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  • Recent development of new inductively coupled thermal plasmas for materials processing
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Yasunori Tanaka

    ABSTRACT This paper explains recent developments in the field of inductively coupled thermal plasmas (ICTP or ITP) used for materials processing. Inductive coupling technique is important to produce thermal plasma with high gas temperature at high pressures. Conventional cylindrical ICTP was developed originally in the 1960s by T. Reed. It remains widely used for different materials processing today

  • Topological insulators-based magnetic heterostructures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Qi Yao; Yuchen Ji; Peng Chen; Qing-Lin He; Xufeng Kou

    ABSTRACT The combination of magnetism and topology in magnetic topological insulators (MTIs) has led to unprecedented advancements of time reversal symmetry-breaking topological quantum physics in the past decade. Compared with the uniform films, the MTI heterostructures provide a better framework to manipulate the spin-orbit coupling and magnetic/spin properties. In this review, we summarize the fundamental

  • Cells nanomechanics by atomic force microscopy: focus on interactions at nanoscale
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Guoqiao Zhou; Bokai Zhang; Guanlin Tang; Xue-Feng Yu; Massimiliano Galluzzi

    ABSTRACT Nanomechanics of cytoskeleton is deeply involved in physiology and regulation of cell behavior. Atomic Force Microscopy has been extensively used for quantitative characterization with high-spatial resolution, in particular showing tremendous opportunities in biomechanics by quantifying mechanical parameters related to cytoskeleton organization. In this short review, we highlight recent developments

  • Quantum control in open and periodically driven systems
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Si-Yuan Bai; Chong Chen; Hong Wu; Jun-Hong An

    ABSTRACT Quantum technology resorts to efficient utilization of quantum resources to realize technique innovation. The systems are controlled such that their states follow the desired manners to realize different quantum protocols. However, the decoherence caused by the system-environment interactions causes the states deviating from the desired manners. How to protect quantum resources under the coexistence

  • Preparations and applications of single color centers in the diamond
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2021-01-03
    Zhiping Ju; Junjie Lin; Si Shen; Botao Wu; E Wu

    ABSTRACT As a non-classical light source, single-photon source plays an essential role in the foundation of quantum physics and has been attracting a lot of attention of researchers over the world. Up to now, among different kinds of single-photon sources, single color centers in the diamond are very outstanding for the stable emission at room temperature as well as the spin controllability at ambient

  • Initiating revolutions for optical manipulation: the origins and applications of rotational dynamics of trapped particles
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Graham D. Bruce; Paloma Rodríguez-Sevilla; Kishan Dholakia

    ABSTRACT The fastest-spinning man-made object is a tiny dumbbell rotating at 5 GHz. The smallest wind-up motor is constructed from a DNA molecule. Picoliter volumes of fluids are remotely controlled and their viscosity precisely measured using microrheometers based on miniscule rotating particles. Theoretical predictions for extraordinarily weak forces related to the presence of dark matter, dark energy

  • Plasma meets metamatertials: three ways to advance space micropropulsion systems
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-12-20
    Igor Levchenko; Shuyan Xu; Oleksii Cherkun; Oleg Baranov; Kateryna Bazaka

    ABSTRACT Plasma and metamaterials: what new advances in space micro-propulsion systems can they bring when used together? The aim of this concise review article is to attract attention of the space propulsion scientists and engineers, along with experts working in the fields of micro-machines, optics, communication, and other hi-tech devices, to the opportunities that arise from different possible

  • Rare-earth ion doped Al2O3 for active integrated photonics
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Ward A. P. M. Hendriks; Lantian Chang; Carlijn I. van Emmerik; Jinfeng Mu; Michiel de Goede; Meindert Dijkstra; Sonia M. Garcia-Blanco

    ABSTRACT Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is an emerging material in integrated photonics. It exhibits a very broad transparency window from the UV to the mid-IR, very low propagation losses and a high solubility for rare-earth ions leading to optical gain in different spectral ranges. Al2O3 can be deposited by different wafer-level deposition techniques, including atomic layer deposition and reactive magnetron

  • Disorder in energy materials and strategies to model it
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Jose Carlos Madrid Madrid; Kulbir Kaur Ghuman

    ABSTRACT The functionality of the materials used for energy applications is critically determined by the physical properties of small active regions such as dopants, dislocations, interfaces, grain boundaries, etc. The capability to manipulate and utilize the inevitable disorder in materials, whether due to the finite-dimensional defects (such as vacancies, dopants, grain boundaries) or due to the

  • High-energy few-cycle pulses: post-compression techniques
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Tamas Nagy; Peter Simon; Laszlo Veisz

    ABSTRACT Contemporary ultrafast science requires reliable sources of high-energy few-cycle light pulses. Currently two methods are capable of generating such pulses: post compression of short laser pulses and optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). Here we give a comprehensive overview on the post-compression technology based on optical Kerr-effect or ionization, with particular emphasis

  • RF and microwave photonic temporal signal processing with Kerr micro-combs
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Mengxi Tan; Xingyuan Xu; Jiayang Wu; Roberto Morandotti; Arnan Mitchell; David J. Moss

    ABSTRACT Integrated Kerr micro-combs are a powerful source of multiple wavelength channels for photonic radio frequency (RF) and microwave signal processing, particularly for transversal filter systems. They offer significant advantages featuring a compact device footprint, high versatility, large numbers of wavelengths, and wide Nyquist bands. We review progress on photonic RF and microwave high bandwidth

  • Nucleation and growth of ultrathin Bi films
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Hiroyuki Hirayama

    ABSTRACT Ultrathin Bi films have attracted substantial attention as promising candidates for two-dimensional topological insulators. The nucleation and growth of ultrathin Bi films on various substrates are reviewed, while the focus is on the Si(111) substrates in this article. During film growth, the Si substrate becomes covered by a one-monolayer-thick wetting layer, upon which Bi(110) islands composed

  • Optical vortex knots and links via holographic metasurfaces
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-11-08
    Peng Li; Xuyue Guo; Jinzhan Zhong; Sheng Liu; Yi Zhang; Bingyan Wei; Jianlin Zhao

    ABSTRACT Vortices arise in many natural phenomena as dark points of total destructive interference. Sometimes they form continuous lines and even enclosed loops with knotted or linked topologies in three spatial dimensions. Since the mathematical topology was introduced into physics, from hydrodynamics, condensed matter physics to photonics, and other modern physical fields, scientists have been exploring

  • State-to-state dissociative photoionization of molecular nitrogen: the full story
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    T. Ayari; M. Desouter-Lecomte; R. Linguerri; G. A. Garcia; L. Nahon; A. Ben Houria; H. Ghalila; R. Ben Said; M. Hochlaf

    ABSTRACT N2 is a major constituent of Earth and planetary atmospheres. First, evidenced in 1952, the dissociative photoionization of molecular nitrogen, N2, plays an important role in the species abundance, out of equilibrium evolution, and chemical reactivity of diverse media including upper atmospheres (the so-called ionospheres) and plasma. Many scenarios were proposed for rationalizing the dissociative

    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-10-26

    (2020). CORRECTION. Advances in Physics: X. Ahead of Print.

  • Colloidal engines for innovative tests of information thermodynamics
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Govind Paneru; Hyuk Kyu Pak

    ABSTRACT Recent theoretical developments in information thermodynamics elucidated the link between the acquired information and the entropy production through measurement and feedback control by generalizing the fluctuation theorems and the second law of thermodynamics. We summarize here our recent experimental studies based on the colloidal system that have been conducted to test the theoretical findings

  • Bubble formation in nanopores: a matter of hydrophobicity, geometry, and size
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Alberto Giacomello; Roland Roth

    ABSTRACT This review focuses on the phase behaviour of liquids in nanoscale confinement, which promotes drying by a combination of hydrophobicity, small size, and high degree of confinement. In these conditions, the vapour phase can form at exceptionally large pressures or low temperatures as compared to bulk vaporisation, giving rise to the unexpected formation of bubbles. A general framework is introduced

  • Continuous measurements for control of superconducting quantum circuits
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    S. Hacohen-Gourgy; L. S. Martin

    Developments over the last two decades have opened the path towards quantum technologies in many quantum systems, such as cold atoms, trapped ions, cavity-quantum electrodynamics (QED), and circuit-QED. However, the fragility of quantum states to the effects of measurement and decoherence still poses one of the greatest challenges in quantum technology. An imperative capability in this path is quantum

  • Bifurcation phenomena in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    K. Ida

    Bifurcation phenomena observed in turbulence and transport, in topology of magnetic field and MHD, and the interplay between turbulence and MHD bifurcation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Two types of bifurcation phenomena in turbulent transport are discussed. One is significant change in the magnitude of the diffusion term and the other is a sign flip of non-diffusive term

  • Theory and simulation of objects in liquid crystals
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Colin Denniston

    Colloidal particles with anisotropic interactions are excellent candidates for synthetic building blocks of self-assembled materials with desirable properties, such as a photonic band-gap or swimming ability, at the nano- or micro-scale. The anisotropic nature of liquid crystals (LCs) makes them an ideal candidate to generate non-spherically symmetric interactions between immersed colloidal particles

  • Multidisciplinary physics in a time of coronavirus
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Richard E. Palmer

    (2020). Multidisciplinary physics in a time of coronavirus. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 5, No. 1, 1807107.

  • X-ray induced ultrafast dynamics in atoms, molecules, and clusters: experimental studies at an X-ray free-electron laser facility SACLA and modelling
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Hironobu Fukuzawa; Kiyoshi Ueda

    ABSTRACT X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver intense, coherent, femtosecond X-ray laser pulses. They are opening new research fields of studying ultrafast electronic and structural dynamics in various forms of matter and interaction of intense and short X-ray pulses with matter. For such studies, atoms, molecules, and atomic clusters in the gas phase may provide us with ideal platforms as various

  • Machine learning for quantum matter
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Juan Carrasquilla

    ABSTRACT Quantum matter, the research field studying phases of matter whose properties are intrinsically quantum mechanical, draws from areas as diverse as hard condensed matter physics, materials science, statistical mechanics, quantum information, quantum gravity, and large-scale numerical simulations. Recently, researchers interested in quantum matter and strongly correlated quantum systems have

  • Ultrathin ionic liquid films on metal surfaces: adsorption, growth, stability and exchange phenomena
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Matthias Lexow; Florian Maier; Hans-Peter Steinrück

    ABSTRACT The interface of ionic liquids (ILs) with solid surfaces is of pivotal interest for many applications, ranging from sensors, lubrication, separation technology, and electronics to electrochemistry and catalysis. We present a short review on ultrathin layers of ionic liquids on metal surfaces using a surface science approach. We mainly focus on specific examples of imidazolium-based ionic liquids

  • Light in curved two-dimensional space
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Vincent H. Schultheiss; Sascha Batz; Ulf Peschel

    ABSTRACT The extrinsic and intrinsic curvature of a two-dimensional waveguide influences wave propagation therein. While this can already be apprehended from a geometric point of view in terms of geodesics generalizing straight lines as the shortest distance between any two points, in wave optics interference phenomena strongly govern the field evolution, too. Radii of curvature in the order of the

  • Nonlinear optical response and self-trapping of light in biological suspensions
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Rekha Gautam; Anna Bezryadina; Yinxiao Xiang; Tobias Hansson; Yi Liang; Guo Liang; Josh Lamstein; Nicolas Perez; Benjamin Wetzel; Roberto Morandotti; Zhigang Chen

    ABSTRACT In the past decade, the development of artificial materials exhibiting novel optical properties has become a major scientific endeavor. One particularly interesting system is synthetic soft matter, which plays a central role in numerous fields ranging from life sciences, chemistry to condensed matter and biophysics. In this paper, we review briefly the optical force-induced nonlinearities

  • Molecular simulations of amyloid beta assemblies
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Gianvito Grasso; Andrea Danani

    ABSTRACT Several neurodegenerative disorders arise from the abnormal protein aggregation in the nervous tissue leading tointracellular inclusions or extracellular aggregates in specific brain areas. In case of Alzheimer Disease, the accumulation of the Amyloid Beta peptide in the brain is proposed to be an early important event in the pathogenesis. Despite significant research efforts in this field

  • Exciton-surface plasmon polariton interactions
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Parinda Vasa

    ABSTRACT Exciton-surface plasmon polariton (exciton-SPP) interactions in semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures connect two fundamentally different quantum mechanical excitations with strikingly different dispersion relations and optical response. The main focus in investigating these light–matter interactions and nanostructures is to control the light via light on the nanometric length scale and

  • Harnessing complex photonic systems for renewable energy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Y. Tian; N. Li; M. Bonifazi; A. Fratalocchi

    ABSTRACT The study of efficient mechanisms of photon conversion processes into electronic, thermal and chemical energy is an interdisciplinary research field spanning physics, chemistry and material science. In recent years, different physical mechanisms sustained by the engineering of diverse complex photonic structures have emerged to offer significant advances in the area of thermal energy generation

  • Advances in fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Panagiotis Koutsogiannis; Eleni Thomou; Haralambos Stamatis; Dimitrios Gournis; Petra Rudolf

    ABSTRACT Carbon Dots are an emerging class of carbon-based nanoparticles, which since their discovery have attracted tremendous attention because of their exceptional fluorescent, chemical and mechanical properties as well as high photostability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of outstanding characteristics, together with the ease with which they can be synthesized, qualify carbon dots

  • Few-atom cluster model systems for a hydrogen economy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Jan Vanbuel; Piero Ferrari; Ewald Janssens

    ABSTRACT To increase the share of renewable zero-emission energy sources, such as wind and solar power, in our energy supply, the problem of their intermittency needs to be addressed. One way to do so is by buffering excess renewable energy via the production of hydrogen, which can be stored for later use after re-electrification. Such a clean, renewable energy cycle based on hydrogen is commonly referred

  • Ultrashort field emission in metallic nanostructures and low-dimensional carbon materials
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-02-16
    D. J. Park; Y. H. Ahn

    ABSTRACT This study investigates recent advances in photoelectron emission generated by irradiating ultrashort lasers on metallic nanostructures and low-dimensional carbon materials. Recently, primary focus has been on improving the efficiency of emitters, i.e. increasing the number of field-emitted electrons and their respective kinetic energies. An example of this is the modification of the conventional

  • Density-functional tight-binding: basic concepts and applications to molecules and clusters
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Fernand Spiegelman; Nathalie Tarrat; Jérôme Cuny; Leo Dontot; Evgeny Posenitskiy; Carles Martí; Aude Simon; Mathias Rapacioli

    ABSTRACT The scope of this article is to present an overview of the Density Functional based Tight Binding (DFTB) method and its applications. The paper introduces the basics of DFTB and its standard formulation up to second order. It also addresses methodological developments such as third order expansion, inclusion of non-covalent interactions, schemes to solve the self-interaction error, implementation

  • Integration of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides with Mie-resonant dielectric nanostructures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Rajeshkumar Mupparapu; Tobias Bucher; Isabelle Staude

    ABSTRACT Integrating transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with dielectric nanostructures exhibiting Mie-like resonances opens a plethora of opportunities in manipulating their excitonic emission in the near-field and far-field regimes, yielding interactions spanning from weak to strong coupling regimes, and routing valley polarized chiral emission, to name just a few. Moreover, there is

  • Needle beams: a review
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Ruediger Grunwald; Martin Bock

    ABSTRACT Needle beams are highly attractive for applications which take advantage from a spatial and temporal localization of photons. High intensities, high resolution and extended depth of focus lead to fundamental advances in the optical system performance. Ultrashort, fringe-free, self-reconstructing nondiffracting pulses with undistorted temporal transfer are obtained by generating truncated Bessel

  • Nuclear density functional theory
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-29
    G. Colò

    ABSTRACT The goal of nuclear structure physics is to provide a complete understanding of the static properties of atomic nuclei, their excitation spectra, their response to external fields and their decays. While it is hard to achieve these goals within a single framework, so that there is no nuclear ‘standard model’, it is clear that nuclear Density Functional Theory (DFT) has probably the widest

  • Diffractive metalens: from fundamentals, practical applications to current trends
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Wenwei Liu; Hua Cheng; Jianguo Tian; Shuqi Chen

    ABSTRACT Traditional optical lenses and the corresponding imaging systems, which are based on the optical paths when light propagates inside the bulky media, usually suffer from the bulky size, Abbe-Rayleigh diffraction restricted resolution, and limited responses to different kinds of incident light. Recently, the burgeoning development of metasurfaces comprised of artificial micro- or nano-structures

  • Ionic liquids under nanoscale confinement
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Francesca Borghi; Alessandro Podestà

    ABSTRACT The confinement of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) in nanoscale geometries, where at least one, but often all three dimensions are reduced down to lengths comparable to the anion-cation size, put the ILs into a quite different condition with respect to their bulk phase. An understanding of the properties of the ILs confined in a nanoscale-constrained geometry is of both fundamental and

  • Ultrafast charge transfer and vibronic coupling in a laser-excited hybrid inorganic/organic interface
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Matheus Jacobs; Jannis Krumland; Ana M. Valencia; Haiyuan Wang; Mariana Rossi; Caterina Cocchi

    ABSTRACT Hybrid interfaces formed by inorganic semiconductors and organic molecules are intriguing materials for opto-electronics. Interfacial charge transfer is primarily responsible for their peculiar electronic structure and optical response. Hence, it is essential to gain insight into this fundamental process also beyond the static picture. Ab initio methods based on real-time time-dependent density-functional

  • Semiconductor/dielectric interface in organic field-effect transistors: charge transport, interfacial effects, and perspectives with 2D molecular crystals
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Mengjiao Pei; Jianhang Guo; Bowen Zhang; Sai Jiang; Ziqian Hao; Xin Xu; Yun Li

    ABSTRACT Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been the hotspot in information science for many years as the most fundamental building blocks for state-of-the-art organic electronics. During the field-effect modulation of the semiconducting channel, the gate dielectric always has a significant influence on the charge transport behaviours. Hence, understanding of the nature of charge carriers

  • Spectroscopic photoemission and low-energy electron microscopy studies of the surface and electronic structure of two-dimensional materials
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Wencan Jin, Richard M. Osgood

    Advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials research have opened up new opportunities in miniaturization of optoelectronic and spintronic devices at the atomically thin limit. One major research thrust, which is the subject of this review, is the surface- and electronic structure of 2D materials and their van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures that may be significantly affected by the local atomic geometry

  • Control of free electron wave packets by polarization-tailored ultrashort bichromatic laser fields
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    S. Kerbstadt, K. Eickhoff, T. Bayer, M. Wollenhaupt

    We review recent advances in the generation of polarization-tailored ultrashort bichromatic laser fields and their application to the coherent control of ultrafast photoionization dynamics. In the experiments, we use polarization-shaped bichromatic laser pulses to control three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions from atomic multiphoton ionization. To analyze the underlying physical mechanisms

  • Engineered electronic states in atomically precise artificial lattices and graphene nanoribbons
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Linghao Yan, Peter Liljeroth

    The fabrication of atomically precise structures with designer electronic properties is one of the emerging topics in condensed matter physics. The required level of structural control can either be reached through atomic manipulation using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) or by bottom-up chemical synthesis. In this review, we focus on recent progress in constructing novel, atomically

  • Optical spatial shock waves in nonlocal nonlinear media
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Giulia Marcucci, Davide Pierangeli, Silvia Gentilini, Neda Ghofraniha, Zhigang Chen, Claudio Conti

    Dispersive shock waves are fascinating phenomena occurring when nonlinearity overwhelms linear effects, such as dispersion and diffraction. Many features of shock waves are still under investigation, as the interplay with noninstantaneity in temporal pulses transmission and nonlocality in spatial beams propagation. Despite the rich and vast literature on nonlinear waves in optical Kerr media, spatial

  • Advances in thermodynamic modelling of nanoparticles
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Grégory Guisbiers

    Among all the computational techniques (Density Functional Theory, Molecular Dynamics, Monte-Carlo Simulations, Nanothermodynamics) used to investigate the properties of nanoparticles, nanothermodynamics is the most unusual one. Indeed, most people still thing that thermodynamics does not apply at the nanoscale; nonetheless, thermodynamic concepts can still be applied at the nanoscale to predict various

  • The rise of flexible electronics in neuroscience, from materials selection to in vitro and in vivo applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-28
    L. Maiolo, D. Polese, A. Convertino

    Neuroscience deals with one of the most complicate system we can study: the brain. The huge amount of connections among the cells and the different phenomena occurring at different scale give rise to a continuous flow of data that have to be collected, analyzed and interpreted. Neuroscientists try to interrogate this complexity to find basic principles underlying brain electrochemical signalling and

  • High-resolution material structuring using ultrafast laser non-diffractive beams
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Razvan Stoian, Manoj Kumar Bhuyan, Anton Rudenko, Jean-Philippe Colombier, Guanghua Cheng

    Scales in the 100 nm range represent a generic cornerstone for laser material processing, enabling novel size-dependent functions on surfaces and in the bulk and thus a new range of technological applications. On these scales, the processed material acquires optical, transport or contact properties that do not only rely on local effects on singular topographic features but involve increasingly collective

  • High-speed on-chip light sources at the nanoscale
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Xi Li, Qing Gu

    Following a similar trend in the scaling of electronic integrated circuits (ICs), the downscaling of optical sources promises revenues such as higher energy efficiency and faster operation speed in photonic ICs. With the rapid development of advanced fabrication techniques and optical cavity designs, light confinement and manipulation at the nanoscale, far below the diffraction limit of light, have

  • On machine learning force fields for metallic nanoparticles
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Claudio Zeni, Kevin Rossi, Aldo Glielmo, Francesca Baletto

    Machine learning algorithms have recently emerged as a tool to generate force fields which display accuracies approaching the ones of the ab-initio calculations they are trained on, but are much faster to compute. The enhanced computational speed of machine learning force fields results key for modelling metallic nanoparticles, as their fluxionality and multi-funneled energy landscape needs to be sampled

  • High brightness ultrafast transmission electron microscope based on a laser-driven cold-field emission source: principle and applications
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    G. M. Caruso, F. Houdellier, S. Weber, M. Kociak, A. Arbouet

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold-field emission source. We first describe the instrument before reporting on numerical simulations of the laser-driven electron emission. These simulations predict the temporal and spectral properties of the femtosecond electron pulses generated in our ultrafast electron source. We then discuss

  • Distinctive characteristics of carrier-phonon interactions in optically driven semiconductor quantum dots
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    D. E. Reiter, T. Kuhn, V. M. Axt

    We review distinct features arising from the unique nature of the carrier-phonon coupling in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots. Because of the discrete electronic energy structure, the pure dephasing coupling usually dominates the phonon effects, of which two properties are of key importance: The resonant nature of the dot-phonon coupling, i.e. its non-monotonic behavior as a function of energy

  • Five! Impact Factor, International Fellowship
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-08-04
    Richard E. Palmer

    (2019). Five! Impact Factor, International Fellowship. Advances in Physics: X: Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. i-i.

  • Newly uncovered physics of MHD instabilities using 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system in toroidal plasmas
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-20
    Hyeon K. Park

    Validation of physics models using the newly uncovered physics with a 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEi) system for magnetic fusion plasmas has either enhanced the confidence or substantially improved the modeling capability. The discarded “full reconnection model” in sawtooth instability is vindicated and established that symmetry and magnetic shear of the 1/1 kink mode are critical parameters

  • Topological nodal line semimetals in graphene network structures
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-14
    Jian-Tao Wang, Hongming Weng, Changfeng Chen

    Topological semimetals are a fascinating class of quantum materials that possess extraordinary electronic and transport properties. These materials have attracted great interests in recent years for their fundamental significance and potential device applications. There have been intensive studies suggested that three-dimensional graphene networks support topological semimetals with two types of continuous

  • Exoplanet interiors and habitability
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-07
    Tim Van Hoolst, Lena Noack, Attilio Rivoldini

    More than 1000 exoplanets with a radius smaller than twice that of the Earth are currently known, mainly thanks to space missions dedicated to the search of exoplanets. Mass and radius estimates, which are only available for a fraction ( ∼ 10%) of the exoplanets, provide an indication of the bulk composition and interior structure and show that the diversity in exoplanets is far greater than in the

  • Chemical accuracy in modeling halide ion hydration from many-body representations
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Francesco Paesani, Pushp Bajaj, Marc Riera

    Despite the key role that ionic solutions play in several natural and industrial processes, a unified, molecular-level understanding of how ions affect the structure and dynamics of water across different phases remains elusive. In this context, computer simulations can provide new insights that are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain by other means. However, the predictive power of a computer

  • Developments of cation-exchange by in situ electron microscopy
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Alberto Casu, Andrea Falqui

    In the last two decades, the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures was boosted due to the impressive development of colloidal chemistry, which allowed obtaining a multiplicity of objects with finely regulated and uniform morphology, crystal structure and chemical composition. Moreover, different post-synthetic approaches further contributed to this development, one of the most used being cation-exchange

  • Review on vortex beams with low spatial coherence
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Xianlong Liu, Jun Zeng, Yangjian Cai

    Vortex beams with helical phase, carrying phase singularity and orbital angular momentum, have attract great attention in the past decades due to their wide applications in optical communications, optical manipulation, super-resolution imaging and so on. Vortex beams with low spatial coherence, i.e. partially coherent vortex beams, carrying correlation singularity, display some unique properties during

  • Reactive force field simulations of silicon clusters
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Giovanni Barcaro, Vincenzo Carravetta, Luca Sementa, Susanna Monti

    The fast and continuous growth of multidisciplinary approaches, consisting of the combination of various experimental techniques and computational methods tuned on purpose to depict and predict material properties and performance, is motivated by the need to design new superior devices for effective applications in a great variety of industrial sectors. This strategy not only produces excellent results

  • Advanced bioengineering technologies for preclinical research
    Adv. Phys. X (IF 6.805) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Elena Martinez, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Fabio Variola

    Current in vitro practices must overcome important challenges to compare favorably with human studies. The limited applicability of conventional in vitro assays and strategies can be explained by the fact that standard approaches do not enable recapitulation of the complexity of human tissues and physiological functions. To address this challenge, novel bioengineering tools, techniques and technologies

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