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  • Colloidal engines for innovative tests of information thermodynamics
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Govind Paneru; Hyuk Kyu Pak

    ABSTRACT Recent theoretical developments in information thermodynamics elucidated the link between the acquired information and the entropy production through measurement and feedback control by generalizing the fluctuation theorems and the second law of thermodynamics. We summarize here our recent experimental studies based on the colloidal system that have been conducted to test the theoretical findings

  • Bubble formation in nanopores: a matter of hydrophobicity, geometry, and size
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Alberto Giacomello; Roland Roth

    ABSTRACT This review focuses on the phase behaviour of liquids in nanoscale confinement, which promotes drying by a combination of hydrophobicity, small size, and high degree of confinement. In these conditions, the vapour phase can form at exceptionally large pressures or low temperatures as compared to bulk vaporisation, giving rise to the unexpected formation of bubbles. A general framework is introduced

  • Continuous measurements for control of superconducting quantum circuits
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    S. Hacohen-Gourgy; L. S. Martin

    Developments over the last two decades have opened the path towards quantum technologies in many quantum systems, such as cold atoms, trapped ions, cavity-quantum electrodynamics (QED), and circuit-QED. However, the fragility of quantum states to the effects of measurement and decoherence still poses one of the greatest challenges in quantum technology. An imperative capability in this path is quantum

  • Bifurcation phenomena in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    K. Ida

    Bifurcation phenomena observed in turbulence and transport, in topology of magnetic field and MHD, and the interplay between turbulence and MHD bifurcation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Two types of bifurcation phenomena in turbulent transport are discussed. One is significant change in the magnitude of the diffusion term and the other is a sign flip of non-diffusive term

  • Theory and simulation of objects in liquid crystals
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Colin Denniston

    Colloidal particles with anisotropic interactions are excellent candidates for synthetic building blocks of self-assembled materials with desirable properties, such as a photonic band-gap or swimming ability, at the nano- or micro-scale. The anisotropic nature of liquid crystals (LCs) makes them an ideal candidate to generate non-spherically symmetric interactions between immersed colloidal particles

  • Multidisciplinary physics in a time of coronavirus
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Richard E. Palmer

    (2020). Multidisciplinary physics in a time of coronavirus. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 5, No. 1, 1807107.

  • X-ray induced ultrafast dynamics in atoms, molecules, and clusters: experimental studies at an X-ray free-electron laser facility SACLA and modelling
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Hironobu Fukuzawa; Kiyoshi Ueda

    ABSTRACT X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver intense, coherent, femtosecond X-ray laser pulses. They are opening new research fields of studying ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics in various forms of matter and interaction of intense and short X-ray pulses with matter. For such studies, atoms, molecules, and atomic clusters in the gas phase may provide us with ideal platforms as various

  • Machine learning for quantum matter
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Juan Carrasquilla

    ABSTRACT Quantum matter, the research field studying phases of matter whose properties are intrinsically quantum mechanical, draws from areas as diverse as hard condensed matter physics, materials science, statistical mechanics, quantum information, quantum gravity, and large-scale numerical simulations. Recently, researchers interested in quantum matter and strongly correlated quantum systems have

  • Ultrathin ionic liquid films on metal surfaces: adsorption, growth, stability and exchange phenomena
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Matthias Lexow; Florian Maier; Hans-Peter Steinrück

    ABSTRACT The interface of ionic liquids (ILs) with solid surfaces is of pivotal interest for many applications, ranging from sensors, lubrication, separation technology, and electronics to electrochemistry and catalysis. We present a short review on ultrathin layers of ionic liquids on metal surfaces using a surface science approach. We mainly focus on specific examples of imidazolium-based ionic liquids

  • Light in curved two-dimensional space
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Vincent H. Schultheiss; Sascha Batz; Ulf Peschel

    ABSTRACT The extrinsic and intrinsic curvature of a two-dimensional waveguide influences wave propagation therein. While this can already be apprehended from a geometric point of view in terms of geodesics generalizing straight lines as the shortest distance between any two points, in wave optics interference phenomena strongly govern the field evolution, too. Radii of curvature in the order of the

  • Nonlinear optical response and self-trapping of light in biological suspensions
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Rekha Gautam; Anna Bezryadina; Yinxiao Xiang; Tobias Hansson; Yi Liang; Guo Liang; Josh Lamstein; Nicolas Perez; Benjamin Wetzel; Roberto Morandotti; Zhigang Chen

    ABSTRACT In the past decade, the development of artificial materials exhibiting novel optical properties has become a major scientific endeavor. One particularly interesting system is synthetic soft matter, which plays a central role in numerous fields ranging from life sciences, chemistry to condensed matter and biophysics. In this paper, we review briefly the optical force-induced nonlinearities

  • Molecular simulations of amyloid beta assemblies
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Gianvito Grasso; Andrea Danani

    ABSTRACT Several neurodegenerative disorders arise from the abnormal protein aggregation in the nervous tissue leading tointracellular inclusions or extracellular aggregates in specific brain areas. In case of Alzheimer Disease, the accumulation of the Amyloid Beta peptide in the brain is proposed to be an early important event in the pathogenesis. Despite significant research efforts in this field

  • Exciton-surface plasmon polariton interactions
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Parinda Vasa

    ABSTRACT Exciton-surface plasmon polariton (exciton-SPP) interactions in semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures connect two fundamentally different quantum mechanical excitations with strikingly different dispersion relations and optical response. The main focus in investigating these light–matter interactions and nanostructures is to control the light via light on the nanometric length scale and

  • Harnessing complex photonic systems for renewable energy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Y. Tian; N. Li; M. Bonifazi; A. Fratalocchi

    ABSTRACT The study of efficient mechanisms of photon conversion processes into electronic, thermal and chemical energy is an interdisciplinary research field spanning physics, chemistry and material science. In recent years, different physical mechanisms sustained by the engineering of diverse complex photonic structures have emerged to offer significant advances in the area of thermal energy generation

  • Advances in fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Panagiotis Koutsogiannis; Eleni Thomou; Haralambos Stamatis; Dimitrios Gournis; Petra Rudolf

    ABSTRACT Carbon Dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanoparticles, which since their discovery have attracted tremendous attention because of their exceptional fluorescent, chemical and mechanical properties as well as high photostability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of outstanding characteristics, together with the ease with which they can be synthesized, qualify carbon dots

  • Few-atom cluster model systems for a hydrogen economy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Jan Vanbuel; Piero Ferrari; Ewald Janssens

    ABSTRACT To increase the share of renewable zero-emission energy sources, such as wind and solar power, in our energy supply, the problem of their intermittency needs to be addressed. One way to do so is by buffering excess renewable energy via the production of hydrogen, which can be stored for later use after re-electrification. Such a clean, renewable energy cycle based on hydrogen is commonly referred

  • Ultrashort field emission in metallic nanostructures and low-dimensional carbon materials
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-02-16
    D. J. Park; Y. H. Ahn

    ABSTRACT This study investigates recent advances in photoelectron emission generated by irradiating ultrashort lasers on metallic nanostructures and low-dimensional carbon materials. Recently, primary focus has been on improving the efficiency of emitters, i.e. increasing the number of field-emitted electrons and their respective kinetic energies. An example of this is the modification of the conventional

  • Density-functional tight-binding: basic concepts and applications to molecules and clusters
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Fernand Spiegelman; Nathalie Tarrat; Jérôme Cuny; Leo Dontot; Evgeny Posenitskiy; Carles Martí; Aude Simon; Mathias Rapacioli

    ABSTRACT The scope of this article is to present an overview of the Density Functional based Tight Binding (DFTB) method and its applications. The paper introduces the basics of DFTB and its standard formulation up to second order. It also addresses methodological developments such as third order expansion, inclusion of non-covalent interactions, schemes to solve the self-interaction error, implementation

  • Integration of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with Mie-resonant dielectric nanostructures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Rajeshkumar Mupparapu; Tobias Bucher; Isabelle Staude

    ABSTRACT Integrating transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with dielectric nanostructures exhibiting Mie-like resonances opens a plethora of opportunities in manipulating their excitonic emission in the near-field and far-field regimes, yielding interactions spanning from weak to strong coupling regimes, and routing valley polarized chiral emission, to name just a few. Moreover, there is

  • Needle beams: a review
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ruediger Grunwald; Martin Bock

    ABSTRACT Needle beams are highly attractive for applications which take advantage from a spatial and temporal localization of photons. High intensities, high resolution and extended depth of focus lead to fundamental advances in the optical system performance. Ultrashort, fringe-free, self-reconstructing nondiffracting pulses with undistorted temporal transfer are obtained by generating truncated Bessel

  • Nuclear density functional theory
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-29
    G. Colò

    ABSTRACT The goal of nuclear structure physics is to provide a complete understanding of the static properties of atomic nuclei, their excitation spectra, their response to external fields and their decays. While it is hard to achieve these goals within a single framework, so that there is no nuclear ‘standard model’, it is clear that nuclear Density Functional Theory (DFT) has probably the widest

  • Diffractive metalens: from fundamentals, practical applications to current trends
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Wenwei Liu; Hua Cheng; Jianguo Tian; Shuqi Chen

    ABSTRACT Traditional optical lenses and the corresponding imaging systems, which are based on the optical paths when light propagates inside the bulky media, usually suffer from the bulky size, Abbe-Rayleigh diffraction restricted resolution, and limited responses to different kinds of incident light. Recently, the burgeoning development of metasurfaces comprised of artificial micro- or nano-structures

  • Ionic liquids under nanoscale confinement
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Francesca Borghi; Alessandro Podestà

    ABSTRACT The confinement of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) in nanoscale geometries, where at least one, but often all three dimensions are reduced down to lengths comparable to the anion-cation size, put the ILs into a quite different condition with respect to their bulk phase. An understanding of the properties of the ILs confined in a nanoscale-constrained geometry is of both fundamental and

  • Ultrafast charge transfer and vibronic coupling in a laser-excited hybrid inorganic/organic interface
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Matheus Jacobs; Jannis Krumland; Ana M. Valencia; Haiyuan Wang; Mariana Rossi; Caterina Cocchi

    ABSTRACT Hybrid interfaces formed by inorganic semiconductors and organic molecules are intriguing materials for opto-electronics. Interfacial charge transfer is primarily responsible for their peculiar electronic structure and optical response. Hence, it is essential to gain insight into this fundamental process also beyond the static picture. Ab initio methods based on real-time time-dependent density-functional

  • Semiconductor/dielectric interface in organic field-effect transistors: charge transport, interfacial effects, and perspectives with 2D molecular crystals
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Mengjiao Pei; Jianhang Guo; Bowen Zhang; Sai Jiang; Ziqian Hao; Xin Xu; Yun Li

    ABSTRACT Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been the hotspot in information science for many years as the most fundamental building blocks for state-of-the-art organic electronics. During the field-effect modulation of the semiconducting channel, the gate dielectric always has a significant influence on the charge transport behaviours. Hence, understanding of the nature of charge carriers

  • Spectroscopic photoemission and low-energy electron microscopy studies of the surface and electronic structure of two-dimensional materials
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Wencan Jin, Richard M. Osgood

    Advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials research have opened up new opportunities in miniaturization of optoelectronic and spintronic devices at the atomically thin limit. One major research thrust, which is the subject of this review, is the surface- and electronic structure of 2D materials and their van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures that may be significantly affected by the local atomic geometry

  • Control of free electron wave packets by polarization-tailored ultrashort bichromatic laser fields
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    S. Kerbstadt, K. Eickhoff, T. Bayer, M. Wollenhaupt

    We review recent advances in the generation of polarization-tailored ultrashort bichromatic laser fields and their application to the coherent control of ultrafast photoionization dynamics. In the experiments, we use polarization-shaped bichromatic laser pulses to control three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions from atomic multiphoton ionization. To analyze the underlying physical mechanisms

  • Engineered electronic states in atomically precise artificial lattices and graphene nanoribbons
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Linghao Yan, Peter Liljeroth

    The fabrication of atomically precise structures with designer electronic properties is one of the emerging topics in condensed matter physics. The required level of structural control can either be reached through atomic manipulation using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) or by bottom-up chemical synthesis. In this review, we focus on recent progress in constructing novel, atomically

  • Optical spatial shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Giulia Marcucci, Davide Pierangeli, Silvia Gentilini, Neda Ghofraniha, Zhigang Chen, Claudio Conti

    Dispersive shock waves are fascinating phenomena occurring when nonlinearity overwhelms linear effects, such as dispersion and diffraction. Many features of shock waves are still under investigation, as the interplay with noninstantaneity in temporal pulses transmission and nonlocality in spatial beams propagation. Despite the rich and vast literature on nonlinear waves in optical Kerr media, spatial

  • Advances in thermodynamic modelling of nanoparticles
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Grégory Guisbiers

    Among all the computational techniques (Density Functional Theory, Molecular Dynamics, Monte-Carlo Simulations, Nanothermodynamics) used to investigate the properties of nanoparticles, nanothermodynamics is the most unusual one. Indeed, most people still thing that thermodynamics does not apply at the nanoscale; nonetheless, thermodynamic concepts can still be applied at the nanoscale to predict various

  • The rise of flexible electronics in neuroscience, from materials selection to in vitro and in vivo applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-28
    L. Maiolo, D. Polese, A. Convertino

    Neuroscience deals with one of the most complicate system we can study: the brain. The huge amount of connections among the cells and the different phenomena occurring at different scale give rise to a continuous flow of data that have to be collected, analyzed and interpreted. Neuroscientists try to interrogate this complexity to find basic principles underlying brain electrochemical signalling and

  • High-resolution material structuring using ultrafast laser non-diffractive beams
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Razvan Stoian, Manoj Kumar Bhuyan, Anton Rudenko, Jean-Philippe Colombier, Guanghua Cheng

    Scales in the 100 nm range represent a generic cornerstone for laser material processing, enabling novel size-dependent functions on surfaces and in the bulk and thus a new range of technological applications. On these scales, the processed material acquires optical, transport or contact properties that do not only rely on local effects on singular topographic features but involve increasingly collective

  • High-speed on-chip light sources at the nanoscale
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Xi Li, Qing Gu

    Following a similar trend in the scaling of electronic integrated circuits (ICs), the downscaling of optical sources promises revenues such as higher energy efficiency and faster operation speed in photonic ICs. With the rapid development of advanced fabrication techniques and optical cavity designs, light confinement and manipulation at the nanoscale, far below the diffraction limit of light, have

  • On machine learning force fields for metallic nanoparticles
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Claudio Zeni, Kevin Rossi, Aldo Glielmo, Francesca Baletto

    Machine learning algorithms have recently emerged as a tool to generate force fields which display accuracies approaching the ones of the ab-initio calculations they are trained on, but are much faster to compute. The enhanced computational speed of machine learning force fields results key for modelling metallic nanoparticles, as their fluxionality and multi-funneled energy landscape needs to be sampled

  • High brightness ultrafast transmission electron microscope based on a laser-driven cold-field emission source: principle and applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    G. M. Caruso, F. Houdellier, S. Weber, M. Kociak, A. Arbouet

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold-field emission source. We first describe the instrument before reporting on numerical simulations of the laser-driven electron emission. These simulations predict the temporal and spectral properties of the femtosecond electron pulses generated in our ultrafast electron source. We then discuss

  • Distinctive characteristics of carrier-phonon interactions in optically driven semiconductor quantum dots
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    D. E. Reiter, T. Kuhn, V. M. Axt

    We review distinct features arising from the unique nature of the carrier-phonon coupling in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots. Because of the discrete electronic energy structure, the pure dephasing coupling usually dominates the phonon effects, of which two properties are of key importance: The resonant nature of the dot-phonon coupling, i.e. its non-monotonic behavior as a function of energy

  • Five! Impact Factor, International Fellowship
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-08-04
    Richard E. Palmer

    (2019). Five! Impact Factor, International Fellowship. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. i-i.

  • Newly uncovered physics of MHD instabilities using 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system in toroidal plasmas
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-20
    Hyeon K. Park

    Validation of physics models using the newly uncovered physics with a 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEi) system for magnetic fusion plasmas has either enhanced the confidence or substantially improved the modeling capability. The discarded “full reconnection model” in sawtooth instability is vindicated and established that symmetry and magnetic shear of the 1/1 kink mode are critical parameters

  • Topological nodal line semimetals in graphene network structures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-14
    Jian-Tao Wang, Hongming Weng, Changfeng Chen

    Topological semimetals are a fascinating class of quantum materials that possess extraordinary electronic and transport properties. These materials have attracted great interests in recent years for their fundamental significance and potential device applications. There have been intensive studies suggested that three-dimensional graphene networks support topological semimetals with two types of continuous

  • Exoplanet interiors and habitability
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-07
    Tim Van Hoolst, Lena Noack, Attilio Rivoldini

    More than 1000 exoplanets with a radius smaller than twice that of the Earth are currently known, mainly thanks to space missions dedicated to the search of exoplanets. Mass and radius estimates, which are only available for a fraction ( ∼ 10%) of the exoplanets, provide an indication of the bulk composition and interior structure and show that the diversity in exoplanets is far greater than in the

  • Chemical accuracy in modeling halide ion hydration from many-body representations
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Francesco Paesani, Pushp Bajaj, Marc Riera

    Despite the key role that ionic solutions play in several natural and industrial processes, a unified, molecular-level understanding of how ions affect the structure and dynamics of water across different phases remains elusive. In this context, computer simulations can provide new insights that are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain by other means. However, the predictive power of a computer

  • Developments of cation-exchange by in situ electron microscopy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Alberto Casu, Andrea Falqui

    In the last two decades, the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures was boosted due to the impressive development of colloidal chemistry, which allowed obtaining a multiplicity of objects with finely regulated and uniform morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Moreover, different post-synthetic approaches further contributed to this development, one of the most used being cation-exchange

  • Review on vortex beams with low spatial coherence
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Xianlong Liu, Jun Zeng, Yangjian Cai

    Vortex beams with helical phase, carrying phase singularity and orbital angular momentum, have attract great attention in the past decades due to their wide applications in optical communications, optical manipulation, super-resolution imaging and so on. Vortex beams with low spatial coherence, i.e. partially coherent vortex beams, carrying correlation singularity, display some unique properties during

  • Reactive force field simulations of silicon clusters
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Giovanni Barcaro, Vincenzo Carravetta, Luca Sementa, Susanna Monti

    The fast and continuous growth of multidisciplinary approaches, consisting of the combination of various experimental techniques and computational methods tuned on purpose to depict and predict material properties and performance, is motivated by the need to design new superior devices for effective applications in a great variety of industrial sectors. This strategy not only produces excellent results

  • Advanced bioengineering technologies for preclinical research
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Elena Martinez, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Fabio Variola

    Current in vitro practices must overcome important challenges to compare favorably with human studies. The limited applicability of conventional in vitro assays and strategies can be explained by the fact that standard approaches do not enable recapitulation of the complexity of human tissues and physiological functions. To address this challenge, novel bioengineering tools, techniques and technologies

  • Chemical modification of 2D materials using molecules and assemblies of molecules
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Lakshya Daukiya, Johannes Seibel, Steven De Feyter

    In this article, we discuss the recent progress on controlled structural modification of 2D materials by means of molecular functionalization, with a focus on scanning probe microscopy techniques for their characterization. For many practical applications of these novel materials, it is necessary to tune their electronic and optical properties, and molecule-based functionalization is a powerful approach

  • Bimetallic nanostructures: combining plasmonic and catalytic metals for photocatalysis
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Katherine Sytwu, Michal Vadai, Jennifer A. Dionne

    Light has emerged as a promising new reagent in chemical reactions, especially in enhancing the performance of metal nanoparticle catalysts. Certain metal nanoparticles support localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) which convert incident light to strong electromagnetic fields, hot carriers, or heat for directing and improving chemical reactions. By combining plasmonically active metals with

  • Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of chemically powered synthetic nanomotors
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Pierre Gaspard, Raymond Kapral

    Colloidal motors with micrometer dimensions and no moving parts can be propelled by self-diffusiophoresis. Coupling between molecular concentration gradients generated by asymmetric surface chemical reactions and the velocity slip between colloidal particle and the surrounding fluid solution is responsible for propulsion. The interfacial properties involved in this propulsion mechanism can be described

  • Near-field optics on flatland: from noble metals to van der Waals materials
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-04-09
    Jiahua Duan, Yafeng Li, Yixi Zhou, Yuan Cheng, Jianing Chen

    Near-field optics, with the capability for nanoscale manipulation of photons and enhancement of light-matter interactions, has drawn tremendous attentions in recent years. Compared with traditional noble metals, near-field optics in low-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) materials has revealed various polaritonic modes with gate-tunable competence, high confinement and novel quantum physics. Advanced

  • Optical Emission Spectroscopic (OES) analysis for diagnostics of electron density and temperature in non-equilibrium argon plasma based on collisional-radiative model
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-03-31
    Hiroshi Akatsuka

    This paper describes the use of Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to measure electron densities and temperatures in non-equilibrium plasmas. The ways to interpret relative line-intensities of neutral argon atoms are evaluated based upon a collisional-radiative model including atomic collisional processes. A conversion from an excitation temperature determined from relative line intensities assuming

  • Recent progress in perovskite-based photodetectors: the design of materials and structures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-03-31
    Fei Mei, Dongwei Sun, Sijiong Mei, Jiahuan Feng, Yuanming Zhou, Jinxia Xu, Xiangheng Xiao

    In recent years, taking advantages of high light absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and intense photoluminescence, halide perovskites have attracted a great deal of interest in developing high-performance optoelectronic devices including solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, transistors, lasers, and so on. Especially, the excellent combination of effective

  • Synergy of physics-based reasoning and machine learning in biomedical applications: towards unlimited deep learning with limited data
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    Valeriy Gavrishchaka, Olga Senyukova, Mark Koepke

    Technological advancements enable collecting vast data, i.e., Big Data, in science and industry including biomedical field. Increased computational power allows expedient analysis of collected data using statistical and machine-learning approaches. Historical data incompleteness problem and curse of dimensionality diminish practical value of pure data-driven approaches, especially in biomedicine. Advancements

  • Correction
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-01-29

    (2019). Correction. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. ii-ii.

  • High order harmonic generation in solids: a review on recent numerical methods
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-01-08
    Chao Yu, Shicheng Jiang, Ruifeng Lu

    Interaction of intense lasers with solid materials offers an alternative way to achieve high-order harmonic generation (HHG). Since the underlying mechanisms of the harmonic emission remain uncertain, a large number of theoretical studies have been proposed to explain the experimental findings in this fast-growing field. Here, we review the primary numerical methods and present a brief perspective

  • Infrared spectroscopy in superfluid helium droplets
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-12-20
    Deepak Verma, Rico Mayro P. Tanyag, Sean M. O. O’Connell, Andrey F. Vilesov

    For more than two decades, encapsulation in superfluid helium nanodroplets has served as a reliable technique for probing the structure and dynamics of molecules and clusters at a low temperature of ≈0.37 K. Due to weak interactions between molecules and the host liquid helium, good spectral resolution can usually be achieved, making helium droplets an ideal matrix for spectroscopy in a wide spectral

  • Correction
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-12-20

    (2019). Correction. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. iii-iii.

  • Silicon solar cells: toward the efficiency limits
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-12-05
    Lucio Claudio Andreani, Angelo Bozzola, Piotr Kowalczewski, Marco Liscidini, Lisa Redorici

    Photovoltaic (PV) conversion of solar energy starts to give an appreciable contribution to power generation in many countries, with more than 90% of the global PV market relying on solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si). The current efficiency record of c-Si solar cells is 26.7%, against an intrinsic limit of ~29%. Current research and production trends aim at increasing the efficiency, and

  • Social physics: uncovering human behaviour from communication
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Kunal Bhattacharya, Kimmo Kaski

    In the post year 2000 era the technologies that facilitate human communication have rapidly multiplied. While the adoption of these technologies has hugely impacted the behaviour and sociality of people, specifically in urban but also in rural environments, their ‘digital footprints’ on different data bases have become an active area of research. The existence and accessibility of such large population-level

  • Beyond electrostatic modification: design and discovery of functional oxide phases via ionic-electronic doping
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-10-23
    Hai-Tian Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Hua Zhou, Hidekazu Tanaka, Dillon D. Fong, Shriram Ramanathan

    A new research field of functional materials and device physics is rising that combines ionic transport with charge carrier modulation to realize emergent physical properties and discovery of metastable phases. The paradigm for enabling function extends far beyond carrier accumulation or depletion in band semiconductors or simply moving ions through an insulating electrolyte. Rather, by carefully selecting

  • Electron characterization in weakly ionized collisional plasmas: from principles to techniques
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2018-10-23
    Sanghoo Park, Wonho Choe, Se Youn Moon, Suk Jae Yoo

    Weakly ionized plasmas at or near 1 atm pressure, or atmospheric-pressure plasmas, have received increasing attention due to their scientific significance and potential for use in a variety of applications, particularly for medicine, agriculture, and food. However, there is a large imbalance between scientific research on plasma physics and applications, which is partly due to the considerable differences

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