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  • Spatio-temporal shaping of a free-electron wave function via coherent light–electron interaction
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Giovanni Maria Vanacore, Ivan Madan, Fabrizio Carbone

    The past decade has witnessed a quantum revolution in the field of computation, communication and materials investigation. A similar revolution is also occurring for free-electron based techniques, where the classical treatment of a free electron as a point particle is being surpassed toward a deeper exploitation of its quantum nature. Adopting familiar concepts from quantum optics, several groups

  • Reflectance imaging spectroscopy in heritage science
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    J. Striova, A. Dal Fovo, R. Fontana

    The present paper focuses on the reflectance spectral imaging of painted surfaces in the visible-near infrared spectral region (400–2500 nm). Other spectral ranges and methods are mentioned, to contextualize the spectral investigation of works of art.

  • Numerical modeling of mechanical wave propagation
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    G. Seriani, S. P. Oliveira

    The numerical modeling of mechanical waves is currently a fundamental tool for the study and investigation of their propagation in media with heterogeneous physical properties and/or complex geometry, as, in these cases, analytical methods are usually not applicable. These techniques are used in geophysics (geophysical interpretation, subsoil imaging, development of new methods of exploration), seismology

  • Erratum to: Optical nanoscopy
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    A. Diaspro, P. Bianchini

    After publication of the article we noticed that equations number 24 and 25 missed a convolution sign.

  • Optical nanoscopy
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    A. Diaspro, P. Bianchini

    This article deals with the developments of optical microscopy towards nanoscopy. Basic concepts of the methods implemented to obtain spatial super-resolution are described, along with concepts related to the study of biological systems at the molecular level. Fluorescence as a mechanism of contrast and spatial resolution will be the starting point to developing a multi-messenger optical microscope

  • High precision cosmic ray physics with AMS-02 on the International Space Station
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    R. Battiston

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state of the art cosmic ray magnetic detector operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, performing a continuous, direct measurement of cosmic ray flux and composition in the rigidity range, \(R=pc/Ze\), \(O(1 \text {GV})-O(1 \text {TV})\). The large statistics collected during 9 years of operation, more than \(1.5\ 10^{11}\) particles

  • The golden age of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy: the Cherenkov Telescope Array in the multimessenger era
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Patrizia A. Caraveo

    High-energy photons are a powerful tool to understand the most violent phenomena in our Universe. However, detecting gamma-ray photons is a daunting task both owing to the overwhelming presence of cosmic rays and to the opacity of our atmosphere. Thus, direct detection of gamma-ray photons must be done in space, while instruments on the ground can see very high-energy photons through the secondary

  • The unusual properties of plasmas
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Francesco Pegoraro; Pierluigi Veltri

    Sixty years ago Enrico Persico gave two seminars, one in Messina and one in Palermo, with the title “Le strane proprietà del plasma” which we freely translated as the title of the present article. Is what was unusual 60 years ago, in a sense, still unusual now? Possibly the “non reductionist approach” that the study of plasmas requires. Again, freely translating from the seminar notes [1] “ This field

  • A mini-introduction to information theory
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Edward Witten

    This article consists of a very short introduction to classical and quantum information theory. Basic properties of the classical Shannon entropy and the quantum von Neumann entropy are described, along with related concepts such as classical and quantum relative entropy, conditional entropy, and mutual information. A few more detailed topics are considered in the quantum case.

  • Gravity as the square of gauge theory: a review
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    L. Borsten

    We briefly review the manifold incarnations and facets of the notion that gravity, in certain regards, can be re-conceived as the product of two gauge theories. We begin with a short history of the relationship between gauge and gravity theories in the context of “\(\hbox {gravity} = \hbox {gauge} \times \hbox {gauge}\)”. This is followed by modern approaches to gauge/gravity scattering amplitude relations

  • Spin-charge interconversion in heterostructures based on group-IV semiconductors
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    F. Bottegoni; C. Zucchetti; G. Isella; M. Bollani; M. Finazzi; F. Ciccacci

    Spin-charge interconversion phenomena are ubiquitous in solid-state physics and represent a powerful tool to investigate spin transport in metals, semiconductors and metal/semiconductor heterostructures. The possibility to convert a spin current into a charge current (and vice versa) allows for the design of efficient spin injection/detection schemes, even without the use of ferromagnets, to unravel

  • Iron-based superconductors: tales from the nuclei
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Pietro Carretta; Giacomo Prando

    High-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based pnictides and chalcogenides has been one of the most significant recent discoveries in condensed matter physics and has attracted remarkable attention in the last decade. These materials are characterized by a complex fermiology and, as a result, feature a wide range of electronic properties as a function of different tuning parameters such as chemical

  • Acceleration of galactic cosmic rays
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    P. Blasi

    More than a century ago it was discovered that the Earth is bombarded by a penetrating radiation of cosmic origin, whose flux was later found to be dominated by charged particles. The discovery of cosmic rays led to many questions about their origin and about the way that they reach us from large distances. Here I will summarize some recent developments in our understanding of the acceleration mechanisms

  • Entropy in self-assembly
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Francesco Sciortino

    Colloidal systems show beautiful examples of how entropy can lead to self-assembly of ordered structures, challenging our perception of disorder. In fact, dispersion of hard colloidal particles, systems in which by default entropy is the only thermodynamic driving force, displays both translational and orientational order on increasing density. Entropy is also a fundamental concept for describing effective

  • Astrometry in the 21st century. From Hipparchus to Einstein
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Mariateresa Crosta

    Astrometry is that fundamental part of astronomy which allows to determine the geometric, kinematical, and dynamical properties of celestial objects, including our own Galaxy, which is assembled and shaped by gravity. The knowledge of star positions was already important at the times of Hipparchus (190–120 BC) and his predecessors, Timocharis and Aristillos. Their cataloging (approximately 150 years

  • Bio-soft cyclodextrin nanomaterials
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    R. Zagami; A. Romeo; A. Mazzaglia

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are nano-macrocycles composed of saccharidic units. The interest for this class of molecules spans from their use as functional encapsulators to building blocks of more complex aggregates. In this fashion, well-established nanostructures can be rationally planned in aqueous medium, originating different nanomaterials with distinctive biological properties, dependently on physico-chemical

  • Inversion of earthquake rupture process: Theory and applications
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Yun-tai Chen; Yong Zhang; Li-sheng Xu

    We present the theory and methods of earthquake rupture process inversion by using seismic and geodetic data, and their applications to scientific researches and earthquake emergency responses. It is shown that the knowledge obtained from these studies has much improved our understanding of the complexities of the earthquake source and causative mechanism of the earthquake disaster, and is of important

  • Hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics: Story, challenges and opportunities
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Alessandra Alberti; Emanuele Smecca; Salvatore Sanzaro; Giovanni Mannino; Ioannis Deretzis; Antonino La Magna

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been representing a scientific breakthrough in the photovoltaic field since 2009 when they were applied to replace photoactive dyes in hybrid solar cells. Further development has been highly boosted by a large and enthusiastic effort up to a current maximum efficiency of 24.2%. The exceptionality of this class of materials resides in their soft character combined

  • The Metre Convention of 1875: A Commentary and new English edition
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Terry Quinn

    In my Commentary on the Metre Convention of 1875, modified by the second Convention in 1921, I examine its mission “to assure the international unification and perfection of the metric system” set out in the Preamble to the 1875 Convention and show how this continues to be its principal aim, with the metric system now being the International System of Units, SI. I examine the modern roles of the three

  • A unique mission: Cassini-Huygens, the Orbiter, the descent Probe and the cruise science
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    E. Flamini; A. Adriani; J. W. Armstrong; F. Capaccioni; G. Filacchione; L. Iess; G. Mitri; S. Viviano

    The Cassini-Huygens mission has characterized the Solar System exploration scenario for more than 30 years, from when it was conceived until the completion of its long life. Its legacy is an enormous amount of high quality scientific data and astonishing images of the Saturn system and its moons, Titan first. Also, the mission has been the gymnasium where new technologies and procedures have been discussed

  • Nanoscale quantum optics
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-05-07
    I. D’Amico; D. G. Angelakis; F. Bussières; H. Caglayan; C. Couteau; T. Durt; B. Kolaric; P. Maletinsky; W. Pfeiffer; P. Rabl; A. Xuereb; M. Agio

    Nanoscale quantum optics explores quantum phenomena in nanophotonics systems for advancing fundamental knowledge in nano and quantum optics and for harnessing the laws of quantum physics in the development of new photonics-based technologies. Here, we review recent progress in the field with emphasis on four main research areas: Generation, detection, manipulation and storage of quantum states of light

  • Experimental nuclear astrophysics in Italy
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    C. Broggini; O. Straniero; M. G. F. Taiuti; G. de Angelis; G. Benzoni; G. E. Bruno; S. Bufalino; G. Cardella; N. Colonna; M. Contalbrigo; G. Cosentino; S. Cristallo; C. Curceanu; E. De Filippo; R. Depalo; A. Di Leva; A. Feliciello; S. Gammino; A. Galatà; M. La Cognata; R. Lea; S. Leoni; I. Lombardo; V. Manzari; D. Mascali; C. Massimi; A. Mengoni; D. Mengoni; D. R. Napoli; S. Palmerini; S. Piano; S

    Nuclear astrophysics, the union of nuclear physics and astronomy, went through an impressive expansion during the last twenty years. This could be achieved thanks to milestone improvements in astronomical observations, cross section measurements, powerful computer simulations and much refined stellar models. Italian groups are giving quite important contributions to every domain of nuclear astrophysics

  • The third-millennium International System of Units
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-02-26
    W. Bich

    The International System of Units, SI, in use since 1946, was formally established in October 1960 by the eleventh Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, CGPM, with its resolution 12. In the past years, several changes have been made to the system. The 26th Conference, on 16th November 2018, adopted a revised SI, due to come into force on 20 May 2019. This revision was by far the most radical in

  • Spin orbit correlations and the structure of the nucleon
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    H. Avakian; B. Parsamyan; A. Prokudin

    Extensive experimental measurements of spin and azimuthal asymmetries in various processes have stimulated theoretical interest and progress in the studies of the nucleon structure. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of parton distribution functions, generalized to describe transverse momentum and spatial parton distributions, is one of the main remaining challenges of modern nuclear

  • Physics and technology of gallium nitride materials for power electronics
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-12-17
    Fabrizio Roccaforte; Patrick Fiorenza; Raffaella Lo Nigro; Filippo Giannazzo; Giuseppe Greco

    Owing to its exceptional physical and electronic properties, gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising material that can find application in the fields of high-power and high-frequency electronics. However, there are still several hurdles in GaN technology, which hinder the full exploitation of the great potential of this material. For that reason the scientific community working on GaN-based materials

  • The physics of earthquakes from space gravity missions
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-11-12
    R. Sabadini; G. Cambiotti

    Developments in the physical modelling of the Earth’s interior and space geodesy make it possible nowadays to exploit the gravity signature and deformation patterns, including their time variations, caused by megathrust earthquakes at subduction zones with moment magnitude Mw higher than 9.0, as the 2004 Sumatran and 2011 Tohoku-Oki ones. In order to achieve these goals, it has been necessary to develop

  • Temporal evolution, directionality of time and irreversibility
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-10-01
    A. L. Kuzemsky

    The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to carry out a comparative analysis of the notions of thermodynamic entropy, information entropy and entropy of non-equilibrium states and flow of entropy from a critical perspective. The problems of temporal evolution and time directionality are discussed in this context as well. The interrelation of these notions is studied with focusing on the non-equilibrium

  • Theory of the insulating state
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Raffaele Resta

    All undergraduates learn that Bloch theorem and band structure explain the insulating/metallic behavior of most crystalline solids across the periodic table. By the late 1950s it became clear that there exist classes of materials to which band theory does not apply: Mott insulators, where the insulating character is due to electron correlation, and Anderson insulators, where it is due to lattice disorder;

  • Attosecond spectroscopy of bio-chemically relevant molecules
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    F. Calegari; A. Trabattoni; E. Månsson; J. B. Greenwood; P. Decleva; F. Martìn; M. Nisoli

    Understanding the role of the electron dynamics in the photochemistry of bio-chemically relevant molecules is key to getting access to the fundamental physical processes leading to damage, mutation and, more generally, to the alteration of the final biological functions. Sudden ionization of a large molecule has been proven to activate a sub-femtosecond charge flow throughout the molecular backbone

  • Dissipative many-body physics of cold Rydberg atoms
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    O. Morsch; I. Lesanovsky

    In the last twenty years, Rydberg atoms have become a versatile and much studied system for implementing quantum many-body systems in the framework of quantum computation and quantum simulation. However, even in the absence of coherent evolution Rydberg systems exhibit interesting and non-trivial many-body phenomena such as kinetic constraints and non-equilibrium phase transitions that are relevant

  • High-precision innovative sensing with continuous-variable optical states
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Stefano Olivares

    When applied to practical problems, the very laws of quantum mechanics can provide a unique resource to beat the limits imposed by classical physics: this is the case of quantum metrology and high-precision sensing. Here we review the main results obtained in the recent years at the Quantum Technology Lab of the Department of Physics “Aldo Pontremoli” of the University of Milan, also in collaboration

  • Experimental studies of nuclear quantum effects in condensed matter: the case of water
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    C. Andreani; R. Senesi; M. Krzystyniak; G. Romanelli; F. Fernandez-Alonso

    Water continues to be the focus of a considerable number of experimental and theoretical investigations because of the important role it plays in many phenomena in fundamental and applied science, as well as its biological and technological importance. The ability of water to create a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds makes this molecule uniquely versatile. Atoms in water display characteristic

  • Ab initio reactivity of Earth’s materials
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-04-10
    G. Ottonello

    Recent impressive improvements in the application of Quantum Mechanics, coupled with a significant increase in both speed and storage capabilities of modern computers, allow to depict the energy and reactive properties of chemically complex materials through first principles and to discard the dogmatic assumption that Natural Complexity cannot be reproduced by a strict application of theory. In the

  • Fundamentals and functionalities of silicene, germanene, and stanene
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-02-16
    M. Ezawa; E. Salomon; P. De Padova; D. Solonenko; P. Vogt; M. E. Dávila; A. Molle; T. Angot; G. Le Lay

    Two-dimensional elemental topological insulators including silicene, germanene and stanene are currently the hottest topics in condensed matter physics. We first review the recent progress on electronic and topological properties of their monolayers from a fundamental viewpoint. Next, we describe their experimental realizations by epitaxial growth and their actual physical properties. We start with

  • Charged lepton flavour violation: An experimental and theoretical introduction
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2018-01-31
    Lorenzo Calibbi; Giovanni Signorelli

    Charged lepton flavour-violating transitions would be a clear signal of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Their search has been carried out in a variety of channels, the most sensitive being those involving a muon: however no positive evidence has been found so far. The MEG experiment has recently set the best limit on such processes by investigating the existence of the μ → eγ decay. In the next

  • Tunable few-optical cycle pulses and advanced ultrafast spectroscopic techniques
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-12-05
    S. De Silvestri; C. Manzoni; R. Borrego-Varillas; A. Oriana; G. Cerullo

    Continuous progress in the development of light sources for the generation of tunable ultrashort pulses from the near-infrared to all the visible range provides a very efficient tool for spectroscopic techniques able to follow ultrafast dynamical processes in matter. Second-order nonlinear optical processes like Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) have demonstrated the capability of generating light

  • Functional nanomaterials for water purification
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    M. Cantarella; G. Impellizzeri; V. Privitera

    Nanomaterials show a better performance in environmental remediation than other conventional materials because of their high surface area and their associated high reactivity. Nanostructured photocatalysts, especially TiO2, are widely studied for the treatment of contaminated water. They can indeed degrade organic pollutants and microorganisms. In the first part of this review, the fundamentals of

  • Majorana quasiparticles in condensed matter
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-10-30
    Ramón Aguado

    In the space of less than one decade, the search for Majorana quasiparticles in condensed matter has become one of the hottest topics in physics. The aim of this review is to provide a brief perspective of where we are with strong focus on artificial implementations of one-dimensional topological superconductivity. After a self-contained introduction and some technical parts, an overview of the current

  • Ten years of PAMELA in space
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-09-27
    O. Adriani; G. C. Barbarino; G. A. Bazilevskaya; R. Bellotti; M. Boezio; E. A. Bogomolov; M. Bongi; V. Bonvicini; S. Bottai; A. Bruno; F. Cafagna; D. Campana; P. Carlson; M. Casolino; G. Castellini; C. De Santis; V. Di Felice; A. M. Galper; A. V. Karelin; S. V. Koldashov; S. Koldobskiy; S. Y. Krutkov; A. N. Kvashnin; A. Leonov; V. Malakhov; L. Marcelli; M. Martucci; A. G. Mayorov; W. Menn; M. Mergè;

    The PAMELA cosmic-ray detector was launched on June 15th 2006 on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite, and during ten years of nearly continuous data-taking it has observed new interesting features in cosmic rays (CRs). In a decade of operation it has provided plenty of scientific data, covering different issues related to cosmic-ray physics. Its discoveries might change our basic vision of the mechanisms

  • Synchrotron light: A success story over six decades
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-08-29
    G. Margaritondo

    Synchrotron radiation research continues to be a major factor in the progress of science and technology, as it has been for more than half a century. We present different aspects of its history, starting with an unconventional approach: a fictional version, which should bring to light the reasons that make this field so broadly important. Then, we narrate the real history from three different points

  • Comets
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Cesare Barbieri; Ivano Bertini

    The paper reviews properties of comets, from historical sightings and interpretations, to contemporary ground- and space-based knowledge. The importance of comets in understanding the present Solar System and its dynamical, physical and chemical evolution, their relationship with other minor bodies, their possible role for the very early phases of our Earth, will be examined. Emphasis will be on the

  • Modelling the brain: Elementary components to explain ensemble functions
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-07-14
    Egidio D’Angelo; Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott

    The brain is organized on multiple levels. The lowest meaningful one pertains to the molecular realm, followed by subcellular structures like the synapses, by cells like the neurons, and by microcircuits, mesocircuits and large-scale circuit assemblies. This stratified structure has so far hampered the interpretation of brain functions in terms of elementary electrochemical events occurring in the

  • Supergravity at 40: Reflections and perspectives
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    S. Ferrara; A. Sagnotti

    The fortieth anniversary of the original construction of Supergravity provides an opportunity to combine some reminiscences of its early days with an assessment of its impact on the quest for a quantum theory of gravity.

  • The structure of DNA by direct imaging and related topics
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-05-15
    M. Marini; T. Limongi; M. Moretti; L. Tirinato; E. Di Fabrizio

    Super-hydrophobicity is a well-known and studied phenomenon in the field of surface sciences. In this review we report a novel approach that exploits micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surfaces for the oriented and self-organized deposition and suspension of DNA filaments and other macromolecules of biological interest. The self-assembled structures obtained with this approach can be used for the characterization

  • The light of SESAME: A dream becomes reality
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-04-06
    H. Schopper

    The foundation of the international SESAME synchrotron laboratory in Jordan is described including political, technical, scientific and financial aspects. Following the model of CERN, its objective is not only to promote science but also bring people together from countries with different traditions, religions and mentalities. To create an international organisation in the Middle East and North Africa

  • Frontiers of molecular gas sensing
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-02-15
    P. Maddaloni; S. Bartalini; P. Cancio; M. De Rosa; D. Mazzotti; P. De Natale

    Mainly driven by the recent dramatic progress of infrared technologies, as well as by the emerging methods for cooling of ground-state molecules, the field of precision molecular spectroscopy is experiencing a new youth, as it promises to lead major advances both in fundamental and applied science. The present review will encompass the main results obtained in the last two decades, by our group, in

  • Laser acceleration
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2017-01-30
    T. Tajima; K. Nakajima; G. Mourou

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake-fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce

  • The hydrodynamics of active systems
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-12-29
    J. M. Yeomans

    This is a series of four lectures presented at the 2015 Enrico Fermi Summer School in Varenna. The aim of the lectures is to give an introduction to the hydrodynamics of active matter concentrating on low-Reynolds-number examples such as cells and molecular motors. Lecture 1 introduces the hydrodynamics of single active particles, covering the Stokes equation and the Scallop Theorem, and stressing

  • Charge, spin and valley Hall effects in disordered graphene
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-12-23
    A. Cresti; B. K. Nikolić; J. H. García; S. Roche

    The discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect in the early eighties of the last century, with highly precise quantization values for the Hall conductance in multiples of e2/h, has been the first fascinating manifestation of the topological state of matter driven by magnetic field and disorder, and related to the formation of non-dissipative current flow. Throughout the 2000’s, several new phenomena

  • Plasmonic nanostructures for the ultrasensitive detection of biomolecules
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-11-24
    G. Das; M. L. Coluccio; S. Alrasheed; A. Giugni; M. Allione; B. Torre; G. Perozziello; P. Candeloro; E. Di Fabrizio

    The central physical phenomenon described in this paper is the optical generation of surface plasmon polaritons within different kinds of nanostructures. It determines the local enhancement of the incident and scattered electromagnetic field by nearby molecules. The paper reviews different plasmonic devices whose design and spatial arrangement offer an optimal detection level of biomolecules when combined

  • Insights from the ALICE quark-gluon coloured world at the LHC
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-10-13
    L. Cifarelli; R. Nania; F. Noferini; E. Scapparone; A. Zichichi

    Interactions among heavy ions at the CERN LHC collider recreate the state of matter as it was a few micro-seconds after the Big Bang: the Quark Gluon Coloured World (QGCW). At a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV the produced QGCW reaches unprecedented temperatures, volumes and durations allowing more refined studies of its properties. Data collected during LHC Run1 (from 2010 to 2013) already provided

  • Gravitational waves from inflation
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-08-29
    M. C. Guzzetti; N. Bartolo; M. Liguori; S. Matarrese

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging

  • Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-08-01
    M. S. Vitiello; L. Viti

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered

  • Three lectures on topological phases of matter
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-06-28
    E. Witten

    These notes are based on lectures at the PSSCMP/PiTP summer school that was held at Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study in July, 2015. They are devoted largely to topological phases of matter that can be understood in terms of free fermions and band theory. They also contain an introduction to the fractional quantum Hall effect from the point of view of effective field theory

  • Self-assembly strategies for the synthesis of functional nanostructured materials
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-06-08
    M. Perego; G. Seguini

    Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. This is the approach followed by nature to generate living cells and represents one of the practical strategies to fabricate ensembles of nanostructures. In static self-assembly the formation of ordered structures could require energy but once formed the structures are stable. The introduction

  • X-ray and simulation studies of water
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-05-05
    A. Nilsson; D. Schlesinger; L. G. M. Pettersson

    Here we present a picture that combines discussions regarding the thermodynamic anomalies in ambient and supercooled water with recent interpretations of X-ray spectroscopy and scattering data of water. At ambient temperatures most molecules favor a closer packing than tetrahedral, with strongly distorted hydrogen bonds, which allows the quantized librational modes to be excited and contribute to the

  • Positron Emission Tomography: Its 65 years
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-04-06
    A. Del Guerra; N. Belcari; M. Bisogni

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a well-established imaging technique for in vivo molecular imaging. In this review after a brief history of PET there are presented its physical principles and the technology that has been developed for bringing PET from a bench experiment to a clinical indispensable instrument. The limitations and performance of the PET tomographs are discussed, both as for the

  • Edge physics in two-dimensional topological insulators
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-02-29
    G. Dolcetto; M. Sassetti; T. L. Schmidt

    Topology in condensed matter physics manifests itself in the emergence of edge or surface states protected by underlying symmetries. We review two-dimensional topological insulators whose one-dimensional edge states are characterized by spin-momentum locking and protected by time-reversal symmetry. We focus in particular on their transport properties in the presence of electron interactions, which

  • Supernova neutrinos: production, oscillations and detection
    Riv. Nuovo Cim. (IF 6.875) Pub Date : 2016-02-05
    A. Mirizzi; I. Tamborra; H.-Th. Janka; N. Saviano; K. Scholberg; R. Bollig; L. Hüdepohl; S. Chakraborty

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in the collapse and explosion of massive stars, governing the infall dynamics of the stellar core, triggering and fueling the explosion and driving the cooling and deleptonization of the newly formed neutron star. Due to their role neutrinos carry information from the heart of the explosion and, due to their weakly interacting nature, offer the only direct probe of the

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