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  • Applying Movement Constraints to BLE RSSI-Based Indoor Positioning for Extracting Valid Semantic Trajectories
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Hani Ramadhan; Yoga Yustiawan; Joonho Kwon

    Indoor positioning techniques, owing to received signal strength indicator (RSSI)-based sensors, can provide useful trajectory-based services. These services include user movement analytics, next-to-visit recommendation, and hotspot detection. However, the value of RSSI is often disturbed due to obstacles in indoor environment, such as doors, walls, and furnitures. Therefore, many indoor positioning techniques still extract an invalid trajectory from the disturbed RSSI. An invalid trajectory contains distant or impossible consecutive positions within a short time, which is unlikely in a real-world scenario. In this study, we enhanced indoor positioning techniques with movement constraints on BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) RSSI data to prevent an invalid semantic indoor trajectory. The movement constraints ensure that a predicted semantic position cannot be far apart from the previous position. Furthermore, we can extend any indoor positioning technique using these movement constraints. We conducted comprehensive experimental studies on real BLE RSSI datasets from various indoor environment scenarios. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively extracts valid indoor semantic trajectories from the RSSI data.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Features from Multiple Images
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Zhiyuan Ma; Zhi Huang; Anni Lin; Guangming Huang

    Detecting and classifying the modulation type of the intercepted noisy LPI (low probability of intercept) radar signals in real-time is a necessary survival technique in the electronic intelligence systems. Most radar signals have been designed to have LPI properties; therefore, the LPI radar waveform recognition technique (LWRT) has recently gained increasing attention. In this paper, we propose a multiple feature images joint decision (MFIJD) model with two different feature extraction structures that fully extract the pixel feature to obtain the pre-classification results of each feature image for the non-stationary characteristics of most LPI radar signals. The core technology of this model is combining the short-time autocorrelation feature image, double short-time autocorrelation feature image and the original signal time-frequency image (TFI) simultaneously input into the hybrid model classifier, which is suitable for non-stationary signals, and it has higher universality. We demonstrate the performance of MFIJD by simulating 11 types of the signals defined in this paper and generating training sets and test sets. The comparison with the literature shows that the proposed methods not only has a high universality for LPI radar signals, but also better adapts to LPI radar waveform recognition at low SNR (signal to noise ratio) environment. The overall recognition rate of the method reaches 87.7% when the SNR is −6 dB.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Use of a Novel Resistive Strain Sensor Approach in an Experimental and Theoretical Study Concerning Large Spherical Storage Tank Structure Behavior During Its Operational Life and Pressure Tests
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Virgil Florescu; Stefan Mocanu; Laurentiu Rece; Robert Ursache; Nicolae Goga; Constantin Viorel Marian

    This paper introduces a new method for the use of tensor-resistive sensors in large spherical storage tank equipment (over 12,000-mm diameters). We did an experiment with 19 petroleum or ammonia product sphere-shaped storage tanks with volumes of 1000 and 1800 cubic meters, respectively. The existing literature only contains experiments based on sensors for tanks with diameters no larger than 600 mm. Based on a number of resistive strain sensor measurements on large spherical pressurized vessels regarding structural integrity assessment, the present paper is focused on the comparison between "real-life" obtained sensor data versus finite element method (FEM) simulation results. The present paper is structured in three parts and examines innovative directions: the use of the classic tensor-resistive sensors in a new approach concerning large structural equipment; an original 3D modeling method with the help of the FEM; and conclusions with possible implications on the regulations, design, or maintenance as a result of the attempt of mutual validation of the new methods previously mentioned.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The Acquisition Rate and Soundness of a Low-Cost Data Acquisition System (LC-DAQ) for High Frequency Applications
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ciro Moreno; Alejandro González; José Luis Olazagoitia; Jordi Vinolas

    This article presents a novel and reliable low-cost data acquisition solution for high frequency and real-time applications in vehicular dynamics. Data acquisition systems for highly dynamic systems based on low-cost platforms face different challenges such as a constrained data retrieval rate. Basic data reading functions in these platforms are inefficient and, when used, they limit electronics acquisition rate capabilities. This paper explains a new low-cost, modular and open platform to read different types of sensors at high speed rates. Conventional reading functions are avoided to speed up acquisition rate, but this negatively affects data reliability of the system. To solve this and exploit higher data managing rates, a number of custom secure layers are implemented to secure a reliable acquisition. This paper describes the new low-cost electronics developed for high rate acquisition applications and inspects its performance and robustness against the introduction of an increasing number of sensors connected to the board. In most cases, acquisition rates of the system are duplicated using this new solution.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Three-Dimensional Wind Measurement Based on Ultrasonic Sensor Array and Multiple Signal Classification
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Bian Ma; Jing Teng; Huixian Zhu; Rong Zhou; Yun Ju; Shi Liu

    The wind power industry continues to experience rapid growth worldwide. However, the fluctuations in wind speed and direction complicate the wind turbine control process and hinder the integration of wind power into the electrical grid. To maximize wind utilization, we propose to precisely measure the wind in a three-dimensional (3D) space, thus facilitating the process of wind turbine control. Natural wind is regarded as a 3D vector, whose direction and magnitude correspond to the wind’s direction and speed. A semi-conical ultrasonic sensor array is proposed to simultaneously measure the wind speed and direction in a 3D space. As the ultrasonic signal transmitted between the sensors is influenced by the wind and environment noise, a Multiple Signal Classification algorithm is adopted to estimate the wind information from the received signal. The estimate’s accuracy is evaluated in terms of root mean square error and mean absolute error. The robustness of the proposed method is evaluated by the type A evaluation of standard uncertainty under a varying signal-to-noise ratio. Simulation results validate the accuracy and anti-noise performance of the proposed method, whose estimated wind speed and direction errors converge to zero when the SNR is over 15 dB.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Active Chemical Sampling Using Jet Discharge Inspired by Crayfish: CFD Simulations of the Flow Fields Generated by the Jet Discharge Device
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Hanako Ishida; Ryuichi Takemura; Tatsuki Mitsuishi; Haruka Matsukura; Hiroshi Ishida

    Here, we report on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations conducted to develop a chemical sample collection device inspired by crayfish. The sensitivity of chemical sensors can be improved when used with a sniffing device. By collecting fluid samples from the surroundings, all solute species are also collected for the sensor. Crayfish generate jet-like water currents for this purpose. Compared to simply sucking water, food smells dissolved in the surrounding water can be more efficiently collected using the inflow induced by the jet discharge because of the smaller decay of the inflow velocity with the distance. Moreover, the angular range of water sample collection can be adjusted by changing the directions of the jet discharge. In our previous work, a chemical sample collection device that mimics the jet discharge of crayfish has been proposed. Here, we report CFD simulations of the flow fields generated by the device. By carefully configuring the simulation setups, we have obtained simulation results in which the angular ranges of the chemical sample collection in real experiments is well reproduced. Although there are still some discrepancies between the simulation and experimental results, such simulations will facilitate the process of designing such devices.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Real-Time Dynamic 3D Shape Reconstruction with SWIR InGaAs Camera
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Cheng Fei; Yanyang Ma; Shan Jiang; Junliang Liu; Baoqing Sun; Yongfu Li; Yi Gu; Xian Zhao; Jiaxiong Fang

    In this paper, a real-time, dynamic three-dimensional (3D) shape reconstruction scheme based on the Fourier-transform profilometry (FTP) method is achieved with a short-wave infrared (SWIR) indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera for monitoring applications in low illumination environments. A SWIR 3D shape reconstruction system is built for generating and acquiring the SWIR two-dimensional (2D) fringe pattern of the target. The depth information of the target is reconstructed by employing an improved FTP method, which has the advantages of high reconstruction accuracy and speed. The maximum error in depth for static 3D shape reconstruction is 1.15 mm for a plastic model with a maximum depth of 36 mm. Meanwhile, a real-time 3D shape reconstruction with a frame rate of 25 Hz can be realized by this system, which has great application prospects in real-time dynamic 3D shape reconstruction, such as low illumination monitoring. In addition, for real-time dynamic 3D shape reconstruction, without considering the edge areas, the maximum error in depth among all frames is 1.42 mm for a hemisphere with a depth of 35 mm, and the maximum error of the average of all frames in depth is 0.52 mm.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Capacity Bounds for Dense Massive MIMO in a Line-of-Sight Propagation Environment
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Felipe A. P. de Figueiredo; Claudio F. Dias; Eduardo R. de Lima; Gustavo Fraidenraich

    The use of large-scale antenna arrays grants considerable benefits in energy and spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to spatial resolution and array gain techniques. By assuming a dominant line-of-sight environment in a massive multiple-input multiple-output scenario, we derive analytical expressions for the sum-capacity. Then, we show that convenient simplifications on the sum-capacity expressions are possible when working at low and high signal-to-noise ratio regimes. Furthermore, in the case of low and high signal-to-noise ratio regimes, it is demonstrated that the Gamma probability density function can approximate the probability density function of the instantaneous channel sum-capacity as the number of served devices and base station antennas grows, respectively. A second important demonstration presented in this work is that a Gamma probability density function can also be used to approximate the probability density function of the summation of the channel’s singular values as the number of devices increases. Finally, it is important to highlight that the presented framework is useful for a massive number of Internet of Things devices as we show that the transmit power of each device can be made inversely proportional to the number of base station antennas.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Analysis of Primary Field Shielding Stability for the Weak Coupling Coil Designs
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Jiangbo Huang; Haowen Wang; Zhihong Fu; Wei Fu

    As an electromagnetic field conversion tool in the transient electromagnetic method (TEM), the weak coupling coils reduce the mutual inductance of its transmitter and receiver coils by special structural optimization, so the detection signal can be protruded from the primary field interference generated by the transmitter coil; thus, this kind of coil design can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio. However, with the popularity of drag or aerial TEM exploration, the structural stability problem caused by bumps or windage leads to non-negligible primary field leakages, thereby reducing the detection reliability. This paper incorporates the primary field shielding stability as a key indicator of the weak coupling designs and proposes a calibration scheme for this stability assessment, based on which the shielding stability of five typical weak coupling coil designs is quantitatively compared, and the relationship between the primary field density and the shielding stability explored in this study may contribute to the selection and improvement of TEM coils.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Method to Estimate Horse Speed per Stride from One IMU with a Machine Learning Method
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Amandine Schmutz; Laurence Chèze; Julien Jacques; Pauline Martin

    With the emergence of numerical sensors in sports, there is an increasing need for tools and methods to compute objective motion parameters with great accuracy. In particular, inertial measurement units are increasingly used in the clinical domain or the sports one to estimate spatiotemporal parameters. The purpose of the present study was to develop a model that can be included in a smart device in order to estimate the horse speed per stride from accelerometric and gyroscopic data without the use of a global positioning system, enabling the use of such a tool in both indoor and outdoor conditions. The accuracy of two speed calculation methods was compared: one signal based and one machine learning model. Those two methods allowed the calculation of speed from accelerometric and gyroscopic data without any other external input. For this purpose, data were collected under various speeds on straight lines and curved paths. Two reference systems were used to measure the speed in order to have a reference speed value to compare each tested model and estimate their accuracy. Those models were compared according to three different criteria: the percentage of error above 0.6 m/s, the RMSE, and the Bland and Altman limit of agreement. The machine learning method outperformed its competitor by giving the lowest value for all three criteria. The main contribution of this work is that it is the first method that gives an accurate speed per stride for horses without being coupled with a global positioning system or a magnetometer. No similar study performed on horses exists to compare our work with, so the presented model is compared to existing models for human walking. Moreover, this tool can be extended to other equestrian sports, as well as bipedal locomotion as long as consistent data are provided to train the machine learning model. The machine learning model’s accurate results can be explained by the large database built to train the model and the innovative way of slicing stride data before using them as an input for the model.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Airborne and Terrestrial Observations of the Thermal Environment of Urban Areas Surrounding a High-Rise Building during the Japanese Winter
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Haruki Oshio; Kan Chen; Takashi Asawa

    We investigated the distribution of air temperature (Ta) and the factors affecting it in low-rise areas surrounding an isolated high-rise building during the Japanese winter. The study site was the central part of a regional city in Japan (36°5′ N, 140°12′ E), lying north-east of the Tokyo metropolitan area. The daytime surface temperature (Ts) in the shade is generally considered to be comparable to Ta; however, according to airborne remote sensing conducted in December 2009 where a multi-spectral scanner was installed on a fixed-wing aircraft, Ts for pavements in the shade of a high-rise building was significantly lower than Ta of sub-urban areas, indicating an influence of cold storage on Ts. Then, we conducted mobile observations using instruments (thermocouple, four component radiometer, and so on) installed on a bicycle in January 2016 to investigate the detailed distribution of Ta and the factors affecting it. The results showed the Ta over the pavements in the shade of the high-rise building was lower than the Ta of sunlit areas in the same urban area by −2 °C and lower than the Ta of sub-urban areas by −1–1.5 °C, although the advection effect was large due to strong winds around the building. In conclusion, a locally lower Ta compared to the surrounding areas can develop during the day in winter, even in spaces that are open to areas beyond the canopy.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Air-Coupled Reception of a Slow Ultrasonic A0 Mode Wave Propagating in Thin Plastic Film
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Rymantas J. Kazys; Almantas Vilpisauskas

    At low frequencies, in thin plates the phase velocity of the guided A0 mode can become slower than that of the ultrasound velocity in air. Such waves do not excite leaky waves in the surrounding air, and therefore, it is impossible to excite and receive them by conventional air-coupled methods. The objective of this research was the development of an air-coupled technique for the reception of slow A0 mode in thin plastic films. This study demonstrates the feasibility of picking up a subsonic A0 mode in plastic films by air-coupled ultrasonic arrays. The air-coupled reception was based on an evanescent wave in air accompanying the propagating A0 mode in a film. The efficiency of the reception was enhanced by using a virtual array which was arranged from the data collected by a single air-coupled receiver. The signals measured at the points corresponding to the positions of the phase-matched array were recorded and processed. The transmitting array excited not only the A0 mode in the film, but also a direct wave in air. This wave propagated at ultrasound velocity in air and was faster than the evanescent wave. For efficient reception of the A0 mode, the additional signal-processing procedure based on the application of the 2D Fourier transform in a spatial–temporal domain. The obtained results can be useful for the development of novel air-coupled ultrasonic non-destructive testing techniques.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • UAV Mission Planning Resistant to Weather Uncertainty
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Amila Thibbotuwawa; Grzegorz Bocewicz; Grzegorz Radzki; Peter Nielsen; Zbigniew Banaszak

    Fleet mission planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is the process of creating flight plans for a specific set of objectives and typically over a time period. Due to the increasing focus on the usage of large UAVs, a key challenge is to conduct mission planning addressing changing weather conditions, collision avoidance, and energy constraints specific to these types of UAVs. This paper presents a declarative approach for solving the complex mission planning resistant to weather uncertainty. The approach has been tested on several examples, analyzing how customer satisfaction is influenced by different values of the mission parameters, such as the fleet size, travel distance, wind direction, and wind speed. Computational experiments show the results that allow assessing alternative strategies of UAV mission planning.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Efficient Privacy-Preserving Data Sharing for Fog-Assisted Vehicular Sensor Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yang Ming; Xiaopeng Yu

    Vehicular sensor networks (VSNs) have emerged as a paradigm for improving traffic safety in urban cities. However, there are still several issues with VSNs. Vehicles equipped with sensing devices usually upload large amounts of data reports to a remote cloud center for processing and analyzing, causing heavy computation and communication costs. Additionally, to choose an optimal route, it is required for vehicles to query the remote cloud center to obtain road conditions of the potential moving route, leading to an increased communication delay and leakage of location privacy. To solve these problems, this paper proposes an efficient privacy-preserving data sharing (EP 2 DS) scheme for fog-assisted vehicular sensor networks. Specifically, the proposed scheme utilizes fog computing to provide local data sharing with low latency; furthermore, it exploits a super-increasing sequence to format the sensing data of different road segments into one report, thus saving on the resources of communication and computation. In addition, using the modified oblivious transfer technology, the proposed scheme can query the road conditions of the potential moving route without disclosing the query location. Finally, an analysis of security suggests that the proposed scheme can satisfy all the requirements for security and privacy, with the evaluation results indicating that the proposed scheme leads to low costs in computation and communication.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • On the Slow-Time k-Space and its Augmentation in Doppler Radar Tomography
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Hai-Tan Tran; Emma Heading; Brian W.-H. Ng

    Doppler Radar Tomography (DRT) relies on spatial diversity from rotational motion of a target rather than spectral diversity from wide bandwidth signals. The slow-time k-space is a novel form of the spatial frequency space generated by the relative rotational motion of a target at a single radar frequency, which can be exploited for high-resolution target imaging by a narrowband radar with Doppler tomographic signal processing. This paper builds on a previously published work and demonstrates, with real experimental data, a unique and interesting characteristic of the slow-time k-space: it can be augmented and significantly enhance imaging resolution by signal processing. High resolution can reveal finer details in the image, providing more information to identify unknown targets detected by the radar.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A New In-Flight Alignment Method with an Application to the Low-Cost SINS/GPS Integrated Navigation System
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhenglong Lu; Jie Li; Xi Zhang; Kaiqiang Feng; Xiaokai Wei; Debiao Zhang; Jing Mi; Yang Liu

    The optimization-based alignment (OBA) methods, which are implemented by the optimal attitude estimation using vector observations—also called double-vectors—have proven to be effective at solving the in-flight alignment (IFA) problem. However, the traditional OBA methods are not applicable for the low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) since the error of double-vectors will be accumulated over time due to the substantial drift of micro-electronic- mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope. Moreover, the existing optimal estimation method is subject to a large computation burden, which results in a low alignment speed. To address these issues, in this article we propose a new fast IFA method based on modified double-vectors construction and the gradient descent method. To be specific, the modified construction method is implemented by reducing the integration interval and identifying the gyroscope bias during the construction procedure, which improves the accuracy of double-vectors and IFA; the gradient descent scheme is adopted to estimate the optimal attitude of alignment without complex matrix operation, which results in the improvement of alignment speed. The effect of different sizes of mini-batch on the performance of the gradient descent method is also discussed. Extensive simulations and vehicle experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has better accuracy and faster alignment speed than the related traditional methods for the low-cost SINS/global positioning system (GPS) integrated navigation system

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Multiplexed Remote SPR Detection of Biological Interactions through Optical Fiber Bundles
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Cloé Desmet; Karim Vindas; Ricardo Alvarado Meza; Patrick Garrigue; Silvia Voci; Neso Sojic; Ali Maziz; Rémi Courson; Laurent Malaquin; Thierry Leichle; Arnaud Buhot; Yoann Roupioz; Loic Leroy; Elodie Engel

    The development of sensitive methods for in situ detection of biomarkers is a real challenge to bring medical diagnosis a step forward. The proof-of-concept of a remote multiplexed biomolecular interaction detection through a plasmonic optical fiber bundle is demonstrated here. The strategy relies on a fiber optic biosensor designed from a 300 µm diameter bundle composed of 6000 individual optical fibers. When appropriately etched and metallized, each optical fiber exhibits specific plasmonic properties. The surface plasmon resonance phenomenon occurring at the surface of each fiber enables to measure biomolecular interactions, through the changes of the retro-reflected light intensity due to light/plasmon coupling variations. The functionalization of the microstructured bundle by multiple protein probes was performed using new polymeric 3D-printed microcantilevers. Such soft cantilevers allow for immobilizing the probes in micro spots, without damaging the optical microstructures nor the gold layer. We show here the potential of this device to perform the multiplexed detection of two different antibodies with limits of detection down to a few tenths of nanomoles per liter. This tool, adapted for multiparametric, real-time, and label free monitoring is minimally invasive and could then provide a useful platform for in vivo targeted molecular analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Sensor Fault Diagnosis for Impedance Monitoring Using a Piezoelectric-Based Smart Interface Technique
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Thanh-Canh Huynh; The-Duong Nguyen; Duc-Duy Ho; Ngoc-Loi Dang; Jeong-Tae Kim

    For a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, the operational functionality of sensors is critical for successful implementation of a damage identification process. This study presents experimental and analytical investigations on sensor fault diagnosis for impedance-based SHM using the piezoelectric interface technique. Firstly, the piezoelectric interface-based impedance monitoring is experimentally conducted on a steel bolted connection to investigate the effect of structural damage and sensor defect on electromechanical (EM) impedance responses. Based on the experimental analysis, sensor diagnostic approaches using EM impedance features are designed to distinguish the sensor defect from the structural damage. Next, a novel impedance model of the piezoelectric interface-driven system is proposed for the analytical investigation of sensor fault diagnosis. Various parameters are introduced into the EM impedance formulation to model the effect of shear-lag phenomenon, sensor breakage, sensor debonding, and structural damage. Finally, the proposed impedance model is used to analytically estimate the change in EM impedance responses induced by the structural damage and the sensor defect. The analytical results are found to be consistent with experimental observations, thus evidencing the feasibility of the novel impedance model for sensor diagnosis and structural integrity assessment. The study is expected to provide theoretical and experimental foundations for impedance monitoring practices, using the piezoelectric interface technique, with the existence of sensor faults.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Design and Implementation of a Smart Traffic Signal Control System for Smart City Applications
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Wei-Hsun Lee; Chi-Yi Chiu

    Infrastructure supporting vehicular network (V2X) capability is the key factor to the success of smart city because it enables many smart transportation services. In order to reduce the traffic congestion and improve the public transport efficiency, many intelligent transportation systems (ITS) need to be developed. In this paper, a smart traffic signal control (STSC) system is designed and implemented, it supports several smart city transportation applications including emergency vehicle signal preemption (EVSP), public transport signal priority (TSP), adaptive traffic signal control (ATSC), eco-driving supporting, and message broadcasting. The roadside unit (RSU) controller is the core of the proposed STSC system, where the system architecture, middleware, control algorithms, and peripheral modules are detailed discussed in this paper. It is compatible with existed traffic signal controller so that it can be fast and cost−effectively deployed. A new traffic signal scheme is specially designed for the EVSP scenario, it can inform all the drivers near the intersection regarding which direction the emergency vehicle (EV) is approaching, smoothing the traffic flow, and enhancing the safety. EVSP scenario and the related control algorithms are implemented in this work; integration test and field test are performed to demonstrate the STSC system.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Effect of Cultivar on Chlorophyll Meter and Canopy Reflectance Measurements in Cucumber
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Romina de Souza; Rafael Grasso; M. Teresa Peña-Fleitas; Marisa Gallardo; Rodney B. Thompson; Francisco M. Padilla

    Optical sensors can be used to assess crop N status to assist with N fertilizer management. Differences between cultivars may affect optical sensor measurement. Cultivar effects on measurements made with the SPAD-502 (Soil Plant Analysis Development) meter and the MC-100 (Chlorophyll Concentration Meter), and of several vegetation indices measured with the Crop Circle ACS470 canopy reflectance sensor, were assessed. A cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) crop was grown in a greenhouse, with three cultivars. Each cultivar received three N treatments, of increasing N concentration, being deficient (N1), sufficient (N2) and excessive (N3). There were significant differences between cultivars in the measurements made with both chlorophyll meters, particularly when N supply was sufficient and excessive (N2 and N3 treatments, respectively). There were no consistent differences between cultivars in vegetation indices. Optical sensor measurements were strongly linearly related to leaf N content in each of the three cultivars. The lack of a consistent effect of cultivar on the relationship with leaf N content suggests that a unique equation to estimate leaf N content from vegetation indices can be applied to all three cultivars. Results of chlorophyll meter measurements suggest that care should be taken when using sufficiency values, determined for a particular cultivar

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A Green Triboelectric Nano-Generator Composite of Degradable Cellulose, Piezoelectric Polymers of PVDF/PA6, and Nanoparticles of BaTiO3
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhuangzhi Sun; Lu Yang; Sicheng Liu; Jintao Zhao; Zhiwei Hu; Wenlong Song

    In this paper, a kind of green triboelectric nano-generator based on natural degradable cellulose is proposed. Different kinds of regenerated cellulose composite layers are prepared by a blending doping method, and then assembled with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) thin films to form tribioelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The results show that the open circuit output voltage and the short circuit output current using a pure cellulose membrane is 7.925 V and 1.095 μA. After adding a certain amount of polyamide (PA6)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/barium titanate (BaTiO3), the open circuit output voltage peak and the peak short circuit output current increases by 254.43% (to 20.155 V) and 548.04% (to 6.001 μA). The surface morphology, elemental composition and functional group of different cellulose layers are characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tested by the electrochemical analyze. Moreover, after multiple assembly and rectification processing, the electrical output performance shows that the peak value of open-circuit output voltage and the peak value of short circuit output current increases by 132.06% and 116.13%. Within 500 s of the charge-discharge test, the single peak charge reached 3.114 V, and the two peak charges reached 3.840 V. The results demonstrate that the nano-generator based on cellulose showed good stability and reliability, and the application and development of natural biomaterials represented by cellulose are greatly promoted in miniature electronic sensing area.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A Carbamoylase-Based Bioassay for the Detection of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mariana Raposo; Maria João Botelho; Sara T. Costa; Maria Teresa S. R. Gomes; Alisa Rudnitskaya

    Out of control proliferation of toxic phytoplankton, called harmful algal blooms (HABs), have a significant economic impact on bivalve aquaculture and harvesting in coastal waters. Some phytotoxins, such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are of concern due to the life-threatening symptoms they can cause. Development of rapid and low-cost screening tools would be a welcome addition to the laboratory methodologies employed in routine monitoring programs. However, most of the assays and biosensors for the screening of PSTs, are restricted to a single target, saxitoxin (STX), which is the most potent PST. The present study aimed at developing an assay for the detection of N-sulfocarbamoyl PST—GTX5, which is one of the most abundant toxins in bivalves during G. catenatum blooms as found on the Portuguese coast. Enzymatic assay employing PSTs’ transforming enzyme—carbamoylase—was proposed. Carbamoylase was extracted and purified from the surf clam S. solida. Carbamoylase displayed similar specificity to both carbamate (STX) and N-sulfocarbamate toxins (GTX5 and C1+2) converting them into decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX) and decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2+3 (dcGTX2+3), respectively. The enzymatic assay involved hydrolysis of GTX5 by carbamoylase and quantification of the product of enzymatic reaction, dcSTX, using a potentiometric chemical sensor. A potentiometric sensor with plasticized PVC membrane that displayed sensitivity to dcSTX and selectivity in the presence of GTX5 was employed. Enzymatic assay allowed determination of GTX5 in the concentration range from 0.43 to 3.30 µmolL−1, which encompasses levels of GTX5 in contaminated bivalve extracts with toxicities above PSTs regulatory limits. The feasibility of the carbamoylase-based potentiometric assay for detection of GTX5 was demonstrated.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Sensor-Based Daily Physical Activity: Towards Prediction of the Level of Concern about Falling in Peripheral Neuropathy
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Gu Eon Kang; Bijan Najafi

    Concern about falling is prevalent and increases the risk of falling in people with peripheral neuropathy (PN). However, the assessment of concern about falling relies on self-report surveys, and thus continuous monitoring has not been possible. We investigated the influence of concern about falling on sensor-based daily physical activity among people with PN. Forty-nine people with PN and various levels of concern about falling participated in this study. Physical activity outcomes were measured over a period of 48 hours using a validated chest-worn sensor. The level of concern about falling was assessed using the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I). The low concern group spent approximately 80 min more in walking and approximately 100 min less in sitting/lying compared to the high concern group. In addition, the low concern group had approximately 50% more walking bouts and step counts compared to the high concern group. Across all participants, the duration of walking bouts and total step counts was significantly correlated with FES-I scores. The duration of walking bouts and total step counts may serve as eHealth targets and strategies for fall risk assessment among people with PN.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Visual Locating of Reactor in an Industrial Environment Using the Composite Method
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Chenguang Cao; Qi Ouyang; Jiamu Hou; Liming Zhao

    To achieve an automatic unloading of a reactor during the sherardizing process, it is necessary to calculate the pose and position of the reactors in an industrial environment with various amounts of luminance and floating dust. In this study, the defects of classic image processing methods and deep learning methods used for locating the reactors are first analyzed. Next, an improved You Only Look Once(YOLO) model is employed to find the region of interest of the handling hole and a handling hole corner detection method based on the image morphology and a Hough transform is presented. Finally, the position and pose of the reactors will be obtained by establishing a 3D handling hole model according to the principle of a binocular stereo system. To test the performance of the proposed method, a set of experimental systems was set up and experiments were conducted. The results indicate that the proposed location method is effective and the precision of the position recognition can be controlled to within 4.64 mm and 1.68 ° when the cameras are approximately 5 m away from the reactor, meeting the requirements.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Neutrons for Cultural Heritage—Techniques, Sensors, and Detection
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Giulia Festa; Giovanni Romanelli; Roberto Senesi; Laura Arcidiacono; Claudia Scatigno; Stewart F. Parker; M. P. M. Marques; Carla Andreani

    Advances in research in Cultural Heritage see increasing application of a multidisciplinary approach and the combined use of physical and chemical characterization of artefacts that can be used to define their structure and their state of conservation, also providing valuable information in selecting the most suitable microclimatic conditions for the exhibition environment. This approach provides a platform for a synergic collaboration amongst researchers, restorers, conservators, and archaeologists. Existing state-of-the-art technologies for neutron-based methods are currently being applied to the study of objects of historical and cultural interest in several neutron-beam facilities around the world. Such techniques are non-invasive and non-destructive and are, therefore, ideal to provide structural information about artefacts, such as their composition, presence of alterations due to the environmental conditions, inclusions, structure of the bulk, manufacturing techniques, and elemental composition, which provide an overall fingerprint of the object’s characteristics, thanks to the nature of the interaction of neutrons with matter. Here, we present an overview of the main neutron methods for the characterization of materials of interest in Cultural Heritage and we provide a brief introduction to the sensors and detectors that are used in this framework. We conclude with some case studies underlining the impact of these applications in different archaeological and historical contexts.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Lightweight Authentication Protocol for M2M Communications of Resource-Constrained Devices in Industrial Internet of Things
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Evangelina Lara; Leocundo Aguilar; Mauricio A. Sanchez; Jesús A. García

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) consists of sensors, networks, and services to connect and control production systems. Its benefits include supply chain monitoring and machine failure detection. However, it has many vulnerabilities, such as industrial espionage and sabotage. Furthermore, many IIoT devices are resource-constrained, which impedes the use of traditional security services for them. Authentication allows devices to be confident of each other’s identity, preventing some security attacks. Many authentication protocols have been proposed for IIoT; however, they have high computing requirements not viable to resource-constrained devices, or they have been found insecure. In this paper, an authentication protocol for resource-constrained IIoT devices is proposed. It is based on the lightweight operations xor, addition, and subtraction, and a hash function. Also, only four messages are exchanged between the principals to authenticate. It has a low execution-time and communication-cost. Its security was successfully assessed with the formal methods Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool and Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic, together with an informal analysis of its resistance to known attacks. Its performance and security were compared with state-of-the-art protocols, resulting in a good performance for resource-constrained IIoT devices, and higher security similar to computational expensive schemes.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Internet of Measurement Things Architecture: Proof of Concept with Scope of Accreditation
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    M. Cagri Kaya; Mahdi Saeedi Nikoo; Michael L. Schwartz; Halit Oguztuzun

    Many industries, such as manufacturing, aviation, and power generation, employ sensitive measurement devices to be calibrated by certified experts. The diversity and sophistication of measurement devices and their calibration needs require networked and automated solutions. Internet of Measurement Things (IoMT) is an architectural framework that is based on the Industrial Internet of Things for the calibration industry. This architecture involves a layered model with a cloud-centric middle layer. In this article, the realization of this conceptual architecture is described. The applicability of the IoMT architecture in the calibration industry is shown through an editor application for Scope of Accreditation. The cloud side of the implementation is deployed to Microsoft Azure. The editor itself is created as a cloud service, and IoT Hub is used to collect data from calibration laboratories. By adapting the IoMT architecture to a commonly used cloud platform, considerable progress is achieved to encompass Metrology data and serve the majority of the stakeholders.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Competitive Learning in a Spiking Neural Network: Towards an Intelligent Pattern Classifier
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Sergey A. Lobov; Andrey V. Chernyshov; Nadia P. Krilova; Maxim O. Shamshin; Victor B. Kazantsev

    One of the modern trends in the design of human–machine interfaces (HMI) is to involve the so called spiking neuron networks (SNNs) in signal processing. The SNNs can be trained by simple and efficient biologically inspired algorithms. In particular, we have shown that sensory neurons in the input layer of SNNs can simultaneously encode the input signal based both on the spiking frequency rate and on varying the latency in generating spikes. In the case of such mixed temporal-rate coding, the SNN should implement learning working properly for both types of coding. Based on this, we investigate how a single neuron can be trained with pure rate and temporal patterns, and then build a universal SNN that is trained using mixed coding. In particular, we study Hebbian and competitive learning in SNN in the context of temporal and rate coding problems. We show that the use of Hebbian learning through pair-based and triplet-based spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rule is accomplishable for temporal coding, but not for rate coding. Synaptic competition inducing depression of poorly used synapses is required to ensure a neural selectivity in the rate coding. This kind of competition can be implemented by the so-called forgetting function that is dependent on neuron activity. We show that coherent use of the triplet-based STDP and synaptic competition with the forgetting function is sufficient for the rate coding. Next, we propose a SNN capable of classifying electromyographical (EMG) patterns using an unsupervised learning procedure. The neuron competition achieved via lateral inhibition ensures the “winner takes all” principle among classifier neurons. The SNN also provides gradual output response dependent on muscular contraction strength. Furthermore, we modify the SNN to implement a supervised learning method based on stimulation of the target classifier neuron synchronously with the network input. In a problem of discrimination of three EMG patterns, the SNN with supervised learning shows median accuracy 99.5% that is close to the result demonstrated by multi-layer perceptron learned by back propagation of an error algorithm.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Classification of Dried Strawberry by the Analysis of the Acoustic Sound with Artificial Neural Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Krzysztof Przybył; Adamina Duda; Krzysztof Koszela; Jerzy Stangierski; Mariusz Polarczyk; Łukasz Gierz

    In this paper, the authors used an acoustic wave acting as a disturbance (acoustic vibration), which travelled in all directions on the whole surface of a dried strawberry fruit in its specified area. The area of space in which the acoustic wave occurs is defined as the acoustic field. When the vibrating surface—for example, the surface of the belt—becomes the source, then one can observe the travelling of surface waves. For any shape of the surface of the dried strawberry fruit, the signal of travelling waves takes the form that is imposed by this irregular surface. The aim of this work was to research the effectiveness of recognizing the two trials in the process of convection drying on the basis of the acoustic signal backed up by neural networks. The input variables determined descriptors such as frequency (Hz) and the level of luminosity (dB). During the research, the degree of crispiness relative to the degree of maturity was compared. The results showed that the optimal neural model in respect of the lowest value of the root mean square turned out to be the Multi-Layer Perceptron network with the technique of dropping single fruits into water (data included in the learning data set Z2). The results confirm that the choice of method can have an influence on the effectives of recognizing dried strawberry fruits, and also this can be a basis for creating an effective and fast analysis tool which is capable of analyzing the degree of ripeness of fruits including their crispness in the industrial process of drying fruits.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Monitoring Biochemical and Structural Changes in Human Periodontal Ligaments during Orthodontic Treatment by Means of Micro-Raman Spectroscopy
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Letizia Perillo; Fabrizia d’Apuzzo; Maddalena Illario; Luigi Laino; Gaetano Di Spigna; Maria Lepore; Carlo Camerlingo

    The aim of the study was to examine the biochemical and structural changes occurring in the periodontal ligament (PDL) during orthodontic-force application using micro-Raman spectroscopy ( μ -RS). Adolescent and young patients who needed orthodontic treatment with first premolar extractions were recruited. Before extractions, orthodontic forces were applied using a closed-coil spring that was positioned between the molar and premolar. Patients were randomly divided into three groups, whose extractions were performed after 2, 7, and 14 days of force application. From the extracted premolars, PDL samples were obtained, and a fixation procedure with paraformaldehyde was adopted. Raman spectra were acquired for each PDL sample in the range of 1000–3200 cm - 1 and the more relevant vibrational modes of proteins (Amide I and Amide III bands) and CH 2 and CH 3 modes were shown. Analysis indicated that the protein structure in the PDL samples after different time points of orthodontic-force application was modified. In addition, changes were observed in the CH 2 and CH 3 high wavenumber region due to local hypoxia and mechanical force transduction. The reported results indicated that μ -RS provides a valuable tool for investigating molecular interchain interactions and conformational modifications in periodontal fibers after orthodontic tooth movement, providing quantitative insight of time occurring for PDL molecular readjustment.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Simulation of the Spectrum Response for the THz Atmosphere Limb Sounder (TALIS)
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yongqiang Duan; Zhenzhan Wang; Haowen Xu; Wenyu Wang

    The THz atmospheric limb sounder (TALIS) is a microwave radiometer developed by the National Space Science Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the detection of atmospheric trace gases. The observation range of the instrument mainly focuses on the middle and upper atmosphere (10–100 km above the earth’s surface). The detection targets include the temperature, pressure, and more than 10 kinds of atmospheric components. Its scientific goal is to improve our comprehension of atmospheric chemical composition and dynamics, and to monitor environmental pollution and sources in the atmosphere. The TALIS instrument is composed of an antenna, superheterodyne radiometers, and digital fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectrometers. By measuring the atmospheric thermal radiance in the wide frequency band with 118, 190, 240, and 643 GHz as the center frequency, the required volume mixing ratio (VMR) of atmospheric chemical species can be obtained. This paper introduces the characteristics of the TALIS instrument, and establishes a simulation model for the TALIS spectrometer. Through a joint simulation with an atmosphere radiative transfer simulator (ARTS), the TALIS instrument performance is evaluated from the aspects of calibration, the imbalance of two sidebands, the spectrum resolution, and quantization. The simulation results show that the two-point calibration can well-restore the radiance spectrum of the scene target and remove the influence of the spectral response function (SRF); the double side band (DSB) receiver with a 2 MHz resolution can meet the sensitivity and spectrum resolution requirements. Finally, the sensitivity errors of different quantization bits are given by the simulation and the results show that at 8-bit, the sensitivity and its degradation ratio are 1.251 K and 1.036 at a 2 MHz spectrum resolution and 100 ms integration time, respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Extreme Low-Light Image Enhancement for Surveillance Cameras Using Attention U-Net
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sophy Ai; Jangwoo Kwon

    Low-light image enhancement is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision, and it is actively researched and used to solve various problems. Most of the time, image processing achieves significant performance under normal lighting conditions. However, under low-light conditions, an image turns out to be noisy and dark, which makes subsequent computer vision tasks difficult. To make buried details more visible, and reduce blur and noise in a low-light captured image, a low-light image enhancement task is necessary. A lot of research has been applied to many different techniques. However, most of these approaches require much effort or expensive equipment to perform low-light image enhancement. For example, the image has to be captured in a raw camera file in order to be processed, and the addressing method does not perform well under extreme low-light conditions. In this paper, we propose a new convolutional network, Attention U-net (the integration of an attention gate and a U-net network), which is able to work on common file types (.PNG, .JPEG, .JPG, etc.) with primary support from deep learning to solve the problem of surveillance camera security in smart city inducements without requiring the raw image file from the camera, and it can perform under the most extreme low-light conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Current Measurement Transducer Based on Current-to-Voltage-to-Frequency Converting Ring Oscillator with Cascade Bias Circuit
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jongha Park; Jung-Hyun Park; Seong-Ook Jung

    We propose a ring oscillator (RO) based current-to-voltage-to-frequency (I–V–F) converting current transducer with a cascade bias circuit. The I–V–F converting scheme guarantees highly stable biasing against RO, with a rail-to-rail output operation. This device was fabricated using National NanoFab Center (NNFC) 180 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, which achieves a current resolution of 1 nA in a measurement range up to 200 nA. A noise floor of 11.8 pA/√Hz, maximum differential nonlinearity (DNL) of 0.15 in 1 nA steps, and rail-to-rail output with a 1.8 V power supply is achieved. The proposed transducer can be effectively applied to bio-sensing devices requiring a compact area and low power consumption with a low current output. The fabricated structure can be applied to monolithic-three-dimensional integration with a bio-sensing device.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Field Deployable Method for Gold Detection Using Gold Pre-Concentration on Functionalized Surfaces
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Agnieszka Zuber; Akash Bachhuka; Steven Tassios; Caroline Tiddy; Krasimir Vasilev; Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem

    Keywords: surface chemistry, plasma polymerization, salinization, gold sensing

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • An Investigation of Various Machine and Deep Learning Techniques Applied in Automatic Fear Level Detection and Acrophobia Virtual Therapy
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Oana Bălan; Gabriela Moise; Alin Moldoveanu; Marius Leordeanu; Florica Moldoveanu

    In this paper, we investigate various machine learning classifiers used in our Virtual Reality (VR) system for treating acrophobia. The system automatically estimates fear level based on multimodal sensory data and a self-reported emotion assessment. There are two modalities of expressing fear ratings: the 2-choice scale, where 0 represents relaxation and 1 stands for fear; and the 4-choice scale, with the following correspondence: 0—relaxation, 1—low fear, 2—medium fear and 3—high fear. A set of features was extracted from the sensory signals using various metrics that quantify brain (electroencephalogram—EEG) and physiological linear and non-linear dynamics (Heart Rate—HR and Galvanic Skin Response—GSR). The novelty consists in the automatic adaptation of exposure scenario according to the subject’s affective state. We acquired data from acrophobic subjects who had undergone an in vivo pre-therapy exposure session, followed by a Virtual Reality therapy and an in vivo evaluation procedure. Various machine and deep learning classifiers were implemented and tested, with and without feature selection, in both a user-dependent and user-independent fashion. The results showed a very high cross-validation accuracy on the training set and good test accuracies, ranging from 42.5% to 89.5%. The most important features of fear level classification were GSR, HR and the values of the EEG in the beta frequency range. For determining the next exposure scenario, a dominant role was played by the target fear level, a parameter computed by taking into account the patient’s estimated fear level.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Photolithography Fabricated Spacer Arrays Offering Mechanical Strengthening and Oil Motion Control in Electrowetting Displays
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yingying Dou; Lin Chen; Hui Li; Biao Tang; Alex Henzen; Guofu Zhou

    Introducing spacers into pixelated electrowetting displays (EWDs) normally gives mechanical strengthening, while bringing undesired disturbance of water/oil interfacial dynamics. Hence, spacer array is a key pixel structure needs careful consideration in the design and fabrication of electrowetting displays. Here, we propose a spacer array, which is designed standing on the junction of adjacent pixel walls, fabricated by photolithography. The spacer array provides mechanical strength enhancement and reliable oil motion controllability. By optimizing the spacer distribution density, the EWD device may achieve 28% increase in open ratio (white area fraction) and withstand 60 N/mm2 pressure. This design of spacer array reasonably solves the contradiction between mechanical strength enhancement and optoelectronic performance in EWDs, providing potential applications in oil–water two-phase microfluidic devices.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Study of Light-Activated Regioregular Poly(3-Hexyltiophene) Photoconductive Polymer Sensing Properties in Nerve Agent Simulant (DMMP) Detection†
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Paulina Powroznik; Wiesław Jakubik; Agnieszka Stolarczyk; Anna Kazmierczak-Balata; Jaroslaw Wrotniak; Tomasz Jarosz

    In the present work, we report the use of regioregular poly(3-hexyltiophene) polymer (RR-P3HT) as a potential light-activated material for sensing the chemical nerve agent simulant dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). The electrical response of thick films of RR-P3HT, deposited by spray-coating method onto a porous laminate substrate at room temperature, to DMMP vapours was investigated. The studied material was activated by light-emitting diodes that emitted light of different wavelengths. The sensing properties of RR-P3HT are considerably enhanced upon exposure to blue and yellow light. However, excitation by the low wavelength light (blue) caused degeneration of the material, resulting in lowered stability. In the case of the yellow light, degeneration was much slower and the limit of detection was 0.4 ppm. The studied material exhibited high selectivity, as it did not respond to 6 ppm of acetone and methanol vapours.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Autonomous Exploration and Map Construction of a Mobile Robot Based on the TGHM Algorithm
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Shuang Liu; Shenghao Li; Luchao Pang; Jiahao Hu; Haoyao Chen; Xiancheng Zhang

    An a priori map is often unavailable for a mobile robot in a new environment. In a large-scale environment, relying on manual guidance to construct an environment map will result in a huge workload. Hence, an autonomous exploration algorithm is necessary for the mobile robot to complete the exploration actively. This study proposes an autonomous exploration and mapping method based on an incremental caching topology–grid hybrid map (TGHM). Such an algorithm can accomplish the exploration task with high efficiency and high coverage of the established map. The TGHM is a fusion of a topology map, containing the information gain and motion cost for exploration, and a grid map, representing the established map for navigation and localization. At the beginning of one exploration round, the method of candidate target point generation based on geometry rules are applied to extract the candidates quickly. Then, a TGHM is established, and the information gain is evaluated for each candidate topology node on it. Finally, the node with the best evaluation value is selected as the next target point and the topology map is updated after each motion towards it as the end of this round. Simulations and experiments were performed to benchmark the proposed algorithm in robot autonomous exploration and map construction.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Application of UAV in Topographic Modelling and Structural Geological Mapping of Quarries and Their Surroundings—Delineation of Fault-Bordered Raw Material Reserves
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ákos Török; Gyula Bögöly; Árpád Somogyi; Tamás Lovas

    A 3D surface model of an active limestone quarry and a vegetation-covered plateau was created using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technique in combination with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The aim of the research was to identify major fault zones that dissect the inaccessible quarry faces and to prepare a model that shows the location of these fault zones at the entire study area. An additional purpose was to calculate reserves of the four identified lithological units. It was only possible to measure faults at the lowermost two meters of the quarry faces. At the upper parts of the quarry and on the vegetation-covered plateau where no field geological information was available, remote sensing was used. Former logs of core drillings were obtained for the modelling of the spatial distribution of four lithological units representing cover beds and various quality of limestone reserves. With the comparison of core data, field measurements and remote sensing, it was possible to depict major faults. Waste material volumes and limestone reserves were calculated for five blocks that are surrounded by these faults. The paper demonstrates that, with remote sensing and with localised control field measurements, it is possible: (a) to provide all geometric data of faults and (b) to create a 3D model with fault planes even at no exposure or at hardly accessible areas. The surface model with detected faults serves as a basis for calculating geological reserves.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Survey on Wireless Technology Trade-Offs for the Industrial Internet of Things
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Amina Seferagić; Jeroen Famaey; Eli De Poorter; Jeroen Hoebeke

    Aside from vast deployment cost reduction, Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSAN) introduce a new level of industrial connectivity. Wireless connection of sensors and actuators in industrial environments not only enables wireless monitoring and actuation, it also enables coordination of production stages, connecting mobile robots and autonomous transport vehicles, as well as localization and tracking of assets. All these opportunities already inspired the development of many wireless technologies in an effort to fully enable Industry 4.0. However, different technologies significantly differ in performance and capabilities, none being capable of supporting all industrial use cases. When designing a network solution, one must be aware of the capabilities and the trade-offs that prospective technologies have. This paper evaluates the technologies potentially suitable for IWSAN solutions covering an entire industrial site with limited infrastructure cost and discusses their trade-offs in an effort to provide information for choosing the most suitable technology for the use case of interest. The comparative discussion presented in this paper aims to enable engineers to choose the most suitable wireless technology for their specific IWSAN deployment.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A New DGNSS Positioning Infrastructure for Android Smartphones
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Duojie Weng; Xingli Gan; Wu Chen; Shengyue Ji; Yangwei Lu

    One’s position has become an important piece of information for our everyday lives in a smart city. Currently, a position can be obtained easily using smartphones that is equipped with low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) chipsets with accuracy varying from 5 m to 10 m. Differential GNSS (DGNSS) is an efficient technology that removes the majority of GNSS errors with the aid of reference stations installed at known locations. The sub-meter accuracy can be achieved when applying the DGNSS technology on the advanced receivers. In 2016, Android has opened the accesses of raw GNSS measurements to developers. However, most of the mid and low-end smartphones only provide the data using the National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) protocol. They do not provide the raw measurements, and thus do not support the DGNSS operation either. We proposed a DGNSS infrastructure that correct the standalone GNSS position of smartphones using the corrections from the reference station. In the infrastructure, the position correction is generated considering the GNSS satellite IDs that contribute to the standalone solution in smartphones, and the position obtained is equivalent to the solution of using the range-domain correction directly. To serve a large number of smartphone users, a Client/Server architecture is developed to cope with a mass of DGNSS positioning requests efficiently. The comparison of the proposed infrastructure against the ground truth, for all field tests in open areas, showed that the infrastructure achieves the horizontal positioning accuracy better than 2 m. The improvement in accuracy can reach more than 50% for the test in the afternoon. The infrastructure brings benefits to applications that require more accuracy without requiring any hardware modifications.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A Stacked Back Side-Illuminated Voltage Domain Global Shutter CMOS Image Sensor with a 4.0 μm Multiple Gain Readout Pixel †
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ken Miyauchi; Kazuya Mori; Toshinori Otaka; Toshiyuki Isozaki; Naoto Yasuda; Alex Tsai; Yusuke Sawai; Hideki Owada; Isao Takayanagi; Junichi Nakamura

    A backside-illuminated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with 4.0 μm voltage domain global shutter (GS) pixels has been fabricated in a 45 nm/65 nm stacked CMOS process as a proof-of-concept vehicle. The pixel components for the photon-to-voltage conversion are formed on the top substrate (the first layer). Each voltage signal from the first layer pixel is stored in the sample-and-hold capacitors on the bottom substrate (the second layer) via micro-bump interconnection to achieve a voltage domain GS function. The two sets of voltage domain storage capacitor per pixel enable a multiple gain readout to realize single exposure high dynamic range (SEHDR) in the GS operation. As a result, an 80dB SEHDR GS operation without rolling shutter distortions and motion artifacts has been achieved. Additionally, less than −140dB parasitic light sensitivity, small noise floor, high sensitivity and good angular response have been achieved.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Unambiguous Acquisition/Tracking Technique Based on Sub-Correlation Functions for GNSS Sine-BOC Signals
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Fang Hao; Baoguo Yu; Xingli Gan; Ruicai Jia; Heng Zhang; Lu Huang; Boyuan Wang

    The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the Binary Offset Carrier modulation (BOC) signal for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has multiple peaks, ambiguity is easily generated during the synchronization of the baseband signal. Some methods have been proposed to remove the ambiguity, but the performance is not suitable for high-order BOC signals or does not maintain narrow correlation characteristics. This paper proposes a sub-function reconstruction synchronization algorithm to solve this problem, of which the key is to design a new local auxiliary code: the local Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) code is divided into several new codes with different delays. The auxiliary code performs a coherent integration operation with the received signal. Then, a correlation function without any positive side peaks is obtained by multiplying the two correlation results to make the acquisition/tracking completely unambiguous. The paper gives a design scheme of navigation signal acquisition/tracking and deduces the theoretical analysis of detection performance. The phase discrimination function is provided. The performance of the method is analyzed from both theoretical and simulation aspects. Compared with the Binary phase shift keying-like (BPSK-LIKE) method, Subcarrier Phase Cancellation (SCPC) method and the Autocorrelation Side-Peak Cancellation Technique (ASPeCT) method, the proposed method has the best detection probability for the acquisition, which is 0.5 dB-Hz better than ASPeCT. For tracking, the proposed method performs best in terms of phase-detection curve, anti-multipath performance, and anti-noise performance. For high-order BOC signals, the SRSA technique successfully removes the false lock points, and there is only one multipath error envelope, and the code tracking error is almost the same as the ASPeCT method.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Optimal Energy Resources Allocation Method of Wireless Sensor Networks for Intelligent Railway Systems
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sheng Bin; Gengxin Sun

    The rapid increase of train speed has brought greater challenges to the safety and reliability of railway systems. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the operation status of trains, infrastructure, and their operating environment in real time. Because the operation environment of railway systems is complex, the construction cost of wired monitoring systems is high, and it is difficult to achieve full coverage in the operation area of harsh environments, so wireless sensor networks are suitable for the status monitoring of railway systems. Energy resources of nodes are the basis of ensuring the lifecycle of wireless sensor networks, but severely restrict the sustainability of wireless sensor networks. A construction method of special wireless sensor networks for railway status monitoring, and an optimal energy resources allocation method of wireless sensor networks for intelligent railway systems are proposed in this paper. Through cluster head selection and rotating probability model, clustering generation and optimization model, and partial coverage model, the energy consumption of nodes can be minimized and balanced. The result of simulation experiment proved that the lifetime of wireless sensor networks can be maximized by the optimal energy resources allocation method based on clustering optimization and partial coverage model, based on polynomial time algorithm.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Distributed Multi-Robot Information Gathering under Spatio-Temporal Inter-Robot Constraints
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Alberto Viseras; Zhe Xu; Luis Merino

    Information gathering (IG) algorithms aim to intelligently select the mobile robotic sensor actions required to efficiently obtain an accurate reconstruction of a physical process, such as an occupancy map, a wind field, or a magnetic field. Recently, multiple IG algorithms that benefit from multi-robot cooperation have been proposed in the literature. Most of these algorithms employ discretization of the state and action spaces, which makes them computationally intractable for robotic systems with complex dynamics. Moreover, they cannot deal with inter-robot restrictions such as collision avoidance or communication constraints. This paper presents a novel approach for multi-robot information gathering (MR-IG) that tackles the two aforementioned restrictions: (i) discretization of robot’s state space, and (ii) dealing with inter-robot constraints. Here we propose an algorithm that employs: (i) an underlying model of the physical process of interest, (ii) sampling-based planners to plan paths in a continuous domain, and (iii) a distributed decision-making algorithm to enable multi-robot coordination. In particular, we use the max-sum algorithm for distributed decision-making by defining an information-theoretic utility function. This function maximizes IG, while fulfilling inter-robot communication and collision avoidance constraints. We validate our proposed approach in simulations, and in a field experiment where three quadcopters explore a simulated wind field. Results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability with respect to the number of robots of our approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Distributed Ledger Technology for eHealth Identity Privacy: State of The Art and Future Perspective
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Mohammed Amine Bouras; Qinghua Lu; Fan Zhang; Yueliang Wan; Tao Zhang; Huansheng Ning

    Electronic healthcare (eHealth) identity management (IdM) is a pivotal feature in the eHealth system. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is an emerging technology that can achieve agreements of transactional data states in a decentralized way. Building identity management systems using Blockchain can enable patients to fully control their own identity and provide increased confidence in data immutability and availability. This paper presents the state of the art of decentralized identity management using Blockchain and highlights the possible opportunities for adopting the decentralized identity management approaches for future health identity systems. First, we summarize eHealth identity management scenarios. Furthermore, we investigate the existing decentralized identity management solutions and present decentralized identity models. In addition, we discuss the current decentralized identity projects and identify new challenges based on the existing solutions and the limitations when applying it to healthcare as a particular use case.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Void Fraction Measurement of Oil–Gas–Water Three-Phase Flow Using Mutually Perpendicular Ultrasonic Sensor
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Weikai Ren; An Zhao; Ningde Jin

    The complex flow structure and interfacial effect in oil–gas–water three-phase flow have made the void fraction measurement a challenging problem. This paper reports on the void fraction measurement of oil–gas–water three-phase flow using a mutually perpendicular ultrasonic sensor (MPUS). Two pairs of ultrasonic probes are installed on the same pipe section to measure the void fraction. With the aid of the finite element method, we first optimize the emission frequency and geometry parameters of MPUS through examining its sensitivity field distribution. Afterward, the oil–gas–water three-phase flow experiment was carried out in a vertical upward pipe with a diameter of 20 mm to investigate the responses of MPUS. Then, the void fraction prediction models associated with flow patterns (bubble flow, slug flow, and churn flow) were established. Compared to the quick closing valves, MPUS obtained a favorable accuracy for void fraction measurement with absolute average percentage error equaling 8.983%, which indicates that MPUS can satisfactorily measure the void fraction of oil–gas–water three-phase flow.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Retraction: Chen, Y.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, X.; Xie, J.; Xiong, J.; Yang, K. The Novel Sensor Network Structure for Classification Processing Based on the Machine Learning Method of the ACGAN. Sensors 2019, 19, 3145
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    By Sensors Editorial Office

    Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is an excerpt from the first page. It has been brought to our attention that the majority of the text, figures, structures, and references in the title paper [...]

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Hybrid RF/VLC Network Architecture for the Internet of Things
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Francisco Delgado-Rajo; Alexis Melian-Segura; Victor Guerra; Rafael Perez-Jimenez; David Sanchez-Rodriguez

    In recent years, there has been a remarkable advance in monitoring technologies in many environments, be they urban or rural. These technologies, included in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, allow remote control and acquisition of data from sensors for their subsequence analysis. All these systems are based on the interaction between sensors and actuators. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to provide a very high level of connectivity between the devices, especially as far as wireless systems are concerned. In this sense, there is a great variety of standards in the market of communication networks oriented to this end. One of the biggest challenges today is to allow inter-operability between these different technologies in order to homogenize this field. In addition to this, it is intended to introduce new communication techniques that can provide certain additional advantages to those already existing. The main idea is the creation of a cellular network where radiofrequency and optical technologies coexist, and whose link with the rest of the world is through long-range and low-consumption wireless technologies. The center of each cell, that is the lighting system, can be powered using solar panels, as can the existing systems in the market. The objective is that these panels are capable of providing the necessary energy to the rest of the necessary systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing System for Bridge Deflection Measurement
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Dong Yang; Jin-Qi Wang; Wei-Xin Ren; Jing Zhang

    Deflection is one of the key parameters that reflects the state of a bridge. However, deflection measurement is difficult for a bridge that is under operation. Most existing sensors and measuring techniques often do not meet the requirements for health monitoring for various types of bridges. Therefore, based on changes of optical fiber intensity, a novel sensing system using connected pipes to measure bridge deflection in different positions is proposed in this paper. As an absolute reference, the liquid level position along the structure is adopted for the deflection measurement, and an additional external reference to the ground is not needed in this system. The proposed system consists of three parts: connected pipes to connect the measurement points along the structure, liquid to fill in the connected pipes, and the sensing element to detect the change of level. A plastic optical fiber sensor based on the intensity change is used as the sensing element of the developed system. Then, a set of experimental tests are conducted for performance evaluation purposes. Results show that this system has an accurate linear response and high reliability under various environmental conditions. The deflection of the test beam measured by the sensor agrees with linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) within an error margin of 2.1%. The proposed system shows great potential applicability for future health monitoring of long-span bridges.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Innovations in Electrodermal Activity Data Collection and Signal Processing: A Systematic Review
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero; Ki H. Chon

    The electrodermal activity (EDA) signal is an electrical manifestation of the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands. EDA has a history in psychophysiological (including emotional or cognitive stress) research since 1879, but it was not until recent years that researchers began using EDA for pathophysiological applications like the assessment of fatigue, pain, sleepiness, exercise recovery, diagnosis of epilepsy, neuropathies, depression, and so forth. The advent of new devices and applications for EDA has increased the development of novel signal processing techniques, creating a growing pool of measures derived mathematically from the EDA. For many years, simply computing the mean of EDA values over a period was used to assess arousal. Much later, researchers found that EDA contains information not only in the slow changes (tonic component) that the mean value represents, but also in the rapid or phasic changes of the signal. The techniques that have ensued have intended to provide a more sophisticated analysis of EDA, beyond the traditional tonic/phasic decomposition of the signal. With many researchers from the social sciences, engineering, medicine, and other areas recently working with EDA, it is timely to summarize and review the recent developments and provide an updated and synthesized framework for all researchers interested in incorporating EDA into their research.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Reversible Oxygen Sensing Based on Multi-Emission Fluorescence Quenching
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Efe Armagan; Shankar Thiyagarajan; Kongchang Wei; Akin Gursoy; Giuseppino Fortunato; Esther Amstad; René Michel Rossi; Claudio Toncelli

    Oxygen is ubiquitous in nature and it plays a key role in several biological processes, such as cellular respiration and food deterioration, to name a few. Currently, reversible and non-destructive oxygen sensing is usually performed with sensors produced by photosensitization of phosphorescent organometallic complexes. In contrast, we propose a novel route of optical oxygen sensing by fluorescence-based quenching of oxygen. We hereby developed for the first time a set of multi-emissive purely organic emitters. These were produced through a one-pot hydrothermal synthesis using p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and urea as starting materials. The origin of the multi-emission has been ascribed to the diversity of chemical structures produced as a result of oxidative oligomerization of PPD. A Bandrowski’s base (BB, i.e., trimer of PPD) is reported as the main component at reaction times higher than 8 h. This indication was confirmed by electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QTOF) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Once the emitters are embedded within a high molecular weight poly (vinyl alcohol) matrix, the intensities of all three emission centers exhibit a non-linear quenching provoked by oxygen within the range of 0–8 kPa. The detection limit of the emission centers are 0.89 kPa, 0.67 kPa and 0.75 kPa, respectively. This oxygen-dependent change in fluorescence emission is reversible (up to three tested 0–21% O2 cycles) and reproducible with negligible cross-interference to humidity. The cost-effectiveness, metal-free formulation, cross-referencing between each single emission center and the relevant oxygen range are all appealing features, making these sensors promising for the detection of oxygen, e.g., in food packaged products.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Prediction of Satellite Shadowing in Smart Cities with Application to IoT
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Susana Hornillo-Mellado; Rubén Martín-Clemente; Vicente Baena-Lecuyer

    The combination of satellite direct reception and terrestrial 5G infrastructure is essential to guarantee coverage in satellite based-Internet of Things, mainly in smart cities where buildings can cause high power losses. In this paper, we propose an accurate and fast graphical method for predicting the satellite coverage in urban areas and SatCom on-the-move scenarios. The aim is to provide information that could be useful in the IoT network planning process, e.g., in the decision of how many terrestrial repeaters are really needed and where they should be placed. Experiments show that the shadowed areas predicted by the method correspond almost perfectly with experimental data measured from an Eutelsat satellite in the urban area of Barcelona.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Predictions of Cu, Zn, and Cd Concentrations in Soil Using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Measurements
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Karl Adler; Kristin Piikki; Mats Söderström; Jan Eriksson; Omran Alshihabi

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) measurements on 1520 soil samples were used to create national prediction models for copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in agricultural soil. The models were validated at both national and farm scales. Multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest (RF), and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) models were created and compared. National scale cross-validation of the models gave the following R2 values for predictions of Cu (R2 = 0.63), Zn (R2 = 0.92), and Cd (R2 = 0.70) concentrations. Independent validation at the farm scale revealed that Zn predictions were relatively successful regardless of the model used (R2 > 0.90), showing that a simple MLR model can be sufficient for certain predictions. However, predictions at the farm scale revealed that the non-linear models, especially MARS, were more accurate than MLR for Cu (R2 = 0.94) and Cd (R2 = 0.80). These results show that multivariate modelling can compensate for some of the shortcomings of the PXRF device (e.g., high limits of detection for certain elements and some elements not being directly measurable), making PXRF sensors capable of predicting elemental concentrations in soil at comparable levels of accuracy to conventional laboratory analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Assessment of Laying Hens’ Thermal Comfort Using Sound Technology
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Xiaodong Du; Lenn Carpentier; Guanghui Teng; Mulin Liu; Chaoyuan Wang; Tomas Norton

    Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors facing poultry production and welfare worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on poultry range from reduced growth and egg production to impaired health. Animal vocalisations are associated with different animal responses and can be used as useful indicators of the state of animal welfare. It is already known that specific chicken vocalisations such as alarm, squawk, and gakel calls are correlated with stressful events, and therefore, could be used as stress indicators in poultry monitoring systems. In this study, we focused on developing a hen vocalisation detection method based on machine learning to assess their thermal comfort condition. For extraction of the vocalisations, nine source-filter theory related temporal and spectral features were chosen, and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier was developed. As a result, the classification performance of the optimal SVM model was 95.1 ± 4.3% (the sensitivity parameter) and 97.6 ± 1.9% (the precision parameter). Based on the developed algorithm, the study illustrated that a significant correlation existed between specific vocalisations (alarm and squawk call) and thermal comfort indices (temperature-humidity index, THI) (alarm-THI, R = −0.414, P = 0.01; squawk-THI, R = 0.594, P = 0.01). This work represents the first step towards the further development of technology to monitor flock vocalisations with the intent of providing producers an additional tool to help them actively manage the welfare of their flock.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Development of an Open-Source Thermal Image Processing Software for Improving Irrigation Management in Potato Crops (Solanum tuberosum L.)
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gonzalo Cucho-Padin; Javier Rinza; Johan Ninanya; Hildo Loayza; Roberto Quiroz; David A. Ramírez

    Accurate determination of plant water status is mandatory to optimize irrigation scheduling and thus maximize yield. Infrared thermography (IRT) can be used as a proxy for detecting stomatal closure as a measure of plant water stress. In this study, an open-source software (Thermal Image Processor (TIPCIP)) that includes image processing techniques such as thermal-visible image segmentation and morphological operations was developed to estimate the crop water stress index (CWSI) in potato crops. Results were compared to the CWSI derived from thermocouples where a high correlation was found ( r P e a r s o n = 0.84). To evaluate the effectiveness of the software, two experiments were implemented. TIPCIP-based canopy temperature was used to estimate CWSI throughout the growing season, in a humid environment. Two treatments with different irrigation timings were established based on CWSI thresholds: 0.4 (T2) and 0.7 (T3), and compared against a control (T1, irrigated when soil moisture achieved 70% of field capacity). As a result, T2 showed no significant reduction in fresh tuber yield (34.5 ± 3.72 and 44.3 ± 2.66 t ha - 1 ), allowing a total water saving of 341.6 ± 63.65 and 515.7 ± 37.73 m 3 ha - 1 in the first and second experiment, respectively. The findings have encouraged the initiation of experiments to automate the use of the CWSI for precision irrigation using either UAVs in large settings or by adapting TIPCIP to process data from smartphone-based IRT sensors for applications in smallholder settings.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • A Weld Joint Type Identification Method for Visual Sensor Based on Image Features and SVM
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jiang Zeng; Guang-Zhong Cao; Ye-Ping Peng; Su-Dan Huang

    In the field of welding robotics, visual sensors, which are mainly composed of a camera and a laser, have proven to be promising devices because of their high precision, good stability, and high safety factor. In real welding environments, there are various kinds of weld joints due to the diversity of the workpieces. The location algorithms for different weld joint types are different, and the welding parameters applied in welding are also different. It is very inefficient to manually change the image processing algorithm and welding parameters according to the weld joint type before each welding task. Therefore, it will greatly improve the efficiency and automation of the welding system if a visual sensor can automatically identify the weld joint before welding. However, there are few studies regarding these problems and the accuracy and applicability of existing methods are not strong. Therefore, a weld joint identification method for visual sensor based on image features and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper. The deformation of laser around a weld joint is taken as recognition information. Two kinds of features are extracted as feature vectors to enrich the identification information. Subsequently, based on the extracted feature vectors, the optimal SVM model for weld joint type identification is established. A comparative study of proposed and conventional strategies for weld joint identification is carried out via a contrast experiment and a robustness testing experiment. The experimental results show that the identification accuracy rate achieves 98.4%. The validity and robustness of the proposed method are verified.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Fused-Deposition-Material 3D-Printing Procedure and Algorithm Avoiding Use of Any Supports
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gianluca Barile; Alfiero Leoni; Mirco Muttillo; Romina Paolucci; Gianfranco Fazzini; Leonardo Pantoli

    The three-dimensional printing of complex shapes without using supporting structures is the most attractive factor of merit in current additive manufacturing because it allows to drastically reduce printing time, and ideally nullify postprocessing and waste material. In this work, we present an innovative procedure and algorithm (Print on Air, PoA) for additive manufacturing that, relying on sensing systems embedded into the three-dimensional (3D) printer (e.g., temperature and speed sensors), aims at generating a printing sequence capable of a self-sustaining bridge and overhang structures. This feature was achieved by splitting the actual floating area of the layer where the aforementioned structures are in many subsections. Each is generated with a negligible floating surface and printed in a well-determined sequence with accurate temperature and speed profiles. Therefore, each subsection is formed without the need for scaffolding, simultaneously acting as a supporting structure for the following subsection. The array of subsections constitutes the actual bridge or overhang structure. The proposed method can be used for any object, including very long bridges or convex surfaces. The revolutionary method is here reported and evaluated in order to show its applicability in any condition. Although the study was conducted in a Fused Deposition Material (FDM) environment, it can certainly be adapted to other manufacturing environments with adequate modifications.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Feedback Bits Allocation for Guaranteed Bit Rate Services in Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Deokhui Lee; Jaewoo So

    As the number of users using multimedia sharing services increases, the need to ensure the minimum data rate of wireless users increases. Meanwhile, in the cooperative cognitive radio (CR) network, it is important to provide the quality-of-services for secondary users (SUs) while satisfying the inter-network interference constraint from secondary transmitters to primary users (PUs). Under the limited feedback resource constraint, this paper proposes a feedback bits allocation scheme for the guaranteed bit rate services of SUs while satisfying the inter-network interference constraint. This paper investigates how many feedback bits between the ST and PUs are required to guarantee the minimum data rate of SUs and then proposes a feedback bits allocation scheme that maximizes the average sum rate of SUs while reducing the outage probability of SUs.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Monitoring the Whole Cycle Length Change of Cement Mortar Incorporated with SRA by CMOS Image Sensor
    Sensors (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Hao Wu; Yan Yao; Ling Wang; Ruijun Gao; Shuang Lu

    This paper introduces a new method to measure whole cycle length change non-destructively and continuously using a digital image analysis system. The macroscale length changes of mortars containing different shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) dosages (0%, 1%, 2% and 5% by cement weight) were first determined using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor under alternating dry and wet curing conditions. After that, the length change was calculated using developed digital image processing technology (DIPT) software. After that, several significant conclusions could be drawn by combining with the results of systematic tests of the macroscopic and microscale physical properties of the cement mortar using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The test results indicated that SRAs exhibited significant effects on the shrinkage inhibition of cement mortars, whereas the shrinkage reduction behaviour was also affected by varying the curing conditions. The MIP and NMR analyses demonstrated that SRAs reduced the irreversible shrinkage of the cement mortars by decreasing the volume percentage of the 3–50 nm pores and promoting the conversion of calcium silicate hydrate gel from an oligomeric to a high polymerization state thereby improving the volume stability of cement mortars.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
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