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  • Postweaning maternal care increases male chimpanzee reproductive success
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Catherine Crockford, Liran Samuni, Linda Vigilant, Roman M. Wittig

    Humans are unusual among animals for continuing to provision and care for their offspring until adulthood. This “prolonged dependency” is considered key for the evolution of other notable human traits, such as large brains, complex societies, and extended postreproductive lifespans. Prolonged dependency must therefore have evolved under conditions in which reproductive success is gained with parental

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Unraveling why we sleep: Quantitative analysis reveals abrupt transition from neural reorganization to repair in early development
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Junyu Cao, Alexander B. Herman, Geoffrey B. West, Gina Poe, Van M. Savage

    Sleep serves disparate functions, most notably neural repair, metabolite clearance and circuit reorganization. Yet the relative importance remains hotly debated. Here, we create a novel mechanistic framework for understanding and predicting how sleep changes during ontogeny and across phylogeny. We use this theory to quantitatively distinguish between sleep used for neural reorganization versus repair

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Fingerprint of volcanic forcing on the ENSO–Indian monsoon coupling
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    M. Singh, R. Krishnan, B. Goswami, A. D. Choudhury, P. Swapna, R. Vellore, A. G. Prajeesh, N. Sandeep, C. Venkataraman, R. V. Donner, N. Marwan, J. Kurths

    Coupling of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian monsoon (IM) is central to seasonal summer monsoon rainfall predictions over the Indian subcontinent, although a nonstationary relationship between the two nonlinear phenomena can limit seasonal predictability. Radiative effects of volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere during large volcanic eruptions (LVEs) tend to alter ENSO

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Human footprints provide snapshot of last interglacial ecology in the Arabian interior
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Mathew Stewart, Richard Clark-Wilson, Paul S. Breeze, Klint Janulis, Ian Candy, Simon J. Armitage, David B. Ryves, Julien Louys, Mathieu Duval, Gilbert J. Price, Patrick Cuthbertson, Marco A. Bernal, Nick A. Drake, Abdullah M. Alsharekh, Badr Zahrani, Abdulaziz Al-Omari, Patrick Roberts, Huw S. Groucutt, Michael D. Petraglia

    The nature of human dispersals out of Africa has remained elusive because of the poor resolution of paleoecological data in direct association with remains of the earliest non-African people. Here, we report hominin and non-hominin mammalian tracks from an ancient lake deposit in the Arabian Peninsula, dated within the last interglacial. The findings, it is argued, likely represent the oldest securely

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Intermolecular vibrations mediate ultrafast singlet fission
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Hong-Guang Duan, Ajay Jha, Xin Li, Vandana Tiwari, Hanyang Ye, Pabitra K. Nayak, Xiao-Lei Zhu, Zheng Li, Todd J. Martinez, Michael Thorwart, R. J. Dwayne Miller

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed exciton multiplication process in organic semiconductors that converts one spin-singlet exciton to two triplet excitons. It offers the potential to enhance solar energy conversion by circumventing the Shockley-Queisser limit on efficiency. We study the primary steps of singlet fission in a pentacene film by using a combination of TG and 2D electronic spectroscopy complemented

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Electrical control of single-photon emission in highly charged individual colloidal quantum dots
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Sergii Morozov, Evangelina L. Pensa, Ali Hossain Khan, Anatolii Polovitsyn, Emiliano Cortés, Stefan A. Maier, Stefano Vezzoli, Iwan Moreels, Riccardo Sapienza

    Electron transfer to an individual quantum dot promotes the formation of charged excitons with enhanced recombination pathways and reduced lifetimes. Excitons with only one or two extra charges have been observed and exploited for very efficient lasing or single–quantum dot light-emitting diodes. Here, by room-temperature time-resolved experiments on individual giant-shell CdSe/CdS quantum dots, we

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Viral cGAMP nuclease reveals the essential role of DNA sensing in protection against acute lethal virus infection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Bruno Hernáez, Graciela Alonso, Iliana Georgana, Misbah El-Jesr, Rocío Martín, Kathy H. Y. Shair, Cornelius Fischer, Sascha Sauer, Carlos Maluquer de Motes, Antonio Alcamí

    Cells contain numerous immune sensors to detect virus infection. The cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytosolic DNA and activates innate immune responses via stimulator of interferon genes (STING), but the impact of DNA sensing pathways on host protective responses has not been fully defined. We demonstrate that cGAS/STING activation is required to resist lethal poxvirus infection

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • High-frequency magnetoacoustic resonance through strain-spin coupling in perpendicular magnetic multilayers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    De-Lin Zhang, Jie Zhu, Tao Qu, Dustin M. Lattery, R. H. Victora, Xiaojia Wang, Jian-Ping Wang

    It is desirable to experimentally demonstrate an extremely high resonant frequency, assisted by strain-spin coupling, in technologically important perpendicular magnetic materials for device applications. Here, we directly observe the coupling of magnons and phonons in both time and frequency domains upon femtosecond laser excitation. This strain-spin coupling leads to a magnetoacoustic resonance in

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Artificial cells drive neural differentiation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ö. Duhan Toparlak, Jacopo Zasso, Simone Bridi, Mauro Dalla Serra, Paolo Macchi, Luciano Conti, Marie-Laure Baudet, Sheref S. Mansy

    We report the construction of artificial cells that chemically communicate with mammalian cells under physiological conditions. The artificial cells respond to the presence of a small molecule in the environment by synthesizing and releasing a potent protein signal, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Genetically controlled artificial cells communicate with engineered human embryonic kidney cells and

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • RELATe enables genome-scale engineering in fungal genomics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Zhongming Li, Kwang Sik Kim

    CRISPR-Cas9–based screening with single-guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries has emerged as a revolutionary tool for comprehensive analysis of genetic elements. However, genome-scale sgRNA libraries are currently available only in a few model organisms. The traditional approach is to synthesize thousands to tens of thousands of sgRNAs, which is laborious and expensive. We have developed a simple method, RELATe

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Single-molecule imaging reveals control of parental histone recycling by free histones during DNA replication
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    D. T. Gruszka, S. Xie, H. Kimura, H. Yardimci

    During replication, nucleosomes are disrupted ahead of the replication fork, followed by their reassembly on daughter strands from the pool of recycled parental and new histones. However, because no previous studies have managed to capture the moment that replication forks encounter nucleosomes, the mechanism of recycling has remained unclear. Here, through real-time single-molecule visualization of

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Structural insights into ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin by Deltex family E3 ubiquitin ligases
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Chatrin Chatrin, Mads Gabrielsen, Lori Buetow, Mark A. Nakasone, Syed F. Ahmed, David Sumpton, Gary J. Sibbet, Brian O. Smith, Danny T. Huang

    Cellular cross-talk between ubiquitination and other posttranslational modifications contributes to the regulation of numerous processes. One example is ADP-ribosylation of the carboxyl terminus of ubiquitin by the E3 DTX3L/ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP9 heterodimer, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that independently of PARP9, the conserved carboxyl-terminal RING and DTC (Deltex carboxyl-terminal)

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • TbRAP1 has an unusual duplex DNA binding activity required for its telomere localization and VSG silencing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Marjia Afrin, Amit Kumar Gaurav, Xian Yang, Xuehua Pan, Yanxiang Zhao, Bibo Li

    Localization of Repressor Activator Protein 1 (RAP1) to the telomere is essential for its telomeric functions. RAP1 homologs either directly bind the duplex telomere DNA or interact with telomere-binding proteins. We find that Trypanosoma brucei RAP1 relies on a unique double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding activity to achieve this goal. T. brucei causes human sleeping sickness and regularly switches

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Chaos-assisted tunneling resonances in a synthetic Floquet superlattice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    M. Arnal, G. Chatelain, M. Martinez, N. Dupont, O. Giraud, D. Ullmo, B. Georgeot, G. Lemarié, J. Billy, D. Guéry-Odelin

    The field of quantum simulation, which aims at using a tunable quantum system to simulate another, has been developing fast in the past years as an alternative to the all-purpose quantum computer. So far, most efforts in this domain have been directed to either fully regular or fully chaotic systems. Here, we focus on the intermediate regime, where regular orbits are surrounded by a large sea of chaotic

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Expanding and optimizing 3D bioprinting capabilities using complementary network bioinks
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Liliang Ouyang, James P. K. Armstrong, Yiyang Lin, Jonathan P. Wojciechowski, Charlotte Lee-Reeves, Daniel Hachim, Kun Zhou, Jason A. Burdick, Molly M. Stevens

    A major challenge in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the limited number of bioinks that fulfill the physicochemical requirements of printing while also providing a desirable environment for encapsulated cells. Here, we address this limitation by temporarily stabilizing bioinks with a complementary thermo-reversible gelatin network. This strategy enables the effective printing of biomaterials

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Reprogrammable shape morphing of magnetic soft machines
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Yunus Alapan, Alp C. Karacakol, Seyda N. Guzelhan, Irem Isik, Metin Sitti

    Shape-morphing magnetic soft machines are highly desirable for diverse applications in minimally invasive medicine, wearable devices, and soft robotics. Despite recent progress, current magnetic programming approaches are inherently coupled to sequential fabrication processes, preventing reprogrammability and high-throughput programming. Here, we report a high-throughput magnetic programming strategy

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Snapshot spectral imaging with parallel metasystems
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Andrew McClung, Sarath Samudrala, Mahsa Torfeh, Mahdad Mansouree, Amir Arbabi

    Spectral imagers divide scenes into quantitative and narrowband spectral channels. They have become important metrological tools in many areas of science, especially remote sensing. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a snapshot spectral imager using a parallel optical processing paradigm based on arrays of metasystems. Our multi-aperture spectral imager weighs less than 20 mg and simultaneously

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • USP15 suppresses tumor immunity via deubiquitylation and inactivation of TET2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Lei-lei Chen, Matthew D. Smith, Lei Lv, Tadashi Nakagawa, Zhijun Li, Shao-Cong Sun, Nicholas G. Brown, Yue Xiong, Yan-ping Xu

    TET2 DNA dioxygenase is frequently mutated in human hematopoietic malignancies and functionally inactivated in many solid tumors through a nonmutational mechanism. We recently found that TET2 mediates the interferon-JAK-STAT pathway to stimulate chemokine expression and tumor infiltration of lymphocytes (TILs). TET2 is monoubiquitylated at K1299, which promotes its activity. Here, we report that USP15

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Revisiting the PD-1 pathway
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Nikolaos Patsoukis, Qi Wang, Laura Strauss, Vassiliki A. Boussiotis

    Programmed Death-1 (PD-1; CD279) is an inhibitory receptor induced in activated T cells. PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, maintains peripheral tolerance but also compromises anti-tumor immunity. Blocking antibodies against PD-1 or its ligands have revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. However, only a fraction of patients develop durable antitumor responses. Clinical outcomes have reached

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • The gene expression network regulating queen brain remodeling after insemination and its parallel use in ants with reproductive workers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Manuel Nagel, Bitao Qiu, Lisa Eigil Brandenborg, Rasmus Stenbak Larsen, Dongdong Ning, Jacobus Jan Boomsma, Guojie Zhang

    Caste differentiation happens early in development to produce gynes as future colony germlines and workers as present colony soma. However, gynes need insemination to become functional queens, a transition that initiates reproductive role differentiation relative to unmated gynes. Here, we analyze the anatomy and transcriptomes of brains during this differentiation process within the reproductive caste

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Extinction and dawn of the modern world in the Carnian (Late Triassic)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jacopo Dal Corso, Massimo Bernardi, Yadong Sun, Haijun Song, Leyla J. Seyfullah, Nereo Preto, Piero Gianolla, Alastair Ruffell, Evelyn Kustatscher, Guido Roghi, Agostino Merico, Sönke Hohn, Alexander R. Schmidt, Andrea Marzoli, Robert J. Newton, Paul B. Wignall, Michael J. Benton

    The Carnian Pluvial Episode (Late Triassic) was a time of global environmental changes and possibly substantial coeval volcanism. The extent of the biological turnover in marine and terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood. Here, we present a meta-analysis of fossil data that suggests a substantial reduction in generic and species richness and the disappearance of 33% of marine genera. This crisis

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Cavefish brain atlases reveal functional and anatomical convergence across independently evolved populations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    James B. Jaggard, Evan Lloyd, Anders Yuiska, Adam Patch, Yaouen Fily, Johanna E. Kowalko, Lior Appelbaum, Erik R. Duboue, Alex C. Keene

    Environmental perturbation can drive behavioral evolution and associated changes in brain structure and function. The Mexican fish species, Astyanax mexicanus, includes eyed river-dwelling surface populations and multiple independently evolved populations of blind cavefish. We used whole-brain imaging and neuronal mapping of 684 larval fish to generate neuroanatomical atlases of surface fish and three

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Seismic observations, numerical modeling, and geomorphic analysis of a glacier lake outburst flood in the Himalayas
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    J. M. Maurer, J. M. Schaefer, J. B. Russell, S. Rupper, N. Wangdi, A. E. Putnam, N. Young

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are a substantial hazard for downstream communities in vulnerable regions, yet unpredictable triggers and remote source locations make GLOF dynamics difficult to measure and quantify. Here, we revisit a destructive GLOF that occurred in Bhutan in 1994 and apply cross-correlation–based seismic analyses to track the evolution of the GLOF remotely (~100 kilometers

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Polysaccharide length affects mycobacterial cell shape and antibiotic susceptibility
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Alexander M. Justen, Heather L. Hodges, Lili M. Kim, Patric W. Sadecki, Sara Porfirio, Eveline Ultee, Ian Black, Grace S. Chung, Ariane Briegel, Parastoo Azadi, Laura L. Kiessling

    Bacteria control the length of their polysaccharides, which can control cell viability, physiology, virulence, and immune evasion. Polysaccharide chain length affects immunomodulation, but its impact on bacterial physiology and antibiotic susceptibility was unclear. We probed the consequences of truncating the mycobacterial galactan, an essential linear polysaccharide of about 30 residues. Galactan

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Evidence for extreme export of Arctic sea ice leading the abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Martin W. Miles, Camilla S. Andresen, Christian V. Dylmer

    Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. However, empirical evidence is fragmentary. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. We find robust evidence for extreme export of sea ice commencing abruptly

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Medial forebrain bundle structure is linked to human impulsivity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Kelly H. MacNiven, Josiah K. Leong, Brian Knutson

    Comparative research indicates that projections from midbrain dopamine nuclei [including the ventral tegmental area (VTA)] to the ventral striatum [including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)] critically support motivated behavior. Using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography in humans, we characterized the trajectory and structure of two tracts connecting the VTA and NAcc, as well as

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Rainfall triggers more deep-seated landslides than Cascadia earthquakes in the Oregon Coast Range, USA
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    S. R. LaHusen, A. R. Duvall, A. M. Booth, A. Grant, B. A. Mishkin, D. R. Montgomery, W. Struble, J. J. Roering, J. Wartman

    The coastal Pacific Northwest USA hosts thousands of deep-seated landslides. Historic landslides have primarily been triggered by rainfall, but the region is also prone to large earthquakes on the 1100-km-long Cascadia Subduction Zone megathrust. Little is known about the number of landslides triggered by these earthquakes because the last magnitude 9 rupture occurred in 1700 CE. Here, we map 9938

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A Shh/Gli-driven three-node timer motif controls temporal identity and fate of neural stem cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    José M. Dias, Zhanna Alekseenko, Ashwini Jeggari, Marcelo Boareto, Jannik Vollmer, Mariya Kozhevnikova, Hui Wang, Michael P. Matise, Andrey Alexeyenko, Dagmar Iber, Johan Ericson

    How time is measured by neural stem cells during temporal neurogenesis has remained unresolved. By combining experiments and computational modeling, we define a Shh/Gli-driven three-node timer underlying the sequential generation of motor neurons (MNs) and serotonergic neurons in the brainstem. The timer is founded on temporal decline of Gli-activator and Gli-repressor activities established through

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Water-ion permselectivity of narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Yuhao Li, Zhongwu Li, Fikret Aydin, Jana Quan, Xi Chen, Yun-Chiao Yao, Cheng Zhan, Yunfei Chen, Tuan Anh Pham, Aleksandr Noy

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) pores, which mimic the structure of the aquaporin channels, support extremely high water transport rates that make them strong candidates for building artificial water channels and high-performance membranes. Here, we measure water and ion permeation through 0.8-nm-diameter CNT porins (CNTPs)—short CNT segments embedded in lipid membranes—under optimized experimental conditions

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Silvia Guimaraes, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Joris Peters, Sarah E. Adcock, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Hannah Chazin, Ninna Manaseryan, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl

    Despite the important roles that horses have played in human history, particularly in the spread of languages and cultures, and correspondingly intensive research on this topic, the origin of domestic horses remains elusive. Several domestication centers have been hypothesized, but most of these have been invalidated through recent paleogenetic studies. Anatolia is a region with an extended history

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Annexin A1–dependent tethering promotes extracellular vesicle aggregation revealed with single–extracellular vesicle analysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Maximillian A. Rogers, Fabrizio Buffolo, Florian Schlotter, Samantha K. Atkins, Lang H. Lee, Arda Halu, Mark C. Blaser, Elena Tsolaki, Hideyuki Higashi, Kristin Luther, George Daaboul, Carlijn V.C. Bouten, Simon C. Body, Sasha A. Singh, Sergio Bertazzo, Peter Libby, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including plasma membrane–derived microvesicles and endosomal-derived exosomes aggregate by unknown mechanisms, forming microcalcifications that promote cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Here, we show a framework for assessing cell-independent EV mechanisms in disease by suggesting that annexin A1 (ANXA1)–dependent tethering induces EV aggregation

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A VH1-69 antibody lineage from an infected Chinese donor potently neutralizes HIV-1 by targeting the V3 glycan supersite
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sonu Kumar, Bin Ju, Benjamin Shapero, Xiaohe Lin, Li Ren, Lei Zhang, Dan Li, Zehua Zhou, Yi Feng, Cindy Sou, Colin J. Mann, Yanling Hao, Anita Sarkar, Jiali Hou, Christian Nunnally, Kunxue Hong, Shuo Wang, Xiangyang Ge, Bin Su, Elise Landais, Devin Sok, Michael B. Zwick, Linling He, Jiang Zhu, Ian A. Wilson, Yiming Shao

    An oligomannose patch around the V3 base of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is recognized by multiple classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here, we investigated the bNAb response to the V3 glycan supersite in an HIV-1–infected Chinese donor by Env-specific single B cell sorting, structural and functional studies, and longitudinal analysis of antibody and virus repertoires. Monoclonal

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • 3D curvature-instructed endothelial flow response and tissue vascularization
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Christian Mandrycky, Brandon Hadland, Ying Zheng

    Vascularization remains a long-standing challenge in engineering complex tissues. Particularly needed is recapitulating 3D vascular features, including continuous geometries with defined diameter, curvature, and torsion. Here, we developed a spiral microvessel model that allows precise control of curvature and torsion and supports homogeneous tissue perfusion at the centimeter scale. Using this system

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Air/water interfacial assembled rubbery semiconducting nanofilm for fully rubbery integrated electronics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ying-Shi Guan, Anish Thukral, Shun Zhang, Kyoseung Sim, Xu Wang, Yongcao Zhang, Faheem Ershad, Zhoulyu Rao, Fengjiao Pan, Peng Wang, Jianliang Xiao, Cunjiang Yu

    A rubber-like stretchable semiconductor with high carrier mobility is the most important yet challenging material for constructing rubbery electronics and circuits with mechanical softness and stretchability at both microscopic (material) and macroscopic (structural) levels for many emerging applications. However, the development of such a rubbery semiconductor is still nascent. Here, we report the

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Electrically driven photon emission from individual atomic defects in monolayer WS2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Bruno Schuler, Katherine A. Cochrane, Christoph Kastl, Edward S. Barnard, Edward Wong, Nicholas J. Borys, Adam M. Schwartzberg, D. Frank Ogletree, F. Javier García de Abajo, Alexander Weber-Bargioni

    Quantum dot–like single-photon sources in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit appealing quantum optical properties but lack a well-defined atomic structure and are subject to large spectral variability. Here, we demonstrate electrically stimulated photon emission from individual atomic defects in monolayer WS2 and directly correlate the emission with the local atomic and electronic structure

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • An elaborate sweep-stick code in rat barrel cortex
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Evan R. Harrell, Matías A. Goldin, Brice Bathellier, Daniel E. Shulz

    In rat barrel cortex, feature encoding schemes uncovered during broadband whisker stimulation are hard to reconcile with the simple stick-slip code observed during natural tactile behaviors, and this has hindered the development of a generalized computational framework. By designing broadband artificial stimuli to sample the inputs encoded under natural conditions, we resolve this disparity while markedly

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the giant Australian stinging tree
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Edward K. Gilding, Sina Jami, Jennifer R. Deuis, Mathilde R. Israel, Peta J. Harvey, Aaron G. Poth, Fabian B. H. Rehm, Jennifer L. Stow, Samuel D. Robinson, Kuok Yap, Darren L. Brown, Brett R. Hamilton, David Andersson, David J. Craik, Irina Vetter, Thomas Durek

    Stinging trees from Australasia produce remarkably persistent and painful stings upon contact of their stiff epidermal hairs, called trichomes, with mammalian skin. Dendrocnide-induced acute pain typically lasts for several hours, and intermittent painful flares can persist for days and weeks. Pharmacological activity has been attributed to small-molecule neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Photopyroelectric microfluidics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Wei Li, Xin Tang, Liqiu Wang

    Precision manipulation of various liquids is essential in many fields. Unlike solid objects, fluids are intrinsically divisible, enriching their fundamental operations with merging, dispensing, and splitting on top of moving. Fluids are sticky as well, calling for their lossless manipulation to prevent mass loss and contamination. We present photopyroelectric microfluidics that meet all the requirements

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Atomic-scale characterization of mature HIV-1 capsid stabilization by inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Alvin Yu, Elizabeth M. Y. Lee, Jaehyeok Jin, Gregory A. Voth

    Inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6) are cellular cofactors that promote the assembly of mature capsids of HIV. These negatively charged molecules coordinate an electropositive ring of arginines at the center of pores distributed throughout the capsid surface. Kinetic studies indicate that the binding of IP6 increases the stable lifetimes of the capsid by several orders of magnitude from minutes to hours

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • FUNDC1 interacts with FBXL2 to govern mitochondrial integrity and cardiac function through an IP3R3-dependent manner in obesity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jun Ren, Mingming Sun, Hao Zhou, Amir Ajoolabady, Yuan Zhou, Jun Tao, James R. Sowers, Yingmei Zhang

    Defective mitophagy is causally linked to obesity complications. Here, we identified an interaction between mitophagy protein FUNDC1 (FUN14 domain containing 1) and receptor subunit of human SCF (SKP1/cullin/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex FBXL2 as a gatekeeper for mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis through degradation of IP3R3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3). Loss of FUNDC1 in FUNDC1−/−

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Diversification of reprogramming trajectories revealed by parallel single-cell transcriptome and chromatin accessibility sequencing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Q. R. Xing, C. A. El Farran, P. Gautam, Y. S. Chuah, T. Warrier, C. X. D. Toh, N. Y. Kang, S. Sugii, Y. T. Chang, J. Xu, J. J. Collins, G. Q. Daley, H. Li, L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Loh

    Cellular reprogramming suffers from low efficiency especially for the human cells. To deconstruct the heterogeneity and unravel the mechanisms for successful reprogramming, we adopted single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) and single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-Seq) to profile reprogramming cells across various time points. Our analysis revealed that reprogramming cells

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Self-luminescent photodynamic therapy using breast cancer targeted proteins
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Eun Hye Kim, Sangwoo Park, Yun Kyu Kim, Minwoo Moon, Jeongwon Park, Kyung Jin Lee, Seongsoo Lee, Young-Pil Kim

    Despite the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT), its comprehensive use in cancer treatment has not been achieved because of the nondegradable risks of photosensitizing drugs and limits of light penetration and instrumentation. Here, we present bioluminescence (BL)–induced proteinaceous PDT (BLiP-PDT), through the combination of luciferase and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)–generating protein (Luc-RGP)

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Propagation and attenuation of mechanical signals in ultrasoft 2D solids
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Jan Maarten van Doorn, Ruben Higler, Ronald Wegh, Remco Fokkink, Alessio Zaccone, Joris Sprakel, Jasper van der Gucht

    The propagation of elastic waves in soft materials plays a crucial role in the spatiotemporal transmission of mechanical signals, e.g., in biological mechanotransduction or in the failure of marginal solids. At high Reynolds numbers Re ≫ 1, inertia dominates and wave propagation is readily observed. However, mechanical cues in soft and biological materials often occur at low Re, where waves are overdamped

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Highly energy-tunable quantum light from moiré-trapped excitons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    H. Baek, M. Brotons-Gisbert, Z. X. Koong, A. Campbell, M. Rambach, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, B. D. Gerardot

    Photon antibunching, a hallmark of quantum light, has been observed in the correlations of light from isolated atomic and atomic-like solid-state systems. Two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures offer a unique method to create a quantum light source: Moiré trapping potentials for excitons are predicted to create arrays of quantum emitters. While signatures of moiré-trapped excitons have been

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Real-time nanodiamond thermometry probing in vivo thermogenic responses
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Masazumi Fujiwara, Simo Sun, Alexander Dohms, Yushi Nishimura, Ken Suto, Yuka Takezawa, Keisuke Oshimi, Li Zhao, Nikola Sadzak, Yumi Umehara, Yoshio Teki, Naoki Komatsu, Oliver Benson, Yutaka Shikano, Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Real-time temperature monitoring inside living organisms provides a direct measure of their biological activities. However, it is challenging to reduce the size of biocompatible thermometers down to submicrometers, despite their potential applications for the thermal imaging of subtissue structures with single-cell resolution. Here, using quantum nanothermometers based on optically accessible electron

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Dimorphism in cryptophytes—The case of Teleaulax amphioxeia/Plagioselmis prolonga and its ecological implications
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    A. Altenburger, H. E. Blossom, L. Garcia-Cuetos, H. H. Jakobsen, J. Carstensen, N. Lundholm, P. J. Hansen, Ø. Moestrup, L. Haraguchi

    Growing evidence suggests that sexual reproduction might be common in unicellular organisms, but observations are sparse. Limited knowledge of sexual reproduction constrains understanding of protist ecology. Although Teleaulax amphioxeia and Plagioselmis prolonga are common marine cryptophytes worldwide, and are also important plastid donors for some kleptoplastic ciliates and dinoflagellates, the

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Extracellular matrix stiffness determines DNA repair efficiency and cellular sensitivity to genotoxic agents
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Min Deng, Jing Lin, Somaira Nowsheen, Tongzheng Liu, Yingchun Zhao, Peter W. Villalta, Delphine Sicard, Daniel J. Tschumperlin, SeungBaek Lee, JungJin Kim, Zhenkun Lou

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions that can drive genetic instability. These lesions also contribute to the efficacy of radiotherapy and many cancer chemotherapeutics. DNA repair efficiency is regulated by both intracellular and extracellular chemical signals. However, it is largely unknown whether this process is regulated by physical stimuli such as extracellular mechanical

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Deconstructing laws of accessibility and facility distribution in cities
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Yanyan Xu, Luis E. Olmos, Sofiane Abbar, Marta C. González

    The era of the automobile has seriously degraded the quality of urban life through costly travel and visible environmental effects. A new urban planning paradigm must be at the heart of our road map for the years to come, the one where, within minutes, inhabitants can access their basic living needs by bike or by foot. In this work, we present novel insights of the interplay between the distributions

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Deciphering the effect of traps on electronic charge transport properties of methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Artem Musiienko, Jindřich Pipek, Petr Praus, Mykola Brynza, Eduard Belas, Bogdan Dryzhakov, Mao-Hua Du, Mahshid Ahmadi, Roman Grill

    Halide perovskites have undergone remarkable developments as highly efficient optoelectronic materials for a variety of applications. Several studies indicated the critical role of defects on the performance of perovskite devices. However, the parameters of defects and their interplay with free charge carriers remain unclear. In this study, we explored the dynamics of free holes in methylammonium lead

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Tailoring of the axon initial segment shapes the conversion of synaptic inputs into spiking output in OFF-α T retinal ganglion cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Paul Werginz, Vineeth Raghuram, Shelley I. Fried

    Recently, mouse OFF-α transient (OFF-α T) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were shown to display a gradient of light responses as a function of position along the dorsal-ventral axis; response differences were correlated to differences in the level of excitatory presynaptic input. Here, we show that postsynaptic differences between cells also make a strong contribution to response differences. Cells in

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Political storms: Emergent partisan skepticism of hurricane risks
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Elisa F. Long, M. Keith Chen, Ryne Rohla

    Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Intrinsic reconstruction of ice-I surfaces
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    N. Kawakami, K. Iwata, A. Shiotari, Y. Sugimoto

    Understanding the precise atomic structure of ice surfaces is critical for revealing the mechanisms of physical and chemical phenomena at the surfaces, such as ice growth, melting, and chemical reactions. Nevertheless, no conclusive structure has been established. In this study, noncontact atomic force microscopy was used to address the characterization of the atomic structures of ice Ih(0001) and

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Distinct phosphorylation sites in a prototypical GPCR differently orchestrate β-arrestin interaction, trafficking, and signaling
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Hemlata Dwivedi-Agnihotri, Madhu Chaturvedi, Mithu Baidya, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Shubhi Pandey, Jagannath Maharana, Ashish Srivastava, Natarin Caengprasath, Aylin C. Hanyaloglu, Jana Selent, Arun K. Shukla

    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a key determinant for their interaction with β-arrestins (βarrs) and subsequent functional responses. Therefore, it is important to decipher the contribution and interplay of different receptor phosphorylation sites in governing βarr interaction and functional outcomes. Here, we find that several phosphorylation sites in the

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Immobilized 13C-labeled polyether chain ends confined to the crystallite surface detected by advanced NMR
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Shichen Yuan, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr

    A comprehensive 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach for characterizing the location of chain ends of polyethers and polyesters, at the crystallite surface or in the amorphous layers, is presented. The OH chain ends of polyoxymethylene are labeled with 13COO-acetyl groups and their dynamics probed by 13C NMR with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) recoupling. At least three-quarters of the chain

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • LSD1 represses a neonatal/reparative gene program in adult intestinal epithelium
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Rosalie T. Zwiggelaar, Håvard T. Lindholm, Madeleine Fosslie, Marianne Terndrup Pedersen, Yuki Ohta, Alberto Díez-Sánchez, Mara Martín-Alonso, Jenny Ostrop, Mami Matano, Naveen Parmar, Emilie Kvaløy, Roos R. Spanjers, Kamran Nazmi, Morten Rye, Finn Drabløs, Cheryl Arrowsmith, John Arne Dahl, Kim B. Jensen, Toshiro Sato, Menno J. Oudhoff

    Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by adult intestinal stem cells, which, alongside Paneth cells, appear after birth in the neonatal period. We aimed to identify regulators of neonatal intestinal epithelial development by testing a small library of epigenetic modifier inhibitors in Paneth cell–skewed organoid cultures. We found that lysine-specific demethylase 1A (Kdm1a/Lsd1) is absolutely

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Mid-infrared polarization-controlled broadband achromatic metadevice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Kai Ou, Feilong Yu, Guanhai Li, Wenjuan Wang, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Lujun Huang, Peng Wang, Tianxin Li, Zhifeng Li, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu

    Metasurfaces provide a compact, flexible, and efficient platform to manipulate the electromagnetic waves. However, chromatic aberration imposes severe restrictions on their applications in broadband polarization control. Here, we propose a broadband achromatic methodology to implement polarization-controlled multifunctional metadevices in mid-wavelength infrared with birefringent meta-atoms. We demonstrate

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Gadofullerene inhibits the degradation of apolipoprotein B100 and boosts triglyceride transport for reversing hepatic steatosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Chen Zhou, Mingming Zhen, Meilan Yu, Xue Li, Tong Yu, Jingchao Liu, Wang Jia, Shuai Liu, Lei Li, Jie Li, Zihao Sun, Zhongpu Zhao, Xinyao Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Chunru Wang, Chunli Bai

    Hepatic steatosis is a widespread metabolic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in liver. So far, effective approved drugs for hepatic steatosis are still in development, and removing the unnecessary TG from the hepatocytes is an enormous challenge. Here, we explore a promising anti-hepatic steatosis strategy by boosting hepatocellular TG transport using β-alanine–modified

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Efficient high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 testing to detect asymptomatic carriers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Noam Shental, Shlomia Levy, Vered Wuvshet, Shosh Skorniakov, Bar Shalem, Aner Ottolenghi, Yariv Greenshpan, Rachel Steinberg, Avishay Edri, Roni Gillis, Michal Goldhirsh, Khen Moscovici, Sinai Sachren, Lilach M. Friedman, Lior Nesher, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Angel Porgador, Tomer Hertz

    Recent reports suggest that 10 to 30% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) infected patients are asymptomatic and that viral shedding may occur before symptom onset. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase diagnostic testing capabilities to prevent disease spread. We developed P-BEST, a method for Pooling-Based Efficient SARS-CoV-2 Testing, which identifies all positive

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Molecular characterization of ebselen binding activity to SARS-CoV-2 main protease
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Cintia A. Menéndez, Fabian Byléhn, Gustavo R. Perez-Lemus, Walter Alvarado, Juan J. de Pablo

    There is an urgent need to repurpose drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent computational-experimental screenings have identified several existing drugs that could serve as effective inhibitors of the virus’ main protease, Mpro, which is involved in gene expression and replication. Among these, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzoselenazol-3-one) appears to be particularly

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • PhenomeXcan: Mapping the genome to the phenome through the transcriptome
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Milton Pividori, Padma S. Rajagopal, Alvaro Barbeira, Yanyu Liang, Owen Melia, Lisa Bastarache, YoSon Park, GTEx Consortium, Xiaoquan Wen, Hae K. Im

    Large-scale genomic and transcriptomic initiatives offer unprecedented insight into complex traits, but clinical translation remains limited by variant-level associations without biological context and lack of analytic resources. Our resource, PhenomeXcan, synthesizes 8.87 million variants from genome-wide association study summary statistics on 4091 traits with transcriptomic data from 49 tissues

    更新日期:2020-09-11
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