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  • ynthesis and Characterization of Ru-MOFs on Microelectrode for Trace Mercury Detection
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Chenyu Xiong; Yuhao Xu; Chao Bian; Ri Wang; Yong Xie; Mingjie Han; Shanhong Xia

    Mercury ions (Hg2+) pollution in the water environment can cause serious harm to human health. Trace Hg2+ detection is of vital importance for environmental monitoring. Herein, we report a novel design of Ru-MOFs modified gold microelectrode for Hg2+ determination. Ru-MOFs are synthesized directly by the cathodic method on gold microelectrode, with the covered area accurately controlled. Cathodic synthesized

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Parallel Convolution and BERT Fusion for Speech Emotion Recognition
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Sanghyun Lee; David K. Han; Hanseok Ko

    Speech emotion recognition predicts the emotional state of a speaker based on the person’s speech. It brings an additional element for creating more natural human–computer interactions. Earlier studies on emotional recognition have been primarily based on handcrafted features and manual labels. With the advent of deep learning, there have been some efforts in applying the deep-network-based approach

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • efect Detection in Aerospace Sandwich Composite Panels Using Conductive Thermography and Contact Sensors
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    David I. Gillespie; Andrew W. Hamilton; Robert C. Atkinson; Xavier Bellekens; Craig Michie; Ivan Andonovic; Christos Tachtatzis

    Sandwich panels consisting of two Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) outer skins and an aluminium honeycomb core are a common structure of surfaces on commercial aircraft due to the beneficial strength–weight ratio. Mechanical defects such as a crushed honeycomb core, dis-bonds and delaminations in the outer skins and in the core occur routinely under normal use and are repaired during aerospace

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • acilitating Hotspot Alignment in Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy via the Silver Photoluminescence of the Probe
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Yuan Fan; Dan Jin; Xiuju Wu; Hui Fang; Xiaocong Yuan

    A tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) system based on an atomic force microscope (AFM) and radially polarized laser beam was developed. A TERS probe with plasmon resonance wavelength matching the excitation wavelength was prepared with the help of dark-field micrographs. The intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) from the silver (Ag)-coated TERS probe induced by localized surface plasmon resonance contains

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • ingle Image Dehazing Algorithm Analysis with Hyperspectral Images in the Visible Range
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Miguel Ángel Martínez-Domingo; Eva M. Valero; Juan L. Nieves; Pedro Jesús Molina-Fuentes; Javier Romero; Javier Hernández-Andrés

    In foggy or hazy conditions, images are degraded due to the scattering and attenuation of atmospheric particles, reducing the contrast and visibility and changing the color. This degradation depends on the distance, the density of the atmospheric particles and the wavelength. We have tested and applied five single image dehazing algorithms, originally developed to work on RGB images and not requiring

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • esign and Validation of an E-Textile-Based Wearable Sock for Remote Gait and Postural Assessment
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Federica Amitrano; Armando Coccia; Carlo Ricciardi; Leandro Donisi; Giuseppe Cesarelli; Edda Maria Capodaglio; Giovanni D’Addio

    This paper presents a new wearable e-textile based system, named SWEET Sock, for biomedical signals remote monitoring. The system includes a textile sensing sock, an electronic unit for data transmission, a custom-made Android application for real-time signal visualization, and a software desktop for advanced digital signal processing. The device allows the acquisition of angular velocities of the

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • -Learning Based Joint Energy-Spectral Efficiency Optimization in Multi-Hop Device-to-Device Communication
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Muhidul Islam Khan; Luca Reggiani; Muhammad Mahtab Alam; Yannick Le Moullec; Navuday Sharma; Elias Yaacoub; Maurizio Magarini

    In scenarios, like critical public safety communication networks, On-Scene Available (OSA) user equipment (UE) may be only partially connected with the network infrastructure, e.g., due to physical damages or on-purpose deactivation by the authorities. In this work, we consider multi-hop Device-to-Device (D2D) communication in a hybrid infrastructure where OSA UEs connect to each other in a seamless

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Materials, Technology, Design, and Application
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Maria Vesna Nikolic; Vladimir Milovanovic; Zorka Z. Vasiljevic; Zoran Stamenkovic

    This paper presents an overview of semiconductor materials used in gas sensors, their technology, design, and application. Semiconductor materials include metal oxides, conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, and 2D materials. Metal oxides are most often the first choice due to their ease of fabrication, low cost, high sensitivity, and stability. Some of their disadvantages are low selectivity and high

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • ultirate Audio-Integrated Feedback Active Noise Control Systems Using Decimated-Band Adaptive Filters for Reducing Narrowband Noises
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Antonius Siswanto; Cheng-Yuan Chang; Sen M. Kuo

    Audio-integrated feedback active noise control (AFANC) systems deliver wideband audio signals and cancel low frequency narrowband noises simultaneously. The conventional AFANC system uses single-rate processing with fullband adaptive active noise control (ANC) filter for generating anti-noise signal and fullband audio cancelation filter for audio-interference cancelation. The conventional system requires

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • owered Two-Wheeler Riding Profile Clustering for an In-Depth Study of Bend-Taking Practices
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Mohamed Diop; Abderrahmane Boubezoul; Latifa Oukhellou; Stéphane Espié

    The understanding of rider/vehicle interaction modalities remains an issue, specifically in the case of bend-taking. This difficulty results both from the lack of adequate instrumentation to conduct this type of study and from the variety of practices of this population of road users. Riders have numerous explanations of strategies for controlling their motorcycles when taking bends. The objective

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • obile Manipulation Integrating Enhanced AMCL High-Precision Location and Dynamic Tracking Grasp
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Huaidong Zhou; Wusheng Chou; Wanchen Tuo; Yongfeng Rong; Song Xu

    Mobile manipulation, which has more flexibility than fixed-base manipulation, has always been an important topic in the field of robotics. However, for sophisticated operation in complex environments, efficient localization and dynamic tracking grasp still face enormous challenges. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a mobile manipulation method integrating laser-reflector-enhanced adaptive

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • ffect Evaluation of Spatial Characteristics on Map Matching-Based Indoor Positioning
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Shuaiwei Luo; Fuqiang Gu; Fan Xu; Jianga Shang

    Map-matching is a popular method that uses spatial information to improve the accuracy of positioning methods. The performance of map matching methods is closely related to spatial characteristics. Although several studies have demonstrated that certain map matching algorithms are affected by some spatial structures (e.g., parallel paths), they focus on the analysis of single map matching method or

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • n Impartial Semi-supervised Learning Strategy for Imbalanced Classification on VHR Images
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Fei Sun; Fang Fang; Run Wang; Bo Wan; Qinghua Guo; Hong Li; Xincai Wu

    Imbalanced learning is a common problem in remote sensing imagery-based land-use and land-cover classifications. Imbalanced learning can lead to a reduction in classification accuracy and even the omission of the minority class. In this paper, an impartial semi-supervised learning strategy based on extreme gradient boosting (ISS-XGB) is proposed to classify very high resolution (VHR) images with imbalanced

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • ategorization and Characterization of Time Domain CMOS Temperature Sensors
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Sangjin Byun

    Time domain complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) temperature sensors estimate the temperature of a sensory device by measuring the frequency, period and/or delay time instead of the voltage and/or current signals that have been traditionally measured for a long time. In this paper, the time domain CMOS temperature sensors are categorized into twelve types by using the temperature estimation

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • xcess Air Ratio Management in a Diesel Engine with Exhaust Backpressure Compensation
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Piotr Kasprzyk; Jacek Hunicz; Arkadiusz Rybak; Michał S. Gęca; Maciej Mikulski

    The paper investigates the operation of a wideband universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor in a diesel engine under elevated exhaust backpressure. Although UEGO sensors provide the excess air ratio feedback signal primarily in spark ignition engines, they are also used in diesel engines to facilitate low-emission combustion. The excess air signal is used as an input for the fuel mass observer, as

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • A Tower-Based 1–10 GHz SAR System for Snow, Soil and Vegetation Studies
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Jorge Jorge Ruiz; Risto Vehmas; Juha Lemmetyinen; Josu Uusitalo; Janne Lahtinen; Kari Lehtinen; Anna Kontu; Kimmo Rautiainen; Riku Tarvainen; Jouni Pulliainen; Jaan Praks

    We introduce SodSAR, a fully polarimetric tower-based wide frequency (1–10 GHz) range Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) aimed at snow, soil and vegetation studies. The instrument is located in the Arctic Space Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute in Sodankylä, Finland. The system is based on a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)-operated scatterometer mounted on a rail allowing the formation of SAR

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • U-Net Based Approach for Automating Tribological Experiments
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Benjamin Staar; Suleyman Bayrak; Dominik Paulkowski; Michael Freitag

    Tribological experiments (i.e., characterizing the friction and wear behavior of materials) are crucial for determining their potential areas of application. Automating such tests could hence help speed up the development of novel materials and coatings. Here, we utilize convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to automate a common experimental setup whereby an endoscopic camera was used to measure the

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • xperimental Comparison of IR-UWB Radar and FMCW Radar for Vital Signs
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Dingyang Wang; Sungwon Yoo; Sung Ho Cho

    In this paper, we compare the performances of impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) and frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radars in measuring noncontact vital signs such as respiration rate and heart rate. These two type radars have been widely used in various fields and have shown their applicability to extract vital signs in noncontact ways. IR-UWB radar can extract vital signs using distance

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • utomatic Detection of Freshwater Phytoplankton Specimens in Conventional Microscopy Images
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    David Rivas-Villar; José Rouco; Manuel G. Penedo; Rafael Carballeira; Jorge Novo

    Water safety and quality can be compromised by the proliferation of toxin-producing phytoplankton species, requiring continuous monitoring of water sources. This analysis involves the identification and counting of these species which requires broad experience and knowledge. The automatization of these tasks is highly desirable as it would release the experts from tedious work, eliminate subjective

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • peed Sensorless Control of Linear Ultrasonic Motors Based on Stator Vibration Amplitude Compensation
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Yuzhao Yan; Ming Yang; Tianyue Yang; Siwei Ye; Wanlu Jiang

    In some applications of linear ultrasonic motors (LUSMs), not installing speed/position sensors can reduce the size and cost of the system, changes in load will cause fluctuations in the speed of the LUSM. To eliminate the influence of load changes on speed, a speed sensorless control scheme based on stator vibration amplitude compensation (SSCBVC) is proposed. This scheme is implemented under the

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • ynergy Effect of Combined Near and Mid-Infrared Fibre Spectroscopy for Diagnostics of Abdominal Cancer
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Thaddäus Hocotz; Olga Bibikova; Valeria Belikova; Andrey Bogomolov; Iskander Usenov; Lukasz Pieszczek; Tatiana Sakharova; Olaf Minet; Elena Feliksberger; Viacheslav Artyushenko; Beate Rau; Urszula Zabarylo

    Cancers of the abdominal cavity comprise one of the most prevalent forms of cancers, with the highest contribution from colon and rectal cancers (12% of the human population), followed by stomach cancers (4%). Surgery, as the preferred choice of treatment, includes the selection of adequate resection margins to avoid local recurrences due to minimal residual disease. The presence of functionally vital

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • New TDR-Based Sensing Cable for Improving Performance of Bridge Scour Monitoring
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Kai Wang; Chih-Ping Lin; Wei-Hao Jheng

    The use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) for real-time monitoring of bridge scour process has gone through several stages of development. The recently-proposed concept of bundled TDR sensing cable, in which two sets of insulated steel strands are twisted around and connected to a central coaxial cable to form a compact sensing cable, is a major change that has several advantages including the bottom-up

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • lood Stain Classification with Hyperspectral Imaging and Deep Neural Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Kamil Książek; Michał Romaszewski; Przemysław Głomb; Bartosz Grabowski; Michał Cholewa

    In recent years, growing interest in deep learning neural networks has raised a question on how they can be used for effective processing of high-dimensional datasets produced by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). HSI, traditionally viewed as being within the scope of remote sensing, is used in non-invasive substance classification. One of the areas of potential application is forensic science, where substance

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • oward Sub-Diffraction Imaging of Single-DNA Molecule Sensors Based on Stochastic Switching Localization Microscopy
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Seungah Lee; Indra Batjikh; Seong Ho Kang

    The natural characteristics of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) enable its advanced applications in nanotechnology as a special tool that can be detected by high-resolution imaging with precise localization. Super-resolution (SR) microscopy enables the examination of nanoscale molecules beyond the diffraction limit. With the development of SR microscopy methods, DNA nanostructures can now be optically assessed

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • mage Forgery Detection and Localization via a Reliability Fusion Map
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Hongwei Yao; Ming Xu; Tong Qiao; Yiming Wu; Ning Zheng

    Moving away from hand-crafted feature extraction, the use of data-driven convolution neural network (CNN)-based algorithms facilitates the realization of end-to-end automated forgery detection in multimedia forensics. On the basis of fingerprints acquired by images from different camera models, the goal of this paper is to design an effective detector capable of completing image forgery detection and

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • owards Automated 3D Inspection of Water Leakages in Shield Tunnel Linings Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Hongwei Huang; Wen Cheng; Mingliang Zhou; Jiayao Chen; Shuai Zhao

    On-site manual inspection of metro tunnel leakages has been faced with the problems of low efficiency and poor accuracy. An automated, high-precision, and robust water leakage inspection method is vital to improve the manual approach. Existing approaches cannot provide the leakage location due to the lack of spatial information. Therefore, an integrated deep learning method of water leakage inspection

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • Study of Accelerometer and Gyroscope Measurements in Physical Life-Log Activities Detection Systems
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Ahmad Jalal; Majid Ali Khan Quaid; Sheikh Badar ud din Tahir; Kibum Kim

    Nowadays, wearable technology can enhance physical human life-log routines by shifting goals from merely counting steps to tackling significant healthcare challenges. Such wearable technology modules have presented opportunities to acquire important information about human activities in real-life environments. The purpose of this paper is to report on recent developments and to project future advances

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • A Machine Learning Approach
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Sharif Hossain; Christopher W. K. Chow; Guna A. Hewa; David Cook; Martin Harris

    The spectra fingerprint of drinking water from a water treatment plant (WTP) is characterised by a number of light-absorbing substances, including organic, nitrate, disinfectant, and particle or turbidity. Detection of disinfectant (monochloramine) can be better achieved by separating its spectra from the combined spectra. In this paper, two major focuses are (i) the separation of monochloramine spectra

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • A Reference Architecture for Emergent Behaviors Control
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Rob Bemthuis; Maria-Eugenia Iacob; Paul Havinga

    The sooner disruptive emergent behaviors are detected, the sooner preventive measures can be taken to ensure the resilience of business processes execution. Therefore, organizations need to prepare for emergent behaviors by embedding corrective control mechanisms, which help coordinate organization-wide behavior (and goals) with the behavior of local autonomous entities. Ongoing technological advances

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • Generating Multiscale High-Resolution SAR Images for Ship Detection
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Lichuan Zou; Hong Zhang; Chao Wang; Fan Wu; Feng Gu

    In high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ship detection, the number of SAR samples seriously affects the performance of the algorithms based on deep learning. In this paper, aiming at the application requirements of high-resolution ship detection in small samples, a high-resolution SAR ship detection method combining an improved sample generation network, Multiscale Wasserstein Auxiliary Classifier

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • Case Study over a High and Steep Mining Slope
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Lianhuan Wei; Qiuyue Feng; Feiyue Liu; Yachun Mao; Shanjun Liu; Tianhong Yang; Cristiano Tolomei; Christian Bignami; Lixin Wu

    Due to the intrinsic side-looking geometry of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), time series interferometric SAR is only able to monitor displacements in line-of-sight (LOS) direction, which limits the accuracy of displacement measurement in landslide monitoring. This is because the LOS displacement is only a three dimensional projection of real displacement of a certain ground object. Targeting at this

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • A Review of the Definition, History, Waveform Description, and Applications
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Szymon Sieciński; Paweł S. Kostka; Ewaryst J. Tkacz

    Gyrocardiography (GCG) is a non-invasive technique of analyzing cardiac vibrations by a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) gyroscope placed on a chest wall. Although its history is short in comparison with seismocardiography (SCG) and electrocardiography (ECG), GCG becomes a technique which may provide additional insight into the mechanical aspects of the cardiac cycle. In this review, we describe

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • MCW LiDAR System to Reduce Hardware Complexity and Post-Processing Techniques to Improve Distance Resolution
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Chankyu Kim; Yunho Jung; Seongjoo Lee

    As the autonomous driving technology develops, research on related sensors is also being actively conducted. One system that is widely used today uses a light source with a wavelength in the 905 nm band for the pulse Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) system. This has the disadvantages of being harmful to the human eye and in making digital signal processing difficult at high sampling rates. The Frequency

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • pen-Ended Coaxial Probe Measurements of Complex Dielectric Permittivity in Diesel-Contaminated Soil during Bioremediation
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Andrea Vergnano; Alberto Godio; Carla Maria Raffa; Fulvia Chiampo; Jorge A. Tobon Vasquez; Francesca Vipiana

    In the bioremediation field, geophysical techniques are commonly applied, at lab scale and field scale, to perform the characterization and the monitoring of contaminated soils. We propose a method for detecting the dielectric properties of contaminated soil during a process of bioremediation. An open-ended coaxial probe measured the complex dielectric permittivity (between 0.2 and 20 GHz) on a series

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • ielectric Spectroscopy and Application of Mixing Models Describing Dielectric Dispersion in Clay Minerals and Clayey Soils
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Juan D. González-Teruel; Scott B. Jones; Fulgencio Soto-Valles; Roque Torres-Sánchez; Inmaculada Lebron; Shmulik P. Friedman; David A. Robinson

    The number of sensors, ground-based and remote, exploiting the relationship between soil dielectric response and soil water content continues to grow. Empirical expressions for this relationship generally work well in coarse-textured soils but can break down for high-surface area and intricate materials such as clayey soils. Dielectric mixing models are helpful for exploring mechanisms and developing

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • arge Intelligent Surfaces Communicating through Massive MIMO Rayleigh Fading Channels
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Ricardo Coelho Coelho Ferreira; Michelle S. P. S. P. Facina; Felipe A. P. de A. P. de Figueiredo; Gustavo Fraidenraich; Eduardo Rodrigues de Rodrigues de Lima

    Large intelligent surfaces (LISs) promise not only to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spectral efficiency, but also to reduce the energy consumption during the transmission. We consider a base station equipped with an antenna array using the maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and a large reflector array sending signals to a single user. Each subchannel is affected by the Rayleigh flat fading, and

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • fficient Deployment with Throughput Maximization for UAVs Communication Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Mohd Abuzar Sayeed; Rajesh Kumar; Vishal Sharma; Mohd Asim Sayeed

    The article presents a throughput maximization approach for UAV assisted ground networks. Throughput maximization involves minimizing delay and packet loss through UAV trajectory optimization, reinforcing the congested nodes and transmission channels. The aggressive reinforcement policy is achieved by characterizing nodes, links, and overall topology through delay, loss, throughput, and distance. A

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • oltage-Mode Multifunction Biquad Filter and Its Application as Fully-Uncoupled Quadrature Oscillator Based on Current-Feedback Operational Amplifiers
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    San-Fu Wang; Hua-Pin Chen; Yitsen Ku; Ming-Xiu Zhong

    This research introduces a new multifunction biquad filter based on voltage mode (VM) current-feedback operational amplifier (CFOA) and a fully uncoupled quadrature oscillator (QO) based on the proposed VM multifunction biquad filter. The proposed VM multifunction biquad filter has high impedance to the input voltage signal, and uses three CFOAs as active components, while using four resistors and

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • Fully Anonymous Routing Protocol with Self-Healing Capability in Unstable Sensor Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Fengyin Li; Ying Wang; Hongwei Ju; Yanli Wang; Zhaojie Wang; Huiyu Zhou

    Anonymous technology is an effective way for protecting users’ privacy. Anonymity in sensor networks is to prevent the unauthorized third party from revealing the identities of the communication parties. While, in unstable wireless sensor networks, frequent topology changes often lead to route-failure in anonymous communication. To deal with the problems of anonymous route-failure in unstable sensor

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • maging Tremor Quantification for Neurological Disease Diagnosis
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Yuichi Mitsui; Thi Thi Zin; Nobuyuki Ishii; Hitoshi Mochizuki

    In this paper, we introduce a simple method based on image analysis and deep learning that can be used in the objective assessment and measurement of tremors. A tremor is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary and rhythmic movements in a human body part or parts. There are many types of tremors, depending on their amplitude and frequency type. Appropriate treatment is only possible when there

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • luid Intake Monitoring System Using a Wearable Inertial Sensor for Fluid Intake Management
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Hsiang-Yun Huang; Chia-Yeh Hsieh; Kai-Chun Liu; Steen Jun-Ping Hsu; Chia-Tai Chan

    Fluid intake is important for people to maintain body fluid homeostasis. Inadequate fluid intake leads to negative health consequences, such as headache, dizziness and urolithiasis. However, people in busy lifestyles usually forget to drink sufficient water and neglect the importance of fluid intake. Fluid intake management is important to assist people in adopting individual drinking behaviors. This

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • nergy Harvesting Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring of Airplane Components—A Review
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-22
    Saša Zelenika; Zdenek Hadas; Sebastian Bader; Thomas Becker; Petar Gljušćić; Jiri Hlinka; Ludek Janak; Ervin Kamenar; Filip Ksica; Theodora Kyratsi; Loucas Louca; Miroslav Mrlik; Adnan Osmanović; Vikram Pakrashi; Ondrej Rubes; Oldřich Ševeček; José P. B. Silva; Pavel Tofel; Bojan Trkulja; Runar Unnthorsson; Jasmin Velagić; Željko Vrcan

    With the aim of increasing the efficiency of maintenance and fuel usage in airplanes, structural health monitoring (SHM) of critical composite structures is increasingly expected and required. The optimized usage of this concept is subject of intensive work in the framework of the EU COST Action CA18203 “Optimising Design for Inspection” (ODIN). In this context, a thorough review of a broad range of

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • n Situ Detection of Water Leakage for Textile-Reinforced Composites
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Julie Regnier; Aurélie Cayla; Christine Campagne; Eric Devaux

    By incorporating electrically conductive yarns into a waterproof membrane, one can detect epoxy resin cracking or liquid leakage. Therefore, this study examined the electrical conductivity variations of several yarns (metallic or carbon-based) for cracking and water detection. The first observations concerned the detectors’ feasibility by investigating their conductivity variations during both their

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • nergy Efficiency Maximization for Multi-Cell Multi-Carrier NOMA Networks
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Abuzar B. M. Adam; Xiaoyu Wan; Zhengqiang Wang

    As energy efficiency (EE) is a key performance indicator for the future wireless network, it has become a significant research field in communication networks. In this paper, we consider multi-cell multi-carrier non-orthogonal multiple access (MCMC-NOMA) networks and investigate the EE maximization problem. As the EE maximization is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming NP-hard problem, it is difficult

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • olycarbonate mPOF-Based Mach–Zehnder Interferometer for Temperature and Strain Measurement
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xiaoyu Yue; Haijin Chen; Hang Qu; Rui Min; Getinet Woyessa; Ole Bang; Xuehao Hu

    In this paper, an endlessly single mode microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) in a Mach–Zehnder (M–Z) interferometer configuration is demonstrated for temperature and strain measurement. Because there is no commercial splicer applied for POF-silica optical fiber (SOF) connectorization, prior to the M–Z interferometric sensing, we introduce an imaging projecting method to align a polycarbonate

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • iosensors—Recent Advances and Future Challenges
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Paolo Bollella; Evgeny Katz

    Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is an excerpt from the first page. Biosensors are analytical devices that are able to convert a biological response into an electrical signal [...]

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Minimal Metric for the Characterization of Acoustic Noise Emitted by Underwater Vehicles
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Giacomo Picardi; Clara Borrelli; Augusto Sarti; Giovanni Chimienti; Marcello Calisti

    Underwater robots emit sound during operations which can deteriorate the quality of acoustic data recorded by on-board sensors or disturb marine fauna during in vivo observations. Notwithstanding this, there have only been a few attempts at characterizing the acoustic emissions of underwater robots in the literature, and the datasheets of commercially available devices do not report information on

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • lexible Sensor Array Based on Transient Earth Voltage for Online Partial Discharge Monitoring of Cable Termination
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Mingshu Zhao; Xiaoyan Cao; Kai Zhou; Yao Fu; Xutao Li; Li Wan

    Cable termination is a weak point in an underground cable system. The transient earth voltage (TEV) method is an effective and nonintrusive method for estimating the insulation condition of cable termination. However, the practical application of TEV detection is mainly focused on switchgears, generators, and transformers with a flat and conductive shell. A flexible sensor array based on the TEV method

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • tructural Similarity Loss for Learning to Fuse Multi-Focus Images
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xiang Yan; Syed Zulqarnain Gilani; Hanlin Qin; Ajmal Mian

    Convolutional neural networks have recently been used for multi-focus image fusion. However, some existing methods have resorted to adding Gaussian blur to focused images, to simulate defocus, thereby generating data (with ground-truth) for supervised learning. Moreover, they classify pixels as ‘focused’ or ‘defocused’, and use the classified results to construct the fusion weight maps. This then necessitates

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • imulation of Fresnel Zone Plate Imaging Performance with Number of Zones
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Ying Li; Ombeline DE LA Rochefoucauld; Philippe Zeitoun

    In recent years, integral imaging, a promising three-dimensional imaging technology, has attracted more and more attention for its broad applications in robotics, computational vision, and medical diagnostics. In the visible spectrum, an integral imaging system can be easily implemented by inserting a micro-lens array between a image formation optic and a pixelated detector. By using a micro-Fresnel

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • idely-Tunable Quantum Cascade-Based Sources for the Development of Optical Gas Sensors
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Virginie Zéninari; Raphaël Vallon; Laurent Bizet; Clément Jacquemin; Guillaume Aoust; Grégory Maisons; Mathieu Carras; Bertrand Parvitte

    Spectroscopic techniques based on Distributed FeedBack (DFB) Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) provide good results for gas detection in the mid-infrared region in terms of sensibility and selectivity. The main limitation is the QCL relatively low tuning range (~10 cm−1) that prevents from monitoring complex species with broad absorption spectra in the infrared region or performing multi-gas sensing. To

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • ptimization Design and Flexible Detection Method of a Surface Adaptation Wall-Climbing Robot with Multisensor Integration for Petrochemical Tanks
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Minglu Zhang; Xuan Zhang; Manhong Li; Jian Cao; Zhexuan Huang

    Recently, numerous wall-climbing robots have been developed for petrochemical tank maintenance. However, most of them are difficult to be widely applied due to common problems such as poor adsorption capacity, low facade adaptability, and low detection accuracy. In order to realize automatic precise detection, an innovative wall-climbing robot system was designed. Based on magnetic circuit optimization

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Study of the Radiation Tolerance of CVD Diamond to 70 MeV Protons, Fast Neutrons and 200 MeV Pions
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Lukas Bäni; Andreas Alexopoulos; Marina Artuso; Felix Bachmair; Marcin Ryszard Bartosik; Helge Christoph Beck; Vincenzo Bellini; Vladimir Belyaev; Benjamin Bentele; Alexandre Bes; Jean-Marie Brom; Gabriele Chiodini; Dominik Chren; Vladimir Cindro; Gilles Claus; Johann Collot; John Cumalat; Sébastien Curtoni; Anne Evelyn Dabrowski; Raffaello D’Alessandro; Denis Dauvergne; Wim De Boer; Christian Dorfer;

    We measured the radiation tolerance of commercially available diamonds grown by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process by measuring the charge created by a 120 GeV hadron beam in a 50 μm pitch strip detector fabricated on each diamond sample before and after irradiation. We irradiated one group of samples with 70 MeV protons, a second group of samples with fast reactor neutrons (defined as energy greater

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • igh-Precision Single-Photon Laser Time Transfer with Temperature Drift Post-Compensation
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Wendong Meng; Yurong Wang; Kai Tang; Zhijie Zhang; Shuanggen Jin; Ivan Procházka; Zhongping Zhang; Guang Wu

    Laser time transfer is of great significance in timing and global time synchronization. However, temperature drift may occur and affect the delay of the electronics system, optic generation and detection system. This paper proposes a post-processing method for the compensation of temperature-induced system delay, which does not require any changes to the hardware setup. The temperature drift and time

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Medical Applicability and Benefits for Unobtrusive Sensing and Objective Diagnosis
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Adam Chromy; Ludek Zalud

    The RoScan is a novel, high-accuracy multispectral surface scanning system producing colored 3D models that include a thermal layer. (1) Background: at present, medicine still exhibits a lack of objective diagnostic methods. As many diseases involve thermal changes, thermography may appear to be a convenient technique for the given purpose; however, there are three limiting problems: exact localization

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • The 5GENESIS Approach
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Almudena Díaz Zayas; Giuseppe Caso; Özgü Alay; Pedro Merino; Anna Brunstrom; Dimitris Tsolkas; Harilaos Koumaras

    The high heterogeneity of 5G use cases requires the extension of the traditional per-component testing procedures provided by certification organizations, in order to devise and incorporate methodologies that cover the testing requirements from vertical applications and services. In this paper, we introduce an experimentation methodology that is defined in the context of the 5GENESIS project, which

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • ighly Sensitive Flow Sensor Based on Flexible Dual-Layer Heating Structures
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Yu-Chao Yan; Cheng-Yu Jiang; Run-Bo Chen; Bing-He Ma; Jin-Jun Deng; Shao-Jun Zheng; Jian Luo

    Hot film sensors detect the flow shear stress based on the forced convection heat transfer to the fluid. Current hot film sensors have been significantly hindered by the relatively low sensitivity due to the massive heat conduction to the substrate. This paper describes the design, fabrication, simulation, and testing of a novel flow sensor with dual-layer hot film structures. More specifically, the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • ower Control during Remote Laser Welding Using a Convolutional Neural Network
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alex Božič; Matjaž Kos; Matija Jezeršek

    The increase in complex workpieces with changing geometries demands advanced control algorithms in order to achieve stable welding regimes. Usually, many experiments are required to identify and confirm the correct welding parameters. We present a method for controlling laser power in a remote laser welding system with a convolutional neural network (CNN) via a PID controller, based on optical triangulation

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • isual Leakage Inspection in Chemical Process Plants Using Thermographic Videos and Motion Pattern Detection
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Mina Fahimipirehgalin; Birgit Vogel-Heuser; Emanuel Trunzer; Matthias Odenweller

    Liquid leakage from pipelines is a critical issue in large-scale chemical process plants since it can affect the normal operation of the plant and pose unsafe and hazardous situations. Therefore, leakage detection in the early stages can prevent serious damage. Developing a vision-based inspection system by means of IR imaging can be a promising approach for accurate leakage detection. IR cameras can

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • uantitative X-ray Channel-Cut Crystal Diffraction Wavefront Metrology Using the Speckle Scanning Technique
    Sensors (IF 3.275) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Lian Xue; Hongxin Luo; Qianshun Diao; Fugui Yang; Jie Wang; Zhongliang Li

    A speckle-based method for the X-ray crystal diffraction wavefront measurement is implemented, and the slope errors of channel-cut crystals with different surface characteristics are measured. The method uses a speckle scanning technique generated by a scattering membrane translated using a piezo motor to infer the deflection of X-rays from the crystals. The method provides a high angular sensitivity

    更新日期:2020-11-21
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