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  • Scaling, rotation, and channeling behavior of helical and skyrmion spin textures in thin films of Te-doped Cu2OSeO3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    M.-G. Han, J. A. Garlow, Y. Kharkov, L. Camacho, R. Rov, J. Sauceda, G. Vats, K. Kisslinger, T. Kato, O. Sushkov, Y. Zhu, C. Ulrich, T. Söhnel, J. Seidel

    Topologically nontrivial spin textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and monopoles are promising candidates as information carriers for future quantum information science. Their controlled manipulation including creation and annihilation remains an important challenge toward practical applications and further exploration of their emergent phenomena. Here, we report controlled evolution of the helical

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Cooperative deformation in high-entropy alloys at ultralow temperatures
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Muhammad Naeem, Haiyan He, Fan Zhang, Hailong Huang, Stefanus Harjo, Takuro Kawasaki, Bing Wang, Si Lan, Zhenduo Wu, Feng Wang, Yuan Wu, Zhaoping Lu, Zhongwu Zhang, Chain T. Liu, Xun-Li Wang

    High-entropy alloys exhibit exceptional mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, due to the activation of twinning in addition to dislocation slip. The coexistence of multiple deformation pathways raises an important question regarding how individual deformation mechanisms compete or synergize during plastic deformation. Using in situ neutron diffraction, we demonstrate the interaction of a

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Generation of multiple ultrastable optical frequency combs from an all-fiber photonic platform
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Dohyeon Kwon, Igju Jeon, Won-Kyu Lee, Myoung-Sun Heo, Jungwon Kim

    Frequency-stabilized optical frequency combs have created many high-precision applications. Accurate timing, ultralow phase noise, and narrow linewidth are prerequisites for achieving the ultimate performance of comb-based systems. Ultrastable cavity-based comb-noise stabilization methods have enabled sub–10−15-level frequency instability. However, these methods are complex and alignment sensitive

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Mitigating cavitation erosion using biomimetic gas-entrapping microtextured surfaces (GEMS)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez-Avila, Dang Minh Nguyen, Sankara Arunachalam, Eddy M. Domingues, Himanshu Mishra, Claus-Dieter Ohl

    Cavitation refers to the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles near solid boundaries in high-speed flows, such as ship propellers and pumps. During this process, cavitation bubbles focus fluid energy on the solid surface by forming high-speed jets, leading to damage and downtime of machinery. In response, numerous surface treatments to counteract this effect have been explored, including perfluorinated

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Chiral superconductivity in the alternate stacking compound 4Hb-TaS2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    A. Ribak, R. Majlin Skiff, M. Mograbi, P. K. Rout, M. H. Fischer, J. Ruhman, K. Chashka, Y. Dagan, A. Kanigel

    Van der Waals materials offer unprecedented control of electronic properties via stacking of different types of two-dimensional materials. A fascinating frontier, largely unexplored, is the stacking of strongly correlated phases of matter. We study 4Hb-TaS2, which naturally realizes an alternating stacking of 1T-TaS2 and 1H-TaS2 structures. The former is a well-known Mott insulator, which has recently

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Atomic-scale insights into the interfacial instability of superlubricity in hydrogenated amorphous carbon films
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Xinchun Chen, Xuan Yin, Wei Qi, Chenhui Zhang, Junho Choi, Sudong Wu, Rong Wang, Jianbin Luo

    The origin of instability or even disappearance of the superlubricity state in hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film in the presence of oxygen or water molecules is still controversial. Here, we address this puzzle regarding the tribochemical activities of sliding interfaces at the nanoscale. The results reveal that gaseous oxygen molecules disable the antifriction capacity of a-C:H by surface

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Chemical boundary engineering: A new route toward lean, ultrastrong yet ductile steels
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Ran Ding, Yingjie Yao, Binhan Sun, Geng Liu, Jianguo He, Tong Li, Xinhao Wan, Zongbiao Dai, Dirk Ponge, Dierk Raabe, Chi Zhang, Andy Godfrey, Goro Miyamoto, Tadashi Furuhara, Zhigang Yang, Sybrand van der Zwaag, Hao Chen

    For decades, grain boundary engineering has proven to be one of the most effective approaches for tailoring the mechanical properties of metallic materials, although there are limits to the fineness and types of microstructures achievable, due to the rapid increase in grain size once being exposed to thermal loads (low thermal stability of crystallographic boundaries). Here, we deploy a unique chemical

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • High-frequency rectification via chiral Bloch electrons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Hiroki Isobe, Su-Yang Xu, Liang Fu

    Rectification is a process that converts electromagnetic fields into a direct current. Such a process underlies a wide range of technologies such as wireless communication, wireless charging, energy harvesting, and infrared detection. Existing rectifiers are mostly based on semiconductor diodes, with limited applicability to small-voltage or high-frequency inputs. Here, we present an alternative approach

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Three dimensions, two microscopes, one code: Automatic differentiation for x-ray nanotomography beyond the depth of focus limit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Ming Du, Youssef S. G. Nashed, Saugat Kandel, Doğa Gürsoy, Chris Jacobsen

    Conventional tomographic reconstruction algorithms assume that one has obtained pure projection images, involving no within-specimen diffraction effects nor multiple scattering. Advances in x-ray nanotomography are leading toward the violation of these assumptions, by combining the high penetration power of x-rays, which enables thick specimens to be imaged, with improved spatial resolution that decreases

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Demonstration of a third-order hierarchy of topological states in a three-dimensional acoustic metamaterial
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Matthew Weiner, Xiang Ni, Mengyao Li, Andrea Alù, Alexander B. Khanikaev

    Classical wave systems have constituted an excellent platform for emulating complex quantum phenomena, such as demonstrating topological phenomena in photonics and acoustics. Recently, a new class of topological states localized in more than one dimension of a D-dimensional system, referred to as higher-order topological (HOT) states, has been reported, offering an even more versatile platform to confine

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Two-photon quantum interference and entanglement at 2.1 μm
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Shashi Prabhakar, Taylor Shields, Adetunmise C. Dada, Mehdi Ebrahim, Gregor G. Taylor, Dmitry Morozov, Kleanthis Erotokritou, Shigehito Miki, Masahiro Yabuno, Hirotaka Terai, Corin Gawith, Michael Kues, Lucia Caspani, Robert H. Hadfield, Matteo Clerici

    Quantum-enhanced optical systems operating within the 2- to 2.5-μm spectral region have the potential to revolutionize emerging applications in communications, sensing, and metrology. However, to date, sources of entangled photons have been realized mainly in the near-infrared 700- to 1550-nm spectral window. Here, using custom-designed lithium niobate crystals for spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Twist again: Dynamically and reversibly controllable chirality in liquid crystalline elastomer microposts
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    James T. Waters, Shucong Li, Yuxing Yao, Michael M. Lerch, Michael Aizenberg, Joanna Aizenberg, Anna C. Balazs

    Photoresponsive liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) constitute ideal actuators for soft robots because their light-induced macroscopic shape changes can be harnessed to perform specific articulated motions. Conventional LCEs, however, do not typically exhibit complex modes of bending and twisting necessary to perform sophisticated maneuvers. Here, we model LCE microposts encompassing side-chain mesogens

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Ultra-large electric field–induced strain in potassium sodium niobate crystals
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Chengpeng Hu, Xiangda Meng, Mao-Hua Zhang, Hao Tian, John E. Daniels, Peng Tan, Fei Huang, Li Li, Ke Wang, Jing-Feng Li, Qieni Lu, Wenwu Cao, Zhongxiang Zhou

    Electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials allows direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Here, we demonstrate lead-free (KxNa1−x)NbO3 single crystals with an ultrahigh large-signal piezoelectric coefficient d33* of 9000 pm V−1, which is superior to the highest value reported in state-of-the-art lead-based single crystals (~2500 pm V−1). The enhanced

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Soft crystal martensites: An in situ resonant soft x-ray scattering study of a liquid crystal martensitic transformation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Hyeong Min Jin, Xiao Li, James A. Dolan, R. Joseph Kline, José A. Martínez-González, Jiaxing Ren, Chun Zhou, Juan J. de Pablo, Paul F. Nealey

    Liquid crystal blue phases (BPs) are three-dimensional soft crystals with unit cell sizes orders of magnitude larger than those of classic, atomic crystals. The directed self-assembly of BPs on chemically patterned surfaces uniquely enables detailed in situ resonant soft x-ray scattering measurements of martensitic phase transformations in these systems. The formation of twin lamellae is explicitly

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Nonreciprocal transport in gate-induced polar superconductor SrTiO3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Yuki M. Itahashi, Toshiya Ideue, Yu Saito, Sunao Shimizu, Takumi Ouchi, Tsutomu Nojima, Yoshihiro Iwasa

    Polar conductors/superconductors with Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction are potential material platforms for quantum transport and spintronic functionalities. One of their inherent properties is the nonreciprocal transport, where the rightward and leftward currents become inequivalent, reflecting spatial inversion/time-reversal symmetry breaking. Such a rectification effect originating from the polar

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Extreme cavity expansion in soft solids: Damage without fracture
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jin Young Kim, Zezhou Liu, Byung Mook Weon, Tal Cohen, Chung-Yuen Hui, Eric R. Dufresne, Robert W. Style

    Cavitation is a common damage mechanism in soft solids. Here, we study this using a phase separation technique in stretched, elastic solids to controllably nucleate and grow small cavities by several orders of magnitude. The ability to make stable cavities of different sizes, as well as the huge range of accessible strains, allows us to systematically study the early stages of cavity expansion. Cavities

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • A novel physical mechanism of liquid flow slippage on a solid surface
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Yuji Kurotani, Hajime Tanaka

    Viscous liquids often exhibit flow slippage on solid walls. The occurrence of flow slippage has a large impact on the liquid transport and the resulting energy dissipation, which are crucial for many applications. It is natural to expect that slippage takes place to reduce the dissipation. However, (i) how the density fluctuation is affected by the presence of the wall and (ii) how slippage takes place

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Light-triggered topological programmability in a dynamic covalent polymer network
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Weike Zou, Binjie Jin, Yi Wu, Huijie Song, Yingwu Luo, Feihe Huang, Jin Qian, Qian Zhao, Tao Xie

    Dynamic covalent polymer networks exhibit unusual adaptability while maintaining the robustness of conventional covalent networks. Typically, their network topology is statistically nonchangeable, and their material properties are therefore nonprogrammable. By introducing topological heterogeneity, we demonstrate a concept of topology isomerizable network (TIN) that can be programmed into many topological

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Four-wave mixing of topological edge plasmons in graphene metasurfaces
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jian Wei You, Zhihao Lan, Nicolae C. Panoiu

    We study topologically protected four-wave mixing (FWM) interactions in a plasmonic metasurface consisting of a periodic array of nanoholes in a graphene sheet, which exhibits a wide topological bandgap at terahertz frequencies upon the breaking of time reversal symmetry by a static magnetic field. We demonstrate that due to the significant nonlinearity enhancement and large life time of graphene plasmons

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Targeted gene silencing in vivo by platelet membrane–coated metal-organic framework nanoparticles
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jia Zhuang, Hua Gong, Jiarong Zhou, Qiangzhe Zhang, Weiwei Gao, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for gene silencing that has been used for a wide range of biomedical applications, but there are many challenges facing its therapeutic use in vivo. Here, we report on a platelet cell membrane–coated metal-organic framework (MOF) nanodelivery platform for the targeted delivery of siRNA in vivo. The MOF core is capable of high loading yields, and its

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Zero-energy bound states in the high-temperature superconductors at the two-dimensional limit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Chaofei Liu, Cheng Chen, Xiaoqiang Liu, Ziqiao Wang, Yi Liu, Shusen Ye, Ziqiang Wang, Jiangping Hu, Jian Wang

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) that obey the non-Abelian statistics have been intensively investigated for potential applications in topological quantum computing. The prevailing signals in tunneling experiments “fingerprinting” the existence of MZMs are the zero-energy bound states (ZEBSs). However, nearly all of the previously reported ZEBSs showing signatures of the MZMs are observed in difficult-to-fabricate

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Nanoparticle interactions with immune cells dominate tumor retention and induce T cell–mediated tumor suppression in models of breast cancer
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Preethi Korangath, James D. Barnett, Anirudh Sharma, Elizabeth T. Henderson, Jacqueline Stewart, Shu-Han Yu, Sri Kamal Kandala, Chun-Ting Yang, Julia S. Caserto, Mohammad Hedayati, Todd D. Armstrong, Elizabeth Jaffee, Cordula Gruettner, Xian C. Zhou, Wei Fu, Chen Hu, Saraswati Sukumar, Brian W. Simons, Robert Ivkov

    The factors that influence nanoparticle fate in vivo following systemic delivery remain an area of intense interest. Of particular interest is whether labeling with a cancer-specific antibody ligand (“active targeting”) is superior to its unlabeled counterpart (“passive targeting”). Using models of breast cancer in three immune variants of mice, we demonstrate that intratumor retention of antibody-labeled

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • How to run 50% faster without external energy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Amanda Sutrisno, David J. Braun

    Technological innovations may enable next-generation running shoes to provide unprecedented mobility. But how could a running shoe increase the speed of motion without providing external energy? We found that the top speed of running may be increased more than 50% using a catapult-like exoskeleton device, which does not provide external energy. Our finding uncovers the hidden potential of human performance

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Slow slip source characterized by lithological and geometric heterogeneity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Philip M. Barnes, Laura M. Wallace, Demian M. Saffer, Rebecca E. Bell, Michael B. Underwood, Ake Fagereng, Francesca Meneghini, Heather M. Savage, Hannah S. Rabinowitz, Julia K. Morgan, Hiroko Kitajima, Steffen Kutterolf, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Christie H. Engelmann de Oliveira, Atsushi Noda, Martin P. Crundwell, Claire L. Shepherd, Adam D. Woodhouse, Robert N. Harris, Maomao Wang, Stuart Henrys, Daniel

    Slow slip events (SSEs) accommodate a significant proportion of tectonic plate motion at subduction zones, yet little is known about the faults that actually host them. The shallow depth (<2 km) of well-documented SSEs at the Hikurangi subduction zone offshore New Zealand offers a unique opportunity to link geophysical imaging of the subduction zone with direct access to incoming material that represents

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Emergence of a Neolithic in highland New Guinea by 5000 to 4000 years ago
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Ben Shaw, Judith H. Field, Glenn R. Summerhayes, Simon Coxe, Adelle C. F. Coster, Anne Ford, Jemina Haro, Henry Arifeae, Emily Hull, Geraldine Jacobsen, Richard Fullagar, Elspeth Hayes, Lisa Kealhofer

    The emergence of agriculture was one of the most notable behavioral transformations in human history, driving innovations in technologies and settlement globally, referred to as the Neolithic. Wetland agriculture originated in the New Guinea highlands during the mid-Holocene (8000 to 4000 years ago), yet it is unclear if there was associated behavioral change. Here, we report the earliest figurative

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Streptavidin/biotin: Tethering geometry defines unbinding mechanics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Steffen M. Sedlak, Leonard C. Schendel, Hermann E. Gaub, Rafael C. Bernardi

    Macromolecules tend to respond to applied forces in many different ways. Chemistry at high shear forces can be intriguing, with relatively soft bonds becoming very stiff in specific force-loading geometries. Largely used in bionanotechnology, an important case is the streptavidin (SA)/biotin interaction. Although SA’s four subunits have the same affinity, we find that the forces required to break the

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • A new algorithm to convert a normal antibody into the corresponding catalytic antibody
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Emi Hifumi, Hiroaki Taguchi, Haruna Tsuda, Tetsuro Minagawa, Tamami Nonaka, Taizo Uda

    Over thousands of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been produced so far, and it would be valuable if these mAbs could be directly converted into catalytic antibodies. We have designed a system to realize the above concept by deleting Pro95, a highly conserved residue in CDR-3 of the antibody light chain. The deletion of Pro95 is a key contributor to catalytic function of the light chain. The S35 and

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Cell reprogramming using extracellular vesicles from differentiating stem cells into white/beige adipocytes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Youn Jae Jung, Hark Kyun Kim, Yoonsuk Cho, Ji Suk Choi, Chang Hee Woo, Kyoung Soo Lee, Jae Hoon Sul, Chan Mi Lee, Jihoon Han, Jae Hyung Park, Dong-Gyu Jo, Yong Woo Cho

    Stem cell–derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer alternative approaches to stem cell–based therapy for regenerative medicine. In this study, stem cell EVs derived during differentiation are developed to use as cell-free therapeutic systems by inducing tissue-specific differentiation. EVs are isolated from human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) during white and beige adipogenic differentiation

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Forests: Carbon sequestration, biomass energy, or both?
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Alice Favero, Adam Daigneault, Brent Sohngen

    There is a continuing debate over the role that woody bioenergy plays in climate mitigation. This paper clarifies this controversy and illustrates the impacts of woody biomass demand on forest harvests, prices, timber management investments and intensity, forest area, and the resulting carbon balance under different climate mitigation policies. Increased bioenergy demand increases forest carbon stocks

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • In vivo priming of human mesenchymal stem cells with hepatocyte growth factor–engineered mesenchymal stem cells promotes therapeutic potential for cardiac repair
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Bong-Woo Park, Soo-Hyun Jung, Sanskrita Das, Soon Min Lee, Jae-Hyun Park, Hyeok Kim, Ji-Won Hwang, Sunghun Lee, Hyo-Jin Kim, Hey-Yon Kim, Seungman Jung, Dong-Woo Cho, Jinah Jang, Kiwon Ban, Hun-Jun Park

    The clinical use of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been hampered by their poor performance after transplantation into failing hearts. Here, to improve the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs, we developed a strategy termed in vivo priming in which BM-MSCs are primed in vivo in myocardial infarction (MI)–induced hearts through genetically engineered hepatocyte growth factor–expressing

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Bioenergetic-active materials enhance tissue regeneration by modulating cellular metabolic state
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Haoming Liu, Yingying Du, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Mads S. Bergholt, Hélène Autefage, Jianglin Wang, Mingle Cai, Gaojie Yang, Molly M. Stevens, Shengmin Zhang

    Cellular bioenergetics (CBE) plays a critical role in tissue regeneration. Physiologically, an enhanced metabolic state facilitates anabolic biosynthesis and mitosis to accelerate regeneration. However, the development of approaches to reprogram CBE, toward the treatment of substantial tissue injuries, has been limited thus far. Here, we show that induced repair in a rabbit model of weight-bearing

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Irradiated tumor cell–derived microparticles mediate tumor eradication via cell killing and immune reprogramming
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Chao Wan, Yajie Sun, Yu Tian, Lisen Lu, Xiaomeng Dai, Jingshu Meng, Jing Huang, Qianyuan He, Bian Wu, Zhanjie Zhang, Ke Jiang, Desheng Hu, Gang Wu, Jonathan F. Lovell, Honglin Jin, Kunyu Yang

    Radiotherapy (RT) is routinely used in cancer treatment, but expansion of its clinical indications remains challenging. The mechanism underlying the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is not understood and not therapeutically exploited. We suggest that the RIBE is predominantly mediated by irradiated tumor cell–released microparticles (RT-MPs), which induce broad antitumor effects and cause

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • DUSP6 SUMOylation protects cells from oxidative damage via direct regulation of Drp1 dephosphorylation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Ruining Ma, Lina Ma, Weiji Weng, Yingping Wang, Huiqing Liu, Rongjun Guo, Yingwei Gao, Jun Tu, Tian-Le Xu, Jinke Cheng, Michael X. Zhu, Aiwu Zhou, Yong Li

    Imbalanced mitochondrial fission/fusion, a major cause of apoptotic cell death, often results from dysregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation of two serines, S616 and S637. Whereas kinases for Drp1-S616 phosphorylation are well-described, phosphatase(s) for its dephosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we show that dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) dephosphorylates Drp1-S616 independently of its known

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Breath figure–derived porous semiconducting films for organic electronics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Xinan Zhang, Binghao Wang, Lizhen Huang, Wei Huang, Zhi Wang, Weigang Zhu, Yao Chen, YanLi Mao, Antonio Facchetti, Tobin J. Marks

    Porous semiconductor film morphologies facilitate fluid diffusion and mass transport into the charge-carrying layers of diverse electronic devices. Here, we report the nature-inspired fabrication of several porous organic semiconductor-insulator blend films [semiconductor: P3HT (p-type polymer), C8BTBT (p-type small-molecule), and N2200 (n-type polymer); insulator: PS] by a breath figure patterning

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Coordinated regulation of infection-related morphogenesis by the KMT2-Cre1-Hyd4 regulatory pathway to facilitate fungal infection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Yiling Lai, Xuan Cao, Jingjing Chen, Lili Wang, Gang Wei, Sibao Wang

    Entomopathogenic fungi can overcome insecticide resistance and represent promising tools for the control of mosquitoes. Better understanding of fungus-mosquito interactions is critical for improvement of fungal efficacy. Upon insect cuticle induction, pathogenic fungi undergo marked infection-related morphological differentiation. However, regulatory mechanisms of fungal infection–related morphogenesis

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • SKP1 drives the prophase I to metaphase I transition during male meiosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Yongjuan Guan, N. Adrian Leu, Jun Ma, Lukáš Chmátal, Gordon Ruthel, Jordana C. Bloom, Michael A. Lampson, John C. Schimenti, Mengcheng Luo, P. Jeremy Wang

    The meiotic prophase I to metaphase I (PI/MI) transition requires chromosome desynapsis and metaphase competence acquisition. However, control of these major meiotic events is poorly understood. Here, we identify an essential role for SKP1, a core subunit of the SKP1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) ubiquitin E3 ligase, in the PI/MI transition. SKP1 localizes to synapsed chromosome axes and evicts HORMAD proteins

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Biomimetic human small muscular pulmonary arteries
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Qianru Jin, Anil Bhatta, Jayson V. Pagaduan, Xing Chen, Hoku West-Foyle, Jiayu Liu, Annie Hou, Dan Berkowitz, Scot C. Kuo, Frederic B. Askin, Thao D. Nguyen, David H. Gracias, Lewis H. Romer

    Changes in structure and function of small muscular arteries play a major role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, a burgeoning public health challenge. Improved anatomically mimetic in vitro models of these microvessels are urgently needed because nonhuman vessels and previous models do not accurately recapitulate the microenvironment and architecture of the human microvascular wall

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • The insulator functions of the Drosophila polydactyl C2H2 zinc finger protein CTCF: Necessity versus sufficiency
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Olga Kyrchanova, Oksana Maksimenko, Airat Ibragimov, Vladimir Sokolov, Nikolay Postika, Maria Lukyanova, Paul Schedl, Pavel Georgiev

    In mammals, a C2H2 zinc finger (C2H2) protein, CTCF, acts as the master regulator of chromosomal architecture and of the expression of Hox gene clusters. Like mammalian CTCF, the Drosophila homolog, dCTCF, localizes to boundaries in the bithorax complex (BX-C). Here, we have determined the minimal requirements for the assembly of a functional boundary by dCTCF and two other C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Isolation of an elusive phosphatetrahedrane
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Martin-Louis Y. Riu, Rebecca L. Jones, Wesley J. Transue, Peter Müller, Christopher C. Cummins

    This exploratory synthesis investigation was undertaken to determine the viability of replacing a single carbon vertex with another p-block element in a highly strained tetrahedrane molecule. Phosphorus was selected for this purpose because the stable molecular form of elemental phosphorus is tetrahedral. Our synthetic strategy was to generate an unsaturated phosphorus center bonded to a substituted

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Role of mechanical cues and hypoxia on the growth of tumor cells in strong and weak confinement: A dual in vitro–in silico approach
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    V. Le Maout, K. Alessandri, B. Gurchenkov, H. Bertin, P. Nassoy, G. Sciumè

    Characterization of tumor growth dynamics is of major importance for cancer understanding. By contrast with phenomenological approaches, mechanistic modeling can facilitate disclosing underlying tumor mechanisms and lead to identification of physical factors affecting proliferation and invasive behavior. Current mathematical models are often formulated at the tissue or organ scale with the scope of

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • Surface-anchored framework for generating RhD-epitope stealth red blood cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Yueqi Zhao, Mingjie Fan, Yanni Chen, Zhaoming Liu, Changyu Shao, Biao Jin, Xiaoyu Wang, Lanlan Hui, Shuaifei Wang, Zhaoping Liao, Daishun Ling, Ruikang Tang, Ben Wang

    Rhesus D (RhD) is one of the most important immunogenic antigens on red blood cells (RBCs). However, the supply of RhD-negative blood frequently faces critical shortages in clinical practice, and the positive-to-negative transition of the RhD antigen remains a great challenge. Here, we developed an alternative approach for sheltering the epitopes on RhD-positive RBCs using a surface-anchored framework

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Reversible spin storage in metal oxide—fullerene heterojunctions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    T. Moorsom, M. Rogers, I. Scivetti, S. Bandaru, G. Teobaldi, M. Valvidares, M. Flokstra, S. Lee, R. Stewart, T. Prokscha, P. Gargiani, N. Alosaimi, G. Stefanou, M. Ali, F. Al Ma’Mari, G. Burnell, B. J. Hickey, O. Cespedes

    We show that hybrid MnOx/C60 heterojunctions can be used to design a storage device for spin-polarized charge: a spin capacitor. Hybridization at the carbon-metal oxide interface leads to spin-polarized charge trapping after an applied voltage or photocurrent. Strong electronic structure changes, including a 1-eV energy shift and spin polarization in the C60 lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, are

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Irreversible TrxR1 inhibitors block STAT3 activity and induce cancer cell death
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    S. Busker, W. Qian, M. Haraldsson, B. Espinosa, L. Johansson, S. Attarha, I. Kolosenko, J. Liu, M. Dagnell, D. Grandér, E. S. J. Arnér, K. Pokrovskaja Tamm, B. D. G. Page

    Because of its key role in cancer development and progression, STAT3 has become an attractive target for developing new cancer therapeutics. While several STAT3 inhibitors have progressed to advanced stages of development, their underlying biology and mechanisms of action are often more complex than would be expected from specific binding to STAT3. Here, we have identified and optimized a series of

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Single-asperity sliding friction across the superconducting phase transition
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Wen Wang, Dirk Dietzel, André Schirmeisen

    In sliding friction, different energy dissipation channels have been proposed, including phonon and electron systems, plastic deformation, and crack formation. However, how energy is coupled into these channels is debated, and especially, the relevance of electronic dissipation remains elusive. Here, we present friction experiments of a single-asperity sliding on a high-Tc superconductor from 40 to

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Massively parallel microwire arrays integrated with CMOS chips for neural recording
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Abdulmalik Obaid, Mina-Elraheb Hanna, Yu-Wei Wu, Mihaly Kollo, Romeo Racz, Matthew R. Angle, Jan Müller, Nora Brackbill, William Wray, Felix Franke, E. J. Chichilnisky, Andreas Hierlemann, Jun B. Ding, Andreas T. Schaefer, Nicholas A. Melosh

    Multi-channel electrical recordings of neural activity in the brain is an increasingly powerful method revealing new aspects of neural communication, computation, and prosthetics. However, while planar silicon-based CMOS devices in conventional electronics scale rapidly, neural interface devices have not kept pace. Here, we present a new strategy to interface silicon-based chips with three-dimensional

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Protecting quantum entanglement from leakage and qubit errors via repetitive parity measurements
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    C. C. Bultink, T. E. O’Brien, R. Vollmer, N. Muthusubramanian, M. W. Beekman, M. A. Rol, X. Fu, B. Tarasinski, V. Ostroukh, B. Varbanov, A. Bruno, L. DiCarlo

    Protecting quantum information from errors is essential for large-scale quantum computation. Quantum error correction (QEC) encodes information in entangled states of many qubits and performs parity measurements to identify errors without destroying the encoded information. However, traditional QEC cannot handle leakage from the qubit computational space. Leakage affects leading experimental platforms

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Phagocytosis of Wnt inhibitor SFRP4 by late wound macrophages drives chronic Wnt activity for fibrotic skin healing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Denise Gay, Giulia Ghinatti, Christian F. Guerrero-Juarez, Rubén A. Ferrer, Federica Ferri, Chae Ho Lim, Shohei Murakami, Nathalie Gault, Vilma Barroca, Isabelle Rombeau, Philippe Mauffrey, Lamya Irbah, Elsa Treffeisen, Sandra Franz, Alexandre Boissonnas, Christophe Combadière, Mayumi Ito, Maksim V. Plikus, Paul-Henri Romeo

    Human and murine skin wounding commonly results in fibrotic scarring, but the murine wounding model wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN) can frequently result in a regenerative repair response. Here, we show in single-cell RNA sequencing comparisons of semi-regenerative and fibrotic WIHN wounds, increased expression of phagocytic/lysosomal genes in macrophages associated with predominance of fibrotic

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Lipidomics and RNA sequencing reveal a novel subpopulation of nanovesicle within extracellular matrix biomaterials
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    George S. Hussey, Catalina Pineda Molina, Madeline C. Cramer, Yulia Y. Tyurina, Vladimir A. Tyurin, Yoojin C. Lee, Salma O. El-Mossier, Mark H. Murdock, Peter S. Timashev, Valerian E. Kagan, Stephen F. Badylak

    Biomaterials composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) provide both mechanical support and a reservoir of constructive signaling molecules that promote functional tissue repair. Recently, matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBVs) have been reported as an integral component of ECM bioscaffolds. Although liquid-phase extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the subject of intense investigation, their similarity to

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Strong adhesion of wet conducting polymers on diverse substrates
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Akihisa Inoue, Hyunwoo Yuk, Baoyang Lu, Xuanhe Zhao

    Conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), polypyrrole (PPy), and polyaniline (PAni) have attracted great attention as promising electrodes that interface with biological organisms. However, weak and unstable adhesion of conducting polymers to substrates and devices in wet physiological environment has greatly limited their utility and reliability

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Ultrasensitive and rapid quantification of rare tumorigenic stem cells in hPSC-derived cardiomyocyte populations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Zongjie Wang, Mark Gagliardi, Reza M. Mohamadi, Sharif U. Ahmed, Mahmoud Labib, Libing Zhang, Sandra Popescu, Yuxiao Zhou, Edward H. Sargent, Gordon M. Keller, Shana O. Kelley

    The ability to detect rare human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in differentiated populations is critical for safeguarding the clinical translation of cell therapy, as these undifferentiated cells have the capacity to form teratomas in vivo. The detection of hPSCs must be performed using an approach compatible with traceable manufacturing of therapeutic cell products. Here, we report a novel microfluidic

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Liquid dispersions of zeolite monolayers with high catalytic activity prepared by soft-chemical exfoliation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Wieslaw J. Roth, Takayoshi Sasaki, Karol Wolski, Yeji Song, Dai-Ming Tang, Yasuo Ebina, Renzhi Ma, Justyna Grzybek, Katarzyna Kałahurska, Barbara Gil, Michal Mazur, Szczepan Zapotoczny, Jiri Cejka

    The most effective approach to practical exploitation of the layered solids that often have unique valuable properties—such as graphene, clays, and other compounds—is by dispersion into colloidal suspensions of monolayers, called liquid exfoliation. This fundamentally expected behavior can be used to deposit monolayers on supports or to reassemble into hierarchical materials to produce, by design,

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • A wearable freestanding electrochemical sensing system
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Yichao Zhao, Bo Wang, Hannaneh Hojaiji, Zhaoqing Wang, Shuyu Lin, Christopher Yeung, Haisong Lin, Peterson Nguyen, Kaili Chiu, Kamyar Salahi, Xuanbing Cheng, Jiawei Tan, Betto Alcitlali Cerrillos, Sam Emaminejad

    To render high-fidelity wearable biomarker data, understanding and engineering the information delivery pathway from epidermally retrieved biofluid to a readout unit are critical. By examining the biomarker information delivery pathway and recognizing near-zero strained regions within a microfluidic device, a strain-isolated pathway to preserve biomarker data fidelity is engineered. Accordingly, a

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Regulation of body length and bone mass by Gpr126/Adgrg6
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Peng Sun, Liang He, Kunhang Jia, Zhiying Yue, Shichang Li, Yunyun Jin, Zhenxi Li, Stefan Siwko, Feng Xue, Jiacan Su, Mingyao Liu, Jian Luo

    Adhesion G protein–coupled receptor G6 (Adgrg6; also named GPR126) single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with human height in multiple populations. However, whether and how GPR126 regulates body height is unknown. In this study, we found that mouse body length was specifically decreased in Osx-Cre;Gpr126fl/fl mice. Deletion of Gpr126 in osteoblasts resulted in a remarkable delay in osteoblast

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Tracking Ca2+ ATPase intermediates in real time by x-ray solution scattering
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Harsha Ravishankar, Martin Nors Pedersen, Mattias Eklund, Aljona Sitsel, Chenge Li, Annette Duelli, Matteo Levantino, Michael Wulff, Andreas Barth, Claus Olesen, Poul Nissen, Magnus Andersson

    Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) transporters regulate calcium signaling by active calcium ion reuptake to internal stores. Structural transitions associated with transport have been characterized by x-ray crystallography, but critical intermediates involved in the accessibility switch across the membrane are missing. We combined time-resolved x-ray solution scattering (TR-XSS) experiments

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Two different epigenetic information channels in wild three-spined sticklebacks are involved in salinity adaptation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Melanie J. Heckwolf, Britta S. Meyer, Robert Häsler, Marc P. Höppner, Christophe Eizaguirre, Thorsten B. H. Reusch

    Epigenetic inheritance has been proposed to contribute to adaptation and acclimation via two information channels: (i) inducible epigenetic marks that enable transgenerational plasticity and (ii) noninducible epigenetic marks resulting from random epimutations shaped by selection. We studied both postulated channels by sequencing methylomes and genomes of Baltic three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Microscopic pathways for stress relaxation in repulsive colloidal glasses
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    F. Dallari, A. Martinelli, F. Caporaletti, M. Sprung, G. Grübel, G. Monaco

    Residual stresses are well-known companions of all glassy materials. They affect and, in many cases, even strongly modify important material properties like the mechanical response and the optical transparency. The mechanisms through which stresses affect such properties are, in many cases, still under study, and their full understanding can pave the way to a full exploitation of stress as a primary

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Surface-state Coulomb repulsion accelerates a metal-insulator transition in topological semimetal nanofilms
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    S. Ito, M. Arita, J. Haruyama, B. Feng, W.-C. Chen, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, C.-M. Cheng, G. Bian, S.-J. Tang, T.-C. Chiang, O. Sugino, F. Komori, I. Matsuda

    The emergence of quantization at the nanoscale, the quantum size effect (QSE), allows flexible control of matter and is a rich source of advanced functionalities. A QSE-induced transition into an insulating phase in semimetallic nanofilms was predicted for bismuth a half-century ago and has regained new interest with regard to its surface states exhibiting nontrivial electronic topology. Here, we reveal

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • 3D printing of Haversian bone–mimicking scaffolds for multicellular delivery in bone regeneration
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Meng Zhang, Rongcai Lin, Xin Wang, Jianmin Xue, Cuijun Deng, Chun Feng, Hui Zhuang, Jingge Ma, Chen Qin, Li Wan, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu

    The integration of structure and function for tissue engineering scaffolds is of great importance in mimicking native bone tissue. However, the complexity of hierarchical structures, the requirement for mechanical properties, and the diversity of bone resident cells are the major challenges in constructing biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Herein, a Haversian bone–mimicking scaffold with

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Reconfigurable structure and tunable transport in synchronized active spinner materials
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Koohee Han, Gašper Kokot, Shibananda Das, Roland G. Winkler, Gerhard Gompper, Alexey Snezhko

    Ensembles of actuated colloids are excellent model systems to explore emergent out-of-equilibrium structures, complex collective dynamics, and design rules for the next generation materials. Here, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic microparticles suspended at an air-water interface and energized by an external rotating magnetic field spontaneously form dynamic ensembles of synchronized spinners in a

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Zscan4 binds nucleosomal microsatellite DNA and protects mouse two-cell embryos from DNA damage
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Rajini Srinivasan, Nataliya Nady, Neha Arora, Laura J. Hsieh, Tomek Swigut, Geeta J. Narlikar, Mark Wossidlo, Joanna Wysocka

    Zinc finger protein Zscan4 is selectively expressed in mouse two-cell (2C) embryos undergoing zygotic genome activation (ZGA) and in a rare subpopulation of embryonic stem cells with 2C-like features. Here, we show that Zscan4 specifically recognizes a subset of (CA)n microsatellites, repeat sequences prone to genomic instability. Zscan4-associated microsatellite regions are characterized by low nuclease

    更新日期:2020-03-21
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