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  • Dynamic simulation of loss of insulation vacuum event for ITER cryodistribution system
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Srinivasa Muralidhara; Hitensinh Vaghela; Pratik Patel; Vinit Shukla; Ketan Choukekar

    Auxiliary Cold Boxes (ACBs) of ITER cryodistribution system has multiple cryogenic process volumes as well as interfaces with cryolines having isolated vacuum spaces. Cryogenic process volumes inside a single vacuum space have different temperature levels, 4 K and 80 K as well as different operating pressure, 5 bar(a) and 18 bar(a). Cryogenic process volumes including interfacing cryolines are protected

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • A 10 mK hermetic cell for eliminating parasitic heating in cryogen-free dilution refrigerators
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    David Schmoranzer; Sumit Kumar; Sébastien Triqueneaux; Xiao Liu; Thomas Metcalf; Glenn Jernigan; Eddy Collin; Andrew Fefferman

    Abstract Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators generally simplify low temperature research but some types of samples, including superconducting qubits and other nanoelectronic devices, are affected by environmental heat sources such as stray photons or residual helium. We present the design and performance of a hermetic cell installed on the mixing chamber plate of a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • Near field radiative heat transfer between macro-scale metallic surfaces at cryogenic temperatures
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Tomáš Králík; Pavel Hanzelka; Věra Musilová; Aleš Srnka; Pavel Urban

    Knowledge of radiative heat transfer between bodies at various temperatures is essential for efficient design of cryogenic devices. Radiative far-field heat transfer is commonly taken into account. Nevertheless, when the distance d between components of a device becomes small, smaller than the characteristic wavelength of Planck’s far field thermal radiation, an additional heat transfer caused by thermal

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • Evaluation of fatigue crack propagation behavior of 316LN TIG weldments at liquid helium temperature
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Chuanjun Huang; Jijun Xin; Hengcheng Zhang; Jing Wei; Rongjin Huang; Dong Xu; Yuntao Song; Laifeng Li

    In the present work, fatigue crack propagation behavior of 316LN tungsten inert gas (TIG) weldment and weldment with post weld heat treatment (PWHT) was investigated at liquid helium temperature. Results indicates that the weldment with PWHT results in the highest fatigue crack propagation resistance, whereas the base material demonstrates the lowest fatigue crack propagation resistance. Microstructure

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • HTS transformers leakage flux and short circuit force mitigation through optimal design of auxiliary windings
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Ahmad Moradnouri; Mehdi Vakilian; Arsalan Hekmati; Mehdi Fardmanesh

    Mitigation and control of leakage fluxes and short circuit forces needs much more attention, for a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer, than for a conventional one. Different methods such as the application of auxiliary windings, multi-segment winding, and flux diverter have been presented in the literatures for leakage magnetic field reduction in HTS transformers. In this paper, for

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Coaxial Stirling pulse tube cryocooler with active displacer
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Mohammad Amin Abolghasemi; Hannah Rana; Richard Stone; Mike Dadd; Paul Bailey; Kun Liang

    Coaxial pulse tube cryocoolers are the configuration of choice as they allow better access to the cold head. Hence, a previously built and tested in-line pulse tube cryocooler which uses an active displacer for phase control has been modified into a coaxial configuration. The active displacer allows the mass flow and the pressure pulse at the cold end of the pulse tube to be easily adjusted for optimum

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Method for prediction of vapor pressure for isotopes and isotope-containing gases
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Benjamin Münch; Alexander Alekseev; João Miguel Petraglia; Philipp Fritsch; Harald Klein

    Stable isotopes of light elements, such as 13C, 18O and 15N are used as markers in medicine, pharmacy, biology and other sciences. The demand for isotopes is continuously rising. It will lead to the extension of existing production capacities in the next years and could trigger the development of corresponding processes and systems. The most important issue concerns the optimization of the isotopes

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • A comparative study of compositions and microstructures of two types internal-tin process Nb3Sn wires
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Hengcheng Zhang; Chuanjun Huang; Rongjin Huang; Laifeng Li

    In the present work, microstructural and microchemical of Nb3Sn strands with the internal tin process produced by the Western Superconductor Technology co., Ltd (WST) and Oxford Instruments co., Ltd (OST) were analyzed. The internal 3D-view of two Nb3Sn strands were detected with a (sub-)micrometric resolution in a non-invasive, non-destructive way, i.e. high-resolution 3D X-ray micro tomography. The

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Thermal Modeling for the Triton Hopper
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Dylan Sagmiller; Jason Hartwig; Anthony Colozza; Geoffrey Landis; Steven Oleson

    NASA is currently designing a conceptual vehicle to explore the surface and atmosphere of Triton, Neptune’s captured Kuiper Belt Object, under a NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 2 study. This tholin-rich moon is dynamic, with an atmosphere, active geysers, and a unique “cantaloupe” terrain. Based on observations from Voyager-2, the surface of Triton is at temperatures between 33 – 38K

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • ATHENA X-IFU 300K-50 mK cryochain test results
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    T. Prouvé; J.M. Duval; I. Charles; N.Y. Yamasaki; K. Mitsuda; T. Nakagawa; K. Shinozaki; C. Tokoku; R. Yamamoto; Y. Minami; M. Le Du; J. Andre; C. Daniel; M. Linder

    In the framework of the ESA X-ray mission ATHENA, scheduled for launch in 2030, an ESA Core Technology Program (CTP) was started in 2016 to build a flight like cryostat demonstrator in parallel with the phase A studies of the ATHENA/X-IFU instrument. As part of this CTP, called the Detector Cooling System (DCS), design, manufacturing and test of a cryostat including existing space coolers will be done

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Attenuation of Gifford-McMahon cryocooler induced vibration using mechanical vibration isolators
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Ruifeng Su; Linzhongyang E; Xueqian Chen; Qiang Du

    Aiming to attenuate the vibration that is induced by a Gifford-McMahon (G-M) cryocooler, a method attenuating the vibration with mechanical vibration isolators (MVIs) is proposed. A scheme supporting the G-M cryocooler with one kind of supporting system that mainly comprises the MVIs is presented. The vibration response of the supporting system caused by the vibration of the G-M cryocooler are studied

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Cryogenic treatment of an AISI D2 steel: The role of isothermal martensite formation and “martensite conditioning”
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Matteo Villa; Marcel A.J. Somers

    Vibrating sample magnetometry, VSM, was applied to follow the evolution of the austenite-to-martensite transformation in AISI D2 tool steel at cryogenic temperatures and to determine the associated changes in magnetic hardness. Data shows that the transformation can progress during cooling from room temperature (RT) to −193 °C and, more surprising, during re-heating from −193 °C to RT, indicating the

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Numerical investigation on the flow characteristics of liquid oxygen and water in the structured packing
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Chenjie Gu; Ruiping Zhang; Xiaoqin Zhi; Shaolong Zhu; Limin Qiu

    The distillation efficiency of the cryogenic air separation unit is significantly affected by the inside flow performance of the cryogenic oxygen and nitrogen mixture in the structured packing. Owing to the difficulties in cryogenic experiments, the development of structured packings in cryogenic distillation often relies on the hydraulic experiments at room temperatures, while the real flow characteristics

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Numerical investigation of quench event in the innermost pair of the KSTAR central solenoids
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Dong Keun Oh; Sangjun Oh; Yong Chu

    In 2011, the KSTAR tokamak underwent a real quench, and it is recorded as the unique event of ramp-down by quench detection in the magnet operations. Upon efforts to survey the measured data, the current profile in the event was identified as a possible quench-generating operation for the first time when a minimalistic (0-D thermal) model assessed risk of the given current profile. However, any usable

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • Electro–Thermal 1D model of the SIS100 superconducting dipole magnet
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    P. Szwangruber; V. Raginel; W. Freisleben; C. Roux

    The FAIR Project – a new international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research is under construction in Darmstadt, Germany. The core machine at FAIR is the SIS100 synchrotron which utilises superconducting magnets in order to guide the heavy ion beam. The bending component of the magnetic field is generated by super-ferric window-frame dipole magnets symmetrically distributed over the six arc sections

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Large eddy simulation based multi-environment PDF modelling for mixing processes of transcritical and supercritical cryogenic nitrogen jets
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Namsu Kim; Yongmo Kim

    Turbulent cryogenic nitrogen jets at transcritical and supercritical conditions are numerically investigated by LES-based multi-environment probability density function method together with the tabulated thermodynamic properties. To account for the non-ideal thermodynamic effects, the mixture properties are calculated by using Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The effect of sub-grid scale fluctuations

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Tensile strength for high-temperature superconducting joints fabricated with incongruent melting
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Shintetsu Kanazawa; Yoshinori Yanagisawa

    We recently suggested a joint method by using incongruent melting for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires, such as joint between RE123-coated conductors and between Bi2223 multi-filamentary tapes. It is important to obtain a suitable mechanical performance in joint to develop a persistent current HTS magnet, and this joint method with the melting is considered to have a higher tensile strength

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Thermo-structural analysis of SST-1 cryopump
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Vishal Gupta; Vipul L. Tanna; Ranjana Gangradey; Samiran Shanti Mukherjee; Jyoti Shankar Mishra; Paresh Panchal; Pratik A. Nayak

    A liquid nitrogen-based cryopump for Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is designed for pumping of water vapour from vacuum vessel during baking and under heavy gas load conditions. During baking, the load of the water vapour molecules increases while the resultant speed of available Turbo-Molecular Pumps is less for water vapour which increases the pressure of the vacuum vessel. Cryopump

    更新日期:2020-07-25
  • Impact of external heat transfer on the performance of a cold compressor used in superfluid helium system
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Xinbo Dong; Jihao Wu; Junjie Li; Xiangdong Xu; He Su; Jin Shang; Qing Li; Linghui Gong

    Cold compressors are the core components needed for the development of a facility for large-capacity refrigeration at superfluid helium temperature. The compressor impeller operates at extremely low temperature and low pressure which involves a performance penalty due to heat transfer from the warm side of the machine to the cold side and thus affects the recycle of the cold exergy downstream. To investigate

    更新日期:2020-07-24
  • The long duration cryogenic system of the OLIMPO balloon–borne experiment: design and in–flight performance
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    A. Coppolecchia; L. Lamagna; S. Masi; P.A.R. Ade; G. Amico; E.S. Battistelli; P. Bernardis; F. Columbro; L. Conversi; G. D’Alessandro; M. De Petris; M. Gervasi; F. Nati; L. Nati; A. Paiella; F. Piacentini; G. Pisano; G. Presta; M. Zannoni

    We describe the design and in–flight performance of the cryostat and the self–contained 3He refrigerator for the OLIMPO balloon–borne experiment, a spectrophotometer to measure the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect in clusters of galaxies. The 3He refrigerator provides the 0.3 K operation temperature for the four arrays of kinetic inductance detectors working in 4 bands centered at 150, 250, 350 and 460 GHz

    更新日期:2020-07-23
  • Steady-state transverse heat transfer in a single channel CICC
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Monika Lewandowska; Aleksandra Dembkowska; Paweł Herbin; Leszek Malinowski

    Current mathematical models and numerical codes used for thermal–hydraulic analyses of forced-flow superconducting cables used in the fusion technology, such as, e.g. Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs), are typically 1D. They demand reliable constitutive expressions for the transverse momentum, energy and optionally also mass transport processes occurring between different parallel conductor components

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • Numerical study on two-phase expansion performance and quantitative analysis of wetness loss in cryogenic turbo-expander
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Lu Niu; Zhigang Zhong; Xingfu Hong; Shuangtao Chen; Yu Hou

    Cryogenic two-phase turbo-expander becomes a prevalent option in process design of high efficiency cryogenic liquefaction system, especially in modern air separation system and helium system. Computational code of turbine off-design performance prediction in overheated expansion and non-equilibrium condensation module are well established in our former works, and the mechanism of nucleation and droplet

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Adaptation of the nuclear safety code CATHARE3 to supercritical helium flow
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-18
    Shoala Sulayman; Hoa Christine; Ercolani Eric; Poncet Jean-Marc; Le Thanh Kim-Claire; Dupouy François; Vallcorba Carbonell Roser; Lacroix Benoit; Nicollet Sylvie

    Several international projects on nuclear fusion are in progress and comprise cryogenic systems for cooling components such as superconducting magnets. Different thermal-hydraulic codes already exist for sizing and validating these cryogenics devices, but there is still no qualified scientific calculation tool to perform safety thermal hydraulic analyses encountered in fusion reactors. For this purpose

    更新日期:2020-07-18
  • Non-twisted stacks of coated conductors for magnets: Analysis of inductance and AC losses
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Davide Uglietti; Rui Kang; Rainer Wesche; Francesco Grilli

    Almost all present High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable designs for magnets are based on twisted or transposed concepts that were developed for Low Temperature Superconducting (LTS) cables. However, requirements for LTS materials (like filament twisting) are in general not valid for HTS materials, which are extremely stable; for example, non-twisted multifilamentary Bi-2223 tapes have been

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • First full cool down of the SPIRAL 2 superconducting LINAC
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    Adnan Ghribi; Muhammad Aburas; Yoann Baumont; Pierre-Emmanuel Bernaudin; Stéphane Bonneau; Guillaume Duteil; Robin Ferdinand; Michel Lechartier; Jean-François Leyge; Guillaume Lescalié; Yann Thivel; Arnaud Trudel; Laurent Valentin; Adrien Vassal

    SPIRAL 2 is a high intensity heavy ions beams accelerator project that has been going on for more than 10 years now. Countless efforts in different disciplines made it what it is today. One of the most important steps after the set up of the different equipments has been the very first full cool down of the superconducting cavities in an accelerator operation type configuration. While this has been

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Preliminary study on three-dimensional imaging of cryogenic two-phase flow based on electrical capacitance volume tomography
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Tao Xia; Huangjun Xie; Aibo Wei; Rui Zhou; Limin Qiu; Xiaobin Zhang

    The potential application of electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) to the liquid nitrogen-vaporous nitrogen two-phase flow measurement is evaluated by numerical experiment. The Landweber iteration is taken as the inversion algorithm which derives the reconstructed images. Eight types of ECVT sensor structures are tested and the accuracy of the reconstructed images is compared to evaluate

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Design evaluation of serial and parallel sub-mK continuous nuclear demagnetization refrigerators
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    David Schmoranzer; James Butterworth; Sébastien Triqueneaux; Eddy Collin; Andrew Fefferman

    We present the evaluation of two different design configurations of a two-stage PrNi5 continuous nuclear demagnetization refrigerator. Serial and parallel configurations of the two stages are considered, with emphasis on the attainable cooling power at sub-mK temperatures and the impact of the design choices on the operation of the refrigerator. Numerical simulations of heat transfer in the setup are

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Investigation on liquid nitrogen and vaporous nitrogen countercurrent flow considering droplet entrainment
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Rui Zhou; Tao Xia; Aibo Wei; Xiaobin Zhang

    To study the droplet entrainment mechanisms in liquid nitrogen (LN2) and vaporous nitrogen (VN2) countercurrent flow, simulation on three fields comprised of the liquid, the vapor, and the droplet phase was implemented for the horizontal segregated flow based on the Eulerian-Eulerian mathematical framework in ANSYS Fluent®. The droplet entrainment model was adopted to determine the droplet entrainment

    更新日期:2020-07-15
  • Improvement of micro-vibration of a two-stage Stirling cryocooler
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Kiyomi Otsuka; Ken'ichi Kanao; Shoji Tsunematsu; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Yoshikatsu Hiratsuka; Noriko Yamasaki; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Takao Nakagawa; Keisuke Shinozaki; Yoichi Sato

    Two-stage Stirling cryocoolers (2ST cooler) produced by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. have been launched into orbit on three satellites: the “AKARI (ASTRO-F)” infrared astronomical satellite, JEM/SMILES on ISS, and the “HITOMI (ASTRO-H)” X-ray astronomical satellite. A 2ST cooler compressor has a linear-ball-bearing system as a piston-supporting structure. The linear ball bearing system is a key

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • Effect of frost layer on heat transfer of cryogenic fluid in a finned tube
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Lemei Ren; Wenling Jiao; Xinghao Tian; Tianjie Liu

    The current study presents a mathematical model for a single cryogenic finned tube to investigate the effect of frost layer on the heat transfer performance under natural conditions. The proposed model was validated by the experimental data comprising a wide range of air conditions and cryogenic fluid flow rates. The thermal resistance distribution and the effect of the frost layer on the outlet temperature

    更新日期:2020-07-10
  • Numerical simulation of water hammer in liquid methane feedline based on two compressible fluid models
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Xiaowen Ren; Ping Li; Hongyu Chen

    In order to improve the capability of distributed parameter modeling for water hammer of liquid methane propellant in a staged combustion cycle engine simulation library, pipeline flow models are established based on two different compressible fluid assumptions. One is the slightly compressible fluid assumption and the other is the completely compressible fluid. For the completely compressible fluid

    更新日期:2020-07-10
  • General design of ±100 kV/1kA energy pipeline for electric power and LNG transportation
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Qingquan Qiu; Guomin Zhang; Liye Xiao; Yuping Teng; Naihao Song; Zhiyuan Gao; Liwei Jing; Jianhui Chen; Zhihao Zhou; Yanxing Zhao; Hongbo Tan; Xiaohua Jiang; Ming Qiu; Chengzhi Zhu

    High Tc Superconducting (HTS) DC cable is a promising solution for large-scale power transmission over long distance. However, the indispensable refrigeration system for HTS cable might be undesirable. Considering that LNG (liquid natural gas) now is one kind of clean energy that is used more widely and widely, it is possible to integrate the HTS cable and LNG transportation into an energy pipeline

    更新日期:2020-07-10
  • Simulation and experiment on superconducting DC energy pipeline cooled by LNG
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Jianhui Chen; Guomin Zhang; Qingquan Qiu; Xiaogang Chen; Yuping Teng; Liwei Jing; Naihao Song

    Superconducting DC energy pipeline is an energy channel that simultaneously transmits electrical energy as well as the liquid fuel. It improves the efficiency of energy transmission and reduces the overall cost by cooling high-temperature superconducting DC cables with the low-temperature liquid fuel, such as liquid hydrogen, liquefied shale gas, and liquified natural gas (LNG). In order to properly

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • Ground based experiment and numerical calculation on thermodynamic vent system in propellant tank for future cryogenic propulsion system
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Ryoji Imai; Kazuaki Nishida; Osamu Kawanami; Yutaka Umemura; Takehiro Himeno

    In planned planetary explorations, cryogenic liquids such as liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LOX), and liquefied natural gases (LNG) are used as fuel and oxidants in the propulsion systems of spacecraft. Such explorations require long-term storage of those cryogens, as well as heat insulation technology to protect the heat from the outside and pressure control technology to suppress rises in

    更新日期:2020-06-28
  • In-plane anisotropy in BSCCO superconducting tapes: Transport and magnetometric criteria
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    A.S. García-Gordillo; C.F. Sánchez-Valdés; J.L. Sánchez Llamazares; E. Altshuler

    Here, the anisotropy between the longitudinal and transverse directions of multi-filamentary Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x tapes (“in plane” anisotropy) is studied by transport and magnetization measurements. By minimally manipulating experimental data, we quantify it using one number associated with transport measurements, and two numbers based on magnetization curves. We propose that the simplest and most reliable

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Cooling capability of JT coolers during the cool-down phase for space science missions
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    Keisuke Shinozaki; Yoichi Sato; Kenichiro Sawada; Hiroyuki Sugita; Takao Nakagawa; Chihiro Tokoku; Noriko Y. Yamasaki; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Shoji Tsunematsu; Kenichi Kanao; Thomas Prouvé; Jean-Marc Duval; Ivan Charles

    In space science missions that uses cryogen-free mechanical cooler systems to cool the low temperature telescope and detectors, a cooling time from room temperature to low temperature should be considered in the required mission life time, because of a limited cooling power of mechanical cooler. For instance, in the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the 4K-class Joule

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Adsorption equilibrium and charge/discharge characteristics of hydrogen on MOFs
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Zhang Xuan; Zheng Qingrong; Zhao Guobin; Zhang Weidong

    For obtaining relevant information about the development of hydrogen storage materials from metal organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101(Cr) was selected and synthesized for analyzing the adsorption equilibrium and characteristics of charge and discharge. The specific surface area, pore size distribution (PSD) of the sample were determined by 77.15K nitrogen adsorption data. Isotherms of hydrogen adsorption

    更新日期:2020-06-24
  • Analytical solutions for N interacting electron system confined in graph of coupled electrostatic semiconductor and superconducting quantum dots in tight-binding model
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Krzysztof Pomorski; Pawel Peczkowski; Robert Bogdan Staszewski

    Analytical solutions for a tight-binding model are presented for position-based charge qubits and N-interacting qubits realized by quasi-one-dimensional network of coupled quantum dots (QD) expressed by connected or disconnected graphs of any topology in two and three dimensions where one electron is present at each separated graph. Electron(s) quantum dynamical state is described under various electromagnetic

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Cooldown of insulated metals in saturated and subcooled liquid nitrogen
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    S. Jagga; S. Vanapalli

    The cooling rate of metallic objects quenched in liquid nitrogen can be enhanced by coating its surface with a material that has a low thermal effusivity. An early transition from film to nucleate boiling regime caused due to the formation of cold spots at the liquid-coating interface is reported as the reason for this enhanced cooling rate. However, untill now, optimization of the coating thickness

    更新日期:2020-06-17
  • Quench Propagation in Commercial REBCO Composite Tapes
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    G. Iannone; D. D'Agostino; A. Saggese; G. Celentano; U. Gambardella

    The Normal Zone Propagation Velocity, NZPV, is a widely studied feature in superconducting composite tapes for its technological implications. The stability features and the NZPV values, in different operative conditions, have been investigated in different second generation high critical temperature superconductor tapes. In particular, we focused our studies on tapes, produced by the manufactures

    更新日期:2020-06-16
  • Development of switchless thin-plate type sorption compressor cell for 5 K sorption J-T refrigerator
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Junhyuk Bae; Dohoon Kwon; Sangkwon Jeong

    A sorption J-T (Joule-Thomson) refrigerator is a J-T refrigerator using a sorption compressor that compresses refrigerant by adsorption and desorption in sorption cells. When the sorption cell of the compressor is cooled, the refrigerant is adsorbed on the adsorbent, reducing the pressure of the cell. In contrast, when the cell is heated, its pressure increases due to desorption of the refrigerant

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Numerical analysis of spray characteristics with liquid nitrogen
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Jianye Chen; Xinxin Gao; Songling Bao; Ludi Hu; Junlong Xie

    Spray of cryogenic fluids, which involves complicated aerodynamic instability and superheat flashing, is receiving increasing attention in cryogenic cooling applications and cryogenic propellant ignition. In the present study, a two-fluid numerical model coupling the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model and Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) framework was built to investigate the underlying

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • 更新日期:2020-05-23
  • The end part of cryogenic H. V. bushing insulation design in a 230/20 kV HTS transformer
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Ahmad Moradnouri; Mehdi Vakilian; Arsalan Hekmati; Mehdi Fardmanesh

    Appealing advantages of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers are very promising for the contemporary and future power delivery systems. Cryogenic insulation technology is one of the key technologies for their commercialization. In this paper insulation design of the end part of cryogenic high voltage (H. V.) bushing of a 230/20 kV HTS transformer is developed. Analytical relations and

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • Microstructure, AC susceptibility and electrical properties of K2CO3 added YBa2Cu3O7−δ superconductor
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    K. Muhammad-Najib; R. Abd-Shukor

    The effect of potassium carbonate addition on YBa2Cu3O7-δ is reported. Samples with starting composition YBa2Cu3O7-δ(K2CO3)x were prepared using the solid reaction method with x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 wt%. The four-point probe electrical resistance, AC susceptibility, X-ray diffraction method and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the samples

    更新日期:2020-05-20
  • Active suppression of temperature oscillation from a pulse-tube cryocooler in a cryogen-free cryostat: Part 2. Experimental realization
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    Changzhao Pan; Jiangfeng Hu; Haiyang Zhang; Yaonan Song; Dongxu Han; Wenjing Liu; Hui Chen; Mark Plimmer; Fernando Sparasci; Ercang Luo; Bo Gao; Laurent Pitre

    A cryogen-free cryostat cooled by a closed cycle cryocooler is compact, can provide uninterrupted long-term operation (up to ten thousand hours) and is suited to temperatures from 3 K to 300 K. Its intrinsic temperature oscillation, however, limits its application in experiments requiring high thermal stability at low temperature (below 77 K). Passive suppression methods are effective but all suffer

    更新日期:2020-05-16
  • Active suppression of temperature oscillation from a pulse-tube cryocooler in a cryogen-free cryostat: Part 1. Simulation modeling from thermal response characteristics
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    Changzhao Pan; Bo Gao; Yaonan Song; Haiyang Zhang; Dongxu Han; Jiangfeng Hu; Wenjing Liu; Hui Chen; Mark Plimmer; Fernando Sparasci; Ercang Luo; Laurent Pitre

    A cryogen-free cryostat cooled using a 4 K commercial GM or pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) displays temperature oscillations caused by the intrinsic working principle of the regenerative cryocooler. To dampen such oscillations usually requires either a large heat capacity or a large thermal resistance. To understand this phenomenon better and suppress it more effectively, both the step response characteristic

    更新日期:2020-05-16
  • Hydrogen liquefaction process with Brayton refrigeration cycle to utilize the cold energy of LNG
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Ho-Myung Chang; Bo Hyun Kim; Byungil Choi

    A thermodynamic process is investigated and designed for hydrogen liquefaction system to utilize the cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This study is an initial effort of newly launched five-year governmental project in Korea, aiming at efficient hydrogen liquefiers. Since Korea is a major LNG import country, the cold energy is abundantly available and could be useful in reducing the liquefaction

    更新日期:2020-05-08
  • An update of dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulations of the JT-60SA Toroidal Field coil cooling loop for preparing plasma operation
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    S. Varin; F. Bonne; C. Hoa; S. Nicollet; L. Zani; J.-C. Vallet; K. Fukui; K. Natsume

    The JT-60SA cryogenic system was commissioned in 2016 in closed loop, without the cryogenic users (superconducting magnets, current leads, thermal shields). The first plasma operation is expected in 2020. This paper updates the heat load profiles resulting from the cooling loop of TF magnets, and received by the refrigerator and its thermal damper. The heat load profiles are calculated through thermal-hydraulic

    更新日期:2020-05-08
  • Numerical Simulation of Liquid Hydrogen Droplets “Group” Evaporation and Combustion
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Jialin Min; Jinrong Bao; Wei Chen; Tengxi Wang; Yafeng Lei

    The leakage of LH from high-pressure storage tanks will trigger a series of behaviors such as group evaporation, dispersion, and combustion. In this study, hydrodynamic model combined with point source method (PSM) were tested for the analysis of “group interaction effects” involved in LH droplets evaporation and combustion processes. Three specific arrangement array cases: binary, equilateral triangular

    更新日期:2020-05-06
  • OLYMPE, a multi-physic platform for fusion magnet design: Development status and first applications
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Louis Zani; Benoît Lacroix; Alexandre Torre; Jean-Claude Vallet; Clément Berthinier; Christophe Bourcier; Nicolas Misiara; François Nunio; Roser Vallcorba; Christian Van Wambeke; François Bonne; Christine Hoa; Slim Constans; Quentin Le Coz

    In the framework of design studies for tokamak superconducting magnets a first step is usually required of pre-dimensioning that provides a rough magnets dimensioning, followed by detailed analyses. Such analyses aim at verifying that predefined design criteria are met in normal and in off-normal operation conditions, in order to ultimately progress step by step towards the most optimized configuration

    更新日期:2020-05-01
  • Temperature sensitivity analysis of inner-gate engineered JL-SiNT-FET: An Analog/RF prospective
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Shubham Tayal; Vikas Mittal; Sunil Jadav; Shikhar Gupta; Ashutosh Nandi; Bal Krishan

    This paper explores the temperature sensitivity of Inner-gate engineered junctionless silicon nanotube FET (JL-SiNT-FET) on analog/RF performance. It is found that the reduction in the operating temperature from 400 K to 100 K improves the various analog/RF figure of merits (FOMs) of all the three configurations (DS-JL-SiNT-FET, D-JL-SiNT-FET, and S-JL-SiNT-FET) of JL-SiNT-FET by considerable expanse

    更新日期:2020-04-29
  • Low-temperature coefficient of resistivity in LaFe13-xSix compounds
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Hao Wang; Rongjin Huang; Laifeng Li

    The resistivity of metal materials usually increases as the temperature rises and the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) could be a few thousand (ppm/K). In fact, this would cause trouble to the accurate measuring instrument used in varying temperature conditions. Thus, it is a great challenge to develop materials with a low-temperature coefficient of resistivity (L-TCR). In this paper, we

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Studies on activated carbons towards the performance improvement of cryosorption pump
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Ravi Verma; H.N. Nagendra; G.A. Vivek; Srinivasan Kasthurirengan; N.C. Shivaprakash; Upendra Behera

    Cryosorption pumps are the only possible solution to pump helium gas in Tokamak. In cryosorption pump, due to weak van der Walls forces the adsorbate gas molecules are held by the adsorbent well above the boiling point of the adsorbate gas. Therefore selection of best adsorbent is of utmost importance for the optimum performance of cryosorption pump towards the pumping of helium gas. In this paper

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Electromagnetic behaviour and thermal stability of a conduction-cooled, no-insulated 2G-HTS coil at intermediate temperatures
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    A. Cubero; A.B. Núñez-Chico; R. Navarro; L.A. Angurel; E. Martínez

    The electromagnetic and thermal properties of a double pancake coil made of second generation high temperature superconductor, 2G-HTS, have been studied. The coil was wound with no-insulation between turns (NI coil) and was later impregnated with epoxy resin and glued to a copper support plate. The coil was thermally anchored to the cryocooler cold finger and cooled by conduction. After several thermal

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • AC breakdown channel of PPLP multi-layer insulation for HTS cable
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-12
    Dung Van Nguyen; Truong Vinh Le; Sang Huyn Kim

    The AC breakdown channel of multi-layer insulation was investigated with samples laminated between spherical electrodes under high and low values of applied field stresses. Both samples with butt-gap and without butt-gap immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2) were used. In addition, the breakdown strength and the voltage-time characteristics of both types of samples were also determined. It was found from

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • Compact Si JFET model for cryogenic temperature
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Konstantin O. Petrosyants; Mamed R. Ismail-zade; Lev M. Sambursky

    Compact Si JFET model for SPICE circuit simulation in the extended temperature range from 373 K down to 73 K (+100 °C…−200 °C) is proposed. It is based on the standard JFET model Level = 3 (Statz model) with the full set of temperature-dependent parameters in the cryogenic temperature range. The universal procedure for model parameter extraction from I-V-characteristic measurement data at low temperature

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • Effects of Nb-vacancies and hydrostatic pressures on the electron density of states of Nb3Sn from first-principles calculations
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Wei Luo; Xuan Xie; Keyang Wang; Lei Yang

    The electron density of states is a key parameter to determine the superconducting critical properties of Nb3Sn and its composite wires, which usually work in extreme radiation environments and are subject to strong thermal and electromagnetic loads. In this paper, the contributions of Nb-vacancies and hydrostatic pressure on DOS are investigated by the first-principles calculations based on the density

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • Cooling system for the Resolve onboard XRISM
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Yuichiro Ezoe; Yoshitaka Ishisaki; Ryuichi Fujimoto; Yoh Takei; Takafumi Horiuchi; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Kumi Ishikawa; Susumu Yasuda; Keiichi Yanagase; Yasuko Shibano; Kosuke Sato; Shunji, Kitamoto; Seiji Yoshida; Keiichi Kanao; Shoji Tsunematsu; Kiyomi Otsuka; Syou Mizunuma; Masahito Isshiki; Peter Shirron

    The X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM) is a recovery mission of ASTRO-H (Hitomi) launched in 2016. The Resolve instrument on the XRISM is an 6 × 6 array of silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters cooled down to 50 mK combined with a 5.6 m focal length X-ray telescope. Its design inherits that of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H that demonstrated high resolution spectroscopy

    更新日期:2020-04-23
  • Theoretical limits of vapor cooling large cylindrical structures using boil-off
    Cryogenics (IF 1.818) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    R. Balasubramaniam; Wesley L. Johnson

    The Structural Heat Intercept, Insulation, and Vibration Evaluation Rig (SHIIVER) is planning to demonstrate the performance benefits of using boil-off to reduce the heat load on various upper stage structural members by using the boil-off vapor to intercept some of the heat load on the structures. A first order simplified analytical model was constructed in order to understand sensitivity of various

    更新日期:2020-04-23
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