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  • Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 through recombination and strong purifying selection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xiaojun Li, Elena E. Giorgi, Manukumar Honnayakanahalli Marichannegowda, Brian Foley, Chuan Xiao, Xiang-Peng Kong, Yue Chen, S. Gnanakaran, Bette Korber, Feng Gao

    COVID-19 has become a global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the origins of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for deterring future zoonosis, discovering new drugs, and developing a vaccine. We show evidence of strong purifying selection around the receptor binding motif (RBM) in the spike and other genes among bat, pangolin, and human coronaviruses, suggesting similar evolutionary

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Acceptorless dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of N- and O-containing compounds on Pd3Au1(111) facets
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xinjiang Cui, Zhangjun Huang, Antoine P. van Muyden, Zhaofu Fei, Tao Wang, Paul J. Dyson

    Catalytic dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of amines and alcohols are important in the synthesis of fine chemicals. Despite several efficient homogeneous catalysts having been identified, highly active heterogeneous catalysts remain elusive, although they would meet an unmet need. Here, we show that bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles with Pd-to-Au molar ratios of 3:1 immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotubes

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Coupling and confinement of current in thermoacoustic phased arrays
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    David M. Tatnell, Mark S. Heath, Steven P. Hepplestone, Alastair P. Hibbins, Samuel M. Hornett, Simon A. R. Horsley, David W. Horsell

    When a medium is rapidly heated and cooled, heat transfers to its surroundings as sound. A controllable source of this sound is realized through joule heating of thin, conductive films by an alternating current. Here, we show that arrays of these sources generate sound unique to this mechanism. From the sound alone, we spatially resolve current flow by varying the film geometry and electrical phase

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Photonic paper: Multiscale assembly of reflective cellulose sheets in Lunaria annua
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    G. Guidetti, H. Sun, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto

    Bright, iridescent colors observed in nature are often caused by light interference within nanoscale periodic lattices, inspiring numerous strategies for coloration devoid of inorganic pigments. Here, we describe and characterize the septum of the Lunaria annua plant that generates large (multicentimeter), freestanding iridescent sheets, with distinctive silvery-white reflective appearance. This originates

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Identification of human CD4+ T cell populations with distinct antitumor activity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Michelle H. Nelson, Hannah M. Knochelmann, Stefanie R. Bailey, Logan W. Huff, Jacob S. Bowers, Kinga Majchrzak-Kuligowska, Megan M. Wyatt, Mark P. Rubinstein, Shikhar Mehrotra, Michael I. Nishimura, Kent E. Armeson, Paul G. Giresi, Michael J. Zilliox, Hal E. Broxmeyer, Chrystal M. Paulos

    How naturally arising human CD4+ T helper subsets affect cancer immunotherapy is unclear. We reported that human CD4+CD26high T cells elicit potent immunity against solid tumors. As CD26high T cells are often categorized as TH17 cells for their IL-17 production and high CD26 expression, we posited these populations would have similar molecular properties. Here, we reveal that CD26high T cells are epigenetically

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Calpain-2 as a therapeutic target in repeated concussion–induced neuropathy and behavioral impairment
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yubin Wang, Yan Liu, Amy Nham, Arash Sherbaf, Diana Quach, Emad Yahya, Davis Ranburger, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry

    Repeated concussion represents a serious health problem as it can result in various brain pathologies, ranging from minor focal tissue injury to severe chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The calcium-dependent protease, calpain, participates in the development of neurodegeneration following concussion, but there is no information regarding the relative contribution of calpain-1 and calpain-2, the major

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • A novel system to map protein interactions reveals evolutionarily conserved immune evasion pathways on transmissible cancers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Andrew S. Flies, Jocelyn M. Darby, Patrick R. Lennard, Peter R. Murphy, Chrissie E. B. Ong, Terry L. Pinfold, Alana De Luca, A. Bruce Lyons, Gregory M. Woods, Amanda L. Patchett

    Around 40% of humans and Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) develop cancer in their lifetime, compared to less than 10% for most species. In addition, devils are affected by two of the three known transmissible cancers in mammals. Immune checkpoint immunotherapy has transformed human medicine, but a lack of species-specific reagents has limited checkpoint immunology in most species. We developed

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Signal dynamics of midbrain dopamine neurons during economic decision-making in monkeys
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Mengxi Yun, Takashi Kawai, Masafumi Nejime, Hiroshi Yamada, Masayuki Matsumoto

    When we make economic choices, the brain first evaluates available options and then decides whether to choose them. Midbrain dopamine neurons are known to reinforce economic choices through their signal evoked by outcomes after decisions are made. However, although critical internal processing is executed while decisions are being made, little is known about the role of dopamine neurons during this

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Esophageal extracellular matrix hydrogel mitigates metaplastic change in a dog model of Barrett’s esophagus
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Juan Diego Naranjo, Lindsey T. Saldin, Eric Sobieski, Lina M. Quijano, Ryan C. Hill, Patrick G. Chan, Crisanto Torres, Jenna L. Dziki, Madeline C. Cramer, Yoojin C. Lee, Rohit Das, Anant K. Bajwa, Rania Nossair, Molly Klimak, Lucile Marchal, Shil Patel, Sachin S. Velankar, Kirk C. Hansen, Kevin McGrath, Stephen F. Badylak

    Chronic inflammatory gastric reflux alters the esophageal microenvironment and induces metaplastic transformation of the epithelium, a precancerous condition termed Barrett’s esophagus (BE). The microenvironmental niche, which includes the extracellular matrix (ECM), substantially influences cell phenotype. ECM harvested from normal porcine esophageal mucosa (eECM) was formulated as a mucoadhesive

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The fungal collaboration gradient dominates the root economics space in plants
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Joana Bergmann, Alexandra Weigelt, Fons van der Plas, Daniel C. Laughlin, Thom W. Kuyper, Nathaly Guerrero-Ramirez, Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes, Helge Bruelheide, Grégoire T. Freschet, Colleen M. Iversen, Jens Kattge, M. Luke McCormack, Ina C. Meier, Matthias C. Rillig, Catherine Roumet, Marina Semchenko, Christopher J. Sweeney, Jasper van Ruijven, Larry M. York, Liesje Mommer

    Plant economics run on carbon and nutrients instead of money. Leaf strategies aboveground span an economic spectrum from “live fast and die young” to “slow and steady,” but the economy defined by root strategies belowground remains unclear. Here, we take a holistic view of the belowground economy and show that root-mycorrhizal collaboration can short circuit a one-dimensional economic spectrum, providing

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The structure of the RCAN1:CN complex explains the inhibition of and substrate recruitment by calcineurin
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yang Li, Sarah R. Sheftic, Simina Grigoriu, Charles D. Schwieters, Rebecca Page, Wolfgang Peti

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatase calcineurin (CN). It has been shown that excessive inhibition of CN is a critical factor for Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we determined RCAN1’s mode of action. Using a combination of structural, biophysical, and biochemical studies, we show that RCAN1 inhibits CN via multiple routes: first, by blocking

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Single-dose mRNA therapy via biomaterial-mediated sequestration of overexpressed proteins
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Andrew S. Khalil, Xiaohua Yu, Jennifer M. Umhoefer, Connie S. Chamberlain, Linzie A. Wildenauer, Gaoussou M. Diarra, Timothy A. Hacker, William L. Murphy

    Nonviral mRNA delivery is an attractive therapeutic gene delivery strategy, as it achieves efficient protein overexpression in vivo and has a desirable safety profile. However, mRNA’s short cytoplasmic half-life limits its utility to therapeutic applications amenable to repeated dosing or short-term overexpression. Here, we describe a biomaterial that enables a durable in vivo response to a single

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Matching cell lines with cancer type and subtype of origin via mutational, epigenomic, and transcriptomic patterns
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Marina Salvadores, Francisco Fuster-Tormo, Fran Supek

    Cell lines are commonly used as cancer models. The tissue of origin provides context for understanding biological mechanisms and predicting therapy response. We therefore systematically examined whether cancer cell lines exhibit features matching the presumed cancer type of origin. Gene expression and DNA methylation classifiers trained on ~9000 tumors identified 35 (of 614 examined) cell lines that

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • DeepH&M: Estimating single-CpG hydroxymethylation and methylation levels from enrichment and restriction enzyme sequencing methods
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yu He, Hyo Sik Jang, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Michael J. Vasek, Joseph D. Dougherty, Ting Wang

    Increased appreciation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a stable epigenetic mark, which defines cell identity and disease progress, has engendered a need for cost-effective, but high-resolution, 5hmC mapping technology. Current enrichment-based technologies provide cheap but low-resolution and relative enrichment of 5hmC levels, while single-base resolution methods can be prohibitively expensive

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Targeted disruption of Kv2.1-VAPA association provides neuroprotection against ischemic stroke in mice by declustering Kv2.1 channels
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anthony J. Schulien, Chung-Yang Yeh, Bailey N. Orange, Olivia J. Pav, Madelynn P. Hopkins, Aubin Moutal, Rajesh Khanna, Dandan Sun, Jason A. Justice, Elias Aizenman

    Kv2.1 channels mediate cell death–enabling loss of cytosolic potassium in neurons following plasma membrane insertion at somatodendritic clusters. Overexpression of the carboxyl terminus (CT) of the cognate channel Kv2.2 is neuroprotective by disrupting Kv2.1 surface clusters. Here, we define a seven–amino acid declustering domain within Kv2.2 CT (DP-2) and demonstrate its neuroprotective efficacy

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The predictable chaos of slow earthquakes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    A. Gualandi, J.-P. Avouac, S. Michel, D. Faranda

    Slow earthquakes, like regular earthquakes, result from unstable frictional slip. They produce little slip and can therefore repeat frequently. We assess their predictability using the slip history of the Cascadia subduction between 2007 and 2017, during which slow earthquakes have repeatedly ruptured multiple segments. We characterize the system dynamics using embedding theory and extreme value theory

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Long-term heat-storage ceramics absorbing thermal energy from hot water
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Sakai, Masaki Azuma, Shin-ichi Ohkoshi

    In thermal and nuclear power plants, 70% of the generated thermal energy is lost as waste heat. The temperature of the waste heat is below the boiling temperature of water. Here, we show a long-term heat-storage material that absorbs heat energy at warm temperatures from 38°C (311 K) to 67°C (340 K). This unique series of material is composed of scandium-substituted lambda-trititanium-pentoxide (λ-ScxTi3−xO5)

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Coupling chromatin structure and dynamics by live super-resolution imaging
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    R. Barth, K. Bystricky, H. A. Shaban

    Chromatin conformation regulates gene expression and thus, constant remodeling of chromatin structure is essential to guarantee proper cell function. To gain insight into the spatiotemporal organization of the genome, we use high-density photoactivated localization microscopy and deep learning to obtain temporally resolved super-resolution images of chromatin in living cells. In combination with high-resolution

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Xenogenization of tumor cells by fusogenic exosomes in tumor microenvironment ignites and propagates antitumor immunity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Gi Beom Kim, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Jiwan Woo, Yakdol Cho, Ick Chan Kwon, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim

    Many cancer patients not responding to current immunotherapies fail to produce tumor-specific T cells for various reasons, such as a lack of recognition of cancer cells as foreign. Here, we suggest a previously unidentified method for xenogenizing (turning self to non-self) tumors by using fusogenic exosomes to introduce fusogenic viral antigens (VSV-G) onto the tumor cell surface. We found that xenogenized

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • How the effects of actions become our own
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    L. Zapparoli, S. Seghezzi, E. Zirone, G. Guidali, M. Tettamanti, G. Banfi, N. Bolognini, E. Paulesu

    Every day, we do things that cause effects in the outside world with little doubt about who caused what. To some, this sense of agency derives from a post hoc reconstruction of a likely causal relationship between an event and our preceding movements; others propose that the sense of agency originates from prospective comparisons of motor programs and their effects. Using functional magnetic resonance

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Revealing roles of competing local structural orderings in crystallization of polymorphic systems
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Minhuan Li, Yanshuang Chen, Hajime Tanaka, Peng Tan

    Most systems have more than two stable crystalline states in the phase diagram, which is known as polymorphism. Crystallization in such a system is often under strong influence of competing orderings linked to those crystals. However, how such competition affects crystal nucleation and ordering toward the final crystalline state is largely unknown. This is primarily because the competition takes place

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • VRK-1 extends life span by activation of AMPK via phosphorylation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Sangsoon Park, Murat Artan, Seung Hyun Han, Hae-Eun H. Park, Yoonji Jung, Ara B. Hwang, Won Sik Shin, Kyong-Tai Kim, Seung-Jae V. Lee

    Vaccinia virus–related kinase (VRK) is an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein kinase. VRK-1, the single Caenorhabditis elegans VRK ortholog, functions in cell division and germline proliferation. However, the role of VRK-1 in postmitotic cells and adult life span remains unknown. Here, we show that VRK-1 increases organismal longevity by activating the cellular energy sensor, AMP-activated protein

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Soft electromagnetic actuators
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Guoyong Mao, Michael Drack, Mahya Karami-Mosammam, Daniela Wirthl, Thomas Stockinger, Reinhard Schwödiauer, Martin Kaltenbrunner

    Rigid electromagnetic actuators serve our society in a myriad of ways for more than 200 years. However, their bulky nature restricts close collaboration with humans. Here, we introduce soft electromagnetic actuators (SEMAs) by replacing solid metal coils with liquid-metal channels embedded in elastomeric shells. We demonstrate human-friendly, simple, stretchable, fast, durable, and programmable centimeter-scale

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Transient stealth coating of liver sinusoidal wall by anchoring two-armed PEG for retargeting nanomedicines
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Anjaneyulu Dirisala, Satoshi Uchida, Kazuko Toh, Junjie Li, Shigehito Osawa, Theofilus A. Tockary, Xueying Liu, Saed Abbasi, Kotaro Hayashi, Yuki Mochida, Shigeto Fukushima, Hiroaki Kinoh, Kensuke Osada, Kazunori Kataoka

    A major critical issue in systemically administered nanomedicines is nonspecific clearance by the liver sinusoidal endothelium, causing a substantial decrease in the delivery efficiency of nanomedicines into the target tissues. Here, we addressed this issue by in situ stealth coating of liver sinusoids using linear or two-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–conjugated oligo(l-lysine) (OligoLys). PEG-OligoLys

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Formalizing land rights can reduce forest loss: Experimental evidence from Benin
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Liam Wren-Lewis, Luis Becerra-Valbuena, Kenneth Houngbedji

    Many countries are formalizing customary land rights systems with the aim of improving agricultural productivity and facilitating community forest management. This paper evaluates the impact on tree cover loss of the first randomized control trial of such a program. Around 70,000 landholdings were demarcated and registered in randomly chosen villages in Benin, a country with a high rate of deforestation

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Molecular atlas of the adult mouse brain
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Cantin Ortiz, Jose Fernandez Navarro, Aleksandra Jurek, Antje Märtin, Joakim Lundeberg, Konstantinos Meletis

    Brain maps are essential for integrating information and interpreting the structure-function relationship of circuits and behavior. We aimed to generate a systematic classification of the adult mouse brain based purely on the unbiased identification of spatially defining features by employing whole-brain spatial transcriptomics. We found that the molecular information was sufficient to deduce the complex

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • AIEgen-coupled upconversion nanoparticles eradicate solid tumors through dual-mode ROS activation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Duo Mao, Fang Hu, Zhigao Yi, Kenry Kenry, Shidang Xu, Shuangqian Yan, Zichao Luo, Wenbo Wu, Zhihong Wang, Deling Kong, Xiaogang Liu, Bin Liu

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for the regulation of antitumor immune responses, where they could induce immunogenic cell death, promote antigen presentation, and activate immune cells. Here, we report the development of near-infrared (NIR)–driven immunostimulants, based on coupling upconversion nanoparticles with aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens), to integrate the immunological

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • A breathable, biodegradable, antibacterial, and self-powered electronic skin based on all-nanofiber triboelectric nanogenerators
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Xiao Peng, Kai Dong, Cuiying Ye, Yang Jiang, Siyuan Zhai, Renwei Cheng, Di Liu, Xiaoping Gao, Jie Wang, Zhong Lin Wang

    Mimicking the comprehensive functions of human sensing via electronic skins (e-skins) is highly interesting for the development of human-machine interactions and artificial intelligences. Some e-skins with high sensitivity and stability were developed; however, little attention is paid to their comfortability, environmental friendliness, and antibacterial activity. Here, we report a breathable, biodegradable

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Capacitance of thin films containing polymerized ionic liquids
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Rajeev Kumar, Jyoti P. Mahalik, Kevin S. Silmore, Zaneta Wojnarowska, Andrew Erwin, John F. Ankner, Alexei P. Sokolov, Bobby G. Sumpter, Vera Bocharova

    Electrode-polymer interfaces dictate many of the properties of thin films such as capacitance, the electric field experienced by polymers, and charge transport. However, structure and dynamics of charged polymers near electrodes remain poorly understood, especially in the high concentration limit representative of the melts. To develop an understanding of electric field–induced transformations of electrode-polymer

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • In some professions, women have become well represented, yet gender bias persists—Perpetuated by those who think it is not happening
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    C. T. Begeny, M. K. Ryan, C. A. Moss-Racusin, G. Ravetz

    In efforts to promote equality and combat gender bias, traditionally male-occupied professions are investing resources into hiring more women. Looking forward, if women do become well represented in a profession, does this mean equality has been achieved? Are issues of bias resolved? Two studies including a randomized double-blind experiment demonstrate that biases persist even when women become well

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Synoviocyte-targeted therapy synergizes with TNF inhibition in arthritis reversal
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Mattias N. D. Svensson, Martina Zoccheddu, Shen Yang, Gyrid Nygaard, Christian Secchi, Karen M. Doody, Kamil Slowikowski, Fumitaka Mizoguchi, Frances Humby, Rebecca Hands, Eugenio Santelli, Cristiano Sacchetti, Kuninobu Wakabayashi, Dennis J. Wu, Christopher Barback, Rizi Ai, Wei Wang, Gary P. Sims, Piotr Mydel, Tsuyoshi Kasama, David L. Boyle, Francesco Galimi, David Vera, Michel L. Tremblay, Soumya

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are joint-lining cells that promote rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathology. Current disease-modifying antirheumatic agents (DMARDs) operate through systemic immunosuppression. FLS-targeted approaches could potentially be combined with DMARDs to improve control of RA without increasing immunosuppression. Here, we assessed the potential of immunoglobulin-like domains 1

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Astrocytes and microglia play orchestrated roles and respect phagocytic territories during neuronal corpse removal in vivo
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Eyiyemisi C. Damisah, Robert A. Hill, Anupama Rai, Fuyi Chen, Carla V. Rothlin, Sourav Ghosh, Jaime Grutzendler

    Cell death is prevalent throughout life; however, the coordinated interactions and roles of phagocytes during corpse removal in the live brain are poorly understood. We developed photochemical and viral methodologies to induce death in single cells and combined this with intravital optical imaging. This approach allowed us to track multicellular phagocytic interactions with precise spatiotemporal resolution

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Elemental constraints on the amount of recycled crust in the generation of mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORBs)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Shuying Yang, Munir Humayun, Vincent J. M. Salters

    Mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORBs) are depleted in incompatible elements, but ridge segments far from mantle plumes frequently erupt chemically enriched MORBs (E-MORBs). Two major explanations of E-MORBs are that these basalts are generated by the melting of entrained recycled crust (pyroxenite) beneath ridges or by the melting of refertilized peridotites. These two hypotheses can be discriminated with

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Lysosomal recycling of amino acids affects ER quality control
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Ryo Higuchi-Sanabria, Koning Shen, Naame Kelet, Phillip A. Frankino, Jenni Durieux, Raz Bar-Ziv, Cierra N. Sing, Enrique J. Garcia, Stefan Homentcovschi, Melissa Sanchez, Rui Wu, Sarah U. Tronnes, Larry Joe, Brant Webster, Alex Ahilon-Jeronimo, Samira Monshietehadi, Sofia Dallarda, Corinne Pender, Liza A. Pon, Roberto Zoncu, Andrew Dillin

    Recent work has highlighted the fact that lysosomes are a critical signaling hub of metabolic processes, providing fundamental building blocks crucial for anabolic functions. How lysosomal functions affect other cellular compartments is not fully understood. Here, we find that lysosomal recycling of the amino acids lysine and arginine is essential for proper ER quality control through the UPRER. Specifically

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Label-free sensing of exosomal MCT1 and CD147 for tracking metabolic reprogramming and malignant progression in glioma
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    A. Thakur, G. Qiu, C. Xu, X. Han, T. Yang, S. P. NG, K. W. Y. Chan, C. M. L. Wu, Y. Lee

    Malignant glioma is a fatal brain tumor whose pathological progression is closely associated with glycolytic reprogramming, leading to the high expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and its ancillary protein, cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) for enhancing lactate efflux. In particular, malignant glioma cells (GMs) release tremendous number of exosomes, nanovesicles of 30 to 200 nm

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Climate impacts of a weakened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a warming climate
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Wei Liu, Alexey V. Fedorov, Shang-Ping Xie, Shineng Hu

    While the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is projected to slow down under anthropogenic warming, the exact role of the AMOC in future climate change has not been fully quantified. Here, we present a method to stabilize the AMOC intensity in anthropogenic warming experiments by removing fresh water from the subpolar North Atlantic. This method enables us to isolate the AMOC climatic

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Active DNA demethylation regulates tracheary element differentiation in Arabidopsis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Wei Lin, Linhua Sun, Run-Zhou Huang, Wenjie Liang, Xinyu Liu, Hang He, Hiroo Fukuda, Xin-Qiang He, Weiqiang Qian

    DNA demethylation is important for the erasure of DNA methylation. The role of DNA demethylation in plant development remains poorly understood. Here, we found extensive DNA demethylation in the CHH context around pericentromeric regions and DNA demethylation in the CG, CHG, and CHH contexts at discrete genomic regions during ectopic xylem tracheary element (TE) differentiation. While loss of pericentromeric

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Recursive sequence generation in monkeys, children, U.S. adults, and native Amazonians
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Stephen Ferrigno, Samuel J. Cheyette, Steven T. Piantadosi, Jessica F. Cantlon

    The question of what computational capacities, if any, differ between humans and nonhuman animals has been at the core of foundational debates in cognitive psychology, anthropology, linguistics, and animal behavior. The capacity to form nested hierarchical representations is hypothesized to be essential to uniquely human thought, but its origins in evolution, development, and culture are controversial

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Quantifying the evaporation amounts of 75 high-elevation large dimictic lakes on the Tibetan Plateau
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Binbin Wang, Yaoming Ma, Zhongbo Su, Yan Wang, Weiqiang Ma

    Lake evaporation can influence basin-wide hydrological cycles and is an important factor in loss of water resources in endorheic lakes of the Tibetan Plateau. Because of the scarcity of data, published lake evaporation values are inconsistent, and their spatial distribution has never been reported. Presenting a plausible hypothesis of energy balance during the ice-free seasons, we explored the multiyear

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • 4D physiologically adaptable cardiac patch: A 4-month in vivo study for the treatment of myocardial infarction
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Haitao Cui, Chengyu Liu, Timothy Esworthy, Yimin Huang, Zu-xi Yu, Xuan Zhou, Hong San, Se-jun Lee, Sung Yun Hann, Manfred Boehm, Muhammad Mohiuddin, John P. Fisher, Lijie Grace Zhang

    There has been considerable progress in engineering cardiac scaffolds for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is still challenging to replicate the structural specificity and variability of cardiac tissues using traditional bioengineering approaches. In this study, a four-dimensional (4D) cardiac patch with physiological adaptability has been printed by beam-scanning stereolithography

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Bioinspired oral delivery of gut microbiota by self-coating with biofilms
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Xinyue Wang, Zhenping Cao, Mengmeng Zhang, Lu Meng, Zunzhen Ming, Jinyao Liu

    Transplanting beneficial bacteria to the gut microbiome can positively modulate the bacterial composition and remains of great interest in prevention and treatment. However, environmental assaults and rapid transit times in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract result in low oral bioavailability and limited intestinal colonization. Here, we describe a bioinspired strategy of self-coating with biofilms that

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Iceland is an episodic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles relevant for mixed-phase clouds
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    A. Sanchez-Marroquin, O. Arnalds, K. J. Baustian-Dorsi, J. Browse, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, A. D. Harrison, E. C. Maters, K. J. Pringle, J. Vergara-Temprado, I. T. Burke, J. B. McQuaid, K. S. Carslaw, B. J. Murray

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have the potential to remove much of the liquid water in climatically important mid- to high-latitude shallow supercooled clouds, markedly reducing their albedo. The INP sources at these latitudes are very poorly defined, but it is known that there are substantial dust sources across the high latitudes, such as Iceland. Here, we show that Icelandic dust emissions are

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Functional role of respiratory supercomplexes in mice: SCAF1 relevance and segmentation of the Qpool
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Enrique Calvo, Sara Cogliati, Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Marta Loureiro-López, Adela Guarás, Rafael A. Casuso, Fernando García-Marqués, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Yolanda Martí-Mateos, JC. Silla-Castro, Marta Carro-Alvarellos, Jesús R. Huertas, Jesús Vázquez, J. A. Enríquez

    Mitochondrial respiratory complexes assemble into supercomplexes (SC). Q-respirasome (III2 + IV) requires the supercomplex assembly factor (SCAF1) protein. The role of this factor in the N-respirasome (I + III2 + IV) and the physiological role of SCs are controversial. Here, we study C57BL/6J mice harboring nonfunctional SCAF1, the full knockout for SCAF1, or the wild-type version of the protein and

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Gate-tunable van der Waals heterostructure for reconfigurable neural network vision sensor
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Chen-Yu Wang, Shi-Jun Liang, Shuang Wang, Pengfei Wang, Zhu’an Li, Zhongrui Wang, Anyuan Gao, Chen Pan, Chuan Liu, Jian Liu, Huafeng Yang, Xiaowei Liu, Wenhao Song, Cong Wang, Bin Cheng, Xiaomu Wang, Kunji Chen, Zhenlin Wang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, J. Joshua Yang, Feng Miao

    Early processing of visual information takes place in the human retina. Mimicking neurobiological structures and functionalities of the retina provides a promising pathway to achieving vision sensor with highly efficient image processing. Here, we demonstrate a prototype vision sensor that operates via the gate-tunable positive and negative photoresponses of the van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructures

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Methanol conversion on borocarbonitride catalysts: Identification and quantification of active sites
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Xuefei Zhang, Pengqiang Yan, Junkang Xu, Fan Li, Felix Herold, Bastian J. M. Etzold, Peng Wang, Dang Sheng Su, Sen Lin, Wei Qi, Zailai Xie

    Borocarbonitrides (BCNs) have emerged as highly selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction. However, there is a lack of in-depth understanding of the catalytic mechanism over BCN catalysts due to the complexity of the surface oxygen functional groups. Here, BCN nanotubes with multiple active sites are synthesized for oxygen-assisted methanol conversion reaction. The catalyst

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Foraging behavior links sea ice to breeding success in Antarctic penguins
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Kentaro Ito, Nobuo Kokubun, Akinori Takahashi

    Population trends and breeding success variability of Adélie penguins, a bioindicator of Antarctic environments, have been attributed to changing sea-ice extents; however, causative mechanisms remain unclear. By electronically tagging 175 penguins in four seasons with contrasting sea-ice conditions, we show that ice-free environments enhance, not deteriorate, foraging efficiencies and breeding success

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Emergent quantum Hall effects below 50 mT in a two-dimensional topological insulator
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Saquib Shamim, Wouter Beugeling, Jan Böttcher, Pragya Shekhar, Andreas Budewitz, Philipp Leubner, Lukas Lunczer, Ewelina M. Hankiewicz, Hartmut Buhmann, Laurens W. Molenkamp

    The realization of the quantum spin Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells has led to the development of topological materials, which, in combination with magnetism and superconductivity, are predicted to host chiral Majorana fermions. However, the large magnetization in conventional quantum anomalous Hall systems makes it challenging to induce superconductivity. Here, we report two different emergent quantum

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Vaccine-mediated protection against Campylobacter-associated enteric disease
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Benjamin K. Quintel, Kamm Prongay, Anne D. Lewis, Hans-Peter Raué, Sara Hendrickson, Nicholas S. Rhoades, Ilhem Messaoudi, Lina Gao, Mark K. Slifka, Ian J. Amanna

    Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni are responsible for 400 million to 500 million cases of enteric disease each year and represent the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite its global importance, Campylobacter vaccine development has been hampered by the lack of animal models that recapitulate human disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe a naturally occurring

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Sequential deconstruction of composite drug transport in metastatic breast cancer
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Shreya Goel, Guodong Zhang, Prashant Dogra, Sara Nizzero, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang, Zhenhua Hu, Zheng Li, Xuewu Liu, Haifa Shen, Mauro Ferrari

    It is challenging to design effective drug delivery systems (DDS) that target metastatic breast cancers (MBC) because of lack of competent imaging and image analysis protocols that suitably capture the interactions between DDS and metastatic lesions. Here, we integrate high temporal resolution of in vivo whole-body PET-CT, ex vivo whole-organ optical imaging, high spatial resolution of confocal microscopy

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • A dopamine-induced gene expression signature regulates neuronal function and cocaine response
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Katherine E. Savell, Jennifer J. Tuscher, Morgan E. Zipperly, Corey G. Duke, Robert A. Phillips, Allison J. Bauman, Saakshi Thukral, Faraz A. Sultan, Nicholas A. Goska, Lara Ianov, Jeremy J. Day

    Drugs of abuse elevate dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and alter transcriptional programs believed to promote long-lasting synaptic and behavioral adaptations. Here, we leveraged single-nucleus RNA-sequencing to generate a comprehensive molecular atlas of cell subtypes in the NAc, defining both sex-specific and cell type–specific responses to acute cocaine experience in a rat model system

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • XAF1 as a modifier of p53 function and cancer susceptibility
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Emilia M. Pinto, Bonald C. Figueiredo, Wenan Chen, Henrique C.R. Galvao, Maria Nirvana Formiga, Maria Candida B.V. Fragoso, Patricia Ashton-Prolla, Enilze M.S.F. Ribeiro, Gabriela Felix, Tatiana E.B. Costa, Sharon A. Savage, Meredith Yeager, Edenir I. Palmero, Sahlua Volc, Hector Salvador, Jose Luis Fuster-Soler, Cinzia Lavarino, Guillermo Chantada, Dominique Vaur, Vicente Odone-Filho, Laurence Brugières

    Cancer risk is highly variable in carriers of the common TP53-R337H founder allele, possibly due to the influence of modifier genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a variant in the tumor suppressor XAF1 (E134*/Glu134Ter/rs146752602) in a subset of R337H carriers. Haplotype-defining variants were verified in 203 patients with cancer, 582 relatives, and 42,438 newborns. The compound mutant haplotype

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Single yeast cell nanomotions correlate with cellular activity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Ronnie G. Willaert, Pieterjan Vanden Boer, Anton Malovichko, Mitchel Alioscha-Perez, Ksenija Radotić, Dragana Bartolić, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Maria Ines Villalba, Dominique Sanglard, Giovanni Dietler, Hichem Sahli, Sandor Kasas

    Living single yeast cells show a specific cellular motion at the nanometer scale with a magnitude that is proportional to the cellular activity of the cell. We characterized this cellular nanomotion pattern of nonattached single yeast cells using classical optical microscopy. The distribution of the cellular displacements over a short time period is distinct from random motion. The range and shape

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Context for interpreting equilibrium climate sensitivity and transient climate response from the CMIP6 Earth system models
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Gerald A. Meehl, Catherine A. Senior, Veronika Eyring, Gregory Flato, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Ronald J. Stouffer, Karl E. Taylor, Manuel Schlund

    For the current generation of earth system models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), the range of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS, a hypothetical value of global warming at equilibrium for a doubling of CO2) is 1.8°C to 5.6°C, the largest of any generation of models dating to the 1990s. Meanwhile, the range of transient climate response (TCR, the surface

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Chronic alcohol consumption alters extracellular space geometry and transmitter diffusion in the brain
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Silvia De Santis, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Raquel Garcia-Hernandez, Lesia Dmytrenko, Lydia Vargova, Ivan Vorisek, Serena Stopponi, Patrick Bach, Peter Kirsch, Falk Kiefer, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Eva Sykova, David Moratal, Wolfgang H. Sommer, Santiago Canals

    Already moderate alcohol consumption has detrimental long-term effects on brain function. However, how alcohol produces its potent addictive effects despite being a weak reinforcer is a poorly understood conundrum that likely hampers the development of successful interventions to limit heavy drinking. In this translational study, we demonstrate widespread increased mean diffusivity in the brain gray

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • A kinase bioscavenger provides antibiotic resistance by extremely tight substrate binding
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Stanislav S. Terekhov, Yuliana A. Mokrushina, Anton S. Nazarov, Alexander Zlobin, Arthur Zalevsky, Gleb Bourenkov, Andrey Golovin, Alexey Belogurov, Ilya A. Osterman, Alexandra A. Kulikova, Vladimir A. Mitkevich, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E. Turk, Matthias Wilmanns, Ivan V. Smirnov, Sidney Altman, Alexander G. Gabibov

    Microbial communities are self-controlled by repertoires of lethal agents, the antibiotics. In their turn, these antibiotics are regulated by bioscavengers that are selected in the course of evolution. Kinase-mediated phosphorylation represents one of the general strategies for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. A new subfamily of AmiN-like kinases, isolated from the Siberian bear microbiome,

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Impact of mRNA chemistry and manufacturing process on innate immune activation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Jennifer Nelson, Elizabeth W. Sorensen, Shrutika Mintri, Amy E. Rabideau, Wei Zheng, Gilles Besin, Nikhil Khatwani, Stephen V. Su, Edward J. Miracco, William J. Issa, Stephen Hoge, Matthew G. Stanton, John L. Joyal

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) represents an attractive therapeutic modality for potentially a wide range of clinical indications but requires uridine chemistry modification and/or tuning of the production process to prevent activation of cellular innate immune sensors and a concomitant reduction in protein expression. To decipher the relative contributions of these factors on immune activation, here, we compared

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Coordinated regulation of cellular identity–associated H3K4me3 breadth by the COMPASS family
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Christie C. Sze, Patrick A. Ozark, Kaixiang Cao, Michal Ugarenko, Siddhartha Das, Lu Wang, Stacy A. Marshall, Emily J. Rendleman, Caila A. Ryan, Didi Zha, Delphine Douillet, Fei Xavier Chen, Ali Shilatifard

    Set1A and Set1B, two members of the COMPASS family of methyltransferases that methylate the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) residue, have been accredited as primary depositors of global H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in mammalian cells. Our previous studies in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) demonstrated that deleting the enzymatic SET domain of Set1A does not perturb bulk H3K4me3, indicating possible

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Carbon nanocarriers deliver siRNA to intact plant cells for efficient gene knockdown
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Gozde S. Demirer, Huan Zhang, Natalie S. Goh, Rebecca L. Pinals, Roger Chang, Markita P. Landry

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a powerful tool to understand and control plant metabolic pathways, which is central to plant biotechnology. PTGS is commonly accomplished through delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cells. Standard plant siRNA delivery methods (Agrobacterium and viruses) involve coding siRNA into DNA vectors and are only tractable for certain plant species. Here

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Stress-responsive MTK1 SAPKKK serves as a redox sensor that mediates delayed and sustained activation of SAPKs by oxidative stress
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Moe Matsushita, Takanori Nakamura, Hisashi Moriizumi, Hiroaki Miki, Mutsuhiro Takekawa

    Cells respond to oxidative stress by inducing intracellular signaling, including stress-activated p38 and JNK MAPK (SAPK) pathways, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that the MAP three kinase 1 (MTK1) SAPK kinase kinase (SAPKKK) functions as an oxidative-stress sensor that perceives the cellular redox state and transduces it into SAPK signaling. Following oxidative stress

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Anisotropic and hierarchical SiC@SiO2 nanowire aerogel with exceptional stiffness and stability for thermal superinsulation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Lei Su, Hongjie Wang, Min Niu, Sheng Dai, Zhixin Cai, Biguo Yang, Huaixun Huyan, Xiaoqing Pan

    Ceramic aerogels are promising lightweight and high-efficient thermal insulators for applications in buildings, industry, and aerospace vehicles but are usually limited by their brittleness and structural collapse at high temperatures. In recent years, fabricating nanostructure-based ultralight materials has been proved to be an effective way to realize the resilience of ceramic aerogels. However,

    更新日期:2020-06-25
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