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  • Integrability as duality: The Gauge/YBE correspondence
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Masahito Yamazaki

    The Gauge/YBE correspondence states a surprising connection between solutions to the Yang–Baxter equation with spectral parameters and partition functions of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. This correspondence has lead to systematic discoveries of new integrable models based on quantum-field-theory methods. We provide pedagogical introduction to the subject and summarizes many recent developments

  • Size-dependent phononic thermal transport in low-dimensional nanomaterials
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Zhongwei Zhang; Yulou Ouyang; Yuan Cheng; Jie Chen; Nianbei Li; Gang Zhang

    The reduced dimensionality makes low-dimensional nanomaterials possessing diverse unusual size-dependent transport properties, due to the distinct quantum confinement, surface and interfacial scattering for electron, photon and phonon at the nanoscale. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art studies on the topic of size-dependent phononic thermal transport in low-dimensional nanomaterials

  • Heavy quarkonium in extreme conditions
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Alexander Rothkopf

    In this report we review recent progress achieved in the understanding of heavy quarkonium under extreme conditions from a theory perspective. Its focus lies both on quarkonium properties in thermal equilibrium, as well as recent developments towards a genuine real-time description, valid also out-of-equilibrium. We will give an overview of the theory tools developed and deployed over the last decade

  • Special geometry, Hessian structures and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Gabriel Lopes Cardoso; Thomas Mohaupt

    The target space geometry of abelian vector multiplets in N=2 theories in four and five space–time dimensions is called special geometry. It can be elegantly formulated in terms of Hessian geometry. In this review, we introduce Hessian geometry, focussing on aspects that are relevant for the special geometries of four- and five-dimensional vector multiplets. We formulate N=2 theories in terms of Hessian

  • Effective field theory of dark energy: A review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    Noemi Frusciante; Louis Perenon

    The discovery of cosmic acceleration has triggered a consistent body of theoretical work aimed at modelling its phenomenology and understanding its fundamental physical nature. In recent years, a powerful formalism that accomplishes both these goals has been developed, the so-called effective field theory of dark energy. It can capture the behavior of a wide class of modified gravity theories and classify

  • A perspective on conventional high-temperature superconductors at high pressure: Methods and materials
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    José A. Flores-Livas; Lilia Boeri; Antonio Sanna; Gianni Profeta; Ryotaro Arita; Mikhail Eremets

    Two hydrogen-rich materials, H3S and LaH10, synthesized at megabar pressures, have revolutionized the field of condensed matter physics providing the first glimpse to the solution of the hundred-year-old problem of room temperature superconductivity. The mechanism underlying superconductivity in these exceptional compounds is the conventional electron–phonon coupling. Here we describe recent advances

  • Fundamentals and perspectivesof ultrafast photoferroic recording
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    A.V. Kimel; A.M. Kalashnikova; A. Pogrebna; A.K. Zvezdin

    The ability to switch ferroics (ferro-, ferri-, antiferromagnets, ferroelectrics, multiferroics) between two stable bit states is one of the keystones of modern data storage technology. Due to many new ideas, originating from fundamental research during the last 50 years, this technology has developed in a breath-taking fashion. Finding a conceptually new way to control ferroic state of a medium with

  • Flavor structures of charged fermions and massive neutrinos
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Zhi-zhong Xing

    Most of the free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) — a quantum field theory which has successfully elucidated the behaviors of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions of all the known fundamental particles, come from the lepton and quark flavors. The discovery of neutrino oscillations has proved that the SM is incomplete, at least in its lepton sector; and thus the door of opportunity is

  • Mapping the phases of quantum chromodynamics with beam energy scan
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Adam Bzdak; ShinIchi Esumi; Volker Koch; Jinfeng Liao; Mikhail Stephanov; Nu Xu

    We review the present status of the search for a phase transition and critical point as well as anomalous transport phenomena in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), with an emphasis on the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We present the conceptual framework and discuss the observables deemed most sensitive to a phase transition, QCD critical

  • Four lectures on closed string field theory
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Theodore Erler

    The following notes derive from review lectures on closed string field theory given at the Galileo Galilei Institute for Theoretical Physics in March 2019.

  • Frenesy: Time-symmetric dynamical activity in nonequilibria
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Christian Maes

    We review the concept of dynamical ensembles in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics as specified from an action functional or Lagrangian on spacetime. There, under local detailed balance, the breaking of time-reversal invariance is quantified via the entropy flux, and we revisit some of the consequences for fluctuation and response theory. Frenesy is the time-symmetric part of the path-space action

  • Quantitative immunology for physicists
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Grégoire Altan-Bonnet; Thierry Mora; Aleksandra M. Walczak

    The adaptive immune system is a dynamical, self-organized multiscale system that protects vertebrates from both pathogens and internal irregularities, such as tumours. For these reason it fascinates physicists, yet the multitude of different cells, molecules and sub-systems is often also petrifying. Despite this complexity, as experiments on different scales of the adaptive immune system become more

  • Two-dimensional MXenes: From morphological to optical, electric, and magnetic properties and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Xiantao Jiang; Artem V. Kuklin; Alexander Baev; Yanqi Ge; Hans Ågren; Han Zhang; Paras N. Prasad

    MXenes, generally referring to two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, have received tremendous attention since the first report in 2011. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have unveiled their enormous potential for applications in optoelectronics, photonics, catalysis, and many other areas. Because of their intriguing mechanical and electronic properties

  • On virus growth and form
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Roya Zandi; Bogdan Dragnea; Alex Travesset; Rudolf Podgornik

    We review approaches aimed at deciphering the physical mechanisms responsible for viral structure and assembly. We discuss the basic principles of condensed matter physics, macroscopic electrostatics and elastomechanics as they apply to nanosized two-dimensional biomolecular shells with spherical topology and icosahedral symmetry, as well as their proper extension to nonspherical structures pertinent

  • Variable-range hopping charge transport in organic thin-film transistors
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    O. Marinov; M.J. Deen; J.A. Jiménez-Tejada; C.H. Chen

    The charge transport in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is assessed in terms of variable range hopping (VRH), by numerical simulations, analytical analyses and comparisons to published experimental results. A numerical simulator, built on the fundamental relations for VRH, provides a simple key dependence that the sum of hopping energy and energy bending under bias is equal to the hopping energy

  • Computational network biology: Data, model, and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Chuang Liu; Yifang Ma; Jing Zhao; Ruth Nussinov; Yi-Cheng Zhang; Feixiong Cheng; Zi-Ke Zhang

    Biological entities are involved in intricate and complex interactions, in which uncovering the biological information from the network concepts are of great significance. Benefiting from the advances of network science and high-throughput biomedical technologies, studying the biological systems from network biology has attracted much attention in recent years, and networks have long been central to

  • Incomplete fusion reactions using strongly and weakly bound projectiles
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    V. Jha; V.V. Parkar; S. Kailas

    The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) using both the strongly and weakly bound projectiles below an incident energy of ≈ 10 MeV per nucleon is reviewed. Various reaction mechanisms responsible for ICF, such as projectile breakup followed by fusion, massive transfer or transfer of nucleon(s) to higher energy states of target leading to formation of a composite system have been described. Several

  • A review of recent advances in thermophysical properties at the nanoscale: From solid state to colloids
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Lin Qiu; Ning Zhu; Yanhui Feng; Efstathios E. Michaelides; Gaweł Żyła; Dengwei Jing; Xinxin Zhang; Pamela M. Norris; Christos N. Markides; Omid Mahian

    Nanomaterials possess superior optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which have made them suitable for a multitude of applications. The present review paper deals with recent advances in the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties at the nanoscale (from the solid state to colloids). For this purpose, first, various techniques for the measurement of the solid

  • Dark Matter through the Higgs portal
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Giorgio Arcadi; Abdelhak Djouadi; Martti Raidal

    We review scenarios in which the particles that account for the Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe interact only through their couplings with the Higgs sector of the theory, the so-called Higgs-portal models. In a first step, we use a general and model-independent approach in which the DM particles are singlets with spin 0,12 or 1, and assume a minimal Higgs sector with the presence of only the Standard

  • Data science applications to string theory
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Fabian Ruehle

    We first introduce various algorithms and techniques for machine learning and data science. While there is a strong focus on neural network applications in unsupervised, supervised and reinforcement learning, other machine learning techniques are discussed as well. These include various clustering and anomaly detection algorithms, support vector machines, and decision trees. In addition, we review

  • Jet substructure at the Large Hadron Collider: A review of recent advances in theory and machine learning
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Andrew J. Larkoski, Ian Moult, Benjamin Nachman

    Jet substructure has emerged to play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where it has provided numerous innovative new ways to search for new physics and to probe the Standard Model in extreme regions of phase space. In this article we provide a comprehensive review of state of the art theoretical and machine learning developments in jet substructure. This article is meant both as a

  • Geometry of quantum phase transitions
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Angelo Carollo, Davide Valenti, Bernardo Spagnolo

    In this article we provide a review of geometrical methods employed in the analysis of quantum phase transitions and non-equilibrium dissipative phase transitions. After a pedagogical introduction to geometric phases and geometric information in the characterisation of quantum phase transitions, we describe recent developments of geometrical approaches based on mixed-state generalisation of the Berry-phase

  • k-core: Theories and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Yi-Xiu Kong, Gui-Yuan Shi, Rui-Jie Wu, Yi-Cheng Zhang

    With the rapid development of science and technology, the world is becoming increasingly connected. The following dire need for understanding both the relationships amongst individuals and the global structural characteristics brings forward the study of network sciences and many interdisciplinary subjects in recent years. As a result, it is crucial to have methods and algorithms that help us to unveil

  • Extreme value statistics of correlated random variables: A pedagogical review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Satya N. Majumdar, Arnab Pal, Grégory Schehr

    Extreme value statistics (EVS) concerns the study of the statistics of the maximum or the minimum of a set of random variables. This is an important problem for any time-series and has applications in climate, finance, sports, all the way to physics of disordered systems where one is interested in the statistics of the ground state energy. While the EVS of ‘uncorrelated’ variables are well understood

  • Saddle point approaches in strong field physics and generation of attosecond pulses
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Arjun Nayak, Mathieu Dumergue, Sergei Kühn, Sudipta Mondal, Tamás Csizmadia, N.G. Harshitha, Miklós Füle, Mousumi Upadhyay Kahaly, Balázs Farkas, Balázs Major, Viktor Szaszkó-Bogár, Péter Földi, Szilárd Majorosi, Nikolaos Tsatrafyllis, Emmanuel Skantzakis, Lana Neoričić, Mojtaba Shirozhan, Giulio Vampa, Subhendu Kahaly

    Attoscience is the emerging field that accesses the fastest electronic processes occurring at the atomic and molecular length scales with attosecond (1 as = 10−18 s) time resolution having wide ranging physical, chemical, material science and biological applications. The quintessential and one of the most fundamental processes in this domain is the generation of phase locked XUV attosecond pulses.

  • Spallation processes and nuclear interaction products of cosmic rays.
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 1990-08-01
    R Silberberg,C H Tsao

    Most cosmic-ray nuclei heavier than helium have suffered nuclear collisions in the interstellar gas, with transformation of nuclear composition. The isotopic and elemental composition at the sources has to be inferred from the observed composition near the Earth. The source composition permits tests of current ideas on sites of origin, nucleosynthesis in stars, evolution of stars, the mixing and composition

  • Local temperatures out of equilibrium
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Daochi Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Massimiliano Di Ventra

    The temperature of a physical system is operationally defined in physics as “that quantity which is measured by a thermometer” weakly coupled to, and at equilibrium with the system. This definition is unique only at global equilibrium in view of the zeroth law of thermodynamics: when the system and the thermometer have reached equilibrium, the “thermometer degrees of freedom” can be traced out and

  • Implications of superrotations
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Sabrina Pasterski

    A framework of connections between asymptotic symmetries, soft theorems, and memory effects has recently shed light on a universal structure associated with infrared physics. Here, we show how this pattern has been used to fill in missing elements. After the necessary groundwork, we begin by proving a Ward identity for superrotations using the subleading soft graviton theorem, thereby demonstrating

  • Quantum decoherence
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Maximilian Schlosshauer

    Quantum decoherence plays a pivotal role in the dynamical description of the quantum-to-classical transition and is the main impediment to the realization of devices for quantum information processing. This paper gives an overview of the theory and experimental observation of the decoherence mechanism. We introduce the essential concepts and the mathematical formalism of decoherence, focusing on the

  • First-principles design of strong solids: Approaches and applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-09-28
    R.F. Zhang, S.H. Zhang, Y.Q. Guo, Z.H. Fu, D. Legut, T.C. Germann, S. Veprek

    In the design of strong solids, especially hard and superhard materials, this review article attempts to critically cover an extended field of first-principles derived mechanical properties by considering both intrinsic (i.e., crystal structures, bonding nature and strength) and extrinsic (i.e., nanostructures and interface characteristics) parameters. For the intrinsic parameters, firstly, the bonding

  • Silicon strip and pixel detectors for particle physics experiments
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Sally Seidel

    Following a brief introduction to the roles that a tracking detector fulfills in a particle physics experiment, the concept of a silicon tracking detector is introduced. The contributors to position resolution of the detector are described along with some technological developments that have occurred in response to them. An overview of the historical evolution of the silicon detector concept follows

  • Matter manipulation with extreme terahertz light: Progress in the enabling THz technology
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Peter Salén, Martina Basini, Stefano Bonetti, János Hebling, Mikhail Krasilnikov, Alexey Y. Nikitin, Georgii Shamuilov, Zoltán Tibai, Vitali Zhaunerchyk, Vitaliy Goryashko

    Terahertz (THz) light has proven to be a fine tool to probe and control quasi-particles and collective excitations in solids, to drive phase transitions and associated changes in material properties, and to study rotations and vibrations in molecular systems. In contrast to visible light, which usually carries excessive photon energy for collective excitations in condensed matter systems, THz light

  • Conserved charges in extended theories of gravity
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Hamed Adami, Mohammad Reza Setare, Tahsin Çağrı Şişman, Bayram Tekin

    We give a detailed review of construction of conserved quantities in extended theories of gravity for asymptotically maximally symmetric spacetimes and carry out explicit computations for various solutions. Our construction is based on the Killing charge method, and a proper discussion of the conserved charges of extended gravity theories with this method requires studying the corresponding charges

  • Duality between (2+1)d quantum critical points
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    T. Senthil, Dam Thanh Son, Chong Wang, Cenke Xu

    Duality refers to two equivalent descriptions of the same theory from different points of view. Recently there has been tremendous progress in formulating and understanding possible dualities of quantum many body theories in 2+1-spacetime dimensions. Of particular interest are dualities that describe conformally invariant quantum field theories in (2+1)d. These arise as descriptions of quantum critical

  • Chaos in time delay systems, an educational review
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Hendrik Wernecke, Bulcsú Sándor, Claudius Gros

    The time needed to exchange information in the physical world induces a delay term when the respective system is modeled by differential equations. Time delays are hence ubiquitous, being furthermore likely to induce instabilities and with it various kinds of chaotic phases. Which are then the possible types of time delays, induced chaotic states, and methods suitable to characterize the resulting

  • Time-reversal-invariant topological superconductivity in one and two dimensions
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Arbel Haim, Yuval Oreg

    A topological superconductor is characterized by having a pairing gap in the bulk and gapless self-hermitian Majorana modes at its boundary. In one dimension, these are zero-energy modes bound to the ends, while in two dimensions these are chiral gapless modes traveling along the edge. Majorana modes have attracted a lot of interest due to their exotic properties, which include non-abelian exchange

  • Variational and Parquet-diagram theory for strongly correlated normal and superfluid systems
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    H.-H. Fan, E. Krotscheck

    We develop the variational and correlated basis functions/parquet-diagram theory of strongly interacting normal and superfluid systems. The first part of this contribution is devoted to highlight the connections between the Euler equations for the Jastrow-Feenberg wave function on the one hand side, and the ring, ladder, and self-energy diagrams of parquet-diagram theory on the other side. We will

  • Coevolution spreading in complex networks
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Wei Wang, Quan-Hui Liu, Junhao Liang, Yanqing Hu, Tao Zhou

    The propagations of diseases, behaviors and information in real systems are rarely independent of each other, but they are coevolving with strong interactions. To uncover the dynamical mechanisms, the evolving spatiotemporal patterns and critical phenomena of networked coevolution spreading are extremely important, which provide theoretical foundations for us to control epidemic spreading, predict

  • Review of the semiclassical formalism for multiparticle production at high energies
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Valentin V. Khoze, Joey Reiness

    These notes provide a comprehensive review of the semiclassical approach for calculating multiparticle production rates for initial states with few particles at very high energies. In this work we concentrate on a scalar field theory with a mass gap. Specifically, we look at a weakly-coupled theory in the high-energy limit, where the number of particles in the final state scales with energy, n∼E→∞

  • A living theory catalogue for fast radio bursts
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    E. Platts, A. Weltman, A. Walters, S.P. Tendulkar, J.E.B. Gordin, S. Kandhai

    At present, we have almost as many theories to explain Fast Radio Bursts as we have Fast Radio Bursts observed. This landscape will be changing rapidly with CHIME/FRB, recently commissioned in Canada, and HIRAX, under construction in South Africa. This is an opportune time to review existing theories and their observational consequences, allowing us to efficiently curtail viable astrophysical models

  • Network dynamics of coupled oscillators and phase reduction techniques
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Bastian Pietras, Andreas Daffertshofer

    Investigating the dynamics of a network of oscillatory systems is a timely and urgent topic. Phase synchronization has proven paradigmatic to study emergent collective behavior within a network. Defining the phase dynamics, however, is not a trivial task. The literature provides an arsenal of solutions, but results are scattered and their formulation is far from standardized. Here, we present, in a

  • Rapid solidification as non-ergodic phenomenon
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    P.K. Galenko, D. Jou

    Rapid solidification is a relevant physical phenomenon in material sciences, whose theoretical analysis requires going beyond the limits of local equilibrium statistical physics and thermodynamics and, in particular, taking account of ergodicity breaking and of generalized formulation of thermodynamics. The ergodicity breaking is related to the time symmetry breaking and to the presence of some kinds

  • Computational socioeconomics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Jian Gao, Yi-Cheng Zhang, Tao Zhou

    Uncovering the structure of socioeconomic systems and timely estimation of socioeconomic status are significant for economic development. The understanding of socioeconomic processes provides foundations to quantify global economic development, to map regional industrial structure, and to infer individual socioeconomic status. In this review, we will make a brief manifesto about a new interdisciplinary

  • Higgs physics: It ain’t over till it’s over
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Sally Dawson, Christoph Englert, Tilman Plehn

    We review the theoretical underpinning of the Higgs mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking and the experimental status of Higgs measurements from a pedagogical perspective. The possibilities and motivations for new physics in the symmetry breaking sector are discussed along with current measurements. A focus is on the implications of measurements in the Higgs sector for theoretical insights into

  • Nestedness in complex networks: Observation, emergence, and implications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Manuel Sebastian Mariani, Zhuo-Ming Ren, Jordi Bascompte, Claudio Juan Tessone

    The observed architecture of ecological and socio-economic networks differssignificantly from that of random networks. From a network science standpoint, non-random structural patterns observed in real networks call for an explanation of their emergence and an understanding of their potential systemic consequences. This article focuses on one of these patterns: nestedness. Given a network of interacting

  • Channeling and volume reflection of high-energy charged particles in short bent crystals. Crystal assisted collimation of the accelerator beam halo
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    W. Scandale, A.M. Taratin

    The experimental studies of high-energy charged particle deflection due to planar and axial channeling as well as volume reflection and multi volume reflections in short bent crystals at the extracted beams of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are considered. The experiments on the studies of crystal assisted collimation of the CERN SPS beam halo and the first similar experiment with the CERN

  • Reduction of couplings and its application in particle physics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-05-13
    S. Heinemeyer, M. Mondragón, N. Tracas, G. Zoupanos

    The idea of reduction of couplings in renormalizable theories will be presented and then will be applied in Particle Physics models. Reduced couplings appeared as functions of a primary one, compatible with the renormalization group equation and thus solutions of a specific set of ordinary differential equations. If these functions have the form of power series the respective theories resemble standard

  • Heat transport of cuprate-based low-dimensional quantum magnets with strong exchange coupling
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Christian Hess

    Transport properties provide important access to a solid’s quasiparticles, such as quasiparticle density, mobility, and scattering. The transport of heat can be particularly revealing because, in principle, all types of excitations in a solid may contribute. Heat transport is well understood for phonons and electrons, but relatively little is known about heat transported by magnetic excitations. However

  • Self-interaction in classical gauge theories and gravitation
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    B.P. Kosyakov

    To develop a systematic treatment of the self-interaction problem in classical gauge theories and general relativity, we study tenable manifestations of self-interaction: topological phases, and rearrangements of degrees of freedom appearing in the action. We outline the occurrence of topological phases in pure field systems. We show that the rearranged Maxwell–Lorentz electrodynamics is a mathematically

  • A high-bias, low-variance introduction to Machine Learning for physicists
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    Pankaj Mehta, Marin Bukov, Ching-Hao Wang, Alexandre G.R. Day, Clint Richardson, Charles K. Fisher, David J. Schwab

    Machine Learning (ML) is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of modern research and application. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the core concepts and tools of machine learning in a manner easily understood and intuitive to physicists. The review begins by covering fundamental concepts in ML and modern statistics such as the bias–variance tradeoff, overfitting, regularization

  • Classification, geometry and applications of supersymmetric backgrounds
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2018-12-11
    U. Gran, J. Gutowski, G. Papadopoulos

    We review the remarkable progress that has been made the last 15 years towards the classification of supersymmetric solutions with emphasis on the description of the bilinears and spinorial geometry methods. We describe in detail the geometry of backgrounds of key supergravity theories, which have applications in the context of black holes, string theory, M-theory and the AdS/CFT correspondence unveiling

  • The geometry of cutting and shuffling: An outline of possibilities for piecewise isometries
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-28
    Lachlan D. Smith, Paul B. Umbanhowar, Richard M. Lueptow, Julio M. Ottino

    Cutting and shuffling is emerging as an alternative mixing mechanism for fluids and granular matter beyond the well established stretching and folding. Dynamical systems and chaos theory provided a foundation for stretching and folding which has led to applications ranging from microfluidic devices and physiological scales to many engineering and Earth science scales. Likewise, the literature of piecewise

  • Applied nuclear physics at the new high-energy particle accelerator facilities
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Marco Durante, Alexander Golubev, Woo-Yoon Park, Christina Trautmann

    Applied nuclear physics is an essential part of the research activity at many particle accelerators. New, large accelerator facilities are currently under construction in Europe, Asia, and USA. These machines will be able to produce radioactive ion beams, and to increase the intensity and the energy of the heavy ions well beyond the limits currently available at the therapy or research facilities.

  • 10 years of pioneering X-ray science at the Free-Electron Laser FLASH at DESY
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Jörg Rossbach, Jochen R. Schneider, Wilfried Wurth

    Free-electron lasers produce extremely brief, coherent, and bright laser-like photon pulses that allow to image matter at atomic resolution and at timescales faster than the characteristic atomic motions. In pulses of about 50 femtoseconds duration they provide as many photons as one gets in 1 s from modern storage ring synchrotron radiation facilities. FLASH, the Free-Electron Laser at DESY in Hamburg

  • A primer on resurgent transseries and their asymptotics
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Inês Aniceto, Gökçe Başar, Ricardo Schiappa

    The computation of observables in general interacting theories, be them quantum mechanical, field, gauge or string theories, is a non-trivial problem which in many cases can only be addressed by resorting to perturbative methods. In most physically interesting problems these perturbative expansions result in asymptotic series with zero radius of convergence. These asymptotic series then require the

  • Evaporation of a Droplet: From physics to applications
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-15
    Duyang Zang, Sujata Tarafdar, Yuri Yu. Tarasevich, Moutushi Dutta Choudhury, Tapati Dutta

    Evaporation of a drop, though a simple everyday observation, provides a fascinating subject for study. Various issues interact here, such as dynamics of the contact line, evaporation-induced phase transitions, and formation of patterns. The explanation of the rich variety of patterns formed is not only an academic challenge, but also a problem of practical importance, as applications are growing in

  • The degree of fine-tuning in our universe — and others
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-15
    Fred C. Adams

    Both the fundamental constants that describe the laws of physics and the cosmological parameters that determine the properties of our universe must fall within a range of values in order for the cosmos to develop astrophysical structures and ultimately support life. This paper reviews the current constraints on these quantities. The discussion starts with an assessment of the parameters that are allowed

  • One-body reduced density-matrix functional theory in finite basis sets at elevated temperatures
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-12
    Klaas J.H. Giesbertz, Michael Ruggenthaler

    In this review we provide a rigorous and self-contained presentation of one-body reduced density-matrix (1RDM) functional theory. We do so for the case of a finite basis set, where density-functional theory (DFT) implicitly becomes a 1RDM functional theory. To avoid non-uniqueness issues we consider the case of fermionic and bosonic systems at elevated temperature and variable particle number, i.e

  • The planet nine hypothesis
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Konstantin Batygin, Fred C. Adams, Michael E. Brown, Juliette C. Becker

    Over the course of the past two decades, observational surveys have unveiled the intricate orbital structure of the Kuiper Belt, a field of icy bodies orbiting the Sun beyond Neptune. In addition to a host of readily-predictable orbital behavior, the emerging census of trans-Neptunian objects displays dynamical phenomena that cannot be accounted for by interactions with the known eight-planet solar

  • Pileup mitigation at the LHC: A theorist’s view
    Phys. Rep. (IF 28.295) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Grégory Soyez

    To maximise the potential for new measurements and discoveries at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine delivers as high as possible collision rates. As a direct consequence, multiple proton–proton collisions occur whenever two bunches of protons cross. Interesting high-energy (hard) collisions are therefore contaminated by several soft, zero-bias, ones. This effect, known as pileup, pollutes

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿