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  • Drugs that inhibit TMEM16 proteins block SARS-CoV-2 Spike-induced syncytia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Luca Braga, Hashim Ali, Ilaria Secco, Elena Chiavacci, Guilherme Neves, Daniel Goldhill, Rebecca Penn, Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño, Ana M. Ortega-Prieto, Rossana Bussani, Antonio Cannatà, Giorgia Rizzari, Chiara Collesi, Edoardo Schneider, Daniele Arosio, Ajay M. Shah, Wendy S. Barclay, Michael H. Malim, Juan Burrone, Mauro Giacca

    COVID-19 is a disease with unique characteristics including lung thrombosis1, frequent diarrhoea2, abnormal activation of the inflammatory response3 and rapid deterioration of lung function consistent with alveolar oedema4. The pathological substrate for these findings remains elusive. Here we show that the lungs of patients with COVID-19 contain infected pneumocytes with abnormal morphology and frequent

  • Entropic evidence for a Pomeranchuk effect in magic-angle graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Asaf Rozen, Jeong Min Park, Uri Zondiner, Yuan Cao, Daniel Rodan-Legrain, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Yuval Oreg, Ady Stern, Erez Berg, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Shahal Ilani

    In the 1950s, Pomeranchuk1 predicted that, counterintuitively, liquid 3He may solidify on heating. This effect arises owing to high excess nuclear spin entropy in the solid phase, where the atoms are spatially localized. Here we find that an analogous effect occurs in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene2,3,4,5,6. Using both local and global electronic entropy measurements, we show that near a filling

  • People systematically overlook subtractive changes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Gabrielle S. Adams, Benjamin A. Converse, Andrew H. Hales, Leidy E. Klotz

    Improving objects, ideas or situations—whether a designer seeks to advance technology, a writer seeks to strengthen an argument or a manager seeks to encourage desired behaviour—requires a mental search for possible changes1,2,3. We investigated whether people are as likely to consider changes that subtract components from an object, idea or situation as they are to consider changes that add new components

  • Isospin Pomeranchuk effect in twisted bilayer graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Yu Saito, Fangyuan Yang, Jingyuan Ge, Xiaoxue Liu, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, J. I. A. Li, Erez Berg, Andrea F. Young

    In condensed-matter systems, higher temperatures typically disfavour ordered phases, leading to an upper critical temperature for magnetism, superconductivity and other phenomena. An exception is the Pomeranchuk effect in 3He, in which the liquid ground state freezes upon increasing the temperature1, owing to the large entropy of the paramagnetic solid phase. Here we show that a similar mechanism describes

  • The structure, function and evolution of a complete human chromosome 8
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Glennis A. Logsdon, Mitchell R. Vollger, PingHsun Hsieh, Yafei Mao, Mikhail A. Liskovykh, Sergey Koren, Sergey Nurk, Ludovica Mercuri, Philip C. Dishuck, Arang Rhie, Leonardo G. de Lima, Tatiana Dvorkina, David Porubsky, William T. Harvey, Alla Mikheenko, Andrey V. Bzikadze, Milinn Kremitzki, Tina A. Graves-Lindsay, Chirag Jain, Kendra Hoekzema, Shwetha C. Murali, Katherine M. Munson, Carl Baker, Melanie

    The complete assembly of each human chromosome is essential for understanding human biology and evolution1,2. Here we use complementary long-read sequencing technologies to complete the linear assembly of human chromosome 8. Our assembly resolves the sequence of five previously long-standing gaps, including a 2.08-Mb centromeric α-satellite array, a 644-kb copy number polymorphism in the β-defensin

  • Cell-programmed nutrient partitioning in the tumour microenvironment
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Bradley I. Reinfeld, Matthew Z. Madden, Melissa M. Wolf, Anna Chytil, Jackie E. Bader, Andrew R. Patterson, Ayaka Sugiura, Allison S. Cohen, Ahmed Ali, Brian T. Do, Alexander Muir, Caroline A. Lewis, Rachel A. Hongo, Kirsten L. Young, Rachel E. Brown, Vera M. Todd, Tessa Huffstater, Abin Abraham, Richard T. O’Neil, Matthew H. Wilson, Fuxue Xin, M. Noor Tantawy, W. David Merryman, Rachelle W. Johnson

    Cancer cells characteristically consume glucose through Warburg metabolism1, a process that forms the basis of tumour imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Tumour-infiltrating immune cells also rely on glucose, and impaired immune cell metabolism in the tumour microenvironment (TME) contributes to immune evasion by tumour cells2,3,4. However, whether the metabolism of immune cells is dysregulated

  • Evaluating eligibility criteria of oncology trials using real-world data and AI
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Ruishan Liu, Shemra Rizzo, Samuel Whipple, Navdeep Pal, Arturo Lopez Pineda, Michael Lu, Brandon Arnieri, Ying Lu, William Capra, Ryan Copping, James Zou

    There is a growing focus on making clinical trials more inclusive but the design of trial eligibility criteria remains challenging1,2,3. Here we systematically evaluate the effect of different eligibility criteria on cancer trial populations and outcomes with real-world data using the computational framework of Trial Pathfinder. We apply Trial Pathfinder to emulate completed trials of advanced non-small-cell

  • Fossoriality and evolutionary development in two Cretaceous mammaliamorphs
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Fangyuan Mao, Chi Zhang, Cunyu Liu, Jin Meng

    Mammaliamorpha comprises the last common ancestor of Tritylodontidae and Mammalia plus all its descendants1. Tritylodontids are nonmammaliaform herbivorous cynodonts that originated in the Late Triassic epoch, diversified in the Jurassic period2,3,4,5 and survived into the Early Cretaceous epoch6,7. Eutriconodontans have generally been considered to be an extinct mammalian group, although different

  • Five carbon- and nitrogen-bearing species in a hot giant planet’s atmosphere
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Paolo Giacobbe, Matteo Brogi, Siddharth Gandhi, Patricio E. Cubillos, Aldo S. Bonomo, Alessandro Sozzetti, Luca Fossati, Gloria Guilluy, Ilaria Carleo, Monica Rainer, Avet Harutyunyan, Francesco Borsa, Lorenzo Pino, Valerio Nascimbeni, Serena Benatti, Katia Biazzo, Andrea Bignamini, Katy L. Chubb, Riccardo Claudi, Rosario Cosentino, Elvira Covino, Mario Damasso, Silvano Desidera, Aldo F. M. Fiorenzano

    The atmospheres of gaseous giant exoplanets orbiting close to their parent stars (hot Jupiters) have been probed for nearly two decades1,2. They allow us to investigate the chemical and physical properties of planetary atmospheres under extreme irradiation conditions3. Previous observations of hot Jupiters as they transit in front of their host stars have revealed the frequent presence of water vapour4

  • CAR directs T cell adaptation to bile acids in the small intestine
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Mei Lan Chen, Xiangsheng Huang, Hongtao Wang, Courtney Hegner, Yujin Liu, Jinsai Shang, Amber Eliason, Huitian Diao, HaJeung Park, Blake Frey, Guohui Wang, Sarah A. Mosure, Laura A. Solt, Douglas J. Kojetin, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Deborah A. Schady, Casey T. Weaver, Matthew E. Pipkin, David D. Moore, Mark S. Sundrud

    Bile acids are lipid-emulsifying metabolites synthesized in hepatocytes and maintained in vivo through enterohepatic circulation between the liver and small intestine1. As detergents, bile acids can cause toxicity and inflammation in enterohepatic tissues2. Nuclear receptors maintain bile acid homeostasis in hepatocytes and enterocytes3, but it is unclear how mucosal immune cells tolerate high concentrations

  • Type III-A CRISPR immunity promotes mutagenesis of staphylococci
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Charlie Y. Mo, Jacob Mathai, Jakob T. Rostøl, Andrew Varble, Dalton V. Banh, Luciano A. Marraffini

    Horizontal gene transfer and mutation are the two major drivers of microbial evolution that enable bacteria to adapt to fluctuating environmental stressors1. Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems use RNA-guided nucleases to direct sequence-specific destruction of the genomes of mobile genetic elements that mediate horizontal gene transfer, such as conjugative

  • Demonstration of the trapped-ion quantum CCD computer architecture
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    J. M. Pino, J. M. Dreiling, C. Figgatt, J. P. Gaebler, S. A. Moses, M. S. Allman, C. H. Baldwin, M. Foss-Feig, D. Hayes, K. Mayer, C. Ryan-Anderson, B. Neyenhuis

    The trapped-ion quantum charge-coupled device (QCCD) proposal1,2 lays out a blueprint for a universal quantum computer that uses mobile ions as qubits. Analogous to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which stores and processes imaging information as movable electrical charges in coupled pixels, a QCCD computer stores quantum information in the internal state of electrically charged ions that are

  • Earthquakes indicated magma viscosity during Kīlauea’s 2018 eruption
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    D. C. Roman, A. Soldati, D. B. Dingwell, B. F. Houghton, B. R. Shiro

    Magma viscosity strongly controls the style (for example, explosive versus effusive) of a volcanic eruption and thus its hazard potential, but can only be measured during or after an eruption. The identification of precursors indicative of magma viscosity would enable forecasting of the eruption style and the scale of associated hazards1. The unanticipated May 2018 rift intrusion and eruption of Kīlauea

  • Diversity-oriented synthesis of polymer membranes with ion solvation cages
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Miranda J. Baran, Mark E. Carrington, Swagat Sahu, Artem Baskin, Junhua Song, Michael A. Baird, Kee Sung Han, Karl T. Mueller, Simon J. Teat, Stephen M. Meckler, Chengyin Fu, David Prendergast, Brett A. Helms

    Microporous polymers feature shape-persistent free volume elements (FVEs), which are permeated by small molecules and ions when used as membranes for chemical separations, water purification, fuel cells and batteries1,2,3. Identifying FVEs that have analyte specificity remains a challenge, owing to difficulties in generating polymers with sufficient diversity to enable screening of their properties

  • The NIH Somatic Cell Genome Editing program
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Krishanu Saha, Erik J. Sontheimer, P. J. Brooks, Melinda R. Dwinell, Charles A. Gersbach, David R. Liu, Stephen A. Murray, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Ross C. Wilson, Daniel G. Anderson, Aravind Asokan, Jillian F. Banfield, Krystof S. Bankiewicz, Gang Bao, Jeff W. M. Bulte, Nenad Bursac, Jarryd M. Campbell, Daniel F. Carlson, Elliot L. Chaikof, Zheng-Yi Chen, R. Holland Cheng, Karl J. Clark, David T. Curiel

    The move from reading to writing the human genome offers new opportunities to improve human health. The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) Somatic Cell Genome Editing (SCGE) Consortium aims to accelerate the development of safer and more-effective methods to edit the genomes of disease-relevant somatic cells in patients, even in tissues that are difficult to reach. Here we discuss the

  • Initial Upper Palaeolithic humans in Europe had recent Neanderthal ancestry
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Mateja Hajdinjak, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Laurits Skov, Benjamin Vernot, Alexander Hübner, Qiaomei Fu, Elena Essel, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Julia Richter, Oana Teodora Moldovan, Silviu Constantin, Elena Endarova, Nikolay Zahariev, Rosen Spasov, Frido Welker, Geoff M. Smith, Virginie Sinet-Mathiot, Lindsey Paskulin, Helen Fewlass, Sahra Talamo, Zeljko Rezek, Svoboda Sirakova, Nikolay Sirakov, Shannon

    Modern humans appeared in Europe by at least 45,000 years ago1,2,3,4,5, but the extent of their interactions with Neanderthals, who disappeared by about 40,000 years ago6, and their relationship to the broader expansion of modern humans outside Africa are poorly understood. Here we present genome-wide data from three individuals dated to between 45,930 and 42,580 years ago from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria1

  • Astrocytes close a motor circuit critical period
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Sarah D. Ackerman, Nelson A. Perez-Catalan, Marc R. Freeman, Chris Q. Doe

    Critical periods—brief intervals during which neural circuits can be modified by activity—are necessary for proper neural circuit assembly. Extended critical periods are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the mechanisms that ensure timely critical period closure remain poorly understood1,2. Here we define a critical period in a developing Drosophila motor circuit and identify astrocytes

  • Leading hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic moment from lattice QCD
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-07
    Sz. Borsanyi, Z. Fodor, J. N. Guenther, C. Hoelbling, S. D. Katz, L. Lellouch, T. Lippert, K. Miura, L. Parato, K. K. Szabo, F. Stokes, B. C. Toth, Cs. Torok, L. Varnhorst

    The standard model of particle physics describes the vast majority of experiments and observations involving elementary particles. Any deviation from its predictions would be a sign of new, fundamental physics. One long-standing discrepancy concerns the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a measure of the magnetic field surrounding that particle. Standard-model predictions1 exhibit disagreement

  • Pseudo-halide anion engineering for α-FAPbI 3 perovskite solar cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-04-05
    Jaeki Jeong, Minjin Kim, Jongdeuk Seo, Haizhou Lu, Paramvir Ahlawat, Aditya Mishra, Yingguo Yang, Michael A. Hope, Felix T. Eickemeyer, Maengsuk Kim, Yung Jin Yoon, In Woo Choi, Barbara Primera Darwich, Seung Ju Choi, Yimhyun Jo, Jun Hee Lee, Bright Walker, Shaik M. Zakeeruddin, Lyndon Emsley, Ursula Rothlisberger, Anders Hagfeldt, Dong Suk Kim, Michael Grätzel, Jin Young Kim

    Metal halide perovskites of the general formula ABX3—where A is a monovalent cation such as caesium, methylammonium or formamidinium; B is divalent lead, tin or germanium; and X is a halide anion—have shown great potential as light harvesters for thin-film photovoltaics1,2,3,4,5. Among a large number of compositions investigated, the cubic α-phase of formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) has emerged

  • A myeloid–stromal niche and gp130 rescue in NOD2-driven Crohn’s disease
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Shikha Nayar, Joshua K. Morrison, Mamta Giri, Kyle Gettler, Ling-shiang Chuang, Laura A. Walker, Huaibin M. Ko, Ephraim Kenigsberg, Subra Kugathasan, Miriam Merad, Jaime Chu, Judy H. Cho

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, with frequent aberrant healing and stricturing complications. Crosstalk between activated myeloid and stromal cells is critical in pathogenicity1,2 with increases in intravasating monocytes correlated to anti-TNF treatment non-response3. The highest effect risk alleles are loss-of-function NOD24,5 mutations, which increase risk for

  • An amygdala circuit that suppresses social engagement
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Jeong-Tae Kwon, Changhyeon Ryu, Hyeseung Lee, Alec Sheffield, Jingxuan Fan, Daniel H. Cho, Shivani Bigler, Heather A. Sullivan, Han Kyung Choe, Ian R. Wickersham, Myriam Heiman, Gloria B. Choi

    Innate social behaviours, such as mating and fighting, are fundamental to animal reproduction and survival1. However, social engagements can also put an individual at risk2. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that enable appropriate risk assessment and the suppression of hazardous social interactions. Here we identify the posteromedial nucleus of the cortical amygdala (COApm) as a locus required

  • Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    C. J. Baker, W. Bertsche, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, A. Christensen, R. Collister, A. Cridland Mathad, S. Eriksson, A. Evans, N. Evetts, J. Fajans, T. Friesen, M. C. Fujiwara, D. R. Gill, P. Grandemange, P. Granum, J. S. Hangst, W. N. Hardy, M. E. Hayden, D. Hodgkinson, E. Hunter, C. A. Isaac, M. A. Johnson, J. M. Jones, S. A. Jones, S. Jonsell, A. Khramov, P. Knapp, L. Kurchaninov

    The photon—the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field—is massless but carries momentum. A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision1. Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force2,3, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago4,5. It revolutionized atomic physics over the following decades6,7,8, and it is now a workhorse

  • Shared mechanisms underlie the control of working memory and attention
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Matthew F. Panichello, Timothy J. Buschman

    Cognitive control guides behaviour by controlling what, when, and how information is represented in the brain1. For example, attention controls sensory processing; top-down signals from prefrontal and parietal cortex strengthen the representation of task-relevant stimuli2,3,4. A similar ‘selection’ mechanism is thought to control the representations held ‘in mind’—in working memory5,6,7,8,9,10. Here

  • Innovative Homo sapiens behaviours 105,000 years ago in a wetter Kalahari
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Jayne Wilkins, Benjamin J. Schoville, Robyn Pickering, Luke Gliganic, Benjamin Collins, Kyle S. Brown, Jessica von der Meden, Wendy Khumalo, Michael C. Meyer, Sechaba Maape, Alexander F. Blackwood, Amy Hatton

    The archaeological record of Africa provides the earliest evidence for the emergence of the complex symbolic and technological behaviours that characterize Homo sapiens1,2,3,4,5,6,7. The coastal setting of many archaeological sites of the Late Pleistocene epoch, and the abundant shellfish remains recovered from them, has led to a dominant narrative in which modern human origins in southern Africa are

  • Three-dimensional nanoprinting via charged aerosol jets
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Wooik Jung, Yoon-Ho Jung, Peter V. Pikhitsa, Jicheng Feng, Younghwan Yang, Minkyung Kim, Hao-Yuan Tsai, Takuo Tanaka, Jooyeon Shin, Kwang-Yeong Kim, Hoseop Choi, Junsuk Rho, Mansoo Choi

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 has revolutionized manufacturing processes for electronics10,11,12, optics13,14,15, energy16,17, robotics18, bioengineering19,20,21 and sensing22. Downscaling 3D printing23 will enable applications that take advantage of the properties of micro- and nanostructures24,25. However, existing techniques for 3D nanoprinting of metals require a polymer–metal

  • Corticosterone inhibits GAS6 to govern hair follicle stem-cell quiescence
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Sekyu Choi, Bing Zhang, Sai Ma, Meryem Gonzalez-Celeiro, Daniel Stein, Xin Jin, Seung Tea Kim, Yuan-Lin Kang, Antoine Besnard, Amelie Rezza, Laura Grisanti, Jason D. Buenrostro, Michael Rendl, Matthias Nahrendorf, Amar Sahay, Ya-Chieh Hsu

    Chronic, sustained exposure to stressors can profoundly affect tissue homeostasis, although the mechanisms by which these changes occur are largely unknown. Here we report that the stress hormone corticosterone—which is derived from the adrenal gland and is the rodent equivalent of cortisol in humans—regulates hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) quiescence and hair growth in mice. In the absence of systemic

  • Oxygen isotopes trace the origins of Earth’s earliest continental crust
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Robert H. Smithies, Yongjun Lu, Christopher L. Kirkland, Tim E. Johnson, David R. Mole, David C. Champion, Laure Martin, Heejin Jeon, Michael T. D. Wingate, Simon P. Johnson

    Much of the current volume of Earth’s continental crust had formed by the end of the Archaean eon1 (2.5 billion years ago), through melting of hydrated basaltic rocks at depths of approximately 25–50 kilometres, forming sodic granites of the tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) suite2,3,4,5,6. However, the geodynamic setting and processes involved are debated, with fundamental questions arising

  • High and rising economic costs of biological invasions worldwide
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Christophe Diagne, Boris Leroy, Anne-Charlotte Vaissière, Rodolphe E. Gozlan, David Roiz, Ivan Jarić, Jean-Michel Salles, Corey J. A. Bradshaw, Franck Courchamp

    Biological invasions are responsible for substantial biodiversity declines as well as high economic losses to society and monetary expenditures associated with the management of these invasions1,2. The InvaCost database has enabled the generation of a reliable, comprehensive, standardized and easily updatable synthesis of the monetary costs of biological invasions worldwide3. Here we found that the

  • Soil moisture–atmosphere feedback dominates land carbon uptake variability
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Vincent Humphrey, Alexis Berg, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Gentine, Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Christian Frankenberg

    Year-to-year changes in carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems have an essential role in determining atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations1. It remains uncertain to what extent temperature and water availability can explain these variations at the global scale2,3,4,5. Here we use factorial climate model simulations6 and show that variability in soil moisture drives 90 per cent of the inter-annual

  • Determining the three-dimensional atomic structure of an amorphous solid
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Yao Yang, Jihan Zhou, Fan Zhu, Yakun Yuan, Dillan J. Chang, Dennis S. Kim, Minh Pham, Arjun Rana, Xuezeng Tian, Yonggang Yao, Stanley J. Osher, Andreas K. Schmid, Liangbing Hu, Peter Ercius, Jianwei Miao

    Amorphous solids such as glass, plastics and amorphous thin films are ubiquitous in our daily life and have broad applications ranging from telecommunications to electronics and solar cells1,2,3,4. However, owing to the lack of long-range order, the three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure of amorphous solids has so far eluded direct experimental determination5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15. Here we develop

  • Flexible scaling and persistence of social vocal communication
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Jingyi Chen, Jeffrey E. Markowitz, Varoth Lilascharoen, Sandra Taylor, Pete Sheurpukdi, Jason A. Keller, Jennifer R. Jensen, Byung Kook Lim, Sandeep Robert Datta, Lisa Stowers

    Innate vocal sounds such as laughing, screaming or crying convey one’s feelings to others. In many species, including humans, scaling the amplitude and duration of vocalizations is essential for effective social communication1,2,3. In mice, female scent triggers male mice to emit innate courtship ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)4,5. However, whether mice flexibly scale their vocalizations and how neural

  • Fertilized egg cells secrete endopeptidases to avoid polytubey
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Xiaobo Yu, Xuecheng Zhang, Peng Zhao, Xiongbo Peng, Hong Chen, Andrea Bleckmann, Anastasiia Bazhenova, Ce Shi, Thomas Dresselhaus, Meng-xiang Sun

    Upon gamete fusion, animal egg cells secrete proteases from cortical granules to establish a fertilization envelope as a block to polyspermy1,2,3,4. Fertilization in flowering plants is more complex and involves the delivery of two non-motile sperm cells by pollen tubes5,6. Simultaneous penetration of ovules by multiple pollen tubes (polytubey) is usually avoided, thus indirectly preventing polyspermy7

  • Flavour Hund’s coupling, Chern gaps and charge diffusivity in moiré graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Jeong Min Park, Yuan Cao, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    Interaction-driven spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many quantum phases of matter. In moiré systems, broken spin/valley ‘flavour’ symmetry in flat bands underlies the parent state from which correlated and topological ground states ultimately emerge1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. However, the microscopic mechanism of such flavour symmetry breaking and its connection to the low-temperature phases

  • Stabilization of liquid instabilities with ionized gas jets
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Sanghoo Park, Wonho Choe, Hyungyu Lee, Joo Young Park, Jinwoo Kim, Se Youn Moon, Uroš Cvelbar

    Impinging gas jets can induce depressions in liquid surfaces, a phenomenon familiar to anyone who has observed the cavity produced by blowing air through a straw directly above a cup of juice. A dimple-like stable cavity on a liquid surface forms owing to the balance of forces among the gas jet impingement, gravity and surface tension1,2. With increasing gas jet speed, the cavity becomes unstable and

  • Structural basis of malaria RIFIN binding by LILRB1-containing antibodies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-31
    Yiwei Chen, Kai Xu, Luca Piccoli, Mathilde Foglierini, Joshua Tan, Wenjie Jin, Jason Gorman, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Baoshan Zhang, Boubacar Traore, Chiara Silacci-Fregni, Claudia Daubenberger, Peter D. Crompton, Roger Geiger, Federica Sallusto, Peter D. Kwong, Antonio Lanzavecchia

    Some Plasmodium falciparum repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs)—variant surface antigens that are expressed on infected erythrocytes1—bind to the inhibitory receptor LAIR1, and insertion of DNA that encodes LAIR1 into immunoglobulin genes generates RIFIN-specific antibodies2,3. Here we address the general relevance of this finding by searching for antibodies that incorporate LILRB1

  • Escape of SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 from neutralization by convalescent plasma
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-29
    Sandile Cele, Inbal Gazy, Laurelle Jackson, Shi-Hsia Hwa, Houriiyah Tegally, Gila Lustig, Jennifer Giandhari, Sureshnee Pillay, Eduan Wilkinson, Yeshnee Naidoo, Farina Karim, Yashica Ganga, Khadija Khan, Mallory Bernstein, Alejandro B. Balazs, Bernadett I. Gosnell, Willem Hanekom, Mahomed-Yunus S. Moosa, Richard J. Lessells, Tulio de Oliveira, Alex Sigal

    SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have arisen independently at multiple locations [1, 2] and may reduce the efficacy of current vaccines targeting the spike glycoprotein [3]. Here, using a live virus neutralization assay (LVNA), we compared neutralization of a non-VOC variant versus the 501Y.V2 variant using plasma collected from adults hospitalized with COVID-19 from two South African infection

  • The spatial landscape of lung pathology during COVID-19 progression
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-29
    André F. Rendeiro, Hiranmayi Ravichandran, Yaron Bram, Vasuretha Chandar, Junbum Kim, Cem Meydan, Jiwoon Park, Jonathan Foox, Tyler Hether, Sarah Warren, Youngmi Kim, Jason Reeves, Steven Salvatore, Christopher E. Mason, Eric C. Swanson, Alain C. Borczuk, Olivier Elemento, Robert E. Schwartz

    Recent studies have provided insights into the pathology and immune response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1–8. However, thorough interrogation of the interplay between infected cells and the immune system at sites of infection is lacking. We use high parameter imaging mass cytometry9 targeting the expression of 36 proteins, to investigate at single cell resolution, the cellular composition

  • A 200-million-year delay in permanent atmospheric oxygenation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-29
    Simon W. Poulton, Andrey Bekker, Vivien M. Cumming, Aubrey L. Zerkle, Donald E. Canfield, David T. Johnston

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen fundamentally changed the chemistry of surficial environments and the nature of Earth’s habitability1. Early atmospheric oxygenation occurred over a protracted period of extreme climatic instability marked by multiple global glaciations2,3, with the initial rise of oxygen concentration to above 10−5 of the present atmospheric level constrained to about 2.43 billion years

  • Neuronal enhancers are hotspots for DNA single-strand break repair
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-25
    Wei Wu, Sarah E. Hill, William J. Nathan, Jacob Paiano, Elsa Callen, Dongpeng Wang, Kenta Shinoda, Niek van Wietmarschen, Jennifer M. Colón-Mercado, Dali Zong, Raffaella De Pace, Han-Yu Shih, Steve Coon, Maia Parsadanian, Raphael Pavani, Hana Hanzlikova, Solji Park, Seol Kyoung Jung, Peter J. McHugh, Andres Canela, Chongyi Chen, Rafael Casellas, Keith W. Caldecott, Michael E. Ward, André Nussenzweig

    Defects in DNA repair frequently lead to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, underscoring the particular importance of DNA repair in long-lived post-mitotic neurons1,2. The cellular genome is subjected to a constant barrage of endogenous DNA damage, but surprisingly little is known about the identity of the lesion(s) that accumulate in neurons and whether they accrue throughout the genome

  • Assessing transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 in England
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-25
    Erik Volz, Swapnil Mishra, Meera Chand, Jeffrey C. Barrett, Robert Johnson, Lily Geidelberg, Wes R. Hinsley, Daniel J. Laydon, Gavin Dabrera, Áine O’Toole, Roberto Amato, Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Ian Harrison, Ben Jackson, Cristina V. Ariani, Olivia Boyd, Nicholas J. Loman, John T. McCrone, Sónia Gonçalves, David Jorgensen, Richard Myers, Verity Hill, David K. Jackson, Katy Gaythorpe, Natalie Groves

    The SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, designated a Variant of Concern 202012/01 (VOC) by Public Health England1, originated in the UK in late Summer to early Autumn 20202. Whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequence data collected from community-based diagnostic testing shows an unprecedentedly rapid expansion of the B.1.1.7 lineage during Autumn 2020, suggesting a selective advantage. We find that changes in VOC frequency

  • Bispecific IgG neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants and prevents escape in mice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-25
    Raoul De Gasparo, Mattia Pedotti, Luca Simonelli, Petr Nickl, Frauke Muecksch, Irene Cassaniti, Elena Percivalle, Julio C. C. Lorenzi, Federica Mazzola, Davide Magrì, Tereza Michalcikova, Jan Haviernik, Vaclav Honig, Blanka Mrazkova, Natalie Polakova, Andrea Fortova, Jolana Tureckova, Veronika Iatsiuk, Salvatore Di Girolamo, Martin Palus, Dagmar Zudova, Petr Bednar, Ivana Bukova, Filippo Bianchini

    Neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) are among the most promising approaches against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1,2. We developed a bispecific, IgG1-like molecule (CoV-X2) based on two antibodies derived from COVID-19 convalescent donors, C121 and C1353. CoV-X2 simultaneously binds two independent sites on the RBD and, unlike its parental

  • Ex utero mouse embryogenesis from pre-gastrulation to late organogenesis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Alejandro Aguilera-Castrejon, Bernardo Oldak, Tom Shani, Nadir Ghanem, Chen Itzkovich, Sharon Slomovich, Shadi Tarazi, Jonathan Bayerl, Valeriya Chugaeva, Muneef Ayyash, Shahd Ashouokhi, Daoud Sheban, Nir Livnat, Lior Lasman, Sergey Viukov, Mirie Zerbib, Yoseph Addadi, Yoach Rais, Saifeng Cheng, Yonatan Stelzer, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Raanan Shlomo, Rada Massarwa, Noa Novershtern, Itay Maza, Jacob H. Hanna

    Establishment of the mammalian body plan occurs shortly after the embryo implants into the maternal uterus, and our understanding of post-implantation developmental processes remains limited. While methods for in vitro culture of pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryos are routinely utilized1,2, approaches for robust culture of post-implantation embryos from egg cylinder stages until advanced organogenesis

  • Primate cell fusion disentangles gene regulatory divergence in neurodevelopment
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Rachel M. Agoglia, Danqiong Sun, Fikri Birey, Se-Jin Yoon, Yuki Miura, Karen Sabatini, Sergiu P. Pașca, Hunter B. Fraser

    Among primates, humans display a unique trajectory of development that is responsible for the many traits specific to our species. However, the inaccessibility of primary human and chimpanzee tissues has limited our ability to study human evolution. Comparative in vitro approaches using primate-derived induced pluripotent stem cells have begun to reveal species differences on the cellular and molecular

  • Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Darcy Bradley, Reniel B. Cabral, Trisha B. Atwood, Arnaud Auber, William Cheung, Christopher Costello, Francesco Ferretti, Alan M. Friedlander, Steven D. Gaines, Cristina Garilao, Whitney Goodell, Benjamin S. Halpern, Audra Hinson, Kristin Kaschner, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Fabien Leprieur, Jennifer McGowan, Lance E. Morgan, David Mouillot, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Hugh P

    The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services1,2, but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected3. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address

  • DPP9 sequesters the C terminus of NLRP1 to repress inflammasome activation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    L. Robert Hollingsworth, Humayun Sharif, Andrew R. Griswold, Pietro Fontana, Julian Mintseris, Kevin B. Dagbay, Joao A. Paulo, Steven P. Gygi, Daniel A. Bachovchin, Hao Wu

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin-domain containing protein 1 (NLRP1) is an inflammasome sensor that mediates the activation of caspase-1 to induce cytokine maturation and pyroptosis1,2,3,4. Gain-of-function mutations of NLRP1 cause severe inflammatory diseases of the skin4,5,6. NLRP1 contains a function-to-find domain that auto-proteolyses into noncovalently associated subdomains7

  • Enabling conditions for an equitable and sustainable blue economy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor, Marcia Moreno-Báez, Gabriel Reygondeau, William W. L. Cheung, Katherine M. Crosman, Pedro C. González-Espinosa, Vicky W. Y. Lam, Muhammed A. Oyinlola, Gerald G. Singh, Wilf Swartz, Chong-wei Zheng, Yoshitaka Ota

    The future of the global ocean economy is currently envisioned as advancing towards a ‘blue economy’—socially equitable, environmentally sustainable and economically viable ocean industries1,2. However, tensions exist within sustainable development approaches, arising from differing perspectives framed around natural capital or social equity. Here we show that there are stark differences in outlook

  • DNA-driven condensation assembles the meiotic DNA break machinery
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Corentin Claeys Bouuaert, Stephen Pu, Juncheng Wang, Cédric Oger, Dima Daccache, Wei Xie, Dinshaw J. Patel, Scott Keeney

    The accurate segregation of chromosomes during meiosis—which is critical for genome stability across sexual cycles—relies on homologous recombination initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by the Spo11 protein1,2. The formation of DSBs is regulated and tied to the elaboration of large-scale chromosome structures3,4,5, but the protein assemblies that execute and control DNA breakage are poorly

  • The AIM2 inflammasome exacerbates atherosclerosis in clonal haematopoiesis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Trevor P. Fidler, Chenyi Xue, Mustafa Yalcinkaya, Brian Hardaway, Sandra Abramowicz, Tong Xiao, Wenli Liu, David G. Thomas, Mohammad Ali Hajebrahimi, Joachim Pircher, Carlos Silvestre-Roig, Andriana G. Kotini, Larry L. Luchsinger, Ying Wei, Marit Westerterp, Hans-Willem Snoeck, Eirini P. Papapetrou, Christian Schulz, Steffen Massberg, Oliver Soehnlein, Benjamin Ebert, Ross L. Levine, Muredach P. Reilly

    Clonal haematopoiesis, which is highly prevalent in older individuals, arises from somatic mutations that endow a proliferative advantage to haematopoietic cells. Clonal haematopoiesis increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke independently of traditional risk factors1. Among the common genetic variants that give rise to clonal haematopoiesis, the JAK2V617F (JAK2VF) mutation, which increases

  • Structural and biochemical mechanisms of NLRP1 inhibition by DPP9
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Menghang Huang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Gee Ann Toh, Qin Gong, Jia Wang, Zhifu Han, Bin Wu, Franklin Zhong, Jijie Chai

    Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) mediate innate immunity by forming inflammasomes. Activation of the NLR protein NLRP1 requires autocleavage within its function-to-find domain (FIIND)1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In resting cells, the dipeptidyl peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 interact with the FIIND of NLRP1 and suppress spontaneous NLRP1 activation8,9; however, the mechanisms through which

  • Shifting attention to accuracy can reduce misinformation online
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Gordon Pennycook, Ziv Epstein, Mohsen Mosleh, Antonio A. Arechar, Dean Eckles, David G. Rand

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of concern about the proliferation of false and misleading news on social media1,2,3,4. Academics and practitioners alike have asked why people share such misinformation, and sought solutions to reduce the sharing of misinformation5,6,7. Here, we attempt to address both of these questions. First, we find that the veracity of headlines has little effect on

  • Modelling human blastocysts by reprogramming fibroblasts into iBlastoids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Xiaodong Liu, Jia Ping Tan, Jan Schröder, Asma Aberkane, John F. Ouyang, Monika Mohenska, Sue Mei Lim, Yu B. Y. Sun, Joseph Chen, Guizhi Sun, Yichen Zhou, Daniel Poppe, Ryan Lister, Amander T. Clark, Owen J. L. Rackham, Jennifer Zenker, Jose M. Polo

    Human pluripotent and trophoblast stem cells have been essential alternatives to blastocysts for understanding early human development1,2,3,4. However, these simple culture systems lack the complexity to adequately model the spatiotemporal cellular and molecular dynamics that occur during early embryonic development. Here we describe the reprogramming of fibroblasts into in vitro three-dimensional

  • Extensional tectonics and two-stage crustal accretion at oceanic transform faults
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Ingo Grevemeyer, Lars H. Rüpke, Jason P. Morgan, Karthik Iyer, Colin W. Devey

    Oceanic transform faults are seismically and tectonically active plate boundaries1 that leave scars—known as fracture zones—on oceanic plates that can cross entire ocean basins2. Current descriptions of plate tectonics assume transform faults to be conservative two-dimensional strike–slip boundaries1,3, at which lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed and along which the lithosphere cools and

  • Blastocyst-like structures generated from human pluripotent stem cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Leqian Yu, Yulei Wei, Jialei Duan, Daniel A. Schmitz, Masahiro Sakurai, Lei Wang, Kunhua Wang, Shuhua Zhao, Gary C. Hon, Jun Wu

    Limited access to embryos has hampered the study of human embryogenesis and disorders that occur during early pregnancy. Human pluripotent stem cells provide an alternative means to study human development in a dish1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Recent advances in partial embryo models derived from human pluripotent stem cells have enabled human development to be examined at early post-implantation stages8,9,10,11

  • Widespread potential loss of streamflow into underlying aquifers across the USA
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-17
    Scott Jasechko, Hansjörg Seybold, Debra Perrone, Ying Fan, James W. Kirchner

    Most rivers exchange water with surrounding aquifers1,2. Where groundwater levels lie below nearby streams, streamwater can infiltrate through the streambed, reducing streamflow and recharging the aquifer3. These ‘losing’ streams have important implications for water availability, riparian ecosystems and environmental flows4,5,6,7,8,9,10, but the prevalence of losing streams remains poorly constrained

  • Clofazimine broadly inhibits coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-16
    Shuofeng Yuan, Xin Yin, Xiangzhi Meng, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Zi-Wei Ye, Laura Riva, Lars Pache, Chris Chun-Yiu Chan, Pok-Man Lai, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Andrew Chak-Yiu Lee, Naoko Matsunaga, Yuan Pu, Chun-Kit Yuen, Jianli Cao, Ronghui Liang, Kaiming Tang, Li Sheng, Yushen Du, Wan Xu, Chit-Ying Lau, Ko-Yung Sit, Wing-Kuk Au, Runming Wang, Yu-Yuan Zhang, Yan-Dong Tang, Thomas Mandel

    COVID-19 pandemic is the third zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) outbreak of the century after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20031 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) since 20122. Treatment options for CoVs are largely lacking. Here we show that clofazimine, an anti-leprosy drug with a favourable safety profile3, possesses pan-coronaviral inhibitory activity, and can antagonize SARS-CoV-2

  • Increased mortality in community-tested cases of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-15
    Nicholas G. Davies, Christopher I. Jarvis, W. John Edmunds, Nicholas P. Jewell, Karla Diaz-Ordaz, Ruth H. Keogh

    SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, a variant first detected in the UK in September 20201, has spread to multiple countries worldwide. Several studies have established that B.1.1.7 is more transmissible than preexisting variants, but have not identified whether it leads to any change in disease severity2. Here we analyse a dataset linking 2,245,263 positive SARS-CoV-2 community tests and 17,452 COVID-19 deaths

  • Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-11
    Dami A. Collier, Anna De Marco, Isabella A.T.M. Ferreira, Bo Meng, Rawlings Datir, Alexandra C. Walls, Steven A. Kemp S, Jessica Bassi, Dora Pinto, Chiara Silacci Fregni, Siro Bianchi, M. Alejandra Tortorici, John Bowen, Katja Culap, Stefano Jaconi, Elisabetta Cameroni, Gyorgy Snell, Matteo S. Pizzuto, Alessandra Franzetti Pellanda, Christian Garzoni, Agostino Riva, Anne Elmer, Nathalie Kingston, Barbara

    SARS-CoV-2 transmission is uncontrolled in many parts of the world, compounded in some areas by higher transmission potential of the B1.1.7 variant1 now reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on the prototypic strain will be impacted by mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assessed immune responses following vaccination with mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22

  • A high-resolution protein architecture of the budding yeast genome
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-10
    Matthew J. Rossi, Prashant K. Kuntala, William K. M. Lai, Naomi Yamada, Nitika Badjatia, Chitvan Mittal, Guray Kuzu, Kylie Bocklund, Nina P. Farrell, Thomas R. Blanda, Joshua D. Mairose, Ann V. Basting, Katelyn S. Mistretta, David J. Rocco, Emily S. Perkinson, Gretta D. Kellogg, Shaun Mahony, B. Franklin Pugh

    The genome-wide architecture of chromatin-associated proteins that maintains chromosome integrity and gene regulation is not well defined. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation, exonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing (ChIP–exo/seq)1,2 to define this architecture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identify 21 meta-assemblages consisting of roughly 400 different proteins that are related to DNA replication

  • Inter-mosaic coordination of retinal receptive fields
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-10
    Suva Roy, Na Young Jun, Emily L. Davis, John Pearson, Greg D. Field

    The output of the retina is organized into many detector grids, called ‘mosaics’, that signal different features of visual scenes to the brain1,2,3,4. Each mosaic comprises a single type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC), whose receptive fields tile visual space. Many mosaics arise as pairs, signalling increments (ON) and decrements (OFF), respectively, of a particular visual feature5. Here we use a model

  • Detection of a particle shower at the Glashow resonance with IceCube
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-03-10

    The Glashow resonance describes the resonant formation of a W− boson during the interaction of a high-energy electron antineutrino with an electron1, peaking at an antineutrino energy of 6.3 petaelectronvolts (PeV) in the rest frame of the electron. Whereas this energy scale is out of reach for currently operating and future planned particle accelerators, natural astrophysical phenomena are expected

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