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  • Shaking Table Test on Dynamic Response of Bedding Rock Slopes With Weak Structural Plane Under Earthquake
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Changwei Yang; Liang Zhang; Yang Liu; Denghang Tian; Xueyan Guo; Yang Liu

    Taking a bedding rock slope with weak structural plane as the prototype, a shaking table test with a similarity ratio of 1:10 is designed and carried out. By analyzing the acceleration and displacement responses at different positions of the slope, the seismic response and instability mechanism of rock bedding slope under different seismic amplitudes, frequencies, and durations are studied. Before

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Modeling Growth, Containment and Decay of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Italy
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Francesco Capuano

    A careful inspection of the cumulative curve of confirmed COVID-19 infections in Italy and in other hard-hit countries reveals three distinct phases: i) an initial exponential growth (unconstrained phase), ii) an algebraic, power-law growth (containment phase), and iii) a relatively slow decay. We propose a parsimonious compartment model based on a time-dependent rate of depletion of the susceptible

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Delivery, Beam and Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy in a Highly Innovative Integrated Design
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    L. Bottura; E. Felcini; V. Ferrero; E. Fiorina; V. Monaco; F. Pennazio; G. de Rijk; P. Cerello

    The design of a particle therapy system that integrates an innovative beam delivery concept based on a static toroidal gantry and an imaging configuration suitable for beam and online range monitoring is proposed and discussed. Such approach would provide a compact and cost-effective layout, with a highly flexible and fast beam delivery, single particle counting capability for fast measurement of beam

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Entropy Production in an Elementary, Light Driven Micro-Machine
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Stuart J. Box; Michael P. Allen; David B. Phillips; Stephen H. Simpson

    We consider the basic, thermodynamic properties of an elementary micro-machine operating at colloidal length scales. In particular, we track and analyze the driven stochastic motion of a carefully designed micro-propeller rotating unevenly in an optical tweezers, in water. In this intermediate regime, the second law of macroscopic thermodynamics is satisfied only as an ensemble average, and individual

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Influence of the Concentration of Fe and Cu Nanoparticles on the Dynamics of the Size Distribution of Nanoparticles
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Sergey V. Gudkov; Ilya V. Baimler; Oleg V. Uvarov; Veronika V. Smirnova; Mikhail Yu Volkov; Anastasia A. Semenova; Andrey B. Lisitsyn

    The evolution of the size distribution of nanoparticles depending on the concentration of nanoparticles in a colloidal solution is investigated. The formation of new stable distributions shifted relative to the initial distribution is directly related to the processes of agglomeration of nanoparticles. Using successive two-fold dilutions of nanoparticles by 2–32 times, it was shown that the maximum

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • The Concept of Cooperative Dynamics in Simulations of Soft Matter
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Piotr Polanowski; Andrzej Sikorski

    In this review we compiled recent advances concerning the cooperative motion in crowded soft matter systems. We tried to answer the question how to perform dynamic Monte Carlo simulations of dense macromolecular systems effectively. This problem is not simple due to the fact that the movement in such systems is strictly correlated which leads to cooperative phenomena. The influence of crowding was

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Optical Fiber Sensors for Metal Ions Detection Based on Novel Fluorescent Materials
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Yi Cai; Ming Li; Minghao Wang; Jin Li; Ya-nan Zhang; Yong Zhao

    Recently, novel fluorescent probes based on biomaterials and luminescent nanomaterials for metal ions attract tremendous attentions, owing to their advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity and rapid response for metals detection. Immobilized on the optical fiber sensor, fluorescent probes reveal the advantages while facing outdoor detection challenges. Therefore, numerous fluorescent optical

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Model of Continuous Random Cascade Processes in Financial Markets
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Jun-ichi Maskawa; Koji Kuroda

    This article presents a continuous cascade model of volatility formulated as a stochastic differential equation. Two independent Brownian motions are introduced as random sources triggering the volatility cascade: one multiplicatively combines with volatility; the other does so additively. Assuming that the latter acts perturbatively on the system, the model parameters are estimated by the application

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Analysis of Stock Price Motion Asymmetry via Visibility-Graph Algorithm
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Ruiyun Liu; Yu Chen

    This paper is the first to differentiate between concave and convex price motion trajectories by applying visibility-graph and invisibility-graph algorithms to the analyses of stock indices. Concave and convex indicators for price increase and decrease motions are introduced to characterize accelerated and decelerated stock index increases and decreases. Upon comparing the distributions of these indicators

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Analyzing Branch‐specific Dendritic Spikes Using an Ultrafast Laser Scalpel
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Michael L. Castañares; Hans-A. Bachor; Vincent R. Daria

    Dendritic spikes facilitate neuronal computation and they have been reported to occur in various regions of the dendritic tree of cortical neurons. Spikes that occur only on a select few branches are particularly difficult to analyze especially in complex and intertwined dendritic arborizations where highly localized application of pharmacological blocking agents is not feasible. Here, we present a

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Breather Structures and Peregrine Solitons in a Polarized Space Dusty Plasma
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Kuldeep Singh; N. S. Saini

    In this theoretical investigation, we have examined the combined effects of nonthermally revamped polarization force on modulational instability MI of dust acoustic waves DAWs and evolution of different kinds of dust acoustic (DA) breathers in a dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust as fluid, Maxwellian electrons, and ions obeying Cairns’ nonthermal distribution. The nonthermality of ions

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Dynamic Network Connectedness of Bitcoin Markets: Evidence from Realized Volatility
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Shuanglian Chen; Hao Dong

    In this paper, we explore the volatility spillovers across different Bitcoin markets. We decompose the realized volatility into common and idiosyncratic volatilities, as well as the good and bad volatilities. Then the asymmetry in volatility spillovers between Bitcoin markets is measured by the DY (Diebold and Yilmaz) index. In addition, we construct statistics to test the asymmetry in volatility spillovers

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Preclinical Challenges in Proton Minibeam Radiotherapy: Physics and Biomedical Aspects
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Gerd Datzmann; Matthias Sammer; Stefanie Girst; Michael Mayerhofer; Günther Dollinger; Judith Reindl

    The concept of spatial fractionation in radiotherapy was developed for better sparing of normal tissue in the entrance channel of radiation. Spatial fractionation utilizing proton minibeam radiotherapy (pMBRT) promises to be advantageous compared to X-ray minibeams due to higher dose conformity at the tumor. Preclinical in vivo experiments conducted with pMBRT in mouse ear models or in rat brains support

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Stereo Perfect Metamaterial Absorber Based on Standing Gear-Shaped Resonant Structure With Wide-Incident-Angle Stability
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Guangsheng Deng; Kun Lv; Hanxiao Sun; Zhiping Yin; Jun Yang

    In this work, a single-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on a three dimensional (3D) resonant structure is presented. The unit cell is composed of a standing gear-shaped resonator, which is embedded in the dielectric substrate. The proposed 3D MA is ultrathin with a total thickness of 2.3 mm, corresponding 0.077λ0 at its center frequency. The simulation results demonstrate a high absorption peak

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Defective Titanium Dioxide-supported Ultrasmall Au Clusters for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Xiaoqin Zhang; Wenna Zhang; Yuanmei Xu; Mingliang Jin

    Ultrasmall precious metal clusters have attracted extensive attention for providing a very specific surface and promoting electron transfer. In this work, ultrasmall Au clusters based on defective TiO2 nanosheets (Au/D-TiO2) were prepared and introduced into photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Different defects of TiO2 nanosheets (D-TiO2) were constructed using a heating process and then loaded with

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • The Effect of Solar-Wind Turbulence on Magnetospheric Activity
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    R. D’Amicis; D. Telloni; R. Bruno

    The solar wind is a highly turbulent medium exhibiting scalings of the fluctuations ranging over several decades of scales from the correlation length down to proton and electron gyroradii, thus suggesting a self-similar nature for these fluctuations. During its journey, the solar wind encounters the region of space surrounding Earth dominated by the geomagnetic field which is called magnetosphere

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Developments and Recent Progresses in Microwave Impedance Microscope
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Zhaoqi Zhong; Xiaolong Chen; Xing Quan; Huiting Huan; Fushun Nian; Shengli Liang; Yanhong Yang

    Microwave impedance microscope (MIM) is a near-field microwave technology which has low emission energy and can detect samples without any damages. It has numerous advantages, which can appreciably suppress the common-mode signal as the sensing probe separates from the excitation electrode, and it is an effective device to represent electrical properties with high spatial resolution. This article reviews

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Developing a Photoacoustic Whole-Breast Imaging System Based on the Synthetic Matrix Array
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Guangjie Zhang; Wenzhao Li; Meng Yang; Changhui Li

    In this study, we reported a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system for whole-breast imaging. Similar to the traditional X-ray mammography, this system slightly compressed the breast by a water tank. The PA signal is acquired via scanning a long unfocused ultrasonic linear array probe over the breast top surface, and the expanded high-energy laser pulses illuminate the breast bottom through a transparent

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • On Topological Indices of mth Chain Hex-Derived Network of Third Type
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Yuhong Huo; Haidar Ali; Muhammad Ahsan Binyamin; Syed Sheraz Asghar; Usman Babar; Jia-Bao Liu

    In theoretical chemistry, the numerical parameters that are used to characterize the molecular topology of graphs are called topological indices. Several physical and chemical properties like boiling point, entropy, heat formation, and vaporization enthalpy of chemical compounds can be determined through these topological indices. Graph theory has a considerable use in evaluating the relation of various

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • The MONDO Tracker: Characterisation and Study of Secondary Ultrafast Neutrons Production in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Marco Toppi; Giuseppe Battistoni; Alessandro Bochetti; Patrizia De Maria; Micol De Simoni; Yunsheng Dong; Marta Fischetti; Gaia Franciosini; Leonardo Gasparini; Marco Magi; Enrico Manuzzato; Ilaria Mattei; Riccardo Mirabelli; Silvia Muraro; Luca Parmesan; Vincenzo Patera; Matteo Perenzoni; Alessio Sarti; Angelo Schiavi; Adalberto Sciubba; Giacomo Traini; Serena Marta Valle; Michela Marafini

    Secondary neutrons produced in particle therapy (PT) treatments are responsible for the delivery of a large fraction of the out-of-target dose as they feebly interact with the patient body. To properly account for their contribution to the total dose delivered to the patient, a high precision experimental characterisation of their production energy and angular distributions is eagerly needed. The experimental

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Estimating the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Auger Electron Emitter 123I in Human Lymphocytes
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Hein Fourie; Shankari Nair; Xanthene Miles; Daniel Rossouw; Philip Beukes; Richard T. Newman; Jan Rijn Zeevaart; Charlot Vandevoorde; Jacobus Slabbert

    Auger electron emitters are considered to be a promising strategy for targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic diseases, given their high linear energy transfer (LET) and short range in tissue which could potentially limit normal tissue toxicity. Particularly Auger electron emitters that can be targeted into the DNA of tumor cells have been considered as an attractive cancer therapy in the past

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • On the Time Shift Phenomena in Epidemic Models
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Ayse Peker-Dobie; Ali Demirci; Ayse Humeyra Bilge; Semra Ahmetolan

    In the standard Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) and Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) models, the peak of infected individuals coincides with the inflection point of removed individuals. Nevertheless, a survey based on the data of the 2009 H1N1 epidemic in Istanbul, Turkey displayed a time shift between the hospital referrals and fatalities. An analysis of recent COVID-19 data and the

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Whither Now, Opinion Modelers?
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Pawel Sobkowicz

    The article describes the current status and potential directions of development of agent-based models of social opinion dynamics. Despite extensive effort, the models achieve, at best, only qualitative agreement with social observations. To understand the increasingly pressing issues such as all-encompassing political and social polarization, resurgence of fundamentalist and populist movements, persistence

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Peregrine Solitons on a Periodic Background in the Vector Cubic-Quintic Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Yanlin Ye; Lili Bu; Wanwan Wang; Shihua Chen; Fabio Baronio; Dumitru Mihalache

    We present exact explicit Peregrine soliton solutions based on a periodic-wave background caused by the interference in the vector cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation involving the self-steepening effect. It is shown that such periodic Peregrine soliton solutions can be expressed as a linear superposition of two fundamental Peregrine solitons of different continuous-wave backgrounds. Because

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Structural Vulnerability Analysis of Partially Interdependent Networks: The Joint Influence of Interdependence and Local Worlds
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Jiawei Wang; Shiwen Sun; Li Wang; Chengyi Xia

    Previous studies have verified that the local-world mechanism can greatly affect the structural properties and dynamical processes occurring on isolated complex networks; however, the impact of local-world mechanism on structural vulnerability of interdependent systems is still not efficiently explored. Therefore, in this study, the joint influence of interdependence and local worlds on attack vulnerability

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • The Quantitative Comparison Between the Neuronal Network and the Cosmic Web
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    F. Vazza; A. Feletti

    We investigate the similarities between two of the most challenging and complex systems in Nature: the network of neuronal cells in the human brain, and the cosmic network of galaxies. We explore the structural, morphological, network properties and the memory capacity of these two fascinating systems, with a quantitative approach. In order to have an homogeneous analysis of both systems, our procedure

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Research on the Metasurface for Single-Photon Avalanche Photodiode
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Tianqi Zhao; Linyao Chen; Sunhao Zhang; Yuyang Ye; Chuang Liu; Yan Shi; Ying Tian; Rui Xu; Yi Chen

    As the core device of the quantum information field, the single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) is a solid-state single photon detector with a pico-second level time-resolution, low bias voltage, high signal-to-noise ratio, and a low cost. However, the photon detection efficiency (PDE) of SPAD is not ideal. The traditional method is to optimize the device structure, while the dark count or time

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Ionizing Radiation Effects on Hs 578Bst Microtubules
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    L. Bruni; M. Manghi; E. Gioscio; V. Caorsi; F. M. Rizzi; S. Croci

    Microtubules are one of the three components of the cell cytoskeleton. They are hollow wires, with a diameter of about 25 nm, formed by 13 laterally associated protofilaments composed by dimers of α and β-tubulin. Microtubules are dynamic structures which undergo constant modifications by shrinking and elongating in a phenomenon called treadmilling. Microtubules intervene in various fundamental aspects

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Four-Component Gas Detection Based on Two Off-Beam Acoustic Microresonators
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Cheng Wang; Zongliang Wang; Xiyu Pang

    A compact and portable quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy gas sensor was developed for four-component gas detection using two off-beam acoustic microresonators The two AMRs were placed in parallel on opposing sides of a quartz tuning fork for photoacoustic signal enhancement. Four distributed feedback (DFB) lasers were connected to the four ends of the two off-beam AMRs using a fiber collimator

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Fe-Vacancy-Ordered Fe4Se5: The Insulating Parent Phase of FeSe Superconductor
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Keng-Yu Yeh; Yan-Ruei Chen; Tung-Sheng Lo; Phillip M. Wu; Ming-Jye Wang; Kuei-Shu Chang-Liao; Maw-Kuen Wu

    We carried out a detailed study to investigate the existence of an insulating parent phase for FeSe superconductors. The insulating Fe4Se5 with √5 × √5 Fe-vacancy order shows a 3D-Mott variable-range-hopping behavior with a Verwey-like electronic correlation at around 45 K. The application of the RTA process at 450°C results in the destruction of Fe-vacancy order and induces more electron carriers

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Dosimetry for New Radiation Therapy Approaches Using High Energy Electron Accelerators
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Karolina Kokurewicz; Andreas Schüller; Enrico Brunetti; Anna Subiel; Rafael Kranzer; Thomas Hackel; Markus Meier; Ralf-Peter Kapsch; Dino A. Jaroszynski

    We have performed dosimetry studies using electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV, which exceed current clinical energy ranges and approaches the bottom end of the very high energy electron range. 50 MeV electron beams can reach deep-seated tumors. In contrast to photon beams, electron beams can be generated with ultra-high dose rates by linear accelerators, which could enable FLASH radiotherapy

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Steady-State 3D Trapping and Manipulation of Microbubbles Using Thermocapillary
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    F. M. Muñoz-Pérez; J. G. Ortega-Mendoza; A. Padilla-Vivanco; C. Toxqui-Quitl; J. A. Sarabia-Alonso; R. Ramos-García

    An experimental and theoretical study on the 3D trapping and manipulation of microbubbles by means low power laser-induced temperature gradients induced in ethanol by bulk light absorption (λ = 1550 nm) is presented. Two optical fibers were used: One for bubble generation (OFG) and the other for both trapping and manipulation (OFT). Light from a Q-switched pulsed laser (λ = 532 nm and pulse width τp

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Trend Analysis of COVID-19 Based on Network Topology Description
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jun Zhu; Yangqianzi Jiang; Tianrui Li; Huining Li; Qingshan Liu

    In this study, the trend of the epidemic situation of COVID-19 is analyzed based on the analysis method for network topology. Combining with the sliding window method, the dynamic networks with different topologies for each window are built to reflect the relationship of the data on different days. Then, the static statistical features on network topologies at different times are extracted during the

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Study of Sericite Quartz Schist Coarse-Grained Soil by Large-Scale Triaxial Shear Tests
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Hui-qing Zhang; Feng Zhao; Shi-qiang Cheng; Yan-qing Zhang; Ming-jie Gou; Hong-jun Jing; Hong-feng Zhi

    The large-scale triaxial consolidated-drained (CD) and consolidated-undrained (CU) shear tests were carried out to investigate performances of the sericite quartz schist coarse-grained soil on stress-strain, deformation, and strength under four different confining pressure conditions. The test results indicated that the stress-strain curve of sericite quartz schist was nonlinearity, compressive hardening

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Time Scales and Characteristics of Stock Markets in Different Investment Horizons
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Ajit Mahata; Md. Nurujjaman

    Investors adopt varied investment strategies depending on the time scales (τ) of short-term and long-term investment time horizons (ITH). The nature of the market is very different in various investment τ. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based Hurst exponents (H) and normalized variance (NV) techniques have been applied to identify the τ and characteristics of the market in different time horizons

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Diagnostic Methodologies of Laser-Initiated 11B(p,α)2α Fusion Reactions
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Fabrizio Consoli; Riccardo De Angelis; Pierluigi Andreoli; Aldo Bonasera; Mattia Cipriani; Giuseppe Cristofari; Giorgio Di Giorgio; Danilo Giulietti; Martina Salvadori

    The detection of the ionic products of low-rate fusion reactions, and in particular of the 11B(p,α)2α, is one of the recognized main problems in experiments where these reactions are initiated by tailored interaction of intense and high-energy lasers with matter. A thorough description of this important issue, with a critical comparison of the diagnostic opportunities, is indeed so far. In this work

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Mathematical Modeling Based Study and Prediction of COVID-19 Epidemic Dissemination Under the Impact of Lockdown in India
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Vipin Tiwari; Namrata Deyal; Nandan S. Bisht

    COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading in South Asian countries, especially in India. India is the fourth most COVID-19 affected country at present i.e., until July 10, 2020. With limited medical facilities and high transmission rate, the study of COVID-19 progression and its subsequent trajectory needs to be analyzed in India. Epidemiologic mathematical models have the potential to predict the

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Characterization of the Viscoelastic Properties of Ovarian Cancer Cells Membranes by Optical Tweezers and Quantitative Phase Imaging
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Thompson Lu; Bahman Anvari

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer in women. It is a highly metastatic disease with pelvis, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneal cavity as major sites for tumor deposits. Mechanical properties of ovarian cancer cells can play a major role in metastasis as the cells detach from the ovaries and undergo deformation during the metastatic process. Herein, we have characterized the viscoelastic

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Qudits and High-Dimensional Quantum Computing
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Yuchen Wang; Zixuan Hu; Barry C. Sanders; Sabre Kais

    Qudit is a multi-level computational unit alternative to the conventional 2-level qubit. Compared to qubit, qudit provides a larger state space to store and process information, and thus can provide reduction of the circuit complexity, simplification of the experimental setup and enhancement of the algorithm efficiency. This review provides an overview of qudit-based quantum computing covering a variety

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Tipping Points in Opinion Dynamics: A Universal Formula in Five Dimensions
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Serge Galam; Taksu Cheon

    A universal formula is shown to predict the dynamics of public opinion including eventual sudden and unexpected outbreaks of minority opinions within a generic parameter space of five dimensions. The formula is obtained by combining and extending several components of the Galam model of opinion dynamics, otherwise treated separately, into one single update equation, which then deploys in a social space

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Electronic and Superconducting Properties of Some FeSe-Based Single Crystals and Films Grown Hydrothermally
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Xiaoli Dong; Fang Zhou; Zhongxian Zhao

    Our recent year’s studies of the prototypal FeSe and molecule-intercalated (Li,Fe)OHFeSe superconductor systems are briefly reviewed here, with emphasis on the link between the superconducting and normal-state properties observed in the single crystals and films. These samples were successfully synthesized by our recently developed soft-chemical hydrothermal methods, which are also briefly described

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Can Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Affect the Interaction Between Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-COV-2 Spike and the Human ACE2 Receptor? A Computational Biophysical Study
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Lenin A. González-Paz; Carla A. Lossada; Francelys V. Fernández-Materán; J. L. Paz; Joan Vera-Villalobos; Ysaias J. Alvarado

    SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of infections and more than 600,000 deaths worldwide. Despite the large number of studies to date, there is no specifically effective treatment available for SARS-CoV-2. However, it has been proposed to target reused drugs with potential antiviral activity to the interface between the angiotensin-converting enzymes 2 (ACE2) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Monte Carlo Modeling of DNA Lesions and Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by Mixed Beams of Alpha Particles and X-Rays
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Beata Brzozowska; Adrianna Tartas; Andrzej Wojcik

    Prediction of health risks associated with exposure to mixed beams of high- and low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation is based on the assumption that the biological effect caused by mixed radiation equals the sum of effects resulting from the action of individual beam components. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the cellular effects in cells exposed to mixed radiations are higher

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Optoelectronic Performance Analysis of Low-Energy Proton Irradiation and Post-Thermal Annealing Effects on InGaAs Solar Cell
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Y. Zhuang; A. Aierken; Q. Q. Lei; L. Fang; X. B. Shen; M. Heini; Q. Guo; J. Guo; X. Yang; J. H. Mo; R. K. Fan; J. Li; Q. Y. Chen; S. Y. Zhang

    The electrical and spectral properties of 150 KeV proton-irradiated MBE-grown In0.53Ga0.47As single junction solar cell and its post-thermal annealing properties were investigated. Both simulation and experimental methods were applied to analyze the irradiation-induced displacement damage and degradation mechanism of cell performance. The results show that most protons would penetrate through the In0

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Triggering Cation-Induced Contraction of Cytoskeleton Networks via Microfluidics
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Shea N. Ricketts; Pawan Khanal; Michael J. Rust; Moumita Das; Jennifer L. Ross; Rae M. Robertson-Anderson

    The dynamic morphology and mechanics of the cytoskeleton is determined by interacting networks of semiflexible actin filaments and rigid microtubules. Active rearrangement of networks of actin and microtubules can not only be driven by motor proteins but by changes to ionic conditions. For example, high concentrations of multivalent ions can induce bundling and crosslinking of both filaments. Yet,

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Single Molecule Localization Microscopy Analyses of DNA-Repair Foci and Clusters Detected Along Particle Damage Tracks
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Michael Hausmann; Charlotte Neitzel; Elizaveta Bobkova; David Nagel; Andreas Hofmann; Tatyana Chramko; Elena Smirnova; Olga Kopečná; Eva Pagáčová; Alla Boreyko; Evgeny Krasavin; Iva Falkova; Dieter W. Heermann; Götz Pilarczyk; Georg Hildenbrand; Felix Bestvater; Martin Falk

    High-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) particle irradiation as being provided from heavy ion accelerator facilities has an increasing impact on bio-medical research and cancer treatment. Nevertheless, there are a lot of open questions concerning the understanding of damaging mechanisms and repair processes within the light of radio-sensitivity and thus, individualized medical applications. The three-dimensional

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Low Background Radiation Detection Techniques and Mitigation of Radioactive Backgrounds
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Matthias Laubenstein; Ian Lawson

    The study of rare fundamental physics phenomena, such as double-beta decay, rare nuclear decays and dark matter, requires very low levels of background radiation in order to observe a signal. To achieve the required background levels, experiments are located deep underground as these facilities provide significant rock overburden and commensurate reduction in the cosmic ray flux and cosmic ray-spallation

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Non-Trivial Transport Interface in a Hybrid Topological Material With Hexagonal Lattice Arrangement
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Lianlian Du; Yahong Liu; Meize Li; Huiling Ren; Kun Song; Xiaopeng Zhao

    In this paper, a hybrid topological material with hexagonal lattice arrangement is proposed, consisting of six metal cylindrical resonators and a dielectric slab. As a unit cell, the six metal cylindrical resonators satisfying the C6 symmetry are selected, and the cylindrical resonators are inserted in the dielectric slab. It is demonstrated that a double Dirac cone is created at the Γ point in the

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Mechanical Oscillations in 2D Collective Cell Migration: The Elastic Turbulence
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Ivana Pajic-Lijakovic; Milan Milivojevic

    Various types of mechanical waves, such as propagative waves and standing waves, are observed during 2D collective cell migration. Propagative waves are generated during monolayer free expansion, whereas standing waves are generated during swirling motion of a confluent monolayer. Significant attempts have been made to describe the main characteristics of mechanical waves obtained within various experimental

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Fabrication and Characterisation of 3D Diamond Pixel Detectors With Timing Capabilities
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Lucio Anderlini; Marco Bellini; Andrea Bizzeti; Alessandro Cardini; Roberto Ciaranfi; Chiara Corsi; Michela Garau; Adriano Lai; Stefano Lagomarsino; Andrea Lampis; Angelo Loi; Chiara Lucarelli; Saverio Mariani; Nicola Minafra; Arianna Morozzi; Roberto Mulargia; Giovanni Passaleva; Daniele Passeri; Silvio Sciortino; Stefania Vecchi; Michele Veltri

    Diamond sensors provide a promising radiation hard solution to the challenges posed by the future experiments at hadron machines. A 3D geometry with thin columnar resistive electrodes orthogonal to the diamond surface, obtained by laser nanofabrication, is expected to provide significantly better time resolution with respect to the extensively studied planar diamond sensors. We report on the development

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • FLASH Radiotherapy With Electrons: Issues Related to the Production, Monitoring, and Dosimetric Characterization of the Beam
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Fabio Di Martino; Patrizio Barca; Salvatore Barone; Eleonora Bortoli; Rita Borgheresi; Silvia De Stefano; Massimo Di Francesco; Luigi Grasso; Stefania Linsalata; Daniela Marfisi; Matteo Pacitti; Giuseppe Felici

    Various in vivo experimental works carried out on different animals and organs have shown that it is possible to reduce the damage caused to healthy tissue still preserving the therapeutic efficacy on the tumor tissue, by drastically reducing the total time of dose delivery (<200 ms). This effect, called the FLASH effect, immediately attracted considerable attention within the radiotherapy community

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Construction of a Cost-Effective Phased Array Through High-Efficiency Transmissive Programable Metasurface
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Anjie Cao; Zhansheng Chen; Kai Fan; Yuehui You; Chong He

    Programmable metasurfaces have shown great potential in the areas of low-complexity phase array systems in comparison with the conventional phased array antennas. In this document, a 1-bit transmissive programable metasurface with high efficiency is proposed for the cost-effective beam-steering phased array. The designed transmissive metasurface is made up of reconfigurable cells with perfect 1-bit

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Spectroscopic Study the Air-Processed Degradation Mechanism of Inverted Organic Solar Cells
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Minshuai Wang; Xiaomei Cai; Yinghong Huang; Kai Zheng; Fumin Li

    Organic solar cells are promising for the next-generation photovoltaic technology owing to its low cost and flexibility. The possibility of efficient large-area roll-to-roll production has attracted worldwide industrial interest. However, the instability and glove-box process still impede the industrial production of organic solar cells. In this paper, we investigated air-processed degradation mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Characterizing Radiation Effectiveness in Ion-Beam Therapy Part II: Microdosimetric Detectors
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Paolo Colautti; Giulio Magrin; Hugo Palmans; Miguel A. Cortés-Giraldo; Valeria Conte

    The specific advantages of ion beams for application in tumor therapy are attributed to their different macroscopic and microscopic energy deposition pattern as compared to conventional photon radiation. On the macroscopic scale, the dose profile with a Bragg peak at the highest depths and small lateral scattering allow a better conformation of the dose to the tumor. On the microscopic scale, the localized

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Multiple Beam Laser Guidance for Patterning Irregularly Shaped Cells
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Lucas Schmidt; Zhonghai Wang; Xiaoqi Yang; Tong Ye; Thomas K. Borg; Yonghong Shao; Bruce Z. Gao

    Laser cell patterning is a distinctly effective technique for creating cell arrangements in culture that replicate in vivo tissue structure for studying contact-mediated cell-cell interactions. Conventional laser-based single-cell-manipulation techniques are limited by their inability to pattern irregularly shaped cells, such as rod-shaped cardiomyocytes. We report use of a spatial light modulator

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Exploiting Cross-Luminescence in BaF2 for Ultrafast Timing Applications Using Deep-Ultraviolet Sensitive HPK Silicon Photomultipliers
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Rosalinde Hendrika Pots; Etiennette Auffray; Stefan Gundacker

    Time resolution of scintillation-based detectors is becoming continuously more important, both for medical applications, especially in positron emission tomography (PET), and in high energy physics. This article is an initial study on exploiting the fast cross-luminescence emission in the inorganic BaF2 scintillator with deep ultraviolet-sensitive silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) from Hamamatsu for

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Hydrogel Microcapsules from Interface Shearing for Magnetic Guided Ultrasound and Laser Activation
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Zhiqiang Zhu; Ming Zhang; Yuanqing Zhu; Fangsheng Huang; Ting Si; Ronald X. Xu

    Stimuli-responsive microcarriers have received considerable attention in a variety of fields, including disease diagnosis, drug delivery, sensing, and imaging. Here, we report the generation of multiple-responsive perfluorocarbon-loaded magnetic hydrogel microcapsules (PMHMs) with uniform size for magnetic controlled ultrasound (US) and laser activation. The PMHMs are fabricated by a novel coaxial

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Fluorescence CT Using a Spatially Distributed Multi-Beam X-Ray Source
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Zhiqiang Chen; Siyuan Zhang; Liang Li

    X-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) is a high-sensitivity imaging modality for high-atomic elements such as gadolinium (Gd) or gold (Au). In order to improve the contrast of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) signals in the raw projection data, common XFCT systems use single-pixel x-ray spectrometers to record XRF photons stimulated by the pencil-beam x-ray source and achieve line-by-line scan of the

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Wide-Angle Circular Polarization Converter Based on a Metasurface of Z-Shaped Unit Cells
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Mingjun Wang; Zhizhu Zhai

    Since it is designable, metasurface was widely used in various fields, especially the design of polarization converters. However, most of the polarization converters currently designed can only work under normal incidence or small angle incidence, which hugely limits the application of the device. In this paper, a chiral metasurface based on the z-shaped unit cell, which can manipulate circular polarization

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Microscopic Theory for Spontaneous Fission
    Front. Phys. (IF 2.638) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Jhilam Sadhukhan

    Nuclear fission is a fascinating field of research that involves large-amplitude collective dynamics of a microscopic many-body system. Specifically, the process of spontaneous-fission decay can only be explained within the quantum tunneling phenomenon. The present review discusses recent advancements in the theoretical understanding of spontaneous fission. These concern precise prediction of the spontaneous

    更新日期:2020-10-30
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