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  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Segmented Bayesian optimization of meta-gratings for sub-wavelength light focusing
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Dasen Zhang, Feifei Qin, Qiang Zhang, Zhenzhen Liu, Guochao Wei, and Jun Jun Xiao
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Smoothing scheme for intensity sweep and polarization rotation at a subpicosecond timescale
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Muyu Yi, Zheqiang Zhong, and Bin Zhang
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Strong Purcell effect for magnetic dipole emission with spoof plasmonic spiral structure
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Hong-Wei Wu, Jia-Qi Quan, Yun-Qiao Yin, and Zong-Qiang Sheng
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Flexible random lasers in dye-doped bio-degradable cellulose nanocrystalline needles
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Gleice C. M. Germano, Yan D. R. Machado, Lucas Martinho, Susete N. Fernandes, Antonio Mario L. M. Costa, Edison Pecoraro, Anderson S. L. Gomes, and Isabel C. S. Carvalho
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Analytically decomposing optical force on a spherical particle in Bessel beams into conservative and non-conservative parts
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Guangji Ha, Hongxia Zheng, Xinning Yu, and Zhifang Lin

    Based on the recently developed Cartesian multipole expansion theory, we analytically analyze the conservative and non-conservative nature of the optical force acting on a spherical particle of arbitrary size and isotropic composition immersed in the optical Bessel beams of arbitrary orders and polarizations. It is rigorously proved that the conservative force on the particle in Bessel beams aligns in the radial direction transverse to beam propagation, while the non-conservative force is completely non-radial, lying in the azimuthal and longitudinal directions. To the best of our knowledge, our work provides the first analytical partition between the conservative and non-conservative components of the optical force on a particle of arbitrary size and composition placed in a class of extensively employed optical beams in practical optical manipulation, beyond the small particle limit.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Non-reciprocity using quadrature-phase time-varying slab resonators
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Mahdi Chegnizadeh, Mohammad Memarian, and Khashayar Mehrany
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Propagation characteristics of vortex beams in anisotropic atmospheric turbulence
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Shanfa Tang, Jiawei Yan, Kangle Yong, and Rongzhu Zhang
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Separation of organic dye molecules through their selective photo-excitation
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Gordei G. Anchutkin, Semen A. Plyastsov, George P. Miroshnichenko, and Igor K. Meshkovskiy
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Highly resolved ultra-strong coupling between graphene plasmons and intersubband polaritons
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Francesco Pisani, Simone Zanotto, and Alessandro Tredicucci
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Teleporting quantum Fisher information for even and odd coherent states
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    K. El Anouz, A. El Allati, and M. El Baz
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Atomic switch for control of heat transfer in coupled cavities
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Nilakantha Meher and S. Sivakumar
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Normal-mode splitting in a linear and quadratic optomechanical system with an ensemble of two-level atoms
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Qing He, Fazal Badshah, Thamer Alharbi, Liping Li, and Linfeng Yang
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Revisiting comparison between entanglement measures for two-qubit pure states
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Ashutosh Singh, Ijaz Ahamed, Dipankar Home, and Urbasi Sinha
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Flexible pulse shaping for sum frequency microspectroscopies
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Niklas Müller, Tiago Buckup, and Marcus Motzkus
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Effective detection of weak terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling at kilohertz repetition rate
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Philipp Krauspe, Natalie Banerji, and Julien Réhault
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Fluorescence of rubidium vapor in a transient interaction regime
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Artur Aleksanyan, Svetlana Shmavonyan, Emil Gazazyan, Aleksandr Khanbekyan, Hrayr Azizbekyan, Marina Movsisyan, and Aram Papoyan
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Linear chirp instability analysis for ultrafast pulse metrology
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Esmerando Escoto, Rana Jafari, Günter Steinmeyer, and Rick Trebino
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Reverse-strip-structure Ge28Sb12Se60 chalcogenide glass waveguides prepared by micro-trench filling and lift-off
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Chengdong Li, Panpan Guo, Wei Huang, Wei Zhang, Peipeng Xu, and Peiqing Zhang
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • On Dyakonov–Voigt surface waves guided by the planar interface of dissipative materials: publisher’s note
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Chenzhang Zhou, Tom G. Mackay, and Akhlesh Lakhtakia

    This publisher’s note corrects a reference in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 3218 (2019) [CrossRef] .

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Transparent conductive oxides for the epsilon-near-zero Tamm plasmon polaritons: publisher’s note
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Rashid G. Bikbaev, Stepan Ya. Vetrov, and Ivan V. Timofeev

    This publisher’s note corrects the funding and acknowledgment sections in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 2817 (2019) [CrossRef] .

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Numerical study on mid-infrared optical parametric amplification around 5 µm by injecting signal vector beams in As2Se3 MOFs
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Weiqing Gao, Peng Wang, Wenhui Jiang, Zhengxiong Zhang, Xiu Zhang, Panyun Gao, Wei Zhang, Meisong Liao, Takenobu Suzuki, Yasutake Ohishi, and Yong Zhou

    The influence of the core diameter and pump wavelength on the phase-matching conditions when different signal vector beams are injected is analyzed numerically in a suspended-core ${{\rm As}_2}{{\rm Se}_3}$ microstructured optical fiber (MOF). The idler wavelengths satisfying the phase-matching conditions with different signal vector beams can reach wavelengths of 4.8–5.9 µm in the ${{\rm As}_2}{{\rm Se}_3}$ MOFs with different core diameters. By changing the signal vector mode field and adjusting the corresponding signal wavelength, the idler wavelength can be tuned in 754.8 nm from 4.9182 to 5.6730 µm with the pump wavelength changing from 2.80 to 2.90 µm. The influence on signal gain and the idler conversion efficiency is calculated in the ${{\rm As}_2}{{\rm Se}_3}$ MOFs with different lengths when injecting different signal vector beams. The peak gain of signal and idler conversion efficiency can reach $\sim{28}\,\, {\rm dB}$ and $\sim{24}\% $, respectively, when the different signal vector beams are injected. The simulated results demonstrate that the optical parametric oscillation with wavelengths longer than 5 µm can be realized in chalcogenide fibers with signal vector beam injection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Suspended core microstructured optical fibers with diverse arrangements of gold-filled holes: study of the polarization characteristics and resonance strength
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Rajat Kumar Basak and Debashri Ghosh

    We study the dispersion and polarization properties as well as the coupling characteristics of suspended core microstructured optical fibers (SC-MOFs) having constant pitch and air-filling fraction with a varying suspension factor (SF) and diverse arrangements of gold-filled holes. The interaction between the core-guided fundamental mode and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated on the surface of the gold-filled hole creates surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the phase-matching wavelengths. It is observed that such plasmonic SC-MOF designs exhibit very high birefringence and an increased number of complete coupling points for high SF values. In addition, for all the arrangements of gold-filled holes, the coupling occurs for a higher order of the SPP for structures having greater SF. The resonance strength of such SC-MOFs is significantly enhanced and considerable reduction in full width at half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of the SPR peak is achieved for the ${ x}$-axis with suitable arrangement of gold-filled holes. The values of the coupling strength and FWHM achieved for the proposed SC-MOF structures are better compared to all the data reported until now to the best of our knowledge. The results suggest that such SC-MOF structures may be beneficial for developing polarizers or in-fiber polarization splitters with improved performance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Design and fabrication of all-normal dispersion nanohole suspended-core fibers
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Alexander Hartung, Jörg Bierlich, Adrian Lorenz, Jens Kobelke, and Matthias Jäger

    Suspended-core fibers (SCFs) with a submicron diameter hole in the core offer interesting new possibilities in dispersion management, light confinement, and nonlinear applications. We discuss the geometric demands and options of fused silica-based nanohole SCFs suitable for all-normal dispersion (ANDi) and compare them to the possibilities provided by photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). We show that nanohole SCFs extend the options PCFs provide, enabling ANDi further into the near infrared. In addition, fabrication conditions are evaluated, a reliable fabrication scheme is outlined, and ANDi nanohole SCFs are demonstrated.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Raman peak shifts due to walk-off in non-instantaneous Kerr media with higher-order effects
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Michel-Rostand Soumo Tchio, Saïdou Abdoulkary, and Alidou Mohamadou

    We study analytically and numerically the modulation instability (MI) of two incoherently co-propagating optical pulses in nonlinear fiber, taking into account high-order nonlinearity, walk-off effects, delay response time, and cross-phase modulation in several dispersion regimes. We show that higher-order nonlinearity is responsible for superposition of the secondary MI spectrum. We realize that there is a peak located in the emerged Raman band that we call “Raman peak” due to the combined effects of third-order dispersion, delay response time, and the opposite sign of the fourth-order dispersion parameter. These peaks are shifted toward higher frequencies when the walk-off increases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Thermally expanded multicore-fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Thomas Joseph and Joseph John

    Mode multiplexers are essential components in space/mode division multiplexing. A thermally expanded two-core-fiber-based mode multiplexer/demultiplexer design is proposed, which multiplexes the ${\rm LP}_{01} $ and $ {\rm LP}_{11} $ modes of a two-mode fiber. The extinction ratio of the proposed mode multiplexer is higher than 30 dB over the entire C-band. We extend this design to a three-core-fiber structure that can multiplex/demultiplex both $ {\rm LP}_{11a} $ and $ {\rm LP}_{11b} $ spatial modes. The extinction ratio of the three-core device is found to be more than 23 dB. The same device can work as a $ {\rm LP}_{11} $ filter and $ {\rm LP}_{11} $ tap coupler easily by changing either the core expansion or the scan length.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reflective optical fiber sensor based on light polarization modulation for hydrogen sensing
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Ben Xu, Ran Chang, Ping Li, D. N. Wang, Chun-Liu Zhao, Jian Qing Li, Minghong Yang, and Ling Ze Duan

    A simple reflective hydrogen-sensing system based on polarization modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing unit consists of a polarizer, a polarization control, and a sensing head composed of a short segment of polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) with a Pt-loaded ${{\rm WO}_3}$ coating. When the sensing head is exposed to a hydrogen environment, heat is generated due to the interaction between hydrogen and ${{\rm WO}_3}$ with the help of catalyst Pt in air; then, the local temperature of the PMF increases, which results in the reflection spectrum shift because the light polarization state changes due to the variation of the birefringence coefficient of the PMF. Experimental results show that the system is capable of producing a rapid response to hydrogen with a high sensitivity of $\sim{18.04}\;{\rm nm/}\% $ (vol%) within the concentration range of 0–4% (vol%). Additionally, the sensing head has a probe structure with reflective measurement and immunity to humidity. Such features make the sensing system promising in the fields of hydrogen transportation or storage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Polarization dependence of interferences inside rubidium atomic vapor governing microwave vector E-field metrology
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Harish Singh Rawat, Satya Kesh Dubey, and Vijay Narain Ojha

    The atom-based metrology technique has been widely accepted because of the SI traceability and dependence only on the physical constants rather than on any artefact. The presented work explains the dependence of the probe absorption on the polarization of the driving fields in the new atom-based spectroscopic technique for microwave electrometry. This work explains the nature of decays between different pathways when the fields are not only $\pi$ or $\sigma$ polarized but also at an arbitrary angle between the two orientations. It has been shown that when any of the lasers is linearly polarized at an arbitrary angle $0\lt {\theta_{p,c}}\lt\pm\pi /2$ to the quantization axis, the observation of the absorption from a correct direction becomes extremely important. The findings in this work can be utilized in the correct determination of the polarization of the incident microwave field along with the E-field amplitude measurement. Further, a challenge has been discussed when the radio frequency (RF) field is weak and cannot give the distinguished separation in the absorption peak. It has been shown that the sensitivity of the sensor can be increased in this case by detuning the RF from the on-resonance frequency.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Scattering-rate approach for efficient prediction of temperature-dependent characteristics of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Sergii Kurlov, Mykhaylo P. Semtsiv, Zoryana Zhuchenko, Georgiy G. Tarasov, and W. Ted Masselink

    A computationally efficient temperature-dependent model for scattering processes in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers is developed. In this approach, the total intersubband scattering rate is described as the product of the overlap integral for the squared moduli of the envelope functions and a form factor that depends on transition energy, temperature, and material. Both inelastic and elastic scattering processes are included in the treatment. The model is used to calculate the temperature-dependent threshold current density $ {J_{{\rm th}}}(T) $ in a 10-period strain-compensated InGaAs–InAlAs mid-infrared quantum cascade laser structure and determine the characteristic temperature $ {T_0} $ in $ {J_{{\rm th}}}(T) = {J_0}\exp {(T/{T_0})} $. The effect of doping is also modeled.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Quantum noise spectrum in fiber-based nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplification considering phase mismatch and Raman scattering
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Kyo Inoue

    Wavelength dependence of quantum noise in nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplification in an optical fiber, where signal and its phase-conjugated idler lights are incident into a fiber together with pump light, is theoretically investigated. An analytical formula of the quantum-limited noise figure, that takes Raman scattering into account as well as parametric amplification, is derived based on full quantum mechanical treatment. Using the obtained formula, a calculation example of the noise figure spectrum is also presented, where the pump light phase is adjusted so that the signal gain is maximum at a phase-matched wavelength, supposing multichannel amplification.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dependence of static K DPAL performance on addition of methane to He buffer gas: 3D CFD modeling and comparison with experimental results
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Karol Waichman, Boris D. Barmashenko, and Salman Rosenwaks

    Recently it was observed that adding a small amount of methane to the He buffer gas of a static potassium diode pumped alkali laser (K DPAL) increases considerably the laser power. Further increase in the amount of methane leads to a moderate decrease in power. In the present work the effect of methane addition was investigated theoretically applying a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and potassium kinetics model, which was supplemented by the analysis of the electron temperature and K ion ambipolar diffusion. It was found that for a pure He buffer the K DPAL power is lower than for ${\rm He}/{{\rm CH}_4}$ mixtures due to slow ion-electron recombination and high electron temperature exceeding 3000 K. The high electron temperature in pure He results in fast ambipolar diffusion of K ions to the wall and depletion of the neutral K atoms in the lasing region. These effects are mitigated when methane is added to the buffer gas. The calculated results for the normalized laser power are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental ones.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Manipulating spontaneous emission spectra using two-dimensional elliptical microcavities
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Kaiyuan Xu and Chun Jiang

    Integrated photonics and the study of the emission spectra and efficiency of light sources are promising research directions in the optoelectronics area. Here, we present an elliptical microcavity and derive the expression for its local density of state. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations are performed to observe the broadening of the spontaneous emission spectra (SES) when placing the emitter in circular and elliptical microcavities. The results show that an SES with a full width at half-magnitude (FWHM) of 200 nm in free space is broadened, to one with an FWHM of 400 nm, in the elliptical microcavity. This approach can be used for any modification of spontaneous emission.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Comparative study of an ultrafast, CEP-stable, dual-channel mid-IR OPCPA system
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Szabolcs Tóth, Roland Flender, Bálint Kiss, Máté Kurucz, Alexey Andrianov, Roland S. Nagymihaly, Ludovit Haizer, Eric Cormier, and Károly Osvay

    In this theoretical work, the performances of ultrafast, carrier-envelope-phase-stable (CEP), mid-IR optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) systems were compared in two different amplification schemes. In the “idler scheme” the mid-IR pulse (idler) is produced in the first difference frequency generation stage of the OPCPA chain and then amplified in the following stages. In the “signal scheme,” the supercontinuum seed is amplified in the OPCPA chain and the mid-IR pulse is generated in the last amplifier stage. According to our results, the idler has higher energy and better energy stability in the idler scheme, while in the signal scheme the signal has the better characteristics in energy and stability. The CEP noise due to the pump intensity fluctuations was found to be lower in the signal scheme. Additionally, chirp optimization revealed that the peak power of the compressed idler and signal pulses at the output of the system is considerably higher if the chirp of the input signal pulse is positive.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Optical precursors in a weakly dispersive double narrow-resonance dielectric
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Heejeong Jeong, Chang-Won Lee, Andrew M. C. Dawes, and Daniel J. Gauthier

    We investigate optical precursors transmitted through a double-Lorentz dielectric consisting of two adjacent narrow resonances. Compared to the patterns in a single-Lorentz dielectric, the transmitted envelope shows additional modulation that oscillates at the separation frequency between two resonances, corresponding to the doublet frequency separation. We use the weakly dispersive, narrow-resonance condition to analyze it, which compares favorably to our observations. This work will be meaningful to identify dielectric properties by analyzing multi-resonant media for application of optical communication.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phase-dependent light-induced torque
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Seyedeh Hamideh Kazemi and Mohammad Mahmoudi

    We study an optical torque emerging through the interaction of orbital angular momentum with atoms/molecules in quantum systems with closed-loop interactions. First, we show how atoms with a closed-loop scheme experience a well-controlled torque whose features depend on the relative phase of applied fields. Such a controllable torque, along with simplicity of tuning the relative phase, can simplify the implementation of current flows in atomic Bose–Einstein condensates. Moreover, we calculate the optical torque exerted on chiral molecules with cyclic-transition structures and find that the enantiomers can experience different torques for proper choice of the parameters. Such features may find applications in sorting and separation of enantiomers.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Study of the circular dichroism of He+ ion
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Jen-Hao Chen, Jinn-Liang Liu, Shih-Da Jheng, Szu-Cheng Cheng, and Tsin-Fu Jiang

    We study the mechanism of circular dichroism (CD) in $ {{\rm He}^ + } $ under XUV and NIR pulses in the experimental condition presented by Ilchen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 013002 (2017) [CrossRef] ] and in a range of pulse intensities and durations by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) in momentum space. The method enables investigation of the ionization and intermediate transition probabilities of $ {{\rm He}^ + } $ in detail. We show that the lowest-order perturbation theory (LOPT) is qualitatively sufficient to describe experimental results and find that ionization favors co- and counter-rotating pulses for NIR intensities in and beyond LOPT regimes, respectively. In the experimental pulse duration, we show that a sub-peak along the first above-threshold ionization peak exists in the counter-rotating case due to one-photon absorption from excited states, which cannot be obtained by solving TDSE with a short duration of 22 fs, since the energy band width is too wide to resolve this substructure. We present the variation of CD values with NIR intensities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Statistical effects of optical parametric noise on signal pulses in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Keisuke Nagashima, Yoshihiro Ochi, and Ryuji Itakura

    We report on an experimental study of the statistical effects of optical parametric noise on the signal pulses in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator. We measured a signal pulse that grew from the optical parametric noise using a temporal gating system and found that the time required for the signal growth was remarkably scattered, even if the pump pulses were maintained to be constant. The statistical properties of the signal pulses were not affected by the changes in the pump power but were characterized by the optical parametric noise. We examined these statistical properties numerically using nonlinear coupling equations and found that the measured properties could be reproduced using a simple model in which the optical parametric noise had random phase in the frequency domain.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Influence of strong light beams on the nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients of transparent materials
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Georges Boudebs, Hongzhen Wang, Christophe Cassagne, Mihaela Chis, Anderson M. Amaral, and Cid B. de Araújo

    We explore the effective nonlinear (NL) optical response of transparent materials illuminated by strong light beams. Two different setups were used to study the influence of the numerical aperture (NA) corresponding to the collecting lens on the measured coefficients in the open- and closed-aperture Z-scan transmittance. For that, we have reproduced experiments in ${{\rm CS}_2}$ at 532 nm in the picosecond regime using the ${D}4\sigma$-Z-scan method. It is found that measurements of high-order NL coefficients are not possible after a limit defined by the self-focusing of light inside the cell, and that stimulated light scattering is not significant to explain alone the saturation behavior that occurs in the NL refraction measurements. Indications are given for future Z-scan-based experiments that may clarify the boundary conditions to be respected for the measurement.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nonlinear rovibrational response in the propagation of long-wavelength infrared pulses and pulse trains
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Phil Rosenow, Paris Panagiotopoulos, Miroslav Kolesik, Stephan W. Koch, and Jerome V. Moloney

    The propagation of long-wavelength pulses is affected by a multitude of near-resonant rovibrational transitions in atmospheric constituents, of which water vapor is generally the most abundant. We extract the pure nonlinear response of these transitions from a high-resolution transmission-based effective model, which is additive to the spectrally resolved linear response, and study the influence of this on the propagation of laser pulses and pulse trains. Compared to simulations with only electronic Kerr self-focusing, we find that the nonlinear rovibrational response introduces an additional modification to strongly self-focused laser pulses and stark changes to pulses that are close to the self-focusing threshold.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Filamentation-assisted plasma lifetime measurements in atomic and molecular gases via third-harmonic enhancement
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Christoph Jusko, Abhishek Sridhar, Elisa Appi, Liping Shi, Uwe Morgner, and Milutin Kovacev

    We present lifetime measurements of femtosecond laser-induced plasma in atomic and molecular gases via enhanced third-harmonic radiation from a filament. So far, only the plasma lifetime of air has been measured with this approach. We report and analyze the first measurements for other gases, including, to the best of our knowledge, the first-ever documented temporal evolution measurement of femtosecond laser-induced plasma in helium. We show that the temporal plasma evolution is imprinted directly in our measurement traces without the need of any further assumptions or data treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Simultaneous nonlinear polarization rotation and dispersive optical bistability: theoretical and experimental analysis
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Saif A. Al Graiti, Aiswarya Kannan, Claudio E. Ippolito, and Drew N. Maywar

    We study the simultaneous occurrence of dispersive optical bistability and nonlinear polarization rotation in a nonlinear photonic resonator. The demonstrated bistable hysteresis curves of the Stokes parameters broaden the notion of optical bistability in nonlinear resonators beyond that of the traditional optical-power hysteresis curve. We present a theoretical model to fully understand the polarization hysteresis curves observed in the laboratory and to establish the relevant scaling parameters for bistable action. By optimizing the optical-signal power injected into each polarization mode of the resonator and optimizing the small-signal birefringence of the resonator by selection of the signal wavelength, a polarization rotation of 30% orthogonality was achieved between stable polarization states in the lab. The theoretical and experimental methods reported here are carried out for the case of a Fabry–Perot semiconductor optical amplifier, and are extendable to the investigation of simultaneous occurrence of these phenomena in other nonlinear media (such as Kerr media) and other photonic resonators.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Design of a radiation-balanced fiber laser via optically active composite cladding materials
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Xiaojing Xia, Anupum Pant, E. James Davis, and Peter J. Pauzauskie

    Although the output power of commercial fiber lasers has been reported to exceed 500 kW, the heat generated within fiber gain-media has limited the generation of higher laser powers due to thermal lensing and melting of the gain-media at high temperatures. Radiation-balanced fiber lasers promise to mitigate detrimental thermal effects within fiber gain-media based on using upconverted, anti-Stokes photoluminescence to extract heat from the optical fiber’s core. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that Yb(III) ions within $ {\text{YLiF}_4} $ (YLF) microcrystals are capable of cooling the cladding of optical fibers. We also present a design for radiation-balanced fiber lasers using a composite fiber cladding material that incorporates YLF nanocrystals as the active photonic heat engine. YLF crystals have the potential to form composite cladding materials to mitigate thermal gradients within the core and cladding based on anti-Stokes photoluminescence. Analytical models of heat transfer within the fiber are presented where the electric-field amplitude within the fiber core is responsible for both the heating of the core and the excitation of Yb(III) ions for anti-Stokes laser refrigeration in the cladding.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Controlling spatial hole burning in lasers using anisotropic laser mirrors
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Jean-François Bisson and Koffi Novignon Amouzou

    The concept of the twisted-mode laser operation, which suppresses spatial hole burning and produces single-mode operation in a standing-wave resonator, is revisited for the case of optically anisotropic laser mirrors presenting arbitrary birefringent and dichroic properties. Our analysis clarifies the relationship between the mirrors’ optical properties and the proximity of the polarization states of the counterpropagating waves, which determines the contrast of the standing-wave pattern inside the resonator. The intensity of the principal mode and the population of the upper laser level as a function of the pumping rate are then determined analytically, which enables estimates of the slope efficiency and threshold of multimode emission for a given contrast value of the standing wave. The inversion density is found to reach an upper bound as a function of the pumping rate for every value of the contrast except unity. The design rules for anisotropic mirrors to produce single-frequency operation are provided that are less strict than those to achieve pure twisted-mode operation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Potential of Bessel spiral zone plate in complex beam shaping and structuring
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Seyed Mojtaba Taheri Balanoji and Arash Sabatyan

    We aim here to show that azimuthal structuring of the optical beam may be realized by apodizing a spiral zone plate using an azimuthal-modulated Bessel function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the azimuthal modulation of a Bessel beam may cause its transmittance to take negative values in azimuth. Accordingly, when a diffractive element (herein, spiral zone plate) is apodized by such a modulated Bessel function, its transmittance undergoes an azimuthal phase change. Consequently, the phase change is imposed on a beam passing through the element. This means that the technique enables us to produce a variety of azimuthal beam shapes, such as spiral, ring-lattice, light-arm, and multi-spot beams. In this research, we illustrate how these structures and shapes are produced and tailored. To verify the consequences of the simulation, corresponding experiments were planned.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dynamically tunable and transmissive linear to circular polarizer based on graphene metasurfaces
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Zhifei Yao, Mengjia Lu, Chunyang Zhang, and Yueke Wang

    A dynamically tunable and transmissive polarization converter, based on graphene metasurfaces, has been proposed in the terahertz range. In this paper, left-handed circular polarization (LHCP) with bandwidth from 5.15 to 5.52 THz is realized via the superimposition of two transmissive orthogonal components with a near-90° phase difference. By varying the Fermi energy, the working frequencies of the converter can be dynamically controlled, which also implies the linear to circular polarization conversion originates from the excitation of graphene surface plasmon. The absorption loss decreases with increasing electron scattering time. All simulation results have been conducted based on COMSOL Multiphysics.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Ultrabroadband infrared near-field spectroscopy and imaging of local resonators in percolative gold films
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Xinzhong Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Ziheng Yao, Hans A. Bechtel, Michael C. Martin, G. L. Carr, and Mengkun Liu

    Percolation processes are ubiquitous in nature and are responsible for many critical phenomena such as first-order phase transitions and infectious epidemic networks. The optical properties of a percolative medium can generally be captured by the effective medium approximation (EMA) when the degree of percolation and the properties of the constituent materials are properly addressed. However, the important local collective responses of nanoclusters in the deep subwavelength regime are often only phenomenologically addressed in the standard EMA formalism. A comprehensive method that measures local light–matter interactions and registers how the local responses influence global optical properties has yet to be established on a firm basis. In this paper, we use infrared nano-imaging/spectroscopy to investigate percolative gold films in the vicinity of the critical percolation threshold. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the near-field spectra yield quantitative information of the characteristic length scale of the local gold clusters and their relative oscillator strengths. As a result, EMA analysis can be augmented with near-field nano-spectroscopy to yield better predictability of the far-field reflection spectrum at the corresponding spectral range.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Global modeling of terahertz plasmonic high electron mobility transistor using a complete hydrodynamic model
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    F. Daneshmandian, A. Abdipour, and A. N. Askarpour

    The global modeling of an unbiased/biased ungated high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is presented. The complete hydrodynamic model is employed for the full-wave analysis of the structure, using the finite-difference time-domain numerical method. This model is based on the first three moments of the Boltzmann transport equation combined with Maxwell’s equations. Using the three moments of the transport equation, in contrast to the usual first two moments, allows us to take into account the variation of the transport parameters with the energy and the temperature. Therefore, the complete characteristics of the plasmons’ propagation along the ungated HEMT channel for low- and high-field conditions are achieved. Moreover, by applying this model to a metallic grating gate HEMT as a tunable resonant detector, the transmission spectra are obtained for various temperatures and electron densities for low- and high-field conditions. The results show the characteristics of the surface plasmons’ propagation are highly influenced by the excitation field level and accordingly cause transport parameter variations that can be described completely by our developed model.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Design and simulation of high-sensitivity refractometric sensors based on defect modes in one-dimensional ternary dispersive photonic crystal
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Mahdi Sovizi and Maryam Aliannezhadi

    Photonic crystals are widely used in sensors, lasers, optical wavelength filters, and dispersion compensations used in optical communication networks. We propose to exploit the defect modes of one-dimensional ternary photonic crystals based on silicon, analyte, and silica layers for a refractive index sensor. The defect modes are created by inserting an analyte layer in the middle of the structure between two adjacent silica and silicon layers. Exploiting the defect modes in the transmission spectrum leads to hypersensitivity. The results show that the thicknesses of the layers and defect part are, respectively, about 155, 700, 155, and 1200 nm in optimum conditions. Our optimum structure is about 11 µm long, and sensitivity of this structure is more than 450 nm/RIU and 600 nm/RIU for the perpendicular light incident and incident angle of 45°, respectively. The effect of dispersion is investigated on the sensor operation, too. Numerical simulations exhibit that sensitivity is decreased to 410 nm/RIU for incident perpendicular rays. Also, the optimum thickness of the defect layer is changed significantly when considering the dispersion effects, so dispersion plays a significant role in the proposed sensor.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Theoretical analysis of the optical Hall effect in a 2D nano-cross-slit grating in the extraordinary optical transmission range
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Kofi Edee, Elisa Ruiz, Maha Benrhouma, and Mira Abboud

    We theoretically demonstrate the nonreciprocal behavior, for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves, of a 2D cross-grating made of nano-slits filled with a gyrotropic material subject to an external polar bias magnetic field. We provide closed-form expressions for the reflection and transmission of the system, allowing one to fully describe and understand the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) mechanism occurring in the system. When the slits are filled with a gyrotropic material, the structure exhibits a non-reciprocal unidirectional light transmission in the EOT frequency range, which is fully explained by the proposed modal analytic analysis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Ultra-broadband electromagnetic wave absorber based on split-ring resonators
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Biao Wu, Zhengqi Liu, Guozhen Du, Leilei Shi, Xiaoshan Liu, Mulin Liu, and Xuefeng Zhan

    We propose an ultra-broadband electromagnetic wave absorber by a periodic array of a four-layer split-ring resonator structure. The absorption bandwidth reaches 3386 nm, ranging from 685 to 4071 nm, with the absorptivity above 90%. Moreover, the spectrally averaged absorption is up to 94.3% in the wavelength region from 600 to 4200 nm. The ultra-broadband absorption mainly results from the plasmonic dipolar resonance, near-field coupling, and the plasmon cavity resonances by the refractory metals. The effects of different structural parameters, geometric shapes, and material properties on absorption properties are discussed in detail. In addition, the electromagnetic wave absorber exhibits excellent performance with polarization independence and incident-angle insensitive responses. The ultra-broadband electromagnetic wave absorber could show broad application prospects in thermo-photovoltaics, thermo-electrics, and infrared detection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effect of nonlocal metal–dielectric environments on concentration quenching of HITC dye
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Srujana Prayakarao, Samantha R. Koutsares, Carl E. Bonner, and Mikhail A. Noginov

    Understanding and harnessing energy transfer in organic and inorganic systems is of high fundamental and practical importance. In this work, we have experimentally studied the effect of lamellar hyperbolic metamaterials and metal/dielectric interfaces on the concentration-dependent luminescence quenching in thin polymeric poly (methyl methacrylate) films doped with 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indoliumiodide dye molecules. The rate of the concentration quenching (energy transfer to quenching centers) was found to be approximately proportional to the square of the dye concentration. The concentration quenching was strongly inhibited in the vicinity of metallic films and lamellar metal–dielectric metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. The characteristic length-scale of the inhibition (the distance between the dye molecules and the metallic surface, at which the inhibition becomes significant) was found to be $\sim{47}\,\,{\rm nm}$. It was much longer than the Förster radius (the characteristic distance of the donor–acceptor energy transfer, 5 nm to 7 nm), and smaller than the penetration of the surface plasmon polariton field to the dielectric ($ \ge {250}\,\,{\rm nm}$). The explanation of the observed phenomenon is likely to be sought in terms of a model taking into account spectral overlap of the emission of donors and absorption of acceptors and/or collective behavior of emitters coupled with surface plasmons.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nonlinear propagation characteristics of a radially polarized beam in a uniaxially aligned dye-doped liquid crystal
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Moritsugu Sakamoto, Naoto Matsuo, Kohei Noda, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Nobuhiro Kawatsuki, and Hiroshi Ono

    The nonlinear propagation characteristics of a radially polarized (RP) beam in uniaxially aligned dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) are investigated in experiments and theory. The photothermal effect produces changes in the refractive index of the nonlinear polarization-sensitive medium, in both ordinary and extraordinary directions. The changes promote a self-modulation of the polarization pattern in the incident RP beam as it propagates through the DDLC. The experimental results are explained from theory by modeling the change in the refractive index of the medium. Our results may be applied to spatial polarization modulation, by which an axially symmetric polarized beam is converted into another structured light, such as the full Poincaré beam.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phase-induced Fano antiresonance in a planar waveguide with two dielectric ridges
    J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (IF 2.284) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Junxue Chen and Peixin Chu

    The resonant optical phenomena associated with the physics of Fano resonances have received particular attention due to their numerous potential applications. In this work, the Fano resonance behaviors of a planar waveguide with two dielectric ridges have been theoretically studied. By using the temporal coupled-mode theory, a general formula was obtained for describing the Fano response of a structure, and general conclusions for the determination of the resonance parameters were drawn. A special type of Fano resonance (i.e., Fano antiresonance) was demonstrated by tuning the resonance parameters. Different from the results by using two effective coupling oscillators, two kinds of Fano antiresonance phenomena were found. We showed that the Fano antiresonance effects of a structure can suppress the transmission of the guided mode and contribute to different field localization behaviors in the ridges due to the different interference effects. By obviating the need for a near-field interaction, the Fano antiresonance effects induced by phase coupling pave the way toward dynamic control of the spectral response and field localization behaviors in the integrated optoelectronic system.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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