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  • Brillouin imaging for studies of micromechanics in biology and biomedicine: from current state-of-the-art to future clinical translation
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Christine Poon, Joshua Chou, Michael Cortie and Irina Kabakova

    Brillouin imaging (BI) is increasingly recognized to be a powerful technique that enables non-invasive measurement of the mechanical properties of cells and tissues on a microscopic scale. This provides an unprecedented means for investigating cell mechanobiology, cell-matrix interactions, tissue biomechanics and other fundamental biological questions. Recent advances in optical hardware have accelerated

  • Design of high-bandwidth, low-voltage and low-loss hybrid lithium niobate electro-optic modulators
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Peter O Weigel, Forrest Valdez, Jie Zhao, Huiyan Li and Shayan Mookherjea

    The past decade has seen significant growth in the field of thin film lithium niobate electro-optic modulators, which promise reduced voltage requirements and higher modulation bandwidths on a potentially integrated platform. This article discusses the state-of-the-art in thin film modulator technology and presents a simplified simulation technique for quickly optimizing a hybrid silicon- or silicon

  • Acousto-optic systems for advanced microscopy
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Martí Duocastella, Salvatore Surdo, Alessandro Zunino, Alberto Diaspro and Peter Saggau

    Acoustic waves in an optical medium cause rapid periodic changes in the refraction index, leading to diffraction effects. Such acoustically controlled diffraction can be used to modulate, deflect, and focus light at microsecond timescales, paving the way for advanced optical microscopy designs that feature unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. In this article, we review the operational principles

  • Optobiology: live cells in optics and photonics
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Lisa Miccio, Pasquale Memmolo, Francesco Merola, Martina Mugnano and Pietro Ferraro

    A new intriguing paradigm recently emerged in bio-photonics, in which a single biological element such as a simple cell can be used as an optical or photonic component having well-defined features. Based on this novel concept, the interactions between light and biological matter can be exploited in many circumstances as useful tools in various fields of science and technology. In fact, it is surprising

  • Terahertz near-field microscopy of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Kosuke Okada, Kazunori Serita, Quentin Cassar, Hironaru Murakami, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Jean-Paul Guillet, Patrick Mounaix and Masayoshi Tonouchi

    Imaging with terahertz (THz) waves has been expected as a non-invasive/non-staining visualization tool for breast cancer margins during surgeries. Breast cancer is a generic name for a heterogeneous lesion comprising invasive adenocarcinoma, in situ adenocarcinoma, most frequently in the form of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and benign tissues. Until now, THz imaging has focused on invasive adenocarcinoma;

  • Composite deep learning framework for absolute 3D shape measurement based on single fringe phase retrieval and speckle correlation
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Wei Yin, Jinxin Zhong, Shijie Feng, Tianyang Tao, Jing Han, Lei Huang, Qian Chen and Chao Zuo

    Fourier transform profilometry (FTP) is a classic three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement technique that can retrieve the wrapped phase from a single fringe pattern. However, suffering from the spectral leakage and overlapping problems, it generally yields a coarse phase map with low spatial resolution and precision. Recently, deep learning has been introduced to the field of Fringe projection profilometry

  • Few-cycle high-harmonic generation in liquids: in-operando thickness measurement of flat microjets
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Zhong Yin, Tran Trung Luu and Hans Jakob Wörner

    Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic generation (HHG) from bulk liquids has only recently been demonstrated (T.T. Luu, Z. Yin et al , Nat. Comm. 9, 3724, (2018)). This has opened new prospects for the development of bright high-harmonic sources and the development of liquid-phase high-harmonic spectroscopy (HHS). Here, we report on the first observation of HHG in liquids driven by few-cycle (∼7 fs) pulses

  • Generation of high-energy soliton-like pulses in 1.9–2.5 µ m spectral domain
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Vladislav V Dvoyrin and Sergei K Turitsyn

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of soliton-like pulses with 195–230 fs duration and energy up to 20 nJ in the spectral region of 1.9–2.5 µ m directly from the Tm-doped all-fiber MOPA laser. The emerged Raman solitons generated directly in the fiber amplifier exhibit unusual dynamics and spectral properties forming a supercontinuum without conventional gaps between Stokes pulses. Namely

  • True 3D reconstruction in digital holography
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Jasleen Birdi, Sunaina Rajora, Mansi Butola and Kedar Khare

    We examine the nature of the reconstructed 3D image as obtained by replay (or back-propagation) of the object wave from the hologram recording plane to the original object volume. While recording of a hologram involves transferring information from a 3D volume to a 2D detector, the replay of the hologram involves creating information in a set of 3D voxels from a much smaller number of 2D detector pixels

  • 19-element vertical cavity surface emitting laser arrays with inter-vertical cavity surface emitting laser ridge connectors
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Nasibeh Haghighi, Philip Moser, Martin Zorn and James A Lott

    We achieve record concurrent combinations of bandwidth (18 GHz), optical output power (150 mW), and wall plug efficiency (30%) with a unique arrangement of 19-element, electrically parallel 980 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. We use a new two-dimensional, quasi honeycomb geometry with inter-VCSEL ridge connectors—made nonconducting by selective thermal oxidation—to improve

  • Multidimensional fiber echo state network analogue
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Mariia Sorokina

    Optical neuoromorphic technologies enable neural network-based signal processing through a specifically designed hardware and may confer advantages in speed and energy. However, the advances of such technologies in bandwidth and/or dimensionality are often limited by the constraints of the underlying material. Optical fiber presents a well-studied low-cost solution with unique advantages for low-loss

  • STED controlled photobleaching for sub-diffractional optical nanopatterning
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Eljesa Murtezi, Sujitha Puthukodan, Bianca Buchegger, Jaroslaw Jacak and Thomas A Klar

    Laser-assisted protein adsorption by photobleaching (LAPAP) is a versatile tool to nanopattern proteins on the micrometer scale. Sub-micron patterning is, however, difficult due to diffraction. We show that, similar to stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, a depleting beam can effectively suppress LAPAP and hence is apt to locally control LAPAP in order to write sub-diffractional lines of

  • Machine learning for faster and smarter fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Varun Mannam, Yide Zhang, Xiaotong Yuan, Cara Ravasio and Scott S Howard

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique in biomedical research that uses the fluorophore decay rate to provide additional contrast in fluorescence microscopy. However, at present, the calculation, analysis, and interpretation of FLIM is a complex, slow, and computationally expensive process. Machine learning (ML) techniques are well suited to extract and interpret measurements

  • Dual-comb generation from a single laser source: principles and spectroscopic applications towards mid-IR—A review
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Ruoyu Liao, Haochen Tian, Wu Liu, Runmin Li, Youjian Song and Minglie Hu

    Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising approach for real time, high precision, and high sensitivity Fourier-transform spectroscopy. DCS requires a pair of tightly phase-locked optical frequency combs (OFCs). The intrinsic complexity hinders practical application of this technique. Recently, there is a new trend of generating a pair of OFCs with slightly different repetition rate from a single

  • Contrast resolution of few-photon detectors
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Mattias Jönsson and Gunnar Björk

    We investigate the minimum acquisition time, expressed as the number of image frames, and the minimum number of absorbed photons per pixel required to achieve a predefined contrast resolution in a monochromatic, pixelated image acquisition system at low light intensities (from well below one photon, to several hundred photons per pixel and frame). Primarily we compare systems based on the pixels of

  • Broadband multi-longitudinal-mode Yb:YAG/YVO 4 coupled Raman microchip laser
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Xihao Qiao, Peng Sun, Xiaolei Wang, Hanjie Wang and Jun Dong

    Broadband lasers oscillating in multiple longitudinal modes have potential applications on high resolution interferometer, optical communication and laser spectroscopy. However, the bandwidth of the laser spectrum is limited by the spectral range of laser materials. Here, a broadband multi-longitudinal-mode laser with bandwidth of 22.4 nm at first-order Stokes wavelength has been achieved in a Yb:YAG/YVO

  • Developing a photonic hardware platform for brain-inspired computing based on 5 × 5 VCSEL arrays
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    T Heuser, M Pflüger, I Fischer, J A Lott, D Brunner and S Reitzenstein

    Brain-inspired computing concepts like artificial neural networks have become promising alternatives to classical von Neumann computer architectures. Photonic neural networks target the realizations of neurons, network connections and potentially learning in photonic substrates. Here, we report the development of a nanophotonic hardware platform of fast and energy-efficient photonic neurons via arrays

  • Realising superoscillations: A review of mathematical tools and their application
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    K S Rogers and E T F Rogers

    Superoscillations are making a growing impact on an ever-increasing number of real-world applications, as early theoretical analysis has evolved into wide experimental realisation. This is particularly true in optics: the first application area to have extensively embraced superoscillations, with much recent growth. This review provides a tool for anyone planning to expand the boundaries in an application

  • 1.3- µ m passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers epitaxially grown on silicon: gain properties and optical feedback stabilization
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Bozhang Dong, Xavier C de Labriolle, Songtao Liu, Mario Dumont, Heming Huang, Jianan Duan, Justin C Norman, John E Bowers and Frédéric Grillot

    This work reports on an investigation of the optical feedback in an InAs/InGaAs passively mode-locked quantum dot (QD) laser epitaxially grown on silicon. Under the stably-resonant optical feedback condition, experiments demonstrate that the radio-frequency linewidth is narrowed whatever the bias voltage applied on the saturable absorber (SA) is; on the other hand, the effective linewidth enhancement

  • Particle swarm optimization for wavefront correction in ophthalmic applications
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Andreas Beeck, Stefan Muckenhirn and Alois Herkommer

    Many optical systems require the correction of the cumulative wavefront error of the system for performance optimization. In ophthalmology the wavefront error of the eye corresponds to the visual defect and can be measured up to high-order aberrations today. Lower orders of the wavefront error are usually corrected with spectacles, contact lenses or refractive surgery. In this paper we apply an optimization

  • Non-linear processes in the extreme ultraviolet
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    I Orfanos, I Makos, I Liontos, E Skantzakis, B Major, A Nayak, M Dumergue, S Kühn, S Kahaly, K Varju, G Sansone, B Witzel, C Kalpouzos, L A A Nikolopoulos, P Tzallas and D Charalambidis

    Recent developments in extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and x-ray radiation sources have pushed pulse energies and durations to unprecedented levels that opened up the era of non-linear XUV and x-ray optics. In this quest, laser driven high order harmonic generation sources providing attosecond resolution in the XUV spectral region enabled XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiments, while Free Electron Laser research

  • Spike-based information encoding in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers for neuromorphic photonic systems
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Matěj Hejda, Joshua Robertson, Julián Bueno and Antonio Hurtado

    The ongoing growth of use-cases for artificial neural networks (ANNs) fuels the search for new, tailor-made ANN-optimized hardware. Neuromorphic (brain-like) computers are among the proposed highly promising solutions, with optical neuromorphic realizations recently receiving increasing research interest. Among these, photonic neuronal models based on vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

  • Industrial-grade processing of metal surfaces via femtosecond laser
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Gedvinas Nemickas, Gabrielius Kontenis, Arnas Žemaitis, Vytautas Purlys and Linas Jonušauskas

    Surfaces with micro- and nanofeatures were proven to be a superb solution to selectively induce various surface functionalities like anti-bacterial, self- cleaning, friction reduced, hydrophilic or hydrophobic. While there are multiple ways to achieve it, femtosecond (fs) laser-based solutions were shown to offer the best balance between price, throughput and result. Thus, here we will discuss how

  • MXene-PVA thin film for efficient all-optical modulator and all-optical signal processing with high performances
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Cong Wang, Yunzheng Wang, Weichun Huang, Lanping Hu, Yanfeng Tang, Jie Liu, Songnian Fu and Bing Wang

    All-optical modulation has been regarded as an effective method to solve the electrical bandwidth bottleneck problems existing in the current telecommunication network. By taking advantage of high photothermal conversion of two-dimensional (2D) MXene, a high-performance all-optical modulator is demonstrated. The polarization-dependent all-optical modulator exhibits a broadband intensity modulation

  • Integrated photonic devices in single crystal diamond
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Sichen Mi, Marcell Kiss, Teodoro Graziosi and Niels Quack

    The field of diamond photonics is reviewed, with a focus on recent experimental demonstrations of photonic integrated devices in a single crystal diamond. This field leverages the outstanding material properties of diamond with the aim to establish large-scale integrated photonics for applications in sensing, information and communication technologies, and optomechanics. Accordingly, this review introduces

  • Attoclock and the quest for tunnelling time in strong-field physics
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    U Satya Sainadh, R T Sang and I V Litvinyuk

    The debate on tunnelling times have always been full of contradictions and the attoclock experiments that measure tunnelling delays in strong-field ionization are no exception. The current review presents the debate and discussions concerning the studies of tunnelling times based only on the attoclock technique. We review them with their implications and pitfalls identified due to lack of accurate

  • Optical polarization rogue waves and their identifications
    J. Phys. Photonics Pub Date : 2020-07-26
    Lei Gao, Qiang Wu, Yulong Cao, Stefan Wabnitz and Tao Zhu

    Optical rogue waves are a class of pulses with extremely large amplitudes, whose probability of occurrence unexpectedly deviates from Gaussian-law statistics. To date, the mechanisms of rogue wave generation are still debated: investigations are under way, exploring the statistics of various pulse dimensions across different physical domains. Although polarization is one of the fundamental parameters

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