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  • Recycling of multilayer plastic packaging materials by solvent-targeted recovery and precipitation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Theodore W. Walker, Nathan Frelka, Zhizhang Shen, Alex K. Chew, Jesse Banick, Steven Grey, Min Soo Kim, James A. Dumesic, Reid C. Van Lehn, George W. Huber

    Many plastic packaging materials manufactured today are composites made of distinct polymer layers (i.e., multilayer films). Billions of pounds of these multilayer films are produced annually, but manufacturing inefficiencies result in large, corresponding postindustrial waste streams. Although relatively clean (as opposed to municipal wastes) and of near-constant composition, no commercially practiced

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Biophysical impacts of Earth greening largely controlled by aerodynamic resistance
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Chi Chen, Dan Li, Yue Li, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, Maoyi Huang, Pierre Gentine, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Ranga B. Myneni

    Satellite observations show widespread increasing trends of leaf area index (LAI), known as the Earth greening. However, the biophysical impacts of this greening on land surface temperature (LST) remain unclear. Here, we quantify the biophysical impacts of Earth greening on LST from 2000 to 2014 and disentangle the contributions of different factors using a physically based attribution model. We find

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Focal random selection closes the gender gap in competitiveness
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Joël Berger, Margit Osterloh, Katja Rost

    Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are an important cause of the leaky pipeline for women in leadership roles and represent a considerable waste of human resources. We used an incentivized laboratory experiment to evaluate whether the introduction of random elements alters the gender gap in competitiveness. We found that focal random selection from a preselected pool removes the difference

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Strong coupling of single quantum dots with low-refractive-index/high-refractive-index materials at room temperature
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xingsheng Xu, Siyue Jin

    Strong coupling between a cavity and transition dipole moments in emitters leads to vacuum Rabi splitting. Researchers have not reported strong coupling between a single emitter and a dielectric cavity at room temperature until now. In this study, we investigated the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of colloidal quantum dots on the surface of a SiO2/Si material at various collection angles at room temperature

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Promoting the activation of T cells with glycopolymer-modified dendritic cells by enhancing cell interactions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Liyin Yu, Ruyan Feng, Lijuan Zhu, Qing Hao, Jiacheng Chu, Yan Gu, Yan Luo, Zexin Zhang, Gaojian Chen, Hong Chen

    Dendritic cell (DC) modification to enhance antigen presentation is a valuable strategy in cancer immune therapy. Other than focusing on regulating interactions between DC and antigens, we intend to promote cell interactions between DC and T cell by cell surface engineering. T cell activation is greatly improved and generates higher tumor toxicity with the aid of the synthetic glycopolymer modified

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Dynamic polaronic screening for anomalous exciton spin relaxation in two-dimensional lead halide perovskites
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Weijian Tao, Qiaohui Zhou, Haiming Zhu

    Two-dimensional lead halide perovskites with confined excitons have shown exciting potentials in optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing but unclear how the soft and polar lattice redefines excitons in layered perovskites. Here, we reveal the intrinsic exciton properties by investigating exciton spin dynamics, which provides a sensitive probe to exciton coulomb interactions. Compared to transition

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Amazon rainforest photosynthesis increases in response to atmospheric dryness
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    J. K. Green, J. Berry, P. Ciais, Y. Zhang, P. Gentine

    Earth system models predict that increases in atmospheric and soil dryness will reduce photosynthesis in the Amazon rainforest, with large implications for the global carbon cycle. Using in situ observations, solar-induced fluorescence, and nonlinear machine learning techniques, we show that, in reality, this is not necessarily the case: In many of the wettest parts of this region, photosynthesis and

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • High-throughput single-EV liquid biopsy: Rapid, simultaneous, and multiplexed detection of nucleic acids, proteins, and their combinations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jian Zhou, Zuoren Wu, Jie Hu, Dawei Yang, Xiaoyan Chen, Qin Wang, Jie Liu, Maosen Dou, Wenjun Peng, Yuanyuan Wu, Wenhao Wang, Chenjian Xie, Ming Wang, Yuanlin Song, Hengshan Zeng, Chunxue Bai

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, and proteins in/on extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent potential cancer biomarkers. Concurrent detection of multiple biomarkers at a single-EV level would greatly improve prognosis and/or diagnosis and understanding of EV phenotypes, biogenesis, and functions. Here, we introduced a High-throughput Nano-bio Chip Integrated System for Liquid Biopsy (HNCIB) system for simultaneous

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Needle-compatible miniaturized optoelectronic sensor for pancreatic cancer detection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Seung Yup Lee, Julia M. Pakela, Kyounghwan Na, Jiaqi Shi, Barbara J. McKenna, Diane M. Simeone, Euisik Yoon, James M. Scheiman, Mary-Ann Mycek

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. The current approach to confirming a tissue diagnosis, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), requires a time-consuming, qualitative cytology analysis and may be limited because of sampling error. We designed and engineered a miniaturized optoelectronic sensor to assist in situ, real-time

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ancestry-dependent gene expression correlates with reprogramming to pluripotency and multiple dynamic biological processes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Laura S. Bisogno, Jun Yang, Brian D. Bennett, James M. Ward, Lantz C. Mackey, Lois A. Annab, Pierre R. Bushel, Sandeep Singhal, Shepherd H. Schurman, Jung S. Byun, Anna María Nápoles, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, David C. Fargo, Kevin Gardner, Trevor K. Archer

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from differentiated cells, enabling the generation of personalized disease models by differentiating patient-derived iPSCs into disease-relevant cell lines. While genetic variability between different iPSC lines affects differentiation potential, how this variability in somatic cells affects pluripotent potential is less understood. We generated

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Spinal motoneurons of the human newborn are highly synchronized during leg movements
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    A. Del Vecchio, F. Sylos-Labini, V. Mondì, P. Paolillo, Y. Ivanenko, F. Lacquaniti, D. Farina

    Motoneurons of neonatal rodents show synchronous activity that modulates the development of the neuromuscular system. However, the characteristics of the activity of human neonatal motoneurons are largely unknown. Using a noninvasive neural interface, we identified the discharge timings of individual spinal motoneurons in human newborns. We found highly synchronized activities of motoneurons of the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Abnormal conductivity in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Shuai Zhang, Aisheng Song, Lingxiu Chen, Chengxin Jiang, Chen Chen, Lei Gao, Yuan Hou, Luqi Liu, Tianbao Ma, Haomin Wang, Xi-Qiao Feng, Qunyang Li

    Controlling the interlayer twist angle offers a powerful means for tuning the electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials. Typically, the electrical conductivity would increase monotonically with decreasing twist angle owing to the enhanced coupling between adjacent layers. Here, we report a nonmonotonic angle-dependent vertical conductivity across the interface of bilayer

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • n-Alkanes to n-alcohols: Formal primary C─H bond hydroxymethylation via quadruple relay catalysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xinxin Tang, Lan Gan, Xin Zhang, Zheng Huang

    Nature is able to synergistically combine multiple enzymes to conduct well-ordered biosynthetic transformations. Mimicking nature’s multicatalysis in vitro may give rise to new chemical transformations via interplay of numerous molecular catalysts in one pot. The direct and selective conversion of abundant n-alkanes to valuable n-alcohols is a reaction with enormous potential applicability but has

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Potency and timing of antiviral therapy as determinants of duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding and intensity of inflammatory response
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Ashish Goyal, E. Fabian Cardozo-Ojeda, Joshua T. Schiffer

    To affect the COVID-19 pandemic, lifesaving antiviral therapies must be identified. The number of clinical trials that can be performed is limited. We developed mathematical models to project multiple therapeutic approaches. Our models recapitulate off-treatment viral dynamics and predict a three-phase immune response. Simulated treatment with remdesivir, selinexor, neutralizing antibodies, or cellular

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ultrafast electron diffraction from nanophotonic waveforms via dynamical Aharonov-Bohm phases
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    K. J. Mohler, D. Ehberger, I. Gronwald, C. Lange, R. Huber, P. Baum

    Electron interferometry via phase-contrast microscopy, holography, or picodiffraction can provide a direct visualization of the static electric and magnetic fields inside or around a material at subatomic precision, but understanding the electromagnetic origin of light-matter interaction requires time resolution as well. Here, we demonstrate that pump-probe electron diffraction with all-optically compressed

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • PPM1G restricts innate immune signaling mediated by STING and MAVS and is hijacked by KSHV for immune evasion
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Kuai Yu, Huabin Tian, Hongyu Deng

    The adaptor proteins, STING and MAVS, are components of critical pathogen-sensing pathways that induce innate immunity. Phosphorylation of either adaptor results in activation of the type I interferon pathway. How this phosphorylation is regulated and how it is manipulated by pathogens remain largely unknown. Here, we identified host protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1G (PPM1G) as a negative

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Spatial variation in biodiversity loss across China under multiple environmental stressors
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Yonglong Lu, Yifu Yang, Bin Sun, Jingjing Yuan, Minzhao Yu, Nils Chr. Stenseth, James M. Bullock, Michael Obersteiner

    Biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem health and delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, the drivers of biodiversity loss and the spatial variation in their impacts are poorly understood. Here, we explore the spatial-temporal distributions of threatened and declining (“biodiversity-loss”) species and find that these species are affected by multiple stressors, with

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • BDNF-induced local translation of GluA1 is regulated by HNRNP A2/B1
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Youngseob Jung, Ji-Young Seo, Hye Guk Ryu, Do-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Ha Lee, Kyong-Tai Kim

    The AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is essential for induction of synaptic plasticity. While various regulatory mechanisms of AMPA receptor expression have been identified, the underlying mechanisms of GluA1 protein synthesis are not fully understood. In neurons, axonal and dendritic mRNAs have been reported to be translated in a cap-independent manner. However, molecular mechanisms of cap-independent

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Overcoming the ceiling effects of experts’ motor expertise through active haptic training
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    M. Hirano, M. Sakurada, S. Furuya

    One of the most challenging issues among experts is how to improve motor skills that have already been highly trained. Recent studies have proposed importance of both genetic predisposition and accumulated amount of practice for standing at the top of fields of sports and performing arts. In contrast to the two factors, what is unexplored is how one practices impacts on experts’ expertise. Here, we

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Walker circulation response to extratropical radiative forcing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Sarah M. Kang, Shang-Ping Xie, Yechul Shin, Hanjun Kim, Yen-Ting Hwang, Malte F. Stuecker, Baoqiang Xiang, Matt Hawcroft

    Walker circulation variability and associated zonal shifts in the heating of the tropical atmosphere have far-reaching global impacts well into high latitudes. Yet the reversed high latitude–to–Walker circulation teleconnection is not fully understood. Here, we reveal the dynamical pathways of this teleconnection across different components of the climate system using a hierarchy of climate model simulations

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Revealing nanoscale mineralization pathways of hydroxyapatite using in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kun He, Michal Sawczyk, Cong Liu, Yifei Yuan, Boao Song, Ram Deivanayagam, Anmin Nie, Xiaobing Hu, Vinayak P. Dravid, Jun Lu, Cortino Sukotjo, Yu-peng Lu, Petr Král, Tolou Shokuhfar, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar

    To treat impairments in hard tissues or overcome pathological calcification in soft tissues, a detailed understanding of mineralization pathways of calcium phosphate materials is needed. Here, we report a detailed mechanistic study of hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization pathways in an artificial saliva solution via in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the mineralization

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Na+-dependent gate dynamics and electrostatic attraction ensure substrate coupling in glutamate transporters
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    C. Alleva, K. Kovalev, R. Astashkin, M. I. Berndt, C. Baeken, T. Balandin, V. Gordeliy, Ch. Fahlke, J.-P. Machtens

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) harness [Na+], [K+], and [H+] gradients for fast and efficient glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft. Since each glutamate is cotransported with three Na+ ions, [Na+] gradients are the predominant driving force for glutamate uptake. We combined all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography to study Na+:substrate

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Ion-molecule interactions enable unexpected phase transitions in organic-inorganic aerosol
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    David S. Richards, Kristin L. Trobaugh, Josefina Hajek-Herrera, Chelsea L. Price, Craig S. Sheldon, James F. Davies, Ryan D. Davis

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are commonly complex, aqueous organic-inorganic mixtures, and accurately predicting the properties of these particles is essential for air quality and climate projections. The prevailing assumption is that aqueous organic-inorganic aerosols exist predominately with liquid properties and that the hygroscopic inorganic fraction lowers aerosol viscosity relative to the organic

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Targeting actin-bundling protein L-plastin as an anabolic therapy for bone loss
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Xiaoqun Li, Lipeng Wang, Biaotong Huang, Yanqiu Gu, Ying Luo, Xin Zhi, Yan Hu, Hao Zhang, Zhengrong Gu, Jin Cui, Liehu Cao, Jiawei Guo, Yajun Wang, Qirong Zhou, Hao Jiang, Chao Fang, Weizong Weng, Xiaofei Chen, Xiao Chen, Jiacan Su

    The actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) mediates the resorption activity of osteoclasts, but its therapeutic potential in pathological bone loss remains unexplored. Here, we report that LPL knockout mice show increased bone mass and cortical thickness with more mononuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive cells, osteoblasts, CD31hiEmcnhi endothelial vessels, and fewer multinuclear osteoclasts

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Trappc9 deficiency in mice impairs learning and memory by causing imbalance of dopamine D1 and D2 neurons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Yuting Ke, Meiqian Weng, Gaurav Chhetri, Muhammad Usman, Yan Li, Qing Yu, Yingzhuo Ding, Zejian Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Pinky Sultana, Marian DiFiglia, Xueyi Li

    Genetic mutations in the gene encoding transport protein particle complex 9 (trappc9), a subunit of TRAPP that acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for rab proteins, cause intellectual disability with brain structural malformations by elusive mechanisms. Here, we report that trappc9-deficient mice exhibit a broad range of behavioral deficits and postnatal delay in growth of the brain. Contrary

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Anomalous fracture in two-dimensional rhenium disulfide
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Lingli Huang, Fangyuan Zheng, Qingming Deng, Quoc Huy Thi, Lok Wing Wong, Yuan Cai, Ning Wang, Chun-Sing Lee, Shu Ping Lau, Thuc Hue Ly, Jiong Zhao

    Low-dimensional materials usually exhibit mechanical properties from those of their bulk counterparts. Here, we show in two-dimensional (2D) rhenium disulfide (ReS2) that the fracture processes are dominated by a variety of previously unidentified phenomena, which are not present in bulk materials. Through direct transmission electron microscopy observations at the atomic scale, the structures close

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Social connections with COVID-19–affected areas increase compliance with mobility restrictions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Ben Charoenwong, Alan Kwan, Vesa Pursiainen

    We study the role of social connections in compliance of U.S. households with mobility restrictions imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, using aggregated and anonymized Facebook data on social connections and mobile phone data for measuring social distancing at the county level. Relative to the average restriction efficacy, a county with one-SD more social connections

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • A 3D culture platform enables development of zinc-binding prodrugs for targeted proliferation of β cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kisuk Yang, Miseon Lee, Peter Anthony Jones, Sophie S. Liu, Angela Zhou, Jun Xu, Vedagopuram Sreekanth, Jamie L. Y. Wu, Lillian Vo, Eunjee A. Lee, Ramona Pop, Yuhan Lee, Bridget K. Wagner, Douglas A. Melton, Amit Choudhary, Jeffrey M. Karp

    Advances in treating β cell loss include islet replacement therapies or increasing cell proliferation rate in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. We propose developing multiple proliferation-inducing prodrugs that target high concentration of zinc ions in β cells. Unfortunately, typical two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not mimic in vivo conditions, displaying a markedly lowered zinc content

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Caspase-8–dependent gasdermin D cleavage promotes antimicrobial defense but confers susceptibility to TNF-induced lethality
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Benjamin Demarco, James P. Grayczyk, Elisabet Bjanes, Didier Le Roy, Wulf Tonnus, Charles-Antoine Assenmacher, Enrico Radaelli, Timothée Fettrelet, Vanessa Mack, Andreas Linkermann, Thierry Roger, Igor E. Brodsky, Kaiwen W. Chen, Petr Broz

    Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a pore-forming protein that promotes pyroptosis and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies revealed that apoptotic caspase-8 directly cleaves GSDMD to trigger pyroptosis. However, the molecular requirements for caspase-8–dependent GSDMD cleavage and the physiological impact of this signaling axis are unresolved. Here, we report that caspase-8–dependent GSDMD cleavage

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Photoreduction of inorganic carbon(+IV) by elemental sulfur: Implications for prebiotic synthesis in terrestrial hot springs
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Yanzhang Li, Yan Li, Yi Liu, Yifu Wu, Junqi Wu, Bin Wang, Huan Ye, Haoning Jia, Xiao Wang, Linghui Li, Meixiang Zhu, Hongrui Ding, Yong Lai, Changqiu Wang, Jeffrey Dick, Anhuai Lu

    Terrestrial hydrothermal systems have been proposed as alternative birthplaces for early life but lacked reasonable scenarios for the supply of biomolecules. Here, we show that elemental sulfur (S0), as the dominant mineral in terrestrial hot springs, can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) into formic acid (HCOOH) under ultraviolet (UV) light below 280 nm. The semiconducting S0 is indicated to have a direct

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Engineered mutant α-ENaC subunit mRNA delivered by lipid nanoparticles reduces amiloride currents in cystic fibrosis–based cell and mice models
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Anindit Mukherjee, Kelvin D. MacDonald, Jeonghwan Kim, Michael I. Henderson, Yulia Eygeris, Gaurav Sahay

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the chloride-conducting CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Airway dehydration and impaired mucociliary clearance in CF is proposed to result in tonic epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which drives amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption. Decreasing sodium absorption by inhibiting ENaC can reverse airway surface liquid

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Network-based atrophy modeling in the common epilepsies: A worldwide ENIGMA study
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Sara Larivière, Raúl Rodríguez-Cruces, Jessica Royer, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Antonio Gambardella, Luis Concha, Simon S. Keller, Fernando Cendes, Clarissa Yasuda, Leonardo Bonilha, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Niels K. Focke, Martin Domin, Felix von Podewills, Soenke Langner, Christian Rummel, Roland Wiest, Pascal Martin, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Terence J. O’Brien, Benjamin Sinclair, Lucy Vivash, Patricia

    Epilepsy is increasingly conceptualized as a network disorder. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we integrated neuroimaging and connectome analysis to identify network associations with atrophy patterns in 1021 adults with epilepsy compared to 1564 healthy controls from 19 international sites. In temporal lobe epilepsy, areas of atrophy colocalized with highly interconnected cortical hub regions

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • 3D printed gradient index glass optics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Rebecca Dylla-Spears, Timothy D. Yee, Koroush Sasan, Du T. Nguyen, Nikola A. Dudukovic, Jason M. Ortega, Michael A. Johnson, Oscar D. Herrera, Frederick J. Ryerson, Lana L. Wong

    We demonstrate an additive manufacturing approach to produce gradient refractive index glass optics. Using direct ink writing with an active inline micromixer, we three-dimensionally print multimaterial green bodies with compositional gradients, consisting primarily of silica nanoparticles and varying concentrations of titania as the index-modifying dopant. The green bodies are then consolidated into

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Alpine glacier resilience and Neoglacial fluctuations linked to Holocene snowfall trends in the western United States
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Darren J. Larsen, Sarah E. Crump, Aria Blumm

    Geological evidence indicates that glaciers in the western United States fluctuated in response to Holocene changes in temperature and precipitation. However, because moraine chronologies are characteristically discontinuous, Holocene glacier fluctuations and their climatic drivers remain ambiguous, and future glacier changes are uncertain. Here, we construct a continuous 10-thousand-year (ka) record

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Printable, high-performance solid-state electrolyte films
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Weiwei Ping, Chengwei Wang, Ruiliu Wang, Qi Dong, Zhiwei Lin, Alexandra H. Brozena, Jiaqi Dai, Jian Luo, Liangbing Hu

    Current ceramic solid-state electrolyte (SSE) films have low ionic conductivities (10−8 to 10−5 S/cm ), attributed to the amorphous structure or volatile Li loss. Herein, we report a solution-based printing process followed by rapid (~3 s) high-temperature (~1500°C) reactive sintering for the fabrication of high-performance ceramic SSE films. The SSEs exhibit a dense, uniform structure and a superior

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing using targeted lipid nanoparticles for cancer therapy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Daniel Rosenblum, Anna Gutkin, Ranit Kedmi, Srinivas Ramishetti, Nuphar Veiga, Ashley M. Jacobi, Mollie S. Schubert, Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski, Zvi R. Cohen, Mark A. Behlke, Judy Lieberman, Dan Peer

    Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 technology for cancer therapeutics has been hampered by low editing efficiency in tumors and potential toxicity of existing delivery systems. Here, we describe a safe and efficient lipid nanoparticle (LNP) for the delivery of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that use a novel amino-ionizable lipid. A single intracerebral injection of CRISPR-LNPs against PLK1 (sgPLK1-cLNPs) into aggressive

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Dendritic and parallel processing of visual threats in the retina control defensive responses
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    T. Kim, N. Shen, J.-C. Hsiang, K.P. Johnson, D. Kerschensteiner

    Approaching predators cast expanding shadows (i.e., looming) that elicit innate defensive responses in most animals. Where looming is first detected and how critical parameters of predatory approaches are extracted are unclear. In mice, we identify a retinal interneuron (the VG3 amacrine cell) that responds robustly to looming, but not to related forms of motion. Looming-sensitive calcium transients

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Discretely assembled mechanical metamaterials
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Benjamin Jenett, Christopher Cameron, Filippos Tourlomousis, Alfonso Parra Rubio, Megan Ochalek, Neil Gershenfeld

    Mechanical metamaterials offer exotic properties based on local control of cell geometry and their global configuration into structures and mechanisms. Historically, these have been made as continuous, monolithic structures with additive manufacturing, which affords high resolution and throughput, but is inherently limited by process and machine constraints. To address this issue, we present a construction

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Two phenotypically and functionally distinct microglial populations in adult zebrafish
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Shuting Wu, Linh T. M. Nguyen, Hongru Pan, Shaoli Hassan, Yimei Dai, Jin Xu, Zilong Wen

    Microglia are the tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system and are critically involved in immune defense, neural development and function, and neuroinflammation. The versatility of microglia has long been attributed to heterogeneity. Recent studies have revealed possible heterogeneity in human but not in murine microglia, yet a firm demonstration linking microglial heterogeneity to

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Targeted knockdown of Kv1.3 channels in T lymphocytes corrects the disease manifestations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Marat Khodoun, Ameet A. Chimote, Farhan Z. Ilyas, Heather J. Duncan, Halima Moncrieffe, K. Shashi Kant, Laura Conforti

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease with substantial morbidity/mortality and limited efficacy of available therapies. Memory T (Tm) lymphocytes infiltrate LN kidneys, contributing to organ damage. Analysis of LN, diabetic nephropathy, and healthy donor kidney biopsies revealed high infiltration of active CD8+ Tm cells expressing high voltage-dependent Kv1.3 potassium channels—key T cell function

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Bioinspired high-power-density strong contractile hydrogel by programmable elastic recoil
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Yanfei Ma, Mutian Hua, Shuwang Wu, Yingjie Du, Xiaowei Pei, Xinyuan Zhu, Feng Zhou, Ximin He

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have large deformability but—when applied as actuators, smart switch, and artificial muscles—suffer from low work density due to low deliverable forces (~2 kPa) and speed through the osmotic pressure–driven actuation. Inspired by the energy conversion mechanism of many creatures during jumping, we designed an elastic-driven strong contractile hydrogel through storing and

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Confinement-induced stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and transition to the unconfined limit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Samar Alqatari, Thomas E. Videbæk, Sidney R. Nagel, A. E. Hosoi, Irmgard Bischofberger

    The prevention of hydrodynamic instabilities can lead to important insights for understanding the instabilities’ underlying dynamics. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability that arises when a dense fluid sinks into and displaces a lighter one is particularly difficult to arrest. By preparing a density inversion between two miscible fluids inside the thin gap separating two flat plates, we create a clean initial

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Gating by ionic strength and safety check by cyclic-di-AMP in the ABC transporter OpuA
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Hendrik R. Sikkema, Marco van den Noort, Jan Rheinberger, Marijn de Boer, Sabrina T. Krepel, Gea K. Schuurman-Wolters, Cristina Paulino, Bert Poolman

    (Micro)organisms are exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions, and adaptation to stress is essential for survival. Increased osmolality (hypertonicity) causes outflow of water and loss of turgor and is dangerous if the cell is not capable of rapidly restoring its volume. The osmoregulatory adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette transporter OpuA restores the cell volume by accumulating large

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • In situ stiffness manipulation using elegant curved origami
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Zirui Zhai, Yong Wang, Ken Lin, Lingling Wu, Hanqing Jiang

    The capability of stiffness manipulation for materials and structures is essential for tuning motion, saving energy, and delivering high power. However, high-efficiency in situ stiffness manipulation has not yet been successfully achieved despite many studies from different perspectives. Here, curved origami patterns were designed to accomplish in situ stiffness manipulation covering positive, zero

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • A Zic2-regulated switch in a noncanonical Wnt/βcatenin pathway is essential for the formation of bilateral circuits
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Cruz Morenilla-Palao, María Teresa López-Cascales, José P. López-Atalaya, Diana Baeza, Luís Calvo-Díaz, Angel Barco, Eloísa Herrera

    The Wnt pathway is involved in a wide array of biological processes during development and is deregulated in many pathological scenarios. In neurons, Wnt proteins promote both axon extension and repulsion, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these opposing axonal responses are unknown. Here, we show that Wnt5a is expressed at the optic chiasm midline and promotes the crossing of retinal axons by

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Engineered probiotics biofilm enhances osseointegration via immunoregulation and anti-infection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Lei Tan, Jieni Fu, Fan Feng, Xiangmei Liu, Zhenduo Cui, Bo Li, Yong Han, Yufeng Zheng, Kelvin Wai Kwok Yeung, Zhaoyang Li, Shengli Zhu, Yanqin Liang, Xiaobo Feng, Xianbao Wang, Shuilin Wu

    Preventing multidrug-resistant bacteria–related infection and simultaneously improving osseointegration are in great demand for orthopedic implants. However, current strategies are still limited to a combination of non–U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved antibacterial and osteogenic agents. Here, we develop a food-grade probiotic–modified implant to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Dedifferentiation and neuronal repression define familial Alzheimer’s disease
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Andrew B. Caldwell, Qing Liu, Gary P. Schroth, Douglas R. Galasko, Shauna H. Yuan, Steven L. Wagner, Shankar Subramaniam

    Identifying the systems-level mechanisms that lead to Alzheimer’s disease, an unmet need, is an essential step toward the development of therapeutics. In this work, we report that the key disease-causative mechanisms, including dedifferentiation and repression of neuronal identity, are triggered by changes in chromatin topology. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)–derived

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • A conserved SUMO pathway repairs topoisomerase DNA-protein cross-links by engaging ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Yilun Sun, Lisa M. Miller Jenkins, Yijun P. Su, Karin C. Nitiss, John L. Nitiss, Yves Pommier

    Topoisomerases form transient covalent DNA cleavage complexes to perform their reactions. Topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (TOP1ccs) are trapped by camptothecin and TOP2ccs by etoposide. Proteolysis of the trapped topoisomerase DNA-protein cross-links (TOP-DPCs) is a key step for some pathways to repair these lesions. We describe a pathway that features a prominent role of the small ubiquitin-like

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Ultrastrong lightweight compositionally complex steels via dual-nanoprecipitation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Zhangwei Wang, Wenjun Lu, Huan Zhao, Christian H. Liebscher, Junyang He, Dirk Ponge, Dierk Raabe, Zhiming Li

    High-performance lightweight materials are urgently needed, given the pressing quest for weight reduction and the associated energy savings and emission reduction. Here, by incorporating the multi–principal element feature of compositionally complex alloys, we develop the concept of lightweight steels further and propose a new class of compositionally complex steels (CCSs). This approach allows us

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Plasma-derived extracellular vesicle analysis and deconvolution enable prediction and tracking of melanoma checkpoint blockade outcome
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Alvin Shi, Gyulnara G. Kasumova, William A. Michaud, Jessica Cintolo-Gonzalez, Marta Díaz-Martínez, Jacqueline Ohmura, Arnav Mehta, Isabel Chien, Dennie T. Frederick, Sonia Cohen, Deborah Plana, Douglas Johnson, Keith T. Flaherty, Ryan J. Sullivan, Manolis Kellis, Genevieve M. Boland

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) show promise, but most patients do not respond. We identify and validate biomarkers from extracellular vesicles (EVs), allowing non-invasive monitoring of tumor- intrinsic and host immune status, as well as a prediction of ICI response. We undertook transcriptomic profiling of plasma-derived EVs and tumors from 50 patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ICI,

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Deep convection–driven vortex formation on Jupiter and Saturn
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Rakesh Kumar Yadav, Moritz Heimpel, Jeremy Bloxham

    The surfaces of Jupiter and Saturn have magnificent vortical storms that help shape the dynamic nature of their atmospheres. Land- and space-based observational campaigns have established several properties of these vortices, with some being similar between the two planets, while others are different. Shallow-water hydrodynamics, where the vortices are treated as shallow weather-layer phenomenon, is

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Electronic quality factor for thermoelectrics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Xinyue Zhang, Zhonglin Bu, Xuemin Shi, Zhiwei Chen, Siqi Lin, Bing Shan, Maxwell Wood, Alemayouh H. Snyder, Lidong Chen, G. Jeffrey Snyder, Yanzhong Pei

    Development of thermoelectrics usually involves trial-and-error investigations, including time-consuming synthesis and measurements. Here, we identify the electronic quality factor BE for determining the maximum thermoelectric power factor, which can be conveniently estimated by a single measurement of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of only one sample, not necessarily optimized, at

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Adaptive tuning of cell sensory diversity without changes in gene expression
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    K. Kamino, J. M. Keegstra, J. Long, T. Emonet, T. S. Shimizu

    In the face of uncertainty, cell populations tend to diversify to enhance survival and growth. Previous studies established that cells can optimize such bet hedging upon environmental change by modulating gene expression to adapt both the average and diversity of phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that cells can tune phenotypic diversity also using posttranslational modifications. In the chemotaxis network

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Therapeutics potentiating microglial p21-Nrf2 axis can rescue neurodegeneration caused by neuroinflammation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    A. Nakano-Kobayashi, A. Fukumoto, A. Morizane, D. T. Nguyen, T. M. Le, K. Hashida, T. Hosoya, R. Takahashi, J. Takahashi, O. Hori, M. Hagiwara

    Neurodegenerative disorders are caused by progressive neuronal loss, and there is no complete treatment available yet. Neuroinflammation is a common feature across neurodegenerative disorders and implicated in the progression of neurodegeneration. Dysregulated activation of microglia causes neuroinflammation and has been highlighted as a treatment target in therapeutic strategies. Here, we identified

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Combined high- and low-latitude forcing of East Asian monsoon precipitation variability in the Pliocene warm period
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Yichao Wang, Huayu Lu, Kexin Wang, Yao Wang, Yongxiang Li, Steven Clemens, Hengzhi Lv, Zihan Huang, Hanlin Wang, Xuzhi Hu, Fuzhi Lu, Hanzhi Zhang

    East Asian monsoon variability in the Pliocene warm world has not been sufficiently studied because of the lack of direct records. We present a high-resolution precipitation record from Pliocene fluvial-lacustrine sequences in the Weihe Basin, Central China, a region sensitive to the East Asian monsoon. The record shows an abrupt monsoon shift at ~4.2 million years ago, interpreted as the result of

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Multiscale dynamics of colloidal deposition and erosion in porous media
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Navid Bizmark, Joanna Schneider, Rodney D. Priestley, Sujit S. Datta

    Diverse processes—e.g., environmental pollution, groundwater remediation, oil recovery, filtration, and drug delivery—involve the transport of colloidal particles in porous media. Using confocal microscopy, we directly visualize this process in situ and thereby identify the fundamental mechanisms by which particles are distributed throughout a medium. At high injection pressures, hydrodynamic stresses

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • The structure-function relationship of oncogenic LMTK3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Angeliki Ditsiou, Chiara Cilibrasi, Nikiana Simigdala, Athanasios Papakyriakou, Leanne Milton-Harris, Viviana Vella, Joanne E. Nettleship, Jae Ho Lo, Shivani Soni, Goar Smbatyan, Panagiota Ntavelou, Teresa Gagliano, Maria Chiara Iachini, Sahir Khurshid, Thomas Simon, Lihong Zhou, Storm Hassell-Hart, Philip Carter, Laurence H. Pearl, Robin L. Owen, Raymond J. Owens, S. Mark Roe, Naomi E. Chayen, Heinz-Josef

    Elucidating signaling driven by lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) could help drug development. Here, we solve the crystal structure of LMTK3 kinase domain to 2.1Å resolution, determine its consensus motif and phosphoproteome, unveiling in vitro and in vivo LMTK3 substrates. Via high-throughput homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence screen coupled with biochemical, cellular, and biophysical assays, we

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Two replication fork remodeling pathways generate nuclease substrates for distinct fork protection factors
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    W. Liu, A. Krishnamoorthy, R. Zhao, D. Cortez

    Fork reversal is a common response to replication stress, but it generates a DNA end that is susceptible to degradation. Many fork protection factors block degradation, but how they work remains unclear. Here, we find that 53BP1 protects forks from DNA2-mediated degradation in a cell type–specific manner. Fork protection by 53BP1 reduces S-phase DNA damage and hypersensitivity to replication stress

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Repeated gain and loss of a single gene modulates the evolution of vascular plant pathogen lifestyles
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Emile Gluck-Thaler, Aude Cerutti, Alvaro L. Perez-Quintero, Jules Butchacas, Verónica Roman-Reyna, Vishnu Narayanan Madhavan, Deepak Shantharaj, Marcus V. Merfa, Céline Pesce, Alain Jauneau, Taca Vancheva, Jillian M. Lang, Caitilyn Allen, Valerie Verdier, Lionel Gagnevin, Boris Szurek, Gregg T. Beckham, Leonardo De La Fuente, Hitendra Kumar Patel, Ramesh V. Sonti, Claude Bragard, Jan E. Leach, Laurent

    Vascular plant pathogens travel long distances through host veins, leading to life-threatening, systemic infections. In contrast, nonvascular pathogens remain restricted to infection sites, triggering localized symptom development. The contrasting features of vascular and nonvascular diseases suggest distinct etiologies, but the basis for each remains unclear. Here, we show that the hydrolase CbsA

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Outsized effect of predation: Wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing ecosystem engineers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Thomas D. Gable, Sean M. Johnson-Bice, Austin T. Homkes, Steve K. Windels, Joseph K. Bump

    Gray wolves are a premier example of how predators can transform ecosystems through trophic cascades. However, whether wolves change ecosystems as drastically as previously suggested has been increasingly questioned. We demonstrate how wolves alter wetland creation and recolonization by killing dispersing beavers. Beavers are ecosystem engineers that generate most wetland creation throughout boreal

    更新日期:2020-11-15
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