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  • Label-free colorectal cancer screening using deep learning and spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM)
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Jingfang K. Zhang, Yuchen R. He, Nahil Sobh, Gabriel Popescu

    Current pathology workflow involves staining of thin tissue slices, which otherwise would be transparent, followed by manual investigation under the microscope by a trained pathologist. While the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is well-established and a cost-effective method for visualizing histology slides, its color variability across preparations and subjectivity across clinicians remain unaddressed

  • Deep learning for video compressive sensing
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Mu Qiao, Ziyi Meng, Jiawei Ma, Xin Yuan

    We investigate deep learning for video compressive sensing within the scope of snapshot compressive imaging (SCI). In video SCI, multiple high-speed frames are modulated by different coding patterns and then a low-speed detector captures the integration of these modulated frames. In this manner, each captured measurement frame incorporates the information of all the coded frames, and reconstruction

  • Computational de-noising based on deep learning for phase data in digital holographic interferometry
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Silvio Montresor, Marie Tahon, Antoine Laurent, Pascal Picart

    This paper presents a deep-learning-based algorithm dedicated to the processing of speckle noise in phase measurements in digital holographic interferometry. The deep learning architecture is trained with phase fringe patterns including faithful speckle noise, having non-Gaussian statistics and non-stationary property, and exhibiting spatial correlation length. The performances of the speckle de-noiser

  • Multichannel fiber laser acoustic emission sensor system for crack detection and location in accelerated fatigue testing of aluminum panels
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Caitlin R. S. Williams, Meredith N. Hutchinson, Joseph D. Hart, Marriner H. Merrill, Peter Finkel, William R. PogueIII, Geoffrey A. Cranch

    Detection and location of the source of acoustic emission in a thin aluminum panel is demonstrated using a multichannel fiber laser sensor system. Acoustic emission generated by a crack in an aluminum panel used as a test coupon in an accelerated fatigue experiment is detected and the location of the crack identified. Acoustic emission is detected over a bandwidth of around 0.5 MHz from a serially

  • Controlling spatiotemporal nonlinearities in multimode fibers with deep neural networks
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    U. Teğin, B. Rahmani, E. Kakkava, N. Borhani, C. Moser, D. Psaltis

    Spatiotemporal nonlinear interactions in multimode fibers are of interest for beam shaping and frequency conversion by exploiting the nonlinear interaction of different pump modes from quasi-continuous wave to ultrashort pulses centered around visible to infrared pump wavelengths. The nonlinear effects in multi-mode fibers depend strongly on the excitation condition; however, relatively little work

  • Synthetic photonic lattice for single-shot reconstruction of frequency combs
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    James G. Titchener, Bryn Bell, Kai Wang, Alexander S. Solntsev, Benjamin J. Eggleton, Andrey A. Sukhorukov

    We formulate theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an all-optical method for reconstruction of the amplitude, phase, and coherence of frequency combs from a single-shot measurement of the spectral intensity. Our approach exploits synthetic frequency lattices with pump-induced spectral short- and long-range couplings between different signal components across a broad bandwidth of hundreds of

  • Distributed acoustic sensing for seismic activity monitoring
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    María R. Fernández-Ruiz, Marcelo A. Soto, Ethan F. Williams, Sonia Martin-Lopez, Zhongwen Zhan, Miguel Gonzalez-Herraez, Hugo F. Martins

    Continuous, real-time monitoring of surface seismic activity around the globe is of great interest for acquiring new insight into global tomography analyses and for recognition of seismic patterns leading to potentially hazardous situations. The already-existing telecommunication fiber optic network arises as an ideal solution for this application, owing to its ubiquity and the capacity of optical

  • Diamond Brillouin laser in the visible
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Zhenxu Bai, Robert J. Williams, Ondrej Kitzler, Soumya Sarang, David J. Spence, Yulei Wang, Zhiwei Lu, Richard P. Mildren

    Brillouin lasers providing extremely narrow-linewidth are emerging as a powerful tool for microwave photonics, coherent communications, quantum processors, and spectroscopy. So far, laser performance and applications have been investigated for a handful of select materials and using guided-wave structures such as micro-resonators, optical fibers, and chip-based waveguides. Here, we report a Brillouin

  • Frequency scanned phase sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry interrogation in multimode optical fibers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    K. Markiewicz, J. Kaczorowski, Z. Yang, L. Szostkiewicz, A. Dominguez-Lopez, K. Wilczynski, M. Napierala, T. Nasilowski, L. Thévenaz

    Standard multimode optical fibers normally support transmission over some 100 modes. Large differences in the propagation constant and the spatial distribution of distinct modes degrade the performance of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry measurements. In this work, we present a new realization of a coherent time-domain interrogation technique using single-mode operation in multimode

  • Unveiling quantum-limited operation of interband cascade lasers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Simone Borri, Mario Siciliani de Cumis, Silvia Viciani, Francesco D’Amato, Paolo De Natale

    A comprehensive experimental analysis of the frequency fluctuations of a mid-infrared interband cascade laser, down to the quantum-limited operation, is reported. These lasers differ from any other class of semiconductor lasers in their structure and internal carrier generation and transport processes. Although already commercially available, a full evaluation of their potential has not been possible

  • One-dimensional, surface emitting, disordered Terahertz lasers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Luca Salemi, Katia Garrasi, Simone Biasco, Teresa Crisci, Harvey E. Beere, David A. Ritchie, Miriam S. Vitiello

    Quantum cascade lasers are, by far, the most compact, powerful, and spectrally pure sources of radiation at terahertz frequencies, and, as such, they are of crucial importance for applications in metrology, spectroscopy, imaging, and astronomy, among many others. However, for many of those applications, particularly imaging, tomography, and near-field microscopy, undesired artifacts, resulting from

  • Wavefront shaping in multimode fibers by transmission matrix engineering
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Shachar Resisi, Yehonatan Viernik, Sebastien M. Popoff, Yaron Bromberg

    We present a new approach for shaping light at the output of a multimode fiber by modulating the transmission matrix of the system rather than the incident light. We apply computer-controlled mechanical perturbations to the fiber and obtain a desired intensity pattern at its output resulting from the changes to its transmission matrix. Using an all-fiber apparatus, we demonstrate focusing light at

  • Continuous-wave 6-dB-squeezed light with 2.5-THz-bandwidth from single-mode PPLN waveguide
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Takahiro Kashiwazaki, Naoto Takanashi, Taichi Yamashima, Takushi Kazama, Koji Enbutsu, Ryoichi Kasahara, Takeshi Umeki, Akira Furusawa

    Terahertz (THz)-bandwidth continuous-wave (CW) squeezed light is essential for integrating quantum processors with time-domain multiplexing (TDM) by using optical delay line interferometers. Here, we utilize a single-pass optical parametric amplifier (OPA) based on a single-spatial-mode periodically poled ZnO:LiNbO3 waveguide, which is directly bonded onto a LiTaO3 substrate. The single-pass OPA allows

  • Wavelength-independent optical fully differential operation based on the spin–orbit interaction of light
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Shanshan He, Junxiao Zhou, Shizhen Chen, Weixing Shu, Hailu Luo, Shuangchun Wen

    Optical technology may provide important architectures for future computing, such as analog optical computing and image processing. Compared with traditional electric operation, optical operation has shown some unique advantages including faster operating speeds and lower power consumption. Here, we propose an optical full differentiator based on the spin–orbit interaction of light at a simple optical

  • Surface-passivated high-QGaAs photonic crystal nanocavity with quantum dots
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Kazuhiro Kuruma, Yasutomo Ota, Masahiro Kakuda, Satoshi Iwamoto, Yasuhiko Arakawa

    Photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities with high quality (Q) factors have attracted much attention because of their strong spatial and temporal light confinement capability. The resulting enhanced light–matter interactions are beneficial for diverse photonic applications, ranging from on-chip optical communications to sensing. However, currently achievable Q factors for active PhC nanocavities, which

  • InAs-based quantum cascade lasers grown on on-axis (001) silicon substrate
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Z. Loghmari, J.-B. Rodriguez, A. N. Baranov, M. Rio-Calvo, L. Cerutti, A. Meguekam, M. Bahriz, R. Teissier, E. Tournié

    We present InAs/AlSb quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) monolithically integrated on an on-axis (001) Si substrate. The lasers emit near 8 μm with threshold current densities of 0.92–0.95 kA/cm2 at 300 K for 3.6-mm-long devices and operate in pulsed mode up to 410 K. QCLs of the same design grown for comparison on a native InAs substrate demonstrated a threshold current density of 0.75 kA/cm2 and the same

  • A single sensor based multispectral imaging camera using a narrow spectral band color mosaic integrated on the monochrome CMOS image sensor
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Xin He, Yajing Liu, Kumar Ganesan, Arman Ahnood, Paul Beckett, Fatima Eftekhari, Dan Smith, Md Hemayet Uddin, Efstratios Skafidas, Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas, Ranjith Rajasekharan Unnithan

    A multispectral image camera captures image data within specific wavelength ranges in narrow wavelength bands across the electromagnetic spectrum. Images from a multispectral camera can extract a additional information that the human eye or a normal camera fails to capture and thus may have important applications in precision agriculture, forestry, medicine, and object identification. Conventional

  • Deep-learning-enabled geometric constraints and phase unwrapping for single-shot absolute 3D shape measurement
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Jiaming Qian, Shijie Feng, Tianyang Tao, Yan Hu, Yixuan Li, Qian Chen, Chao Zuo

    Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has become a more prevalently adopted technique in intelligent manufacturing, defect detection, and some other important applications. In FPP, efficiently recovering the absolute phase has always been a great challenge. The stereo phase unwrapping (SPU) technologies based on geometric constraints can eliminate phase ambiguity without projecting any additional patterns

  • Virtual optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase imaging
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Haochen Yan, Yunzhao Wu, Yuqi Zhou, Muzhen Xu, Petra Paiè, Cheng Lei, Sheng Yan, Keisuke Goda

    Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase imaging (OTS-QPI) is a potent tool for biomedical applications as it enables high-throughput QPI of numerous cells for large-scale single-cell analysis in a label-free manner. However, there are a few critical limitations that hinder OTS-QPI from being widely applied to diverse applications, such as its costly instrumentation and inherent phase-unwrapping

  • Computational approach to dark-field optical diffraction tomography
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    Taean Chang, Seungwoo Shin, Moosung Lee, YongKeun Park

    The measurement of three-dimensional (3D) images and the analysis of subcellular organelles are crucial for the study of the pathophysiology of cells and tissues. Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) facilitates label-free and quantitative imaging of live cells by reconstructing 3D refractive index (RI) distributions. In many cases, however, the contrast in RI distributions is not strong enough to

  • Repetition rate multiplication control of micro-combs assisted by perfect temporal Talbot effect
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Yanjing Zhao, Liao Chen, Weiqiang Wang, Ruolan Wang, Hao Hu, Xinyu Wang, Chi Zhang, Wenfu Zhang, Xinliang Zhang

    Controllable repetition rate multiplication of micro-combs is demonstrated based on the perfect temporal Talbot effect. With third-order-dispersion being eliminated, the repetition rates of micro-combs can be precisely controlled with strong reconfigurability and compatibility. First, we show the fifth multiplication of the repetition rate with unaffected pulse width and shape in both simulation and

  • Image-guided cell sorting using fast scanning lasers
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Xinyu Chen, Yi Gu, Jiajie Chen, Chang-Hung Lee, Ivan Gagne, Rui Tang, Lauren Waller, Zunming Zhang, Alex Ce Zhang, Yuanyuan Han, Weian Wang, Ian Y. Lian, Sung Hwan Cho, Yu-Hwa Lo

    Classification of cell types and isolation of targeted cells according to their imaging and spatial characteristics, beyond traditional fluorescently labeled biomarkers, enable the development of new biological insight and establishment of connections between phenotypical and morphological, and genomic cell information in normal and diseased states. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic flow cytometer

  • Recent advances in high speed diffuse optical imaging in biomedicine
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    M. B. Applegate, R. E. Istfan, S. Spink, A. Tank, D. Roblyer

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a label-free, safe, inexpensive, and quantitative imaging modality that provides metabolic and molecular contrast in tissue using visible or near-infrared light. DOI modalities can image up to several centimeters deep in tissue, providing access to a wide range of human tissues and organ sites. DOI technologies have benefitted from several decades of academic research

  • Demonstration of scalable microring weight bank control for large-scale photonic integrated circuits
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Chaoran Huang, Simon Bilodeau, Thomas Ferreira de Lima, Alexander N. Tait, Philip Y. Ma, Eric C. Blow, Aashu Jha, Hsuan-Tung Peng, Bhavin J. Shastri, Paul R. Prucnal

    Microring resonators (MRRs) are reconfigurable optical elements ubiquitous in photonic integrated circuits. Owing to its high sensitivity, MRR control is very challenging, especially in large-scale optical systems. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate continuous, multi-channel control of MRR weight banks using simple calibration procedures. A record-high accuracy and precision are achieved for

  • Real-time machine learning based fiber-induced nonlinearity compensation in energy-efficient coherent optical networks
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Elias Giacoumidis, Yi Lin, Michaela Blott, Liam P. Barry

    We experimentally demonstrate the world’s first field-programmable gate-array-based real-time fiber nonlinearity compensator (NLC) using sparse K-means++ machine learning clustering in an energy-efficient 40-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulated self-coherent optical system. Our real-time NLC shows up to 3 dB improvement in Q-factor compared to linear equalization at 50 km of transmission.

  • Ultra-wideband tri-layer transmissive linear polarization converter for terahertz waves
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Rajour Tanyi Ako, Wendy S. L. Lee, Shaghik Atakaramians, Madhu Bhaskaran, Sharath Sriram, Withawat Withayachumnankul

    Polarization control is shown to enhance functionalities of terahertz waves in various applications. As a step toward introducing efficient practical devices operating in the terahertz band, we propose and experimentally validate a free-standing three-layer polarization converter operating in transmission. The device can efficiently convert a linearly polarized terahertz wave to its orthogonal counterpart

  • Hybrid photonics beyond silicon
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Christelle Monat, Yikai Su

    In the past years, significant progress has been made on the realization of high performance building blocks in photonic circuits, such as ultra-low loss waveguides, monolithic lasers, high-speed modulators, and high efficiency photodetectors. However, toward large scale integration with complete functions and breakthrough performance, there are still many challenging problems to solve. While silicon

  • Time-encoded single-pixel 3D imaging
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jiajie Teng, Qiang Guo, Minghua Chen, Sigang Yang, Hongwei Chen

    With the increasing attention in single pixel imaging and three dimensional (3D) measurement, several effective single-pixel 3D imaging (SPI-3D) systems have been put forward, which are capable of retrieving the 3D form of an object. However, for a dynamic 3D scene that occurs within several microseconds, these SPI-3D systems have encountered multiple speed limitations from active illumination devices

  • Photonic neuromorphic information processing and reservoir computing
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    A. Lugnan, A. Katumba, F. Laporte, M. Freiberger, S. Sackesyn, C. Ma, E. Gooskens, J. Dambre, P. Bienstman

    Photonic neuromorphic computing is attracting tremendous research interest now, catalyzed in no small part by the rise of deep learning in many applications. In this paper, we will review some of the exciting work that has been going in this area and then focus on one particular technology, namely, photonic reservoir computing.

  • Photonic crystal light trapping: Beyond 30% conversion efficiency for silicon photovoltaics
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Sayak Bhattacharya, Sajeev John

    The power conversion efficiency of single-junction silicon solar cells has increased only by 1.5% despite extensive efforts over the past two decades. The current world-record efficiencies of silicon solar cells, within the 25%–26.7% range, fall well below the thermodynamic limit of 32.3%. We review the recent progress in photonic crystal light-trapping architectures poised to achieve 28%–31% conversion

  • Photonic integration for UV to IR applications
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Daniel J. Blumenthal

    Photonic integration opens the potential to reduce size, power, and cost of applications normally relegated to table- and rack-sized systems. Today, a wide range of precision, high-end, ultra-sensitive, communication and computation, and measurement and scientific applications, including atomic clocks, quantum communications, processing, and high resolution spectroscopy, are ready to make the leap

  • On quantum-dot lasing at gain peak with linewidth enhancement factorαH= 0
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Weng W. Chow, Zeyu Zhang, Justin C. Norman, Songtao Liu, John E. Bowers

    This paper describes an investigation of the linewidth enhancement factor αH in a semiconductor quantum-dot laser. Results are presented for active region parameters and laser configurations important for minimizing αH. In particular, the feasibility of lasing at the gain peak with αH = 0 is explored. The study uses a many-body theory with dephasing effects from carrier scattering treated at the level

  • Ultra-broadband mid-infrared Ge-on-Si waveguide polarization rotator
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Kevin Gallacher, Ross W. Millar, Ugne Griškevičiūtė, Martin Sinclair, Marc Sorel, Leonetta Baldassarre, Michele Ortolani, Richard Soref, Douglas J. Paul

    The design, modeling, micro-fabrication, and characterization of an ultra-broadband Ge-on-Si waveguide polarization rotator are presented. The polarization rotator is based on the mode evolution approach where adiabatic symmetric and anti-symmetric tapers are utilized to convert from the fundamental transverse magnetic to electric mode. The device is shown to be extremely fabrication tolerant and simple

  • On-chip waveguide-coupled opto-electro-mechanical system for nanoscale displacement sensing
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Federico Galeotti, Ivana Seršić Vollenbroek, Maurangelo Petruzzella, Francesco Pagliano, Frank W. M. van Otten, Žarko Zobenica, Abbas Mohtashami, Hamed Sadeghian Marnani, Rob W. van der Heijden, Andrea Fiore

    Miniaturization of displacement sensors for nanoscale metrology is a key requirement in many applications such as accelerometry, mass sensing, and atomic force microscopy. While optics provides high resolution and bandwidth, integration of sensor readout is required to achieve low-cost, compact, and parallelizable devices. Here, we present a novel integrated opto-electro-mechanical device for displacement

  • Invited Article: Digital refocusing in quantitative phase imaging for flowing red blood cells.
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Han Sang Park,Silvia Ceballos,Will J Eldridge,Adam Wax

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) offers high optical path length sensitivity, probing nanoscale features of live cells, but it is typically limited to imaging just few static cells at a time. To enable utility as a biomedical diagnostic modality, higher throughput is needed. To meet this need, methods for imaging cells in flow using QPI are in development. An important need for this application is

  • Perspective: Prospects of non-invasive sensing of the human brain with diffuse optical imaging.
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Sergio Fantini,Blaise Frederick,Angelo Sassaroli

    Since the initial demonstration of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for noninvasive measurements of brain perfusion and metabolism in the 1970s, and its application to functional brain studies (fNIRS) in the 1990s, the field of noninvasive optical studies of the brain has been continuously growing. Technological developments, data analysis advances, and novel areas of application keep advancing the

  • Simultaneously imaging and quantifying in vivo mechanical properties of crystalline lens and cornea using optical coherence elastography with acoustic radiation force excitation.
    APL Photonics (IF 4.383) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Yan Li,Jiang Zhu,Jason J Chen,Junxiao Yu,Zi Jin,Yusi Miao,Andrew W Browne,Qifa Zhou,Zhongping Chen

    The crystalline lens and cornea comprise the eye's optical system for focusing light in human vision. The changes in biomechanical properties of the lens and cornea are closely associated with common diseases, including presbyopia and cataract. Currently, most in vivo elasticity studies of the anterior eye focus on the measurement of the cornea, while lens measurement remains challenging. To better

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