for COVID-19
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Maria Soler; Alexis Scholtz; Rene Zeto; Andrea M. Armani

    As the impact of COVID-19 on society became apparent, the engineering and scientific community recognized the need for innovative solutions. Two potential roadmaps emerged: developing short-term solutions to address the immediate needs of the healthcare communities and developing mid/long-term solutions to eliminate the over-arching threat. However, in a truly global effort, researchers from all backgrounds

  • Second-harmonic generation of temporally low-coherence light
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Xiaohui Zhao; Lailin Ji; Dong Liu; Yanqi Gao; Daxing Rao; Yong Cui; Wei Feng; Fujian Li; Haitao Shi; Chong Shan; WeiXin Ma; Zhan Sui

    In this Letter, we study the second-harmonic (SH) generation of temporally low-coherence light using the statistical optics method. By introducing the statistical characteristics of low-coherence light into the nonlinear coupled wave equation, we predict the self-convolution relationship between the power spectral density of the second-harmonic and that of the fundamental wave and demonstrate it in

  • High-efficiency lithium niobate modulator for K band operation
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Abu Naim R. Ahmed; Shouyuan Shi; Andrew Mercante; Sean Nelan; Peng Yao; Dennis W. Prather

    This paper reports a hybrid silicon nitride–lithium niobate electro-optic Mach–Zehnder-interferometer modulator that demonstrates overall improvements in terms of half-wave voltage, optical insertion loss, extinction ratio, and operational bandwidth. The fabricated device exhibits a DC half-wave voltage of ∼1.3 V, a static extinction ratio of ∼27 dB, an on-chip optical loss of ∼1.53 dB, and a 3 dB

  • Dynamic detection of acoustic wave generated by polarization maintaining Brillouin random fiber laser
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Zichao Zhou; Liang Chen; Xiaoyi Bao

    The intrinsic spectral width and intensity dynamics of the acoustic wave generated by the Brillouin random fiber laser were characterized experimentally for the first time. These are important to the understanding of the dynamic noise properties of random fiber lasers based on stimulated Brillouin scattering. We demonstrate that the spectra of the acoustic wave in the gain medium are determined by

  • Hyperspectral topography of the twisted, cholesteric patterns of an insect cuticle under various conditions of helix obliquity
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Aurélie Jullien; Maxim Neradovskiy; Michel Mitov

    Twisted cholesteric liquid crystal patterns are found in the iridescent chitin-containing cuticles of many insects. They may exhibit spatial variation in the helical pitch and in the orientation of the helix axis, as in the two-band, green and silver cuticle of the scarab beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, which is the focus of the present study. The silver bands are pattern-free, whereas the green bands exhibit

  • Tunable microwave-photonic filtering with high out-of-band rejection in silicon
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Shai Gertler; Eric A. Kittlaus; Nils T. Otterstrom; Peter T. Rakich

    The ever-increasing demand for high speed and large bandwidth has made photonic systems a leading candidate for the next generation of telecommunication and radar technologies. The photonic platform enables high performance while maintaining a small footprint and provides a natural interface with fiber optics for signal transmission. However, producing sharp, narrow-band filters that are competitive

  • High-performance infrared Ge-based plasmonic photodetector enhanced by dual absorption mechanism
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Liming Wang; Yichi Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying Wei; Bei Zhang; Lingyao Meng; Tao Liu; Bin Wang; Benguang Han; Zuimin Jiang; Huiyong Hu

    A sub-wavelength plasmonic Au–Ge grating was used to enhance the responsivity of Ge-based metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors at infrared communication wavelengths. Furthermore, a finite-difference time-domain simulation was performed to optimize absorption of light by the detectors. Characterizations of the photoelectronic properties of the optimized device revealed high-performance photodetection

  • Spectral and spatial isolation of single tungsten diselenide quantum emitters using hexagonal boron nitride wrinkles
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Raphaël S. Daveau; Tom Vandekerckhove; Arunabh Mukherjee; Zefang Wang; Jie Shan; Kin Fai Mak; A. Nick Vamivakas; Gregory D. Fuchs

    Monolayer WSe2 hosts bright single-photon emitters. Because of its compliance, monolayer WSe2 conforms to patterned substrates without breaking, thus creating the potential for large local strain, which is one activation mechanism of its intrinsic quantum emitters. Here, we report an approach to creating spatially isolated quantum emitters from WSe2 monolayers that display clean spectra with little

  • Deep learning of ultrafast pulses with a multimode fiber
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Wen Xiong; Brandon Redding; Shai Gertler; Yaron Bromberg; Hemant D. Tagare; Hui Cao

    Characterizing ultrashort optical pulses has always been a critical but difficult task, which has a broad range of applications. We propose and demonstrate a self-referenced method of characterizing ultrafast pulses with a multimode fiber. The linear and nonlinear speckle patterns formed at the distal end of a multimode fiber are used to recover the spectral amplitude and phase of an unknown pulse

  • Development of site-controlled quantum dot arrays acting as scalable sources of indistinguishable photons
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Jan Große; Martin von Helversen; Aris Koulas-Simos; Martin Hermann; Stephan Reitzenstein

    We report on the realization of an array of 28 × 28 mesas with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots acting as single-photon sources for potential applications in photonic quantum technology. The site-selective growth of quantum dots is achieved by using the buried stressor approach where an oxide aperture serves as the nucleation site in the center of each mesa. Spectroscopic maps demonstrate the positioning

  • Broadband terahertz transmissive quarter-wave metasurface
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Xiaolong You; Rajour T. Ako; Wendy S. L. Lee; Madhu Bhaskaran; Sharath Sriram; Christophe Fumeaux; Withawat Withayachumnankul

    Polarization conversion devices are key components in spectroscopy and wireless communications systems. Conventional terahertz waveplates made of natural birefringent materials typically suffer from low efficiency, narrow bandwidth, and substantial thickness. To overcome the limitations associated with conventional waveplates, a terahertz quarter-wave metasurface with enhanced efficiency and wide bandwidth

  • Ultra-low Brillouin scattering in anti-resonant hollow-core fibers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Arjun Iyer; Wendao Xu; J. Enrique Antonio-Lopez; Rodrigo Amezcua Correa; William H. Renninger

    Sensitive optical experiments in fiber, including for applications in communications and quantum information, are limited by the noise generated when light scatters from thermally excited guided-acoustic phonons. Novel fibers, such as microstructured fibers, offer control over both optical and acoustic waveguide properties, which can be designed to mitigate optomechanical noise. Here, we investigate

  • Pulse time reversal and stopping by a refractive index front
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Mahmoud A. Gaafar; Jannik Holtorf; Manfred Eich; Alexander Yu. Petrov

    We discuss how dynamic light stopping and pulse time reversal can be implemented in dispersive waveguides via indirect photonic transitions induced by moving refractive index fronts. The previous concepts of light stopping/time reversal either require complex local variation of the device’s refractive index or rely on the strict phase matching condition, which imposes limitations on the amount of manipulated

  • Distributed Bragg reflectors for the colorimetric detection of bacterial contaminants and pollutants for food quality control
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Giuseppe M. Paternò; Giovanni Manfredi; Francesco Scotognella; Guglielmo Lanzani

    Real-time monitoring of bacterial contaminants and pollutants in food is of paramount importance nowadays, owing to the impressive extension of the food production/supply chain and the consequent increase in foodborne outbreaks worldwide. This represents a serious risk for consumers’ health and accounts for a large fraction of food wastage, especially in the developed countries. Therefore, modern sensors

  • Quantum SU(1,1) interferometers: Basic principles and applications
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Z. Y. Ou; Xiaoying Li

    A new type of quantum interferometer was recently realized that employs parametric amplifiers (PAs) as the wave splitting and mixing elements. The quantum behavior stems from the PAs, which produce quantum entangled fields for probing the phase change signal in the interferometer. This type of quantum entangled interferometer exhibits some unique properties that are different from traditional beam

  • Ultra-sensitive refractive index gas sensor with functionalized silicon nitride photonic circuits
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Giuseppe Antonacci; Jeroen Goyvaerts; Haolan Zhao; Bettina Baumgartner; Bernhard Lendl; Roel Baets

    Portable and cost-effective gas sensors are gaining demand for a number of environmental, biomedical, and industrial applications, yet current devices are confined into specialized labs and cannot be extended to general use. Here, we demonstrate a part-per-billion-sensitive refractive index gas sensor on a photonic chip based on silicon nitride waveguides functionalized with a mesoporous silica top-cladding

  • Deterministic positioning of nanophotonic waveguides around single self-assembled quantum dots
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    T. Pregnolato; X.-L. Chu; T. Schröder; R. Schott; A. D. Wieck; A. Ludwig; P. Lodahl; N. Rotenberg

    The capability to embed self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) at predefined positions in nanophotonic structures is key to the development of complex quantum-photonic architectures. Here, we demonstrate that QDs can be deterministically positioned in nanophotonic waveguides by pre-locating QDs relative to a global reference frame using micro-photoluminescence (μPL) spectroscopy. After nanofabrication,

  • Coupling of quantum-well emission to waveguide–plasmon polaritons in rolled-up microtubes
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Hoan Vu; Jan Siebels; David Sonnenberg; Stefan Mendach; Tobias Kipp

    We study the coupling of GaAs quantum wells to waveguide–plasmon polaritons supported by a thin InAlGaAs-based slab waveguide and a Ag grating. The hybrid photon–plasmon modes are excited in a freestanding emitter–waveguide–plasmon structure realized by rolling-up strained InAlGaAs-based layers and nanopatterned Ag structures. By varying the grating’s bar width, we tune the plasmonic resonance of the

  • Observation of gain-pinned dissipative solitons in a microcavity laser
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    M. Pieczarka; D. Poletti; C. Schneider; S. Höfling; E. A. Ostrovskaya; G. Sęk; M. Syperek

    We demonstrate an experimental approach for creating spatially localized states in a semiconductor microcavity laser. In particular, we shape the spatial gain profile of a quasi-one-dimensional microcavity laser with a nonresonant, pulsed optical pump to create spatially localized structures, known as gain-pinned dissipative solitons, that exist due to the balance of gain and nonlinear losses. We directly

  • Acousto-optic modulation in lithium niobate on sapphire
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Christopher J. Sarabalis; Timothy P. McKenna; Rishi N. Patel; Raphaël Van Laer; Amir H. Safavi-Naeini

    We demonstrate the first acousto-optic modulators in lithium niobate films on sapphire, detailing the dependence of the piezoelectric and optomechanical coupling coefficients on the crystal orientation. This platform supports highly confined, strongly piezoelectric mechanical waves without suspensions, making it a promising candidate for broadband and efficient integrated acousto-optic devices, circuits

  • Experimental realization of dual task processing with a photonic reservoir computer
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Jeremy Vatin; Damien Rontani; Marc Sciamanna

    We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to process two tasks in parallel with a photonic reservoir computer based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) as a physical node with time-delay optical feedback. The two tasks are injected optically by exploiting the polarization dynamics of the VCSEL. We test our reservoir with the very demanding task of nonlinear optical channel equalization

  • Direct observation of the effects of spin dependent momentum of light in optical tweezers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Debapriya Pal; Subhasish Dutta Gupta; Nirmalya Ghosh; Ayan Banerjee

    We demonstrate that tight focusing of a circularly polarized Gaussian beam in optical tweezers leads to spin-momentum locking—with the transverse momentum density (Poynting vector) being helicity-dependent, while the transverse spin angular momentum density becomes independent of helicity. We further use a stratified medium in the path of the trapping beam in our optical tweezers setup to enhance the

  • Composed multicore fiber structure for direction-sensitive curvature monitoring
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Joel Villatoro; Josu Amorebieta; Angel Ortega-Gomez; Enrique Antonio-Lopez; Joseba Zubia; Axel Schülzgen; Rodrigo Amezcua-Correa

    The present work deals with a curvature sensor that consists of two segments of asymmetric multicore fiber (MCF) fusion spliced with standard single mode fiber (SMF). The MCF comprises three strongly coupled cores; one of such cores is at the geometrical center of the MCF. The two segments of MCF are short, have different lengths (less than 2 cm each), and are rotated 180° with respect to each other

  • Enhancing the modal purity of orbital angular momentum photons
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Isaac Nape; Bereneice Sephton; Yao-Wei Huang; Adam Vallés; Cheng-Wei Qiu; Antonio Ambrosio; Federico Capasso; Andrew Forbes

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams with topological charge ℓ are commonly generated and detected by modulating an incoming field with an azimuthal phase profile of the form exp(iℓϕ) by a variety of approaches. This results in unwanted radial modes and reduced power in the desired OAM mode. Here, we show how to enhance the modal purity in the creation and detection of classical OAM beams and in the

  • Coherent fluctuations in time-domain diffuse optics
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Lorenzo Colombo; Saeed Samaei; Pranav Lanka; Daniele Ancora; Marco Pagliazzi; Turgut Durduran; Piotr Sawosz; Adam Liebert; Antonio Pifferi

    Near infrared light pulses, multiply scattered by random media, carry useful information regarding the sample key constituents and their microstructures. Usually, the photon diffusion equation is used to interpret the data, which neglects any interference effect in the detected light fields. However, in several experimental techniques, such as diffuse correlation spectroscopy or laser speckle flowmetry

  • Objective-free excitation of quantum emitters with a laser-written micro parabolic mirror
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Sergii Morozov; Stefano Vezzoli; Ali Hossain Khan; Iwan Moreels; Riccardo Sapienza

    The efficient excitation of quantum sources such as quantum dots or single molecules requires high numerical aperture optics, which is often a challenge in cryogenics or in ultrafast optics. Here, we propose a 3.2 μm wide parabolic mirror, with 0.8 μm focal length, fabricated by direct laser writing on CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum dots, capable of focusing the excitation light to a sub-wavelength spot

  • Optical detection of the percolation threshold of nanoscale silver coatings with optical fiber gratings
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Fu Liu; Xuejun Zhang; Tuan Guo; Jacques Albert

    The metal-to-dielectric transition of silver films deposited on single-mode optical fibers is monitored by measurements of the transmission spectra of tilted fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in the core of the fiber. In situ, real-time measurements of the spectrum at wavelengths near 1550 nm during the wet etching of a 50 nm thick silver coating show a sudden and temporary decrease of more than 90% in

  • Integrated vortex beam emitter in the THz frequency range: Design and simulation
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Hailong Pi; Tasmiat Rahman; Stuart A. Boden; Tianjun Ma; Jize Yan; Xu Fang

    Compact vortex beam emitters have emerged as new light sources for novel applications in areas including spectroscopy, particle manipulation, and communications. Reported devices depend on linear optical phenomena and emit light in the near-infrared (IR) regime. Here, we propose and numerically evaluate a nonlinear vortex beam emitter that functions in the THz regime. The design utilizes a LiNbO3 microring

  • Observation of near-infrared sub-Poissonian photon emission in hexagonal boron nitride at room temperature
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Robin Camphausen; Loris Marini; Sherif Abdulkader Tawfik; Toan Trong Tran; Michael J. Ford; Stefano Palomba

    The generation of non-classical light states in the near-infrared (NIR) is important for a number of photonic quantum technologies. Here, we report the first experimental observation of sub-Poissonian NIR (1.24 eV) light emission from defects in a 2D hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) sheet at room temperature. Photoluminescence statistics shows g(2)(0) = 0.6, which is a signature of the quantum nature

  • An entanglement-based quantum network based on symmetric dispersive optics quantum key distribution
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Xu Liu; Xin Yao; Rong Xue; Heqing Wang; Hao Li; Zhen Wang; Lixing You; Xue Feng; Fang Liu; Kaiyu Cui; Yidong Huang; Wei Zhang

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a crucial technology for information security in the future. Developing simple and efficient ways to establish QKD among multiple users is important to extend the applications of QKD in communication networks. Herein, we proposed a scheme of symmetric dispersive optics QKD and demonstrated an entanglement-based quantum network based on it. In the experiment, a broadband

  • Reconstruction of angle-resolved backscattering through a multimode fiber for cell nuclei and particle size determination
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Haoran Zhang; Zachary A. Steelman; Silvia Ceballos; Kengyeh K. Chu; Adam Wax

    We demonstrate the reconstruction of angle-resolved optical backscattering after transmission through a multimode fiber. Angle-resolved backscattering is an important tool for particle sizing, and has been developed as a diagnostic modality for detecting epithelial pre-cancer. In this work, we fully characterized the transfer function of a multimode fiber using a plane-wave illumination basis across

  • Amorphous superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with nanophotonic waveguides
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    M. Häußler; M. Yu. Mikhailov; M. A. Wolff; C. Schuck

    Future applications in integrated quantum photonics will require large numbers of efficient, fast, and low-noise single-photon counters. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors made from amorphous material systems are best suited to meet these demands, but the integration with nanophotonic circuits has remained a challenge. Here, we show how amorphous molybdenum silicide (MoSi) nanowires are

  • Spectroelectrochemical measurement and modulation of exciton-polaritons
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Wonmi Ahn; Blake S. Simpkins

    Quantum emitters strongly coupled to optical cavity modes create new hybrid states called polaritons, resulting in a vacuum Rabi splitting (Ω). Strikingly, the magnitude of this splitting correlates with modified emission properties and chemical reaction rates. However, active control of this coupling strength is difficult due to the fixed properties of the coupled oscillators (both the quantum emitter

  • Resonant modes of reflecting gratings engineered for multimodal sensing
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Mohammad Abutoama; Aabha Bajaj; Dong Li; Yawen Wang; Lin Jiang; Ibrahim Abdulhalim

    Reflecting gratings with narrow grooves exhibit multiple electromagnetic modes. Using a simple setup, surface plasmon (SP), cavity mode (CM) resonance shift, surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals can be measured, thus forming a multimodal sensing or imaging system. The nature of these modes is first analyzed using dispersion curves as a function of the wavelength

  • Designer Bloch plasmon polariton dispersion in grating-coupled hyperbolic metamaterials
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Nicolò Maccaferri; Tommi Isoniemi; Michael Hinczewski; Marzia Iarossi; Giuseppe Strangi; Francesco De Angelis

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are anisotropic optical materials supporting highly confined propagating electromagnetic modes. However, it is challenging to tailor and excite these modes at optical frequencies by prism coupling because of the unavailability of high refractive index prisms for matching the momentum between the incident light and the guided modes. Here, we report on the mechanism of

  • High efficiency four wave mixing and optical bistability in amorphous silicon carbide ring resonators
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Peng Xing; Danhao Ma; Lionel C. Kimerling; Anuradha M. Agarwal; Dawn T. H. Tan

    We demonstrate high efficiency wavelength conversion via four wave mixing in amorphous silicon carbide ring resonators with a loaded quality factor of 70 000. Owing to the high quality factor and high nonlinearity of amorphous silicon carbide, −21 dB conversion efficiency is achieved with 15 mW pump power. Moreover, the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of amorphous silicon carbide is measured to be 1

  • Frequency-modulated diode laser frequency combs at 2μm wavelength
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Lukasz A. Sterczewski; Clifford Frez; Siamak Forouhar; David Burghoff; Mahmood Bagheri

    Chip-scale electrically pumped optical frequency combs (OFCs) are expected to play a fundamental role in applications ranging from telecommunications to optical sensing. To date, however, the availability of such sources around 2 μm has been scarce. Here, we present a frequency-modulated OFC operating around 2060 nm of wavelength exploiting the inherent gain nonlinearity of single-section GaSb-based

  • Highly sensitive magnetic field microsensor based on direct laser writing of fiber-tip optofluidic Fabry–Pérot cavity
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Dengwei Zhang; Heming Wei; Huizhu Hu; Sridhar Krishnaswamy

    In this paper, a polymer micro-Fabry–Pérot interferometer (FPI) fabricated via direct laser writing using two-photon polymerization techniques on a single mode fiber tip is proposed, designed, simulated, and experimentally demonstrated as a magnetic field probe. The sensor comprises a tapered waveguide with a length of 100 µm and a diameter of 1 µm along the axis connecting the two reflecting surfaces

  • Optical time-frequency transfer across a free-space, three-node network
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Martha I. Bodine; Jennifer L. Ellis; William C. Swann; Sarah A. Stevenson; Jean-Daniel Deschênes; Emily D. Hannah; Paritosh Manurkar; Nathan R. Newbury; Laura C. Sinclair

    We demonstrate frequency-comb-based optical two-way time-frequency transfer across a three-node clock network. A fielded, bidirectional relay node connects laboratory-based master and end nodes, allowing the network to span 28 km of turbulent outdoor air while keeping optical transmit powers below 5 mW. Despite the comparatively high instability of the free-running local oscillator at the relay node

  • Photonic glass based structural color
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Guoliang Shang; Manfred Eich; Alexander Petrov

    Structural coloration, which is based on spectrally selective scattering from optical structures, has recently attracted wide attention as a replacement of pigment colors based on the selective light absorption in chemical structures. Structural colors can be produced from transparent non-toxic materials and provide high stability under solar radiation. To provide angle independent non-iridescent colors

  • Super-resolution localization microscopy: Toward high throughput, high quality, and low cost
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Hongqiang Ma; Yang Liu

    After nearly 15 years since its initial debut, super-resolution localization microscopy that surpasses the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy has rapidly gotten out of the ivory tower and entered a new phase to address various challenging biomedical questions. Recent advances in this technology greatly increased the imaging throughput, improved the imaging quality, simplified

  • Injection-seeded backward terahertz-wave parametric oscillator
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Yuma Takida; Kouji Nawata; Hiroaki Minamide

    Engineered quasi-phase-matching in a periodically poled nonlinear crystal has enabled backward optical parametric oscillators, where a pump photon is down-converted to counterpropagating signal and idler photons without an optical cavity. Here, we demonstrate an injection-seeded backward terahertz-wave parametric oscillator (BW-TPO) based on a slant-strip-type periodically poled lithium niobate crystal

  • Fluorescence polarization filtering for accurate single molecule localization
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Oleksii Nevskyi; Roman Tsukanov; Ingo Gregor; Narain Karedla; Jörg Enderlein

    Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) has become one of the most important methods of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. It is based on the precise localization of single molecules in wide-field microscopy images. It is well known that the localization accuracy can show a significant bias if the imaged molecules have a fixed orientation and are located either close to an interface or

  • Observing mode-dependent wavelength-to-time mapping in few-mode fibers using a single-photon detector array
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Harikumar K. Chandrasekharan; Katjana Ehrlich; Michael G. Tanner; Dionne M. Haynes; Sebabrata Mukherjee; Tim A. Birks; Robert R. Thomson

    Wavelength-to-time mapping (WTM)—stretching ultrashort optical pulses in a dispersive medium such that the instantaneous frequency becomes time-dependent—is usually performed using a single-mode fiber. In a number of applications, such as time-stretch imaging (TSI), the use of this single-mode fiber during WTM limits the achievable sampling rate and the imaging quality. Multimode fiber based WTM is

  • Cavity mode manipulated by single gold nanoparticles
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Yipeng Lun; Ziyu Zhan; Fuxing Gu; Pan Wang; Huakang Yu; Zhi-yuan Li

    The ability to manipulate microlaser performance is highly desirable so as to promote on-chip classical and quantum information-processing technology. Here, we demonstrate that mode manipulation of bottle microresonators is enabled by precise deposition of single gold nanoparticles in a reconfigurable and selective manner. Numerical investigation reveals the mechanism of introducing optical loss via

  • Removing non-resonant background from CARS spectra via deep learning
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    C. M. Valensise; A. Giuseppi; F. Vernuccio; A. De la Cadena; G. Cerullo; D. Polli

    Broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (B-CARS) is a powerful label-free nonlinear spectroscopy technique allowing one to measure the full vibrational spectrum of molecules and solids. B-CARS spectra, however, suffer from the presence of a spurious signal, called non-resonant background (NRB), which interferes with the resonant vibrational one, distorting the line shapes and degrading the

  • High-Qnanobeam cavities on a silicon nitride platform enabled by slow light
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Jiahao Zhan; Zeinab Jafari; Sylvain Veilleux; Mario Dagenais; Israel De Leon

    Silicon nitride integrated photonic devices benefit from a wide working spectral range covering the visible and near-infrared spectra, which in turn enables important applications in bio-photonics, optical communications, and sensing. High-quality factor optical resonators are essential photonic devices for such applications. However, implementing such resonators on a silicon nitride platform is quite

  • Asymmetric dual-grating gates graphene FET for detection of terahertz radiations
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    J. A. Delgado-Notario; V. Clericò; E. Diez; J. E. Velázquez-Pérez; T. Taniguchi; K. Watanabe; T. Otsuji; Y. M. Meziani

    A graphene-based field-effect-transistor with asymmetric dual-grating gates was fabricated and characterized under excitation of terahertz radiation at two frequencies: 0.15 THz and 0.3 THz. The graphene sheet was encapsulated between two flakes of h-BN and placed on a highly doped SiO2/Si substrate. An asymmetric dual-grating gate was implemented on the h-BN top flake. Even though no antenna was used

  • Tunable third harmonic generation in the vacuum ultraviolet region using dielectric nanomembranes
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Kuniaki Konishi; Daisuke Akai; Yoshio Mita; Makoto Ishida; Junji Yumoto; Makoto Kuwata-Gonokami

    Tunable coherent light sources operating in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region in the 100–200-nm (6–12 eV) wavelength range have important spectroscopic applications in many research fields, including time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Recent advances in laser technology have enabled the upconversion of visible femtosecond lasers to the vacuum and extreme ultraviolet regions

  • Photoinjection of fluorescent nanoparticles into intact plant cells using femtosecond laser amplifier
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Taufiq Indra Rukmana; Gabriela Moran; Rachel Méallet-Renault; Gilles Clavier; Tadashi Kunieda; Misato Ohtani; Taku Demura; Ryohei Yasukuni; Yoichiroh Hosokawa

    The introduction of nanoparticles to intact plant cells is promising as a transporting technique of a wide range of functional molecules. Among various molecular delivery methods, femtosecond laser photoinjection possesses target selectivity at a single cell level and is potentially applicable for many types of materials. However, for plant cells, the vacuoles’ turgor pressure and the thick cell wall

  • Sub-megahertz narrow-band photon pairs at 606 nm for solid-state quantum memories
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Jianji Liu; Jiachen Liu; Ping Yu; Guoquan Zhang

    We report on the development of a source of ultra-narrow-band photon pairs using the cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down conversion. The photon-pair source has a bandwidth of 265 ± 15 kHz at 606 nm and a spectral brightness of 216 ± 5 pairs/(s · mW · MHz) per longitudinal mode, which could be suitable for Pr3+ ion-based solid-state quantum memories.

  • Diffraction-induced enhancement of optical spin Hall effect in a dielectric grating
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Minkyung Kim; Dasol Lee; Byoungsu Ko; Junsuk Rho

    The enhancement of the optical spin Hall effect (OSHE) of a transmitted beam has been achieved in a small incident angle of a sub-degree scale. The OSHE at a large incident angle can be beneficial in optical applications, such as polarization-dependent sensors and filters, but studies to increase the OSHE at a large incident angle have been elusive in transmission mode. We propose a dielectric grating

  • Far-field unlabeled super-resolution imaging with superoscillatory illumination
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Edward T. F. Rogers; Shmma Quraishe; Katrine S. Rogers; Tracey A. Newman; Peter J. S. Smith; Nikolay I. Zheludev

    Unlabeled super-resolution is the next grand challenge in imaging. Stimulated emission depletion and single-molecule microscopies have revolutionized the life sciences but are still limited by the need for reporters (labels) embedded within the sample. While the Veselago–Pendry “super-lens,” using a negative-index metamaterial, is a promising idea for imaging beyond the diffraction limit, there are

  • Optical parametric gain in CMOS-compatible sub-100μm photonic crystal waveguides
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Ezgi Sahin; Doris K. T. Ng; Dawn T. H. Tan

    Emerging compositionally engineered complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible platforms have been employed for high efficiencies in various on-chip applications, including optical parametric amplification and wavelength conversion. Combining the novel nonlinear optics platforms such as ultra-silicon-rich nitride (USRN: Si7N3) with periodic waveguide structures can lead to further enhancement

  • Mode-field switching of nanolasers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Daniele Pellegrino; Pierre Busi; Francesco Pagliano; Bruno Romeira; Frank W. van Otten; Andrei Yu. Silov; Andrea Fiore

    Due to their small sizes and low threshold, nanolasers play a pivotal role in the field of low-energy scalable photonic technologies. High-speed modulation of nanolasers is needed for their application in data communication, but its implementation has been hampered by the small scales involved, leading to large electrical parasitics. Here we experimentally demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel

  • Optical multi-stability in a nonlinear high-order microring resonator filter
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Li Jin, Luigi Di Lauro, Alessia Pasquazi, Marco Peccianti, David J. Moss, Roberto Morandotti, Brent E. Little, Sai Tak Chu

    We theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate optical bi-stability and multi-stability in an integrated nonlinear high-order microring resonator filter based on high-index contrast doped silica glass. We use a nonlinear model accounting for both the Kerr and thermal effects to analyze the instability behavior of the coupled-resonator based filter. The model also accurately predicts the multi-stable

  • Controlling dispersion in multifunctional metasurfaces
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Jared Sisler, Wei Ting Chen, Alexander Y. Zhu, Federico Capasso

    Metasurfaces can be designed to exhibit different functionalities with incident wavelength, polarization, or angles through appropriate choice and design of the constituent nanostructures. As a proof-of-concept, we design and simulate three multifunctional metalenses with vastly different focal lengths at blue and red wavelengths to show that the wavelength dependence of focal length shift can be engineered

  • 26.8-m THz wireless transmission of probabilistic shaping 16-QAM-OFDM signals
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Shiwei Wang, Zijie Lu, Wei Li, Shi Jia, Lu Zhang, Mengyao Qiao, Xiaodan Pang, Nazar Idrees, Muhammad Saqlain, Xiang Gao, Xiaoxiao Cao, Changxing Lin, Qiuyu Wu, Xianmin Zhang, Xianbin Yu

    Recently, remarkable efforts have been made in developing wireless communication systems at ultrahigh data rates, with radio frequency (RF) carriers in the millimeter wave (30–300 GHz) and/or in the terahertz (THz, >300 GHz) bands. Converged technologies combining both the electronics and the photonics show great potential to provide feasible solutions with superior performance compared to conventional

  • Nonlinear depolarization of light in optical communication fiber
    APL Photonics (IF 4.864) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Lothar Moeller

    We report the experimental observation of a novel transmission phenomenon in optical long-haul communication systems. Unpolarized ASE depolarizes via nonlinear fiber interactions a cw laser light during their copropagation which leads to small but measurable ultrafast polarization state fluctuations at the fiber output. We provide a phenomenological approach and a theory that qualitatively corroborates

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