• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
Ali Barzegar

QBism is one of the main candidates for an epistemic interpretation of quantum mechanics. According to QBism, the quantum state or the wavefunction represents the subjective degrees of belief of the agent assigning the state. But, although the quantum state is not part of the furniture of the world, quantum mechanics grasps the real via the Born rule which is a consistency condition for the probability

更新日期：2020-05-19
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
Holger F. Hofmann

The Hilbert space formalism describes causality as a statistical relation between initial experimental conditions and final measurement outcomes, expressed by the inner products of state vectors representing these conditions. This representation of causality is in fundamental conflict with the classical notion that causality should be expressed in terms of the continuity of intermediate realities.

更新日期：2020-05-18
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
Detlev Buchholz, Klaus Fredenhagen

The essence of the path integral method in quantum physics can be expressed in terms of two relations between unitary propagators, describing perturbations of the underlying system. They inherit the causal structure of the theory and its invariance properties under variations of the action. These relations determine a dynamical algebra of bounded operators which encodes all properties of the corresponding

更新日期：2020-05-04
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
Per Arve

Everett’s Relative State Interpretation has gained increasing interest due to the progress of understanding the role of decoherence. In order to fulfill its promise as a realistic description of the physical world, two postulates are formulated. In short they are (1) for a system with continuous coordinates $${\mathbf {x}}$$, discrete variable j, and state $$\psi _j({\mathbf {x}})$$, the density $$\rho 更新日期：2020-04-26 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-15 Victoria J. Wright, Stefan Weigert The authors would like to make the corrections to the original article described below. 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-02-18 Robert C. Bishop, George F. R. Ellis Contextual emergence was originally proposed as an inter-level relation between different levels of description to describe an epistemic notion of emergence in physics. Here, we discuss the ontic extension of this relation to different domains or levels of physical reality using the properties of temperature and molecular shape (chirality) as detailed case studies. We emphasize the concepts of stability 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-03-09 R. E. Kastner The Frauchiger–Renner Paradox is an extension of paradoxes based on the “Problem of Measurement,” such as Schrödinger’s Cat and Wigner’s Friend. All these paradoxes stem from assuming that quantum theory has only unitary (linear) physical dynamics, and the attendant ambiguity about what counts as a ‘measurement’—i.e., the inability to account for the observation of determinate measurement outcomes 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-03-27 G. B. Mainland, Bernard Mulligan There are two types of fluctuations in the quantum vacuum: type 1 vacuum fluctuations are on shell and can interact with matter in specific, limited ways that have observable consequences; type 2 vacuum fluctuations are off shell and cannot interact with matter. A photon will polarize a type 1, bound, charged lepton–antilepton vacuum fluctuation in much the same manner that it would polarize a dielectric 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-04 Michał Drągowski, Marta Włodarczyk Fundamental incompatibility arises at the interface of quantum mechanics and the special theory of relativity with Einstein synchronization, in which simultaneity is not absolute. It has, however, been shown that a relativistic theory preserving absolute simultaneity allows to formulate Lorentz-covariant quantum theory, at a price of introducing a preferred frame of reference manifesting itself in 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-03-14 Juliusz Doboszewski Two interesting “no hole” spacetime properties (being epistemically hole free (g), not being future nakedly singular) are unstable in the fine topology. 更新日期：2020-04-23 • Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-03-02 Eric Ling We show that the big bang is a coordinate singularity for a large class of \(k = -1$$ inflationary FLRW spacetimes which we have dubbed ‘Milne-like.’ By introducing a new set of coordinates, the big bang appears as a past boundary of the universe where the metric is no longer degenerate—a result which has already been investigated in the context of vacuum decay (Coleman and De Luccia in Phys Rev D

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
Guang Ping He

Recently, Frauchiger and Renner proposed a Gedankenexperiment, which was claimed to be able to prove that quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself. Here we show that the conclusions of Frauchiger and Renner actually came from their incorrect description of some quantum states. With the correct description there will be no inconsistent results, no matter which quantum interpretation

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-09
Ingemar Bengtsson

The problem of constructing maximal equiangular tight frames or SICs was raised by Zauner in 1998. Four years ago it was realized that the problem is closely connected to a major open problem in number theory. We discuss why such a connection was perhaps to be expected, and give a simplified sketch of some developments that have taken place in the past 4 years. The aim, so far unfulfilled, is to prove

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
Pierre Uzan

This paper shows that the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt test of locality of correlations which was originally designed to be used with binary observables can actually be used for any couples of quantum-like bounded continuous observables, and then for any experimental situation describable within the mathematical framework of quantum theory.

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
Joshua Norton

The Hole Argument was originally formulated by Einstein and it haunted him as he struggled to understand the meaning of spacetime coordinates in the context of the diffeomorphism invariance of general relativity. This argument has since been put to philosophical use by Earman and Norton (Br J Philos Sci 515–525, 1987) to argue against a substantival conception of spacetime. In the present work I demonstrate

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-10-04

The Hole Argument is primarily about the meaning of general covariance in general relativity. As such it raises many deep issues about identity in mathematics and physics, the ontology of space–time, and how scientific representation works. This paper is about the application of a new foundational programme in mathematics, namely homotopy type theory (HoTT), to the Hole Argument. It is argued that

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-05-04
Neil Dewar

This is an essay about general covariance, and what it says (or doesn’t say) about spacetime structure. After outlining a version of the dynamical approach to spacetime theories, and how it struggles to deal with generally covariant theories, I argue that we should think about the symmetry structure of spacetime rather differently in generally-covariant theories compared to non-generally-covariant

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
John Dougherty

I apply homotopy type theory (HoTT) to the hole argument as formulated by Earman and Norton. I argue that HoTT gives a precise sense in which diffeomorphism-related Lorentzian manifolds represent the same spacetime, undermining Earman and Norton’s verificationist dilemma and common formulations of the hole argument. However, adopting this account does not alleviate worries about determinism: general

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2018-12-05
Carolyn Brighouse

I illustrate a challenge to a view that is a response to the Hole Argument. The view, sophisticated substantivalism, has been claimed to be the received view. While sophisticated substantivalism has many defenders, there is a fundamental tension in the view that has not received the attention it deserves. Anyone who defends or endorses sophisticated substantivalism, should acknowledge this challenge

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
Bryan W. Roberts, James Owen Weatherall

This special issue of Foundations of Physics collects together articles representing some recent new perspectives on the hole argument in the history and philosophy of physics. Our task here is to introduce those new perspectives.

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
Bryan W. Roberts

Leibniz Equivalence is a principle of applied mathematics that is widely assumed in both general relativity textbooks and in the philosophical literature on Einstein’s hole argument. In this article, I clarify an ambiguity in the statement of this Leibniz Equivalence, and argue that the relevant expression of it for the hole argument is strictly false. I then show that the hole argument still succeeds

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-02-10

We address a recent proposal concerning ‘surplus structure’ due to Nguyen et al. (Br J Phi Sci, 2018). We argue that the sense of ‘surplus structure’ captured by their formal criterion is importantly different from—and in a sense, opposite to—another sense of ‘surplus structure’ used by philosophers. We argue that minimizing structure in one sense is generally incompatible with minimizing structure

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2018-08-25
Samuel C. Fletcher

Recent work on the hole argument in general relativity by Weatherall (Br J Philos Sci 69(2):329–350, 2018) has drawn attention to the neglected concept of (mathematical) models’ representational capacities. I argue for several theses about the structure of these capacities, including that they should be understood not as many-to-one relations from models to the world, but in general as many-to-many

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
Saeed Naif Turki Al-Rashid, Mohammed A. Z. Habeeb, Tugdual S. LeBohec

Applying the resolution–scale relativity principle to develop a mechanics of non-differentiable dynamical paths, we find that, in one dimension, stationary motion corresponds to an Itô process driven by the solutions of a Riccati equation. We verify that the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation is solved for a probability density corresponding to the squared modulus of the solution of the Schrödinger

更新日期：2020-04-23
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
Márton Gömöri

Contemporary debate over laws of nature centers around Humean supervenience, the thesis that everything supervenes on the distribution of non-nomic facts. The key ingredient of this thesis is the idea that nomic-like concepts—law, chance, causation, etc.—are expressible in terms of the regularities of non-nomic facts. Inherent to this idea is the tacit conviction that regularities, “constant conjunctions”

更新日期：2020-02-14
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
Tim Maudlin

The meaning and truth conditions for claims about physical modality and causation have been considered problematic since Hume’s empiricist critique. But the underlying semantic commitments that follow from Hume’s empiricism about ideas have long been abandoned by the philosophical community. Once the consequences of that abandonment are properly appreciated, the problems of physical modality and causal

更新日期：2020-01-30
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
Balázs Gyenis

We call attention to different formulations of how physical laws relate to what is physically possible in the philosophical literature, and argue that it may be the case that determinism fails under one formulation but reigns under the other. Whether this is so depends on our view on the nature of laws, and may also depend on the inter-theoretical relationships among our best physical theories, or

更新日期：2020-01-21
• Found. Phys. Pub Date : 2019-06-01

A fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics is that all microstates in an isolated system are equally probable. This postulate, which goes back to Boltzmann, has often been criticized for not having a clear physical foundation. In this note, we provide a derivation of the canonical (Boltzmann) distribution that avoids this postulate. In its place, we impose two axioms with physical interpretations

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Found. Phys. Pub Date : 2018-11-06
Howard Barnum,Ciarán M Lee,John H Selby

We investigate the connection between interference and computational power within the operationally defined framework of generalised probabilistic theories. To compare the computational abilities of different theories within this framework we show that any theory satisfying four natural physical principles possess a well-defined oracle model. Indeed, we prove a subroutine theorem for oracles in such

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Found. Phys. Pub Date : 2017-03-21
Jakob Kellner

In an attempt to demonstrate that local hidden variables are mathematically possible, Pitowsky constructed "spin-[Formula: see text] functions" and later "Kolmogorovian models", which employs a nonstandard notion of probability. We describe Pitowsky's analysis and argue (with the benefit of hindsight) that his notion of hidden variables is in fact just super-determinism (and accordingly physically

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Found. Phys. Pub Date : 2014-01-01
Maurice A de Gosson

The aim of the famous Born and Jordan 1925 paper was to put Heisenberg's matrix mechanics on a firm mathematical basis. Born and Jordan showed that if one wants to ensure energy conservation in Heisenberg's theory it is necessary and sufficient to quantize observables following a certain ordering rule. One apparently unnoticed consequence of this fact is that Schrödinger's wave mechanics cannot be

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Found. Phys. Pub Date : 2013-01-01
Maurice A de Gosson

Quantum blobs are the smallest phase space units of phase space compatible with the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics and having the symplectic group as group of symmetries. Quantum blobs are in a bijective correspondence with the squeezed coherent states from standard quantum mechanics, of which they are a phase space picture. This allows us to propose a substitute for phase space in quantum

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
Joanna Luc

In this paper non-Hausdorff manifolds as potential basic objects of General Relativity are investigated. One can distinguish four stages of identifying an appropriate mathematical structure to describe physical systems: kinematic, dynamical, physical reasonability, and empirical. The thesis of this paper is that in the context of General Relativity, non-Hausdorff manifolds pass the first two stages

更新日期：2019-08-28
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
László E. Szabó

On the basis of what I call physico-formalist philosophy of mathematics, I will develop an amended account of the Kantian–Reichenbachian conception of constitutive a priori. It will be shown that the features (attributes, qualities, properties) attributed to a real object are not possessed by the object as a “thing-in-itself”; they require a physical theory by means of which these features are constituted

更新日期：2019-07-15
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-06-29
Tomasz Placek

The possibility question concerns the status of possibilities: do they form an irreducible category of the external reality, or are they merely features of our cognitive framework? If fundamental physics is ever to shed light on this issue, it must be done by some future theory that unifies insights of general relativity and quantum mechanics. The paper investigates one programme of this kind, namely

更新日期：2019-06-29
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
Thomas Müller

In this paper we describe a novel approach to defining an ontologically fundamental notion of co-presentness that does not go against the tenets of relativity theory. We survey the possible reactions to the problem of the present in relativity theory, introducing a terminological distinction between a static role of the present, which is served by the relation of simultaneity, and a dynamic role of

更新日期：2019-06-14
• Found. Phys. (IF 1.344) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
Samuel C. Fletcher

Based on three common interpretive commitments in general relativity, I raise a conceptual problem for the usual identification, in that theory, of timelike curves as those that represent the possible histories of (test) particles in spacetime. This problem affords at least three different solutions, depending on different representational and ontological assumptions one makes about the nature of (test)

更新日期：2019-05-14
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