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  • High precision cosmic ray physics with AMS-02 on the International Space Station
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    R. Battiston

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state of the art cosmic ray magnetic detector operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, performing a continuous, direct measurement of cosmic ray flux and composition in the rigidity range, \(R=pc/Ze\), \(O(1 \text {GV})-O(1 \text {TV})\). The large statistics collected during 9 years of operation, more than \(1.5\ 10^{11}\) particles

  • The golden age of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy: the Cherenkov Telescope Array in the multimessenger era
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Patrizia A. Caraveo

    High-energy photons are a powerful tool to understand the most violent phenomena in our Universe. However, detecting gamma-ray photons is a daunting task both owing to the overwhelming presence of cosmic rays and to the opacity of our atmosphere. Thus, direct detection of gamma-ray photons must be done in space, while instruments on the ground can see very high-energy photons through the secondary

  • The unusual properties of plasmas
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Francesco Pegoraro, Pierluigi Veltri

    Sixty years ago Enrico Persico gave two seminars, one in Messina and one in Palermo, with the title “Le strane proprietà del plasma” which we freely translated as the title of the present article. Is what was unusual 60 years ago, in a sense, still unusual now? Possibly the “non reductionist approach” that the study of plasmas requires. Again, freely translating from the seminar notes [1] “ This field

  • A mini-introduction to information theory
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Edward Witten

    This article consists of a very short introduction to classical and quantum information theory. Basic properties of the classical Shannon entropy and the quantum von Neumann entropy are described, along with related concepts such as classical and quantum relative entropy, conditional entropy, and mutual information. A few more detailed topics are considered in the quantum case.

  • Gravity as the square of gauge theory: a review
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    L. Borsten

    We briefly review the manifold incarnations and facets of the notion that gravity, in certain regards, can be re-conceived as the product of two gauge theories. We begin with a short history of the relationship between gauge and gravity theories in the context of “\(\hbox {gravity} = \hbox {gauge} \times \hbox {gauge}\)”. This is followed by modern approaches to gauge/gravity scattering amplitude relations

  • Spin-charge interconversion in heterostructures based on group-IV semiconductors
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    F. Bottegoni, C. Zucchetti, G. Isella, M. Bollani, M. Finazzi, F. Ciccacci

    Spin-charge interconversion phenomena are ubiquitous in solid-state physics and represent a powerful tool to investigate spin transport in metals, semiconductors and metal/semiconductor heterostructures. The possibility to convert a spin current into a charge current (and vice versa) allows for the design of efficient spin injection/detection schemes, even without the use of ferromagnets, to unravel

  • Iron-based superconductors: tales from the nuclei
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Pietro Carretta, Giacomo Prando

    High-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based pnictides and chalcogenides has been one of the most significant recent discoveries in condensed matter physics and has attracted remarkable attention in the last decade. These materials are characterized by a complex fermiology and, as a result, feature a wide range of electronic properties as a function of different tuning parameters such as chemical

  • Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    P. Blasi

    More than a century ago it was discovered that the Earth is bombarded by a penetrating radiation of cosmic origin, whose flux was later found to be dominated by charged particles. The discovery of cosmic rays led to many questions about their origin and about the way that they reach us from large distances. Here I will summarize some recent developments in our understanding of the acceleration mechanisms

  • Entropy in self-assembly
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Francesco Sciortino

    Colloidal systems show beautiful examples of how entropy can lead to self-assembly of ordered structures, challenging our perception of disorder. In fact, dispersion of hard colloidal particles, systems in which by default entropy is the only thermodynamic driving force, displays both translational and orientational order on increasing density. Entropy is also a fundamental concept for describing effective

  • Astrometry in the 21st century. From Hipparchus to Einstein
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Mariateresa Crosta

    Astrometry is that fundamental part of astronomy which allows to determine the geometric, kinematical, and dynamical properties of celestial objects, including our own Galaxy, which is assembled and shaped by gravity. The knowledge of star positions was already important at the times of Hipparchus (190–120 BC) and his predecessors, Timocharis and Aristillos. Their cataloging (approximately 150 years

  • Bio-soft cyclodextrin nanomaterials
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    R. Zagami, A. Romeo, A. Mazzaglia

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are nano-macrocycles composed of saccharidic units. The interest for this class of molecules spans from their use as functional encapsulators to building blocks of more complex aggregates. In this fashion, well-established nanostructures can be rationally planned in aqueous medium, originating different nanomaterials with distinctive biological properties, dependently on physico-chemical

  • Inversion of earthquake rupture process: Theory and applications
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Yun-tai Chen, Yong Zhang, Li-sheng Xu

    We present the theory and methods of earthquake rupture process inversion by using seismic and geodetic data, and their applications to scientific researches and earthquake emergency responses. It is shown that the knowledge obtained from these studies has much improved our understanding of the complexities of the earthquake source and causative mechanism of the earthquake disaster, and is of important

  • Hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics: Story, challenges and opportunities
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Alessandra Alberti, Emanuele Smecca, Salvatore Sanzaro, Giovanni Mannino, Ioannis Deretzis, Antonino La Magna

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been representing a scientific breakthrough in the photovoltaic field since 2009 when they were applied to replace photoactive dyes in hybrid solar cells. Further development has been highly boosted by a large and enthusiastic effort up to a current maximum efficiency of 24.2%. The exceptionality of this class of materials resides in their soft character combined

  • The Metre Convention of 1875: A Commentary and new English edition
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Terry Quinn

    In my Commentary on the Metre Convention of 1875, modified by the second Convention in 1921, I examine its mission “to assure the international unification and perfection of the metric system” set out in the Preamble to the 1875 Convention and show how this continues to be its principal aim, with the metric system now being the International System of Units, SI. I examine the modern roles of the three

  • A unique mission: Cassini-Huygens, the Orbiter, the descent Probe and the cruise science
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    E. Flamini, A. Adriani, J. W. Armstrong, F. Capaccioni, G. Filacchione, L. Iess, G. Mitri, S. Viviano

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has characterized the Solar System exploration scenario for more than 30 years, from when it was conceived until the completion of its long life. Its legacy is an enormous amount of high quality scientific data and astonishing images of the Saturn system and its moons, Titan first. Also, the mission has been the gymnasium where new technologies and procedures have been discussed

  • Nanoscale quantum optics
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-05-07
    I. D’Amico, D. G. Angelakis, F. Bussières, H. Caglayan, C. Couteau, T. Durt, B. Kolaric, P. Maletinsky, W. Pfeiffer, P. Rabl, A. Xuereb, M. Agio

    Nanoscale quantum optics explores quantum phenomena in nanophotonics systems for advancing fundamental knowledge in nano and quantum optics and for harnessing the laws of quantum physics in the development of new photonics-based technologies. Here, we review recent progress in the field with emphasis on four main research areas: Generation, detection, manipulation and storage of quantum states of light

  • Experimental nuclear astrophysics in Italy
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    C. Broggini, O. Straniero, M. G. F. Taiuti, G. de Angelis, G. Benzoni, G. E. Bruno, S. Bufalino, G. Cardella, N. Colonna, M. Contalbrigo, G. Cosentino, S. Cristallo, C. Curceanu, E. De Filippo, R. Depalo, A. Di Leva, A. Feliciello, S. Gammino, A. Galatà, M. La Cognata, R. Lea, S. Leoni, I. Lombardo, V. Manzari, D. Mascali, C. Massimi, A. Mengoni, D. Mengoni, D. R. Napoli, S. Palmerini, S. Piano, S

    Nuclear astrophysics, the union of nuclear physics and astronomy, went through an impressive expansion during the last twenty years. This could be achieved thanks to milestone improvements in astronomical observations, cross section measurements, powerful computer simulations and much refined stellar models. Italian groups are giving quite important contributions to every domain of nuclear astrophysics

  • The third-millennium International System of Units
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-02-26
    W. Bich

    The International System of Units, SI, in use since 1946, was formally established in October 1960 by the eleventh Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, CGPM, with its resolution 12. In the past years, several changes have been made to the system. The 26th Conference, on 16th November 2018, adopted a revised SI, due to come into force on 20 May 2019. This revision was by far the most radical in

  • Spin orbit correlations and the structure of the nucleon
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    H. Avakian, B. Parsamyan, A. Prokudin

    Extensive experimental measurements of spin and azimuthal asymmetries in various processes have stimulated theoretical interest and progress in the studies of the nucleon structure. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of parton distribution functions, generalized to describe transverse momentum and spatial parton distributions, is one of the main remaining challenges of modern nuclear

  • Physics and technology of gallium nitride materials for power electronics
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-12-17
    Fabrizio Roccaforte, Patrick Fiorenza, Raffaella Lo Nigro, Filippo Giannazzo, Giuseppe Greco

    Owing to its exceptional physical and electronic properties, gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising material that can find application in the fields of high-power and high-frequency electronics. However, there are still several hurdles in GaN technology, which hinder the full exploitation of the great potential of this material. For that reason the scientific community working on GaN-based materials

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