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  • Anatol Roshko, 1923–2017
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Dimitri Papamoschou; Morteza Gharib

    We present a brief account of Anatol Roshko's research and educational contributions to fluid mechanics, focusing on the spirit of his transformative ideas and legacy.

  • Super-Resolution Imaging in Fluid Mechanics Using New Illumination Approaches
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Minami Yoda

    Quantifying submillimeter flows using optical diagnostic techniques is often limited by a lack of spatial resolution and optical access. This review discusses two super-resolution imaging techniques, structured illumination microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescence or microscopy, which can visualize bulk and interfacial flows, respectively, at spatial resolutions below the classic diffraction

  • Advances in Bioconvection
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Martin A. Bees

    The term “bioconvection” describes hydrodynamic instabilities and patterns in suspensions of biased swimming microorganisms. Hydrodynamic instabilities arise from coupling between cell swimming behaviors; physical properties of the cells, such as density; and fluid flows. For instance, a combination of viscous and gravitational torques can lead to cells swimming toward downwelling fluid. If the cells

  • Microcirculation and Hemorheology.
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Aleksander S Popel,Paul C Johnson

    Major experimental and theoretical studies on microcirculation and hemorheology are reviewed with the focus on mechanics of blood flow and the vascular wall. Flow of the blood formed elements (red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells or leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets) in individual arterioles, capillaries and venules, and in microvascular networks is discussed. Mechanical and rheological properties

  • Cellular fluid mechanics.
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2003-05-14
    Roger D Kamm

    The coupling of fluid dynamics and biology at the level of the cell is an intensive area of investigation because of its critical role in normal physiology and disease. Microcirculatory flow has been a focus for years, owing to the complexity of cell-cell or cell-glycocalyx interactions. Noncirculating cells, particularly those that comprise the walls of the circulatory system, experience and respond

  • Chemo-Hydrodynamic Patterns and Instabilities
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    A. De Wit

    By modifying a physical property of a solution like its density or viscosity, chemical reactions can modify and even trigger convective flows. These flows in turn affect the spatiotemporal distribution of the chemical species. A nontrivial coupling between reactions and flows then occurs. We present simple model systems of this chemo-hydrodynamic coupling. In particular, we illustrate the possibility

  • Electroconvection Near Electrochemical Interfaces: Experiments, Modeling, and Computation
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Ali Mani, Karen May Wang

    Many electrochemical and microfluidic systems involve voltage-driven transport of ions from a fluid electrolyte toward an ion-selective interface. These systems are governed by intimate coupling between fluid flow, mass transport, and electrostatic effects. When counterions are driven toward a selective interface, this coupling is shown to lead to a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection

  • Machine Learning for Fluid Mechanics
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Steven L. Brunton, Bernd R. Noack, Petros Koumoutsakos

    The field of fluid mechanics is rapidly advancing, driven by unprecedented volumes of data from experiments, field measurements, and large-scale simulations at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Machine learning (ML) offers a wealth of techniques to extract information from data that can be translated into knowledge about the underlying fluid mechanics. Moreover, ML algorithms can augment domain knowledge

  • Immersed Methods for Fluid–Structure Interaction
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Boyce E. Griffith, Neelesh A. Patankar

    Fluid–structure interaction is ubiquitous in nature and occurs at all biological scales. Immersed methods provide mathematical and computational frameworks for modeling fluid–structure systems. These methods, which typically use an Eulerian description of the fluid and a Lagrangian description of the structure, can treat thin immersed boundaries and volumetric bodies, and they can model structures

  • Aeroacoustics of Silent Owl Flight
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Justin W. Jaworski, N. Peake

    The ability of some species of owl to fly in effective silence is unique among birds and provides a distinct hunting advantage, but it remains a mystery as to exactly what aspects of the owl and its flight are responsible for this dramatic noise reduction. Crucially, this mystery extends to how the flow physics may be leveraged to generate noise-reduction strategies for wider technological application

  • Patterns in Wall-Bounded Shear Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Laurette S. Tuckerman, Matthew Chantry, Dwight Barkley

    Experiments and numerical simulations have shown that turbulence in transitional wall-bounded shear flows frequently takes the form of long oblique bands if the domains are sufficiently large to accommodate them. These turbulent bands have been observed in plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, counter-rotating Taylor–Couette flow, torsional Couette flow, and annular pipe flow. At their upper Reynolds

  • Liquid-State Dewetting of Pulsed-Laser-Heated Nanoscale Metal Films and Other Geometries
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Lou Kondic, Alejandro G. González, Javier A. Diez, Jason D. Fowlkes, Philip Rack

    Metal films of nanoscale thickness, deposited on substrates and exposed to laser heating, provide systems that involve several interesting multiphysics effects. In addition to fluid mechanical aspects associated with a free boundary setup, other relevant physical effects include phase change, thermal flow, and liquid–solid interactions. Such films are challenging to model, in particular because inertial

  • Capillarity in Soft Porous Solids
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Jonghyun Ha, Ho-Young Kim

    Soft porous solids can change their shapes by absorbing liquids via capillarity. Such poro-elasto-capillary interactions can be seen in the wrinkling of paper, swelling of cellulose sponges, and morphing of resurrection plants. Here, we introduce physical principles relevant to the phenomena and survey recent advances in the understanding of swelling and shrinkage of bulk soft porous media due to wetting

  • Statics and Dynamics of Soft Wetting
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Bruno Andreotti, Jacco H. Snoeijer

    The laws of wetting are well known for drops on rigid surfaces but change dramatically when the substrate is soft and deformable. The combination of wetting and the intricacies of soft polymeric interfaces have provided many rich examples of fluid–structure interactions, both in terms of phenomenology and from a fundamental perspective. In this review we discuss experimental and theoretical progress

  • Turbulence with Large Thermal and Compositional Density Variations
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Daniel Livescu

    Density variations in fluid flows can arise due to acoustic or thermal fluctuations, compositional changes during mixing of fluids with different molar masses, or phase inhomogeneities. In particular, thermal and compositional (with miscible fluids) density variations have many similarities, such as in how the flow interacts with a shock wave. Two limiting cases have been of particular interest: (a)

  • Acoustic Tweezers for Particle and Fluid Micromanipulation
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    M. Baudoin,  J.-L. Thomas

    Acoustic tweezers powerfully enable the contactless collective or selective manipulation of microscopic objects. Trapping is achieved without pretagging, with forces several orders of magnitude larger than optical tweezers at the same input power, limiting spurious heating and enabling damage-free displacement and orientation of biological samples. In addition, the availability of acoustical coherent

  • Modeling Turbulent Flows in Porous Media
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Brian D. Wood, Xiaoliang He, Sourabh V. Apte

    Turbulent flows in porous media occur in a wide variety of applications, from catalysis in packed beds to heat exchange in nuclear reactor vessels. In this review, we summarize the current state of the literature on methods to model such flows. We focus on a range of Reynolds numbers, covering the inertial regime through the asymptotic turbulent regime. The review emphasizes both numerical modeling

  • Subglacial Plumes
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Ian J. Hewitt

    Buoyant plumes form when glacial ice melts directly into the ocean or when subglacial meltwater is discharged to the ocean at depth. They play a key role in regulating heat transport from the ocean to the ice front, and in exporting glacial meltwater to the open ocean. This review summarizes current understanding of the dynamics of these plumes, focusing on theoretical developments and their predictions

  • Particles, Drops, and Bubbles Moving Across Sharp Interfaces and Stratified Layers
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Jacques Magnaudet, Matthieu J. Mercier

    Rigid or deformable bodies moving through continuously stratified layers or across sharp interfaces are involved in a wide variety of geophysical and engineering applications, with both miscible and immiscible fluids. In most cases, the body moves while pulling a column of fluid, in which density and possibly viscosity differ from those of the neighboring fluid. The presence of this column usually

  • Convective Phenomena in Mushy Layers
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Daniel M. Anderson, Peter Guba

    Since the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics review of mushy layers by Worster (1997), there have been significant advances in the understanding of convective processes in mushy layers. These advances have come in the areas of (a) more detailed analysis, computation, and understanding of convective instabilities and chimney convection in binary alloys; (b) investigations of diffusive and convective transport

  • Ocean Wave Interactions with Sea Ice: A Reappraisal
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Vernon A. Squire

    A spectacular resurgence of interest in the topic of ocean wave/sea ice interactions has unfolded over the last two decades, fueled primarily by the deleterious ramifications of global climate change on the polar seas. The Arctic is particularly affected, with a widespread reduction of the extent, thickness, and compactness of its sea ice during the summer, creating an ice cover that is analogous to

  • David J. Benney: Nonlinear Wave and Instability Processes in Fluid Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    T.R. Akylas

    David J. Benney (1930–2015) was an applied mathematician and fluid dynamicist whose highly original work has shaped our understanding of nonlinear wave and instability processes in fluid flows. This article discusses the new paradigm he pioneered in the study of nonlinear phenomena, which transcends fluid mechanics, and it highlights the common threads of his research contributions, namely, resonant

  • Chandrasekhar's Fluid Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

    Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910–1995) is justly famous for his lasting contributions to topics such as white dwarfs and black holes (which led to his Nobel Prize), stellar structure and dynamics, general relativity, and other facets of astrophysics. He also devoted some dozen or so of his prime years to fluid dynamics, especially stability and turbulence, and made important contributions. Yet in most

  • Blood Flow and Transport in the Human Placenta
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Oliver E. Jensen, Igor L. Chernyavsky

    The placenta is a multifunctional organ that exchanges blood gases and nutrients between a mother and her developing fetus. In humans, fetal blood flows through intricate networks of vessels confined within villous trees, the branches of which are bathed in pools of maternal blood. Fluid mechanics and transport processes play a central role in understanding how these elaborate structures contribute

  • Attached Eddy Model of Wall Turbulence
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Ivan Marusic, Jason P. Monty

    Modeling wall turbulence remains a major challenge, as a sufficient physical understanding of these flows is still lacking. In an effort to move toward a physics-based model, A.A. Townsend introduced the hypothesis that the dominant energy-containing motions in wall turbulence are due to large eddies attached to the wall. From this simple hypothesis, the attached eddy model evolved, which has proven

  • Leading-Edge Vortices: Mechanics and Modeling
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Jeff D. Eldredge, Anya R. Jones

    The leading-edge vortex (LEV) is known to produce transient high lift in a wide variety of circumstances. The underlying physics of LEV formation, growth, and shedding are explored for a set of canonical wing motions including wing translation, rotation, and pitching. A review of the literature reveals that, while there are many similarities in the LEV physics of these motions, the resulting force

  • Symmetry-Breaking Cilia-Driven Flow in Embryogenesis
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    David J. Smith, Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson, Susana S. Lopes

    The systematic breaking of left–right body symmetry is a familiar feature of human physiology. In humans and many animals, this process originates with asymmetric fluid flow driven by rotating cilia, occurring in a short-lived embryonic organizing structure termed the node. The very low–Reynolds number fluid mechanics of this system is reviewed; important features include how cilia rotation combines

  • Sediment Resuspension and Transport by Internal Solitary Waves
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Leon Boegman, Marek Stastna

    Large-amplitude internal waves induce currents and turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) and are thus a key driver of sediment movement on the continental margins. Observations of internal wave–induced sediment resuspension and transport cover significant portions of the world's oceans. Research on BBL instabilities, induced by internal waves, has identified several mechanisms by which the

  • Film Flows in the Presence of Electric Fields
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Demetrios T. Papageorgiou

    The presence of electric fields in immiscible multifluid flows induces Maxwell stresses at sharp interfaces that can produce electrohydrodynamic phenomena of practical importance. Electric fields can be stabilizing or destabilizing depending on their strength and orientation. In microfluidics, fields can be used to drive systems out of equilibrium to produce hierarchical patterning, mixing, and phase

  • Convection in Lakes
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Damien Bouffard, Alfred Wüest

    Lakes and other confined water bodies are not exposed to tides, and their wind forcing is usually much weaker compared to ocean basins and estuaries. Hence, convective processes are often the dominant drivers for shaping mixing and stratification structures in inland waters. Due to the diverse environments of lakes—defined by local morphological, geochemical, and meteorological conditions, among others—a

  • Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows Laden with Droplets or Bubbles
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Said Elghobashi

    This review focuses on direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent flows laden with droplets or bubbles. DNS of these flows are more challenging than those of flows laden with solid particles due to the surface deformation in the former. The numerical methods discussed are classified by whether the initial diameter of the bubble/droplet is smaller or larger than the Kolmogorov length scale and

  • Mixing Versus Stirring
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Emmanuel Villermaux

    Mixing is the operation by which a system evolves under stirring from one state of simplicity—the initial segregation of the constituents—to another state of simplicity—their complete uniformity. Between these extremes, patterns emerge, possibly interact, and die sooner or later. This review summarizes recent developments on the problem of mixing in its lamellar representation. This point of view visualizes

  • Atmospheric Circulation of Tide-Locked Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, Mark Hammond

    Tide-locked planets are planets in which tidal stresses from the host star have spun down the planet's rotation to the point where its length of sidereal day equals its length of year. In a nearly circular orbit, such planets have a permanent dayside and a permanent nightside, leading to extreme heating contrasts. In this article, the atmospheric circulations forced by this heating contrast are explored

  • Electrohydrodynamics of Drops and Vesicles
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Petia M. Vlahovska

    The 1969 review by J.R. Melcher and G.I. Taylor defined the field of electrohydrodynamics. Fifty years on, the interaction of weakly conducting (leaky dielectric) fluids with electric fields continues to yield intriguing phenomena. The prototypical system of a drop in a uniform electric field has revealed remarkable dynamics in strong electric fields such as symmetry-breaking instabilities (e.g., Quincke

  • Bubble Dynamics in Soft and Biological Matter
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Benjamin Dollet, Philippe Marmottant, Valeria Garbin

    Bubbles are present in a large variety of emerging applications, from advanced materials to biology and medicine, as either laser-generated or acoustically driven bubbles. In these applications, the bubbles undergo oscillatory dynamics and collapse inside—or near—soft and biological materials. The presence of a soft, viscoelastic medium strongly affects the bubble dynamics, both its linear resonance

  • Turbulence Modeling in the Age of Data
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Karthik Duraisamy, Gianluca Iaccarino, Heng Xiao

    Data from experiments and direct simulations of turbulence have historically been used to calibrate simple engineering models such as those based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations. In the past few years, with the availability of large and diverse data sets, researchers have begun to explore methods to systematically inform turbulence models with data, with the goal of quantifying

  • Rate Effects in Hypersonic Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Graham V. Candler

    Hypersonic flows are energetic and result in regions of high temperature, causing internal energy excitation, chemical reactions, ionization, and gas-surface interactions. At typical flight conditions, the rates of these processes are often similar to the rate of fluid motion. Thus, the gas state is out of local thermodynamic equilibrium and must be described by conservation equations for the internal

  • Highly Resolved Brownian Motion in Space and in Time
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Jianyong Mo, Mark G. Raizen

    Since the discovery of Brownian motion in bulk fluids by Robert Brown in 1827, Brownian motion at long timescales has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally for over a century. The theory for short-timescale Brownian motion was also well established in the last century, while experimental studies were not accessible until this decade. This article reviews experimental progress

  • Capillary-Dominated Fluid Displacement in Porous Media
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Kamaljit Singh, Michael Jung, Martin Brinkmann, Ralf Seemann

    Liquid invasion into a porous medium is a phenomenon of great importance in both nature and technology. Despite its enormous importance, there is a surprisingly sparse understanding of the processes occurring on the scale of individual pores and of how these processes determine the global invasion pattern. In particular, the exact influence of the wettability remains unclear besides the limiting cases

  • Nonlinear Theories for Shear Flow Instabilities: Physical Insights and Practical Implications
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Xuesong Wu

    This article reviews the nonlinear stability theories that have been developed to explain laminar–turbulent transition processes in boundary and free shear layers. For such spatially developing shear flows, a high–Reynolds number approach is necessary to account for, in a systematic and self-consistent manner, multiple competing physical factors, such as nonlinearity, nonparallelism, nonequilibrium

  • Flow Phenomena in the Inner Ear
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Dominik Obrist

    A remarkable number of different flow phenomena contribute critically to the proper functioning of the hearing and balance senses, both of which are hosted by the inner ear. This includes quasi-steady and high-frequency Stokes flow, incompressible wave guides, unsteady boundary layers, and fluid–structure interactions between viscous fluids, soft membranes, and hair cell bundles. We present these phenomena

  • Mycofluidics: The Fluid Mechanics of Fungal Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Marcus Roper, Agnese Seminara

    Fungi are the dark matter of biology, typically leading cryptic lives, buried in soil or inside of plants or other organisms, and emerging into the light only when they build their elegantly engineered fruiting bodies. Ecological success across so many niches has required that they solve many challenging fluid mechanical problems of growth, dispersal, and transport of fluids across networks. Study

  • John Leask Lumley: Whither Turbulence?
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Sidney Leibovich, Zellman Warhaft

    John Lumley's contributions to the theory, modeling, and experiments on turbulent flows played a seminal role in the advancement of our understanding of this subject in the second half of the twentieth century. We discuss John's career and his personal style, including his love and deep knowledge of vintage wine and vintage cars. His intellectual contributions range from abstract theory to applied

  • Agitation, Mixing, and Transfers Induced by Bubbles
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Frédéric Risso

    Bubbly flows involve bubbles randomly distributed within a liquid. At large Reynolds number, they experience an agitation that can combine shear-induced turbulence (SIT), large-scale buoyancy-driven flows, and bubble-induced agitation (BIA). The properties of BIA strongly differ from those of SIT. They have been determined from studies of homogeneous swarms of rising bubbles. Regarding the bubbles

  • Numerical Models of Surface Tension
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Stéphane Popinet

    Numerical models of surface tension play an increasingly important role in our capacity to understand and predict a wide range of multiphase flow problems. The accuracy and robustness of these models have improved markedly in the past 20 years, so that they are now applicable to complex, three-dimensional configurations of great theoretical and practical interest. In this review, I attempt to summarize

  • Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Paul A. Durbin

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which

  • Diffuse-Interface Capturing Methods for Compressible Two-Phase Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Richard Saurel, Carlos Pantano

    Simulation of compressible flows became a routine activity with the appearance of shock-/contact-capturing methods. These methods can determine all waves, particularly discontinuous ones. However, additional difficulties may appear in two-phase and multimaterial flows due to the abrupt variation of thermodynamic properties across the interfacial region, with discontinuous thermodynamical representations

  • Instabilities of Internal Gravity Wave Beams
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Thierry Dauxois, Sylvain Joubaud, Philippe Odier, Antoine Venaille

    Internal gravity waves play a primary role in geophysical fluids: They contribute significantly to mixing in the ocean, and they redistribute energy and momentum in the middle atmosphere. Until recently, most studies were focused on plane wave solutions. However, these solutions are not a satisfactory description of most geophysical manifestations of internal gravity waves, and it is now recognized

  • Hydraulic Mineral Waste Transport and Storage
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Lionel Pullum, David V. Boger, Fiona Sofra

    Conventional mineral waste disposal involves pumping dilute concentration suspensions of tailings to large catchment areas, where the solids settle to form a consolidated base while the excess water is evaporated. Unfortunately, this often takes years, if ever, to occur, and the interim period poses a severe threat to the surrounding countryside and water table. A worldwide movement to increase the

  • Fire Whirls
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Ali Tohidi, Michael J. Gollner, Huahua Xiao

    Fire whirls present a powerful intensification of combustion, long studied in the fire research community because of the dangers they present during large urban and wildland fires. However, their destructive power has hidden many features of their formation, growth, and propagation. Therefore, most of what is known about fire whirls comes from scale modeling experiments in the laboratory. Both the

  • High Explosive Detonation–Confiner Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Mark Short, James J. Quirk

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials

  • Slamming: Recent Progress in the Evaluation of Impact Pressures
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Frédéric Dias, Jean-Michel Ghidaglia

    Slamming, the violent impact between a liquid and solid, has been known to be important for a long time in the ship hydrodynamics community. More recently, applications ranging from the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG carriers to the harvesting of wave energy with oscillating wave surge converters have led to renewed interest in the topic. The main reason for this renewed interest is

  • Double-Diffusive Convection at Low Prandtl Number
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Pascale Garaud

    This work reviews present knowledge of double-diffusive convection at low Prandtl number obtained using direct numerical simulations, in both the fingering regime and the oscillatory regime. Particular emphasis is given to modeling the induced turbulent mixing and its impact in various astrophysical applications. The nonlinear saturation of fingering convection at low Prandtl number usually drives

  • Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Jason E. Butler, Braden Snook

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions

  • Nonlinear Nonmodal Stability Theory
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    R.R. Kerswell

    This review discusses a recently developed optimization technique for analyzing the nonlinear stability of a flow state. It is based on a nonlinear extension of nonmodal analysis and, in its simplest form, consists of finding the disturbance to the flow state of a given amplitude that experiences the largest energy growth at a certain time later. When coupled with a search over the disturbance amplitude

  • Intracellular Fluid Mechanics: Coupling Cytoplasmic Flow with Active Cytoskeletal Gel
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Alex Mogilner, Angelika Manhart

    The cell is a mechanical machine, and continuum mechanics of the fluid cytoplasm and the viscoelastic deforming cytoskeleton play key roles in cell physiology. We review mathematical models of intracellular fluid mechanics, from cytoplasmic fluid flows, to the flow of a viscous active cytoskeletal gel, to models of two-phase poroviscous flows, to poroelastic models. We discuss application of these

  • Active and Passive Microrheology: Theory and Simulation
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    Roseanna N. Zia

    Microrheological study of complex fluids traces its roots to the work of the botanist Robert Brown in the early nineteenth century. Indeed, passive microrheology and Brownian motion are one and the same. Once thought to reveal a fundamental life force, the phenomenon was ultimately leveraged by Einstein in proof of the atomic nature of matter (Haw 2006). His work simultaneously paved the way for modern-day

  • Particle Segregation in Dense Granular Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    John Mark Nicholas Timm Gray

    Granular materials composed of particles with differing grain sizes, densities, shapes, or surface properties may experience unexpected segregation during flow. This review focuses on kinetic sieving and squeeze expulsion, whose combined effect produces the dominant gravity-driven segregation mechanism in dense sheared flows. Shallow granular avalanches that form at the surface of more complex industrial

  • The Sound of Flow Over Rigid Walls
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    William Devenport, Nathan Alexander, Stewart Glegg, Meng Wang

    An overview of the acoustics of boundary layer flows over rough surfaces and surfaces with discontinuities at low Mach number is presented. Roughness noise is dominated by dipole radiation produced by unsteady tangential pressure forces on the uneven surface. Pressure fluctuations may be generated by turbulence of the overriding boundary layer or by the wakes of upstream roughness features, but in

  • Lymphatic System Flows
    Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (IF 17.214) Pub Date : 2018-01-05
    James E. Moore Jr., Christopher D. Bertram

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is performed by the blood system and involves a net leakage of fluid outward at the capillary level. One of the principal functions of the lymphatic system is to gather this fluid and return it to the blood system to maintain overall fluid balance. Fluid in the interstitial spaces is often at subatmospheric pressure, and the return points into the venous

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿