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  • Complete-arch fixed reconstruction by means of guided surgery and immediate loading: a retrospective clinical study on 12 patients with 1 year of follow-up
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Henriette Lerner; Uli Hauschild; Robert Sader; Shahram Ghanaati

    Guided implant surgery is considered as a safe and minimally invasive flapless procedure. However, flapless guided surgery, implant placement in post-extraction sockets and immediate loading of complete-arch fixed reconstructions without artificial gum are still not throughly evaluated. The aim of the present retrospective clinical study was to document the survival and success of complete-arch fixed reconstructions without artificial gum, obtained by means of guided surgery and immediate loading of implants placed also in fresh extraction sockets. A total of 12 patients (5 males and 7 females, with a mean age of 50.0 ± 13.8) were enrolled in this study. Implant planning was performed with a guided surgery system (RealGuide®, 3Diemme, Como, Italy), from which 3D-printed surgical templates were fabricated. All implants (Esthetic Line-EL®, C-Tech, Bologna, Italy) were placed through the guides and immediately loaded by means of a temporary fixed full-arch restoration without any artificial gum; the outcome measures were implant stability at placement, implant survival, complications, prosthetic success, soft-tissue stability, and patient satisfaction. One hundred ten implants (65 of them post-extractive) were placed flapless through a guided surgery procedure and then immediately loaded by means of provisional fixed full arches. Successful implant stability at placement was achieved in all cases. After a provisionalization period of 6 months, 72 fixed prosthetic restorations were delivered. Only 2 implants failed to osseointegrate and had to be removed, in one patient, giving a 1-year implant survival rate of 98.2% (108/110 surviving implants); 8/12 prostheses did not undergo any failure or complication during the entire follow-up period. At the 1-year follow-up control, soft-tissue was stable in all patients and showed satesfactory aesthetic results. Within the limits of this study, complete-arch fixed reconstruction by means of guided surgery and immediate loading of implants placed in fresh extraction sockets appears to be a reliable and successful procedure. Further long-term prospective studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these positive outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Development of a Greek Oral health literacy measurement instrument: GROHL
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Konstantina Taoufik; Kimon Divaris; Katerina Kavvadia; Haroula Koletsi-Kounari; Argy Polychronopoulou

    Oral health literacy is an important construct for both clinical and public health outcomes research. The need to quantify and test OHL has led to the development of measurement instruments and has generated a substantial body of recent literature. A commonly used OHL instrument is REALD-30, a word recognition scale that has been adapted for use in several languages. The objective of this study was the development and testing of the Greek language oral health literacy measurement instrument (GROHL). Data from 282 adult patients of two private dental clinics in Athens, Greece were collected via in-person interviews. Forty-four words were initially considered and tested for inclusion. Item response theory analysis (IRT) and 2-parameter logistic models assessing difficulty and discriminatory ability were used to identify an optimal scale composition. Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in a subset of 20 participants over a two-week period. Convergent validity was tested against functional health literacy screening (HLS) items, dental knowledge (DK), oral health behaviors (OHBs), oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL; OHIP-14 index), as well as self-reported oral and general health status. From an initial item pool of 44 items that were carried forward to IRT, 12 were excluded due to no or little variance, 10 were excluded due to low item-test correlation, and 2 due to insignificant contribution to the scale, i.e., difficulty parameter estimate with p > 0.05. The twenty remaining items composed the final index which showed favorable internal consistency (alpha = 0.80) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95). The summary score distribution did not depart from normality (p = 0.32; mean = 11.5; median = 12; range = 1–20). GROHL scores were positively correlated with favorable oral hygiene behaviors and dental attendance, as well as HLS, DK and education level. The GROHL demonstrated good psychometric properties and can be used for outcomes research in clinical and public health settings.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Teledentistry as a novel pathway to improve dental health in school children: a research protocol for a randomised controlled trial
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Mohamed Estai; Yogesan Kanagasingam; Maryam Mehdizadeh; Janardhan Vignarajan; Richard Norman; Boyen Huang; Heiko Spallek; Michelle Irving; Amit Arora; Estie Kruger; Marc Tennant

    Despite great improvement in child oral health, some children subgroups still suffer from higher levels of dental caries. Geographic and socioeconomic barriers and the lack of access to dental care services are among common reasons for poor oral health in children. Historically in Australia, oral health therapists or dental therapists have been responsible for providing dental care for school children through the School Dental Services (SDS). The current SDS has been unable to provide sustainable dental care to all school children due to a reduction in workforce participation and limited resources. We propose a paradigm shift in the current service through the introduction of user-friendly technology to provide a foundation for sustainable dental care for school children. We describe an ongoing parallel, two-armed, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial that compares routine and teledental pathway of dental care in children aged 4–15 years (n = 250). Participating schools in Western Australia will be randomly assigned to the control or teledental group, approximately three schools in each group with a maximum of 45 children in each school. All participants will first receive a standard dental examination to identify those who require urgent referrals and then their teeth will be photographed using a smartphone camera. At the baseline, children in the control group will receive screening results and advice on the pathway of dental care based on the visual dental screening while children in the teledental group will receive screening results based on the assessment of dental images. At 9 months follow-up, all participants will undergo a final visual dental screening. The primary outcomes include decay experience and proportion of children become caries active. The secondary outcomes include the diagnostic performance of photographic dental assessment and costs comparison of two pathways of dental care. The current project seeks to take advantage of mobile technology to acquire dental images from a child’s mouth at school settings and forwarding images electronically to an offsite dental practitioner to assess and prepare dental recommendations remotely. Such an approach will help to prioritise high-risk children and provide them with a quick treatment pathway and avoid unnecessary referrals or travel. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12619001233112. Registered 06 September 2019.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • LncRNA CASC 2 is upregulated in aphthous stomatitis and predicts the recurrence
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jiaping Lu; Naizheng Zhang; Chen Wu

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral disease with unknown molecular pathogenesis. Our preliminary microarray analysis revealed the altered expression of lncRNA Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 (CASC2) in RAS. We therefore analyzed the role of CASC2 in RAS. In this study, plasma samples were obtained from RAS patients and healthy participants. Plasma levels of CASC2 were measured by RT-qPCR. Plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-18 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A follow-up study was performed to analyze the role of CASC2 in the recurrence of RAS. In the present study, we found that lncRNA Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 (CASC2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 18 (IL-18), were upregulated in plasma of RAS patients compared with healthy participants. Plasma levels of lncRNA CASC2 were positively correlated with plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in RAS patients but not in healthy participants. Compared with pre-treatment levels, plasma levels of lncRNA CASC2, IL-6 and IL-18 were reduced after recovery. A follow-up study showed that patients with high levels of lncRNA CASC2 had a significantly higher recurrence rate. LncRNA CASC 2 is upregulated in RAS and predicts the recurrence.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Evaluation of oral care protocols practice by dentists in Rio de Janeiro towards HIV/AIDS individuals
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Carina Maciel Silva-Boghossian; Brenda Azzariti Berrondo Boscardini; Claudia Maria Pereira; Edson Jorge Lima Moreira

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentists’ knowledge and practice regarding HIV positive individuals’ oral care in Rio de Janeiro State. Dentists from Rio de Janeiro State (n = 242) answered an electronic questionnaire on biosafety procedures, oral manifestations of AIDS, and knowledge of HIV infection. Collected information was stratified by gender, and data were analyzed using Chi-square and t tests. From the 14 oral manifestations investigated, oral candidiasis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and hairy leucoplakia were more associated with HIV, with no differences between the responses from men and women. Above 85% of the participants would be concerned about becoming infected with HIV after a needle/ sharp object injury and more than 80% of them were willing to be tested for HIV. However, significantly more women (98.8%), compared to men (91.3%), said they knew that HIV/ AIDS patients can contaminate dental care professionals, p = 0.007. There was a significant difference in the answers for the questions: “Are there special dental clinics for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients in Brazil?” (p = 0.044), and “Do the negative HIV tests surely indicate that the persons are free of viruses?” (p = 0.005). Significant differences between men and women were also observed regarding use of disposable mask (p = 0.01), and cap (p < 0.0001). Most dentists who participated in the study presented a good knowledge on the care of HIV/ AIDS individuals, including biosafety protocols and in terms of the oral manifestations commonly associated to AIDS.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Utilization of dental services and associated factors among preschool children in China
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Xiaoli Gao; Min Ding; Mengru Xu; Huijing Wu; Chunzi Zhang; Xing Wang; Xiping Feng; Baojun Tai; Deyu Hu; Huancai Lin; Bo Wang; Shuguo Zheng; Xuenan Liu; Wensheng Rong; Weijian Wang; Chunxiao Wang; Yan Si

    This study sought to evaluate dental utilization among 3-,4-, and 5-year-old children in China and to use Andersen’s behavioural model to explore influencing factors, thereby providing a reference for future policy making. This study is a cross-sectional study. Data of 40,305 children aged 3–5 years were extracted from the Fourth National Oral Health Survey, which was performed from August 2015 to December 2016. Patient data were collected using a questionnaire, which was answered by the child’s parents, and clinical data were collected during a clinical examination. Stratification and survey weighting were incorporated into the complex survey design. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations and hierarchical logistic regression results were then analysed to find the factors associated with oral health service utilization. The oral health service utilization prevalence during the prior 12 months were 9.5% (95%CI: 8.1–11.1%) among 3-year-old children, 12.1% (95%CI: 10.8–13.5%) among 4-year-old children, and 17.5% (95%CI: 15.6–19.4%) among 5-year-old children. “No dental diseases” (71.3%) and “dental disease was not severe” (12.4%) were the principal reasons why children had not attended a dental visit in the past 12 months. The children whose parents had a bachelor’s degree or higher (OR: 2.29, 95%CI: 1.97–2.67, p < 0.001), a better oral health attitude ranging from 5 to 8(OR: 1.64, 95%CI: 1.43–1.89, p < 0.001), annual per capital income more than 25,000 CNY (OR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.18–1.65, p < 0.001),think their child have worse or bad oral health (OR: 3.54, 95%CI: 2.84–4.40, p < 0.001), and children who often have toothaches (OR: 9.72, 95%CI: 7.81–12.09, p < 0.001) were more likely to go to the dentist in the past year. The prevalence of dental service utilization was relatively low among preschool children. It is necessary to strengthen oral health education for parents and children, thereby improving oral health knowledge as well as attitude, and promoting dental utilization.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Assessment of the half-life of cationic periodontal pocket irrigation
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Tugrul Kirtiloglu; Ilker Keskiner; Murathan Sahin; Banu Kirtiloglu; Safak Aygul; Umur Sakallioglu; Gokhan Acikgoz

    The concentration and persisting time of antimicrobial agents in the periodontal pockets are important factors for their antimicrobial efficacy. Increased clearance time in the periodontal pocket is a significant criterion for the selection of intrapocket irrigants. The aim of this study was to estimate the clearance time of a cationic agent from the periodontal pocket. Thallium-201(Tl-201) was chosen as a tracer to simulate the clearance of cationic substance because of its electrical activity. Twenty patients with periodontitis and probing depths 6 to 9 mm were included in this study. In each patient, 3 Mega Becquerel (MBq) of Tl-201 were inserted into the periodontal pocket. Dynamic imaging was performed and clearance of radioactivity was measured. Clearance of radioactivity was 67.1 ± 16.9, 83.1 ± 13.9, 90.4 ± 10.4, 93.39 ± 8.0% at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively. Half-life of wash-out was determined as 20.3 ± 10.2 min. The results of this study demonstrate that the half-life of the cationic solution applied subgingivally was approximately 20 min and labelling of oral irrigants with radiotracers may be used to determine their clearance in further research.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Synovial sarcoma of the floor of the mouth: a rare case report
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yannan Wang; Feiya Zhu; Kai Wang

    Head and neck Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for 3–10% of all total body SS. It is rare to find it in the oral cavity, especially on the floor of the mouth. We present a 44-year-old Chinese male, who had been misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, with a swelling on the right submandibular region for more than 3 months. The radiology examinations and the pathology results indicate the diagnosis of SS of the floor of the mouth. The patient only had a surgical operation, without radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the first follow-up, the patient exhibited no clinical or radiographic complications, and the patient was asymptomatic on subsequent visits. Misdiagnosis results the delay of diagnosis and treatment of SS. Immunohistological analysis might be the most important tool to confirm the diagnosis of SS.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Adaptation and validation of the PEDSQL™ oral health scale for toddlers in Chilean population
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Claudia Atala-Acevedo; Carlos Zaror; Gerardo Espinoza-Espinoza; Patricia Muñoz-Millán; Sergio Muñoz; María José Martínez-Zapata; Montse Ferrer

    The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Oral Health Scale was developed to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the parent-reported version for toddlers of PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale into Spanish and to assess the acceptability, reliability and validity of this version in Chilean preschool population. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for toddlers was cross-culturally adapted for the Spanish language using the recommended standards. To assess metric properties, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 301 children aged 2 to 5 years in Carahue, Chile. Chilean versions of the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales, and Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) were completed by the children’s parents. Dental caries, malocclusion and dental trauma were examined by trained dentists. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale was administrated a second time 14–21 days after. The reliability of the scale was verified by analysis of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and reproducibility (Intraclass correlation coefficient – ICC). The validity of the construct was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis and known groups method. The convergent validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman’s correlation with the ECOHIS questionnaire. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.79 and ICC of 0.85. A moderate-to-strong correlation was found between the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale and the ECOHIS questionnaire (− 0.64); the PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale score was lower in children with poor than those with excellent/very good oral health (median 100 vs 85, p < 0.001); it also was lower in children with caries than in those caries-free (median 100 vs 90, p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among groups according to malocclusion and traumatic dental injuries. The PedsQL™ Oral Health Scale for toddlers in Spanish showed to be equivalent to the original version, and its psychometric properties were satisfactory for application in a Chilean pre-school population.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Cyclic compression emerged dual effects on the osteogenic and osteoclastic status of LPS-induced inflammatory human periodontal ligament cells according to loading force
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Ru Jia; Yingjie Yi; Jie Liu; Dandan Pei; Bo Hu; Huanmeng Hao; Linyue Wu; Zhenzhen Wang; Xiao Luo; Yi Lu

    Appropriate mechanical stimulation is essential for bone homeostasis in healthy periodontal tissues. While the osteogenesis and osteoclast differentiation of inflammatory periodontal ligament cells under different dynamic loading has not been yet clear. The aim of this study is to clarify the inflammatory, osteogenic and pro-osteoclastic effects of different cyclic stress loading on the inflammatory human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). hPDLCs were isolated from healthy premolars and cultured in alpha minimum Eagle’s medium (α-MEM). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were used to induce the inflammation state of hPDLCs in vitro. Determination of LPS concentration for the model of inflammatory periodontium was based on MTT and genes expression analysis. Then the cyclic stress of 0, 0–50, 0–90 and 0–150 kPa was applied to the inflammatory hPDLCs for 5 days respectively. mRNA and protein levels of osteogenic, osteoclastic and inflammation-related markers were examined after the treatment. MTT and RT-PCR results showed that 10 μg/ml LPS up-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05) and did not affect the cell viability (P > 0.05). The excessive loading of stress (150 kPa) with or without LPS strongly increased the expression of inflammatory-related markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 (P < 0.05) and osteoclastic markers RANKL, M-CSF, PTHLH and CTSK compared with other groups (P < 0.05), but had no significant effect on osteogenic genes. While 0–90 kPa cyclic pressure could up-regulate the expression of osteogenic genes ALP, COL-1, RUNX2, OCN, OPN and OSX in the healthy hPDLSCs. Collectively, it could be concluded that 0–150 kPa was an excessive stress loading which accelerated both inflammatory and osteoclastic effects, while 0–90 kPa may be a positive factor for the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs in vitro.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Association between early childhood caries and poverty in low and middle income countries
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan; Maha El Tantawi; Nourhan M. Aly; Ola B. Al-Batayneh; Robert J. Schroth; Jorge L. Castillo; Jorma I. Virtanen; Balgis O. Gaffar; Rosa Amalia; Arthur Kemoli; Ana Vulkovic; Carlos A. Feldens

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) in 3–5-year-old children, seven indicators of poverty and the indicator of monetary poverty in low- and middle-income countries (LICs, MICs). This ecologic study utilized 2007 to 2017 country-level data for LICs and MICs. Explanatory variables were seven indicators of poverty namely food, water, sanitation, health, shelter, access to information, education; and monetary poverty. The outcome variable was the percentage of 3–5-year-old children with ECC. A series of univariate general linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the percentage of 3–5 year-old children with ECC and each of the seven indicators of poverty, and monetary poverty. This was followed by multivariable regression models to determined the combined effect of the seven indicators of poverty, as well as the combined effect of the seven indicators of poverty and monetary poverty. Adjusted R2 measured models’ ability to explain the variation among LICs and MICs in the percentage of 3–5-year-old children with ECC. Significantly more people had food, sanitation, shelter, access to information, education and monetary poverty in LICs than in MICs. There was no difference in the prevalence of ECC in 3–5-year-old children between LICs and MICs. The combination of the seven indicators of poverty explained 15% of the variation in the percentage of 3–5-year-old children with ECC compared to 1% explained by monetary poverty. When the seven indicators of poverty and the indicator for monetary poverty were combined, the amount of variation explained by them was 10%. Only two of the poverty indicators had a direct relationship with the percentage of children with ECC; there was a higher percentage of ECC in countries with higher percentage of population living in slums (B = 0.35) and in those countries with higher percentage of the population living below poverty lines (B = 0.19). The other indicators had an inverse relationship. The use of multiple indicators to measures of poverty explained greater amount of variation in the percentage of 3–5-year-olds with ECC in LICs and MICs than using only the indicator for monetary poverty.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The cost-utility of school-based first permanent molar sealants programs: a Markov model
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Gerardo Espinoza-Espinoza; Gilda Corsini; Rubén Rojas; Rodrigo Mariño; Carlos Zaror

    Evidence of the cost-effectiveness of school-based first permanent molar sealants programs is not yet fully conclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of school-based prevention programs for the application of sealants in molars of schoolchildren compared with non-intervention. A cost-utility analysis based on a Markov model was carried out using probability distribution. The utility was measured in quality-adjusted tooth years (QATY). The assessment was carried out from the public payer’s perspective with a six-year time horizon. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% per year. Only direct costs were evaluated, expressed in Chilean pesos (CLP) at 7th May at 2019 values (exchange rate USD = CLP 681.09). Univariate deterministic sensitivity analysis and probabilistic analysis were carried out. After a six-year follow up, the cost of sealing all first permanent molars was found to be higher than non-intervention, with a mean cost difference of USD 1.28 (CLP 875) per molar treated. The “seal all” strategy was more effective than non-intervention, generating 0.2 quality-adjusted tooth years more than non-intervention. The ICUR of the “seal all” strategy compared to non-intervention was USD 6.48 (CLP 4,412) per quality-adjusted tooth years. The sensitivity analysis showed that the increase in caries was the variable which most influenced the ICUR. A school-based sealant program is a cost-effective measure in populations with a high prevalence of caries.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The effect of the waiting room’s environment on level of anxiety experienced by children prior to dental treatment: a case control study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Avia Fux-Noy; Maayan Zohar; Karin Herzog; Aviv Shmueli; Elinor Halperson; Moti Moskovitz; Diana Ram

    In addition to visit purpose, one of the environmental factors that can cause anxiety prior to dental treatment includes the waiting room experience, specifically the amount of time spent awaiting treatment and the waiting room environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the waiting room’s environment on the level of anxiety experienced by children in multisensory and traditional waiting rooms. Case control study. Test group waited for treatment in a multisensory waiting room, which consisted of a lighting column that children could touch and climb; as well as, rhythmic music played on loudspeakers. Control group waited for treatment in a traditional waiting room. Study participants were asked to answer the “Venham Picture Test”, a dental anxiety scale, while in the waiting room prior to entering the treatment room. Chi-squared, Fisher’s Exact tests, and linear regression were utilized. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. No significant difference in dental anxiety scores was found between the test and control groups according to waiting room type (p > .05). Dental anxiety was significantly higher in patients who had longer waiting time prior to treatment (p = 0.019). In addition, dental anxiety was significantly associated with visit purpose (p < .001): children waiting for dental examination or those scheduled for dental treatment with conscious sedation were less anxious than children waiting for emergency treatment. A sensory adapted waiting room environment may be less important in reducing children’s anxiety prior to dental treatment. Children’s dental anxiety can be reduced by preventing emergency treatments, scheduling routine dental visits and decreasing waiting time. TRN NCT03197129, date of registration June 20, 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Evaluation of the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on remineralization of white spot lesions in vitro and clinical research: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Xueling Ma; Xuandong Lin; Tengfei Zhong; Fangfang Xie

    This systematic review with meta-analyses sought to answer whether casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) provided a remineralizing benefit superior to that of nonintervention or placebo. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, Cochrane databases, PubMed, EmBase, and Ovid up to May 20th, 2019, were scanned, only published in English. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished independently by two reviewers. The “Criteria for judging risk of bias in the ‘Risk of bias’ assessment tool” was used for methodological quality assessment. The continuous data was analyzed by mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Review Manager 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Outcome variables include quantitative light-induced fluorescence in clinical research, average surface roughness and surface microhardness in vitro. There were significant differences in the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (SMD = − 0.43, 95% CI: [− 0.79, − 0.07], P = 0.02), average surface roughness (SMD = − 8.21, 95% CI: [− 10.37, − 6.04], P < 0.01), Vickers microhardness (SMD = 1.19, 95% CI: [0.72, 1.66], P < 0.01), and Knoop microhardness (SMD = 3.52, 95% CI: [2.68, 4.36], P < 0.01) between the CPP-ACP and control groups or baseline. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, CPP-ACP exhibited excellent remineralization effects evaluated in clinical research and in vitro, indicating outstanding restoration of form, aesthetics, and function in treating white spot lesions.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Association between developmental dental anomalies, early childhood caries and oral hygiene status of 3–5-year-old children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan; Michael Alade; Abiola Adeniyi; Maha El Tantawi; Tracy L. Finlayson

    To determine the association between developmental dental anomalies (DDA), early childhood caries (ECC) and oral hygiene status of 3–5-year-old children resident in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. We analyzed data for 3–5-year-olds extracted from the dataset of a household survey collected to determine the association between ECC and maternal psychosocial wellbeing in children 0–5-year-old. The outcome variables for the study were ECC and poor oral hygiene. The explanatory variable was the presence of developmental dental anomalies (supernumerary, supplemental, mesiodens, hypodontia, macrodontia, microdontia, peg-shaped lateral, dens evaginatus, dens invaginatus, talons cusp, fusion/germination, hypoplasia, hypomineralized second molar, fluorosis, amelogenesis imperfecta). The prevalence of each anomaly was determined. Poisson regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between presence of developmental dental anomalies, ECC and oral hygiene status. The model was adjusted for sex, age and socioeconomic status. Of the 918 children examined, 75 (8.2%) had developmental dental anomalies, 43 (4.7%) had ECC, and 38 (4.1%) had poor oral hygiene. The most prevalent developmental dental anomalies was enamel hypoplasia (3.9%). Of the 43 children with ECC, 6 (14.0%) had enamel hypoplasia and 3 (7.6%) had hypomineralized second primary molar. There was a significant association between ECC and enamel hypoplasia (p < 0.001) and a borderline association between ECC and hypomineralized second primary molars (p = 0.05). The proportion of children with poor oral hygiene (PR: 2.03; 95% CI: 0.91–4.56; p = 0.09) and ECC (PR: 2.02; 95% CI: 0.92–4.46; p = 0.08) who had developmental dental anomalies was twice that of children with good oral hygiene and without ECC respectively, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Enamel hypoplasia and hypomineralized second primary molars are developmental dental anomalies associated with ECC. developmental dental anomalies also increases the probability of having poor oral hygiene in the population studied.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Dental anomalies and orthodontic characteristics in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Jane Hejlesen; Line Underbjerg; Hans Gjørup; Tanja Sikjaer; Lars Rejnmark; Dorte Haubek

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare and inherited disease caused by mutations in the GNAS-gene or upstream of the GNAS complex locus. It is characterized by end-organ resistance to PTH, resulting in hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. We aimed to investigate the dental anomalies according to tooth types and the orthodontic characteristics of patients with PHP. Using a cross-sectional design, 29 patients (23 females) with PHP, living in Denmark, were included, and their clinical intraoral photos and radiographs were examined. Pulp calcification was found in 76% of the patients. Blunting of root apex was present in 55% and shortening of root in 48% of the examined patients. Blunting and shortening of roots were seen more often in premolars than in other tooth types (pboth < 0.01). Crowding of lower anterior teeth was frequently observed (36%) as well as diastema in the upper arch (25%), midline diastema (18%), and Class III malocclusion (11%). In the present study population, the teeth were frequently affected by pulp calcification and/or deviation of the root morphology. Blunting and shortening of root(s) were more often seen in premolars than in other tooth types. Class III malocclusion was relatively prevalent. It is important to pay attention to dental anomalies and occlusion in order to provide adequate care for patients with PHP.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The influence of two forms of chlorhexidine on the accuracy of contemporary electronic apex locators
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Ewa Marek; Ryta Łagocka; Katarzyna Kot; Krzysztof Woźniak; Mariusz Lipski

    Accurate determination of working length (WL) is crucial for the success of endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate gel and 2% hypochlorite solution on the accuracy of two devices: the Raypex 5 and the ApexDal. Twenty-nine single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The crowns were cut horizontally and embedded in an alginate mass. In each tooth, six endodontic measurements were made using two electronic apex locators (EALs): a Raypex 5 and an ApexDal. For each EAL, measurements were taken with the following products: 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX-S group), 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G group) and 2% NaOCl (NaOCl group). After performing an endodontic measurement, the endodontic instruments were stabilized with flow resin composite. Afterwards, the roots were removed from the alginate mass, and the apical one-third of each root was cut lengthways to recover the canal system. Last, the distance between the file tip and the apical foramen was measured under a microscope at 60 x magnification. Statistically significant differences were found between CHX-S and NaOCl and CHX-G and NaOCl, but no significant differences were detected between CHX-S and CHX-G during the testing of both devices. No statistically significant differences were observed between the Raypex 5 and ApexDal for all intracanal media tested. The EALs Raypex 5 and ApexDal had higher accuracy in the anatomical foramen of the root containing chlorhexidine in the gel or in the solution form than in the canal containing sodium hypochlorite.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Association of childhood socioeconomic status with edentulism among Chinese in mid-late adulthood
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Xiaoning Zhang; Shuang Chen

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and edentulism. The edentulous status of Chinese in mid-late adulthood was determined using self-reported lost all of teeth from the Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Childhood SES was determined based on the following parameters: the education, occupation and working status of the parents; financial situation of the family; relationship with the parents; care, love and affection from the mother; quarrels and fights between parents; primary residence; neighbors’ willingness to help and with close-knit relationships. Adulthood SES was assessed by educational achievements. This study used principal component analysis (PCA) to select variables and binary logistic regression models to determine the association between childhood SES and edentulism. Data were available from a total of 17,713 respondents, 984 of whom were edentulous (2.9%). The prevalence of edentulism in mid- to late-age Chinese individuals was higher in those with poor childhood SES. In final regression model, edentulism was significantly associated with willingness of neighbors to help with close-knit relationships (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79–0.99), parents with high school education or above (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.01–1.39) and drinking and smoking habits of the father (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.97–1.24). Childhood SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of edentulism in mid- to late-age Chinese individuals. In particular, parents with high school education or above, unwillingness of neighbor to help with close-knit relationships, drinking and smoking habits of the father independent of adulthood SES were significantly associated with edentulism. Accordingly, the development of optimal recommendations and more effective intervention strategies requires considering the experiences in early life associated with poor SES contributes to poor oral health.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • In-vitro antibiofilm activity of chlorhexidine digluconate on polylactide-based and collagen-based membranes
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jan-Luca Rudolf; Corina Moser; Anton Sculean; Sigrun Eick

    In Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR), barrier membranes are used to allow selective cell populations to multiply and to promote periodontal regeneration. A frequent complication is membrane exposure to the oral cavity followed by bacterial colonization. The purpose of this in-vitro-study was to elucidate, if rinsing with a chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) prevents bacterial adhesion, and whether it interferes with attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts and epithelial cells to membrane surfaces. Firstly, two bioresorbable membranes (polylactide-based and collagen-based) were dipped into 0.06% CHX and 0.12% CHX, before biofilms (2-species representing periodontal health, 6-species representing a periodontitis) were formed for 2 h and 8 h. Subsequently, colony forming units (cfu) were counted. Secondly, the membranes were treated with CHX and inoculated in bacteria suspension two-time per day for 3 d before cfu were determined. In additional series, the influence of CHX and bacterial lysates on attachment of epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts was determined. Parameter-free tests were applied for statistical analysis. Cfu in “healthy” biofilms did not differ between the two membranes, more cfu were counted in “periodontitis” biofilm on collagen than on polylactide membranes. One-time dipping of membranes into CHX solutions did not markedly influence the cfu counts of both biofilms on polylactide membrane; those on collagen-based membrane were significantly reduced with being 0.12% CHX more active than 0.06% CHX. More-fold CHX dipping of membranes reduced concentration-dependent the cfu counts of both biofilms on both membranes. In general, the number of attached gingival epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts was higher on collagen than on polylactide membrane. Lysates of the periodontopathogenic bacteria inhibited attachment of PDL fibroblasts to membranes. CHX decreased in a concentration-dependend manner the number of attached gingival epithelial cells and PDL fibroblasts. The present in-vitro results appear to indicate that membranes in GTR should only be used when bacteria being associated with periodontal disease have been eliminated. An exposure of the membrane should be avoided. Rinsing with CHX may prevent or at least retard bacterial colonization on membrane exposed to the oral activity. However, a certain negative effect on wound healing cannot be excluded.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Relational continuity of oral health care in Indigenous communities: a qualitative study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Richa Shrivastava; Yves Couturier; Stefanik Simard-Lebel; Felix Girard; Nadia Verenna Bendezu Aguirre; Jill Torrie; Elham Emami

    The relational continuity of care is an essential function of primary health care. This study reports on the perspectives of Cree communities and their primary health care providers regarding the barriers and enablers of relational continuity of oral health care integrated at a primary health care organization. A multiple case study design within a qualitative approach and developmental evaluation methodology were used to conduct this research study in Cree communities of Northern Québec. Maximum variation sampling and snowball techniques were used to recruit the participants. Data collection consisted of individual interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was conducted which included transcription, debriefing, codification, data display, and interpretation. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies (COREQ) were used to guide the reporting of study findings. A total of six focus group discussions and 36 individual interviews were conducted. Five major themes emerged from the thematic analyses for barriers (two) and enablers (three). Themes for barriers included impermanence and lack of effective communication, whereas themes for enablers included culturally competent professionals, working across professional boundaries, and proactive organizational engagement. Based on these findings, relational continuity can be empowered by effective strategies for overcoming barriers and encouraging enablers, such as recruitment of permanent professionals, organizing cultural competency training, development of a Cree language dental glossary, encouraging inter-professional collaboration, and promoting the organization’s efforts.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Epidemiological characteristic of Orofacial clefts and its associated congenital anomalies: retrospective study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    A. Impellizzeri; I. Giannantoni; A. Polimeni; E. Barbato; G. Galluccio

    To evaluate the relationship between gender, ethnicity/citizenship, clinical phenotype, total prevalence, and the various congenital malformations associated with oral clefts (OC) in Italy across the period 2001–2014. A retrospective analysis (2001–2014) was conducted based on the National Congenital Malformation Registries network of Italy (Emilia-Romagna Registry of Birth Defects [IMER] and Registro Toscano Difetti Congeniti [RTDC]), which were analyzed to investigate time trends, geographical/ethnic clusters, topography, sex ratio, and associated congenital anomalies of OC phenotypes. Among 739 registered cases, 29.8% were syndromic or had multi-malformed associated anomalies, compared with 70.2% having isolated orofacial cleft. Cleft lip (CL) was observed in 22%, cleft palate (CP) in 40%, and cleft lip and palate (CLP) in 38% of live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly cases. Other associated conditions were major anomalies of cardiovascular defects (39%), followed by defects of the limbs (28%), neuroectodermal defects (23%), and urogenital malformations (10%). Male-to-female sex ratio was 1:1.14 in CP, 1.22:1 in CL, and 1.9:1 in CLP. Foreigners were represented by 29% from Southeast Asia, 25% from Balkans, 25% from North-Central Africa, 9% from the East, 7% from Western Europe, and 5% from South America. Total prevalence of OC cases ranged from 0.9 (RTDC) to 1.1 (IMER) of 1000 births. This retrospective study provides a population-based, clinical-epidemiological description of the orofacial cleft phenomenon. As a relatively frequent congenital malformation, its social and economic impact is worthy of further study. These abnormalities can cause significant problems that may be solved or minimized by early diagnosis and treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Salivary gland function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and late after intensity-modulated radiotherapy evaluated by dynamic diffusion-weighted MR imaging with gustatory stimulation
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Dai Shi; Jian-Jun Qian; Guo-Hua Fan; Jun-Kang Shen; Ye Tian; Liang Xu

    Xerostomia caused by radiation-induced salivary glands injury has a considerable impact on patients’ quality of life. Nowadays, the existed different methods of evaluating xerostomia in clinical practice there are still some disadvantages and limitations. This study used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) with gustatory stimulation to assess salivary glands function after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). DW-MRI was performed in 30 NPC patients and swab method was used to calculate rest and stimulated salivary flow rates (SFR). DW sequence at rest and then repeated ten times during stimulation were obtained. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) maps of three glands were calculated. Patients before and after RT were recorded as xerostomia and non-xerostomia groups separately. Rest and stimulated ADCs, ADCs increase rates (IRs), time to maximum ADCs (Tmax), ADCs change rates (CRs), rest and stimulated SFR, SFR increase rates (IRs) and SFR change rates (CRs) before and after RT were assessed. The rest and stimulated ADCs of three glands after RT were higher than those before RT (p < 0.001). The rest and stimulated SFR of all salivary glands after RT were lower than those before RT (p < 0.001). A correlation existed between rest ADCs of submandibular glands and rest SFR of submandibular mixed with sublingual glands and full three glands before RT (p = 0.019, p = 0.009), stimulated ADCs and stimulated SFR in parotid glands before RT (p = 0.047). The rest ADCs of parotid glands after RT correlated to XQ scores (p = 0.037). The salivary glands’ ADCs increased after RT both in rest and stimulated state due to the radiation injury and the ADCs correlated with SFR and XQ scores of evaluating the xerostomia in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Oral health related quality of life of patients with class III skeletal malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Farzad Rezaei; Hiwa Masalehi; Amin Golshah; Mohammad Moslem Imani

    Orthognathic surgery includes improvement of morphology and function of occlusion as well as psychological perception and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the OHRQoL of patients with class III skeletal malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery. A total of 112 skeletal class III patients including 39 (34.8%) males and 73 (65.2%) females participated in this descriptive quasi-experimental study in three groups: “prior to orthodontic treatment” (n = 25); “under orthodontic treatment and prior to surgery” (n = 65), and “after surgery” (n = 25). All patients filled out a demographic information questionnaire, the oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and the orthognathic quality of life questionnaire (OQLQ) under the supervision of the examiner. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, independent samples t-test, Mann Whitney test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. OHRQoL summary score changed from 14.5 prior to orthodontic treatment to 23.4 prior to surgery and during orthodontic treatment to 5.4 after surgery. These OHRQoL changes were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Orthognathic surgery matters to patients with class III skeletal malocclusion and significantly improves their OHRQoL.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Oral health in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis – a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Marit S. Skeie; Elisabeth G. Gil; Lena Cetrelli; Annika Rosén; Johannes Fischer; Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm; Keijo Luukko; Xieqi Shi; Astrid J. Feuerherm; Abhijit Sen; Paula Frid; Marite Rygg; Athanasia Bletsa

    Observational studies examining the association between oral health and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) among children and adolescents have reported inconsistent findings. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to ascertain a potential difference in oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among children and adolescents with JIA and healthy peers, and to assess the association of prevalence of oral diseases/conditions, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases, in relation to activity and severity of JIA. Medline Ovid, Embase, CINAHL, SweMed+ and Cochrane Library were searched up to 25 November 2018. All articles published in English, German and Scandinavian languages focusing on children and adolescents with JIA and without JIA in relation to oral health measures, were considered. Two authors independently evaluated observational studies for inclusion. The study quality was assessed using modified Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was performed for studies focusing on dental caries as an outcome. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria, covering a range of oral diseases/conditions and OHRQoL. Eighteen studies had cross-sectional design. No mean difference of dmft/DMFT indices (decayed/missed/filled teeth) was observed between the JIA - and healthy group. None of the oral health measures including dental erosive wear, enamel defects, dental maturation and OHRQoL, indicated better oral health among children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy group. However, periodontal conditions and TMD were more predominant among children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy peers. Based on the cross-sectional studies, periodontal diseases and TMD were found to be more frequent in children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy peers. Furthermore, more high-quality studies with large sample size are needed before we infer any concrete conclusion regarding the association between the prevalence of oral and TMJ diseases or oral conditions in relation to activity and severity of JIA.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Zirconia crowns cemented on titanium bars using CAD/CAM: a five-year follow-up prospective clinical study of 9 patients
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Antonio Scarano; Marco Stoppaccioli; Tommaso Casolino

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate clinical results of the passive fit of the substructure in the Toronto bridge and the chipping or delamination of the ceramic veneering on the zirconia-support, after 5 years, in nine patients rehabilitated with zirconia crowns cemented on titanium bars using CAD/CAM technology. A total of nine healthy patient fully edentulous in the upper and lower jaws with non-contributory past medical anamnesis needing full fixed total prosthesis maxilla and mandible were included in this clinical study, where a total 9 mandibles and 9 jaws were treated. The inclusion criteria in order for a patient to participate in the study were: a signed consent form, fully edentulous in the upper and lower jaws, required a full fixed total prosthesis restoration. The exclusion criteria were age limitation of less than 18 years old, chemotherapy, head and neck radiation therapy, diabetes or periodontal disease, smoking and severe illness. All patients received zirconia crowns cemented on titanium bars using CAD/CAM technology. The primary outcome of this study was to examine the survival rate of the zirconia crowns cemented on titanium bars using CAD/CAM technology during the observation period. Any chipping or delamination of the zirconia crowns of the restorations was considered as failure. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the passive fit of the substructure on the implants, loose of occlusal screws, implant survival and satisfactory occlusion. In 5 years of follow-up no evidence of chipping or delamination of the ceramic veneering on the zirconia crown supported were observed. Fifteen finished protesis (93.75%) showed satisfactory occlusion and only one case (6.25%) required significant occlusal adjustment. During the first year recall all bars were stable (100%) no mobility of protheses was recorded. After 5 years all bars were stable (100%) and no mobility of protheses was recorded. The computerized workflow for the process of building bar and prosthesis ensures reproducible results and excellent adaptation and passive insertion of them, as well as conditions for avoiding mechanical complications and guarantees stability of screw-implant abutments.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Effect of core materials for core fabrication for dental implants on in-vitro cytocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 cells
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Jung-Hyun Park; Hyun Lee; Seen-Young Kang; Junesun Kim; Ji-Hwan Kim

    Despite the wide use of dental materials for CAD/CAM system in prosthetic treatment, the effect of the materials, which are used as dental implants core fabricated, on cells involved in dental implant osseointegration is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate and compare the effect of single core materials used for dental implants fabricated by the dental prostheses fabrication process and the CAD/CAM milling method on MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials used for prostheses restoration in this experiment were Porcelain Fused Gold (P.F.G), Lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LiSi2), Zirconia (ZrO2), Nickel-Chromium (Ni-Cr) and Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured and used, the cell adhesion and morphology were observed and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Methoxyphenyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were used to observe the cell proliferation and differentiation. CLSM revealed irregular cell adhesion and morphology and the filopodia did not spread in the Ni-Cr specimen group. Significantly high cell proliferation was observed in the ZrO2 specimen group. The LiSi2 specimen group presented significantly high cell differentiation. Intergroup comparison of cell proliferation and differentiation between the Ni-Cr specimen group and all other specimen groups showed significant differences (p < .05). Cell proliferation and differentiation were observed from the cores, which were fabricated with all specimen groups on cytocompatibility except the Ni-Cr specimen group.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Investigating the anatomical relationship between the maxillary molars and the sinus floor in a Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Xi Zhang; Yan Li; Yi Zhang; Fengling Hu; Bin Xu; Xiaojun Shi; Liang Song

    The anatomical relationship between the root apices of maxillary molars and the maxillary sinus floor (MSF) is important for the treatment of dental implantations and endodontic procedures. In this study, the detailed anatomical relationships between the root apices of maxillary molars and the MSF were studied in a Chinese population using CBCT. We collected the CBCT data files of patients who visited the stomatology outpatient clinic in Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University from January 1, 2017 to January 1, 2019 and measured the following items: the distance between the molar root apices and the MSF, the thickness of the mucosa and cortical bone of the MSF closest to the root apices, and the angle between the buccal and palatal roots. The shortest distances between the root apices and the MSF were 1.57 ± 3.33 mm (the mesiobuccal root of the left second molar) and 1.61 ± 3.37 mm (the mesiobuccal root of the right second molar). Apical protrusion over the inferior wall of the sinus most often occurred in the mesiobuccal root of left second molar (frequency, 20.5%). The mucosa of the MSF was thinnest at the distobuccal root of the right second molar (1.52 ± 0.85 mm), the cortical bone of the MSF was thinnest at the mesiobuccal root of the right second molar (0.46 ± 0.28 mm), and the angle between the buccal and palatal roots ranged from 12.01° to 124.2° (42.36 ± 24.33 °). Among the root apices of the maxillary molars, the mesiobuccal root apex of the left second molar was closest to the MSF, and it had the highest incidence of protrusion into the sinus. The unique anatomical relationship between the maxillary molars and the MSF in this Chinese population is critical for treatment planning for dental implantation or endodontic procedures.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with a dental implant
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Rafaela Carriço Porto Baesso; Maria Carolina de Lima Jacy Monteiro Barki; Rebeca de Souza Azevedo; Karla Bianca Fernandes da Costa Fontes; Débora Lima Pereira; Renata Tucci; Fábio Ramôa Pires; Bruna Lavinas Sayed Picciani

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is an uncommon pathology that affects gingival or alveolar mucosa. Although PGCG can be associated with dental implants, little is known about this lesion and implant osseointegration as well as its etiopathogenesis and the treatments available. This study sought to report a rare case of PGCG associated with dental implant, emphasizing its clinical and histopathological aspects. A 53-year-old man had an exophytic, reddish lesion, around a crown attached to a dental implant located in the left mandible. Radiographically, there was bone loss around the implant. After excisional biopsy, histological examination revealed a submucosal proliferation of multinucleated giant cells rendering the diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Patient has been under follow-up for 6 months with no recurrence. Peri-implant lesions must be completely removed to prevent recurrence of PGCG and implant failure, even in cases suspected to be reactive. Besides, histological examination must be performed on all peri-implant reactions to achieve the appropriate diagnosis and, consequently, the best treatment and follow up.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prevalence and policy of occupational violence against oral healthcare workers: systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nada O. Binmadi; Jazia A. Alblowi

    Occupational violence is considered unlawful in professional environments worldwide. In the healthcare industry, including dentistry, the safety of workers is essential, and it is of the utmost importance to ensure patient and employee safety and provide quality care. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of violence and associated workplace policies among oral healthcare professionals. Additionally, it aimed to identify the factors associated with violence and their impact on oral healthcare workers. A systematic review and analysis of the literature was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ProQuest. Original articles written in English and published between January 1992 and August 2019 were included in the analysis. A total of 980 articles were found, and eight were selected for analysis. The violence experienced by healthcare workers included both physical and non-physical forms, such as shouting, bullying, and threatening; it also included sexual harassment. The impact of violence on workers manifested as impaired quality of work, psychological problems, and, although rare, quitting the job. With regard to dental healthcare, awareness of occupational violence policies among dental professionals has not been previously reported in the literature. The increasing incidence of occupational violence against oral healthcare workers indicates the need for the implementation of better protective measures to create a safe working environment for dental professionals. There is a current need for increasing awareness of workplace violence policies and for the detection and reporting of aggression and violence at dental facilities.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Trueness of CAD/CAM digitization with a desktop scanner – an in vitro study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    G. Joós-Kovács; B. Vecsei; Sz. Körmendi; V. A. Gyarmathy; J. Borbély; P. Hermann

    Desktop scanners are devices for digitization of conventional impressions or gypsum casts by indirect Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in dentistry. The purpose of this in vitro study was: 1, to investigate whether virtual models produced by the extraoral scanner have the same trueness as sectioned casts; and 2, to assess if digitization with an extraoral scanner influences the surface information. A polimethyl-methacrilic acid (PMMA) cast and a reference scanner (TwoCam 3D, SCAN technology A/S, Ringsted, Denmark; field of view 200 mm, resolution 0.1 mm ± 0.025 mm) were used to create the reference data in standard tessellation format (STL). According to the extraoral CAD/CAM digitization steps, impressions, mastercasts, and sectioned casts were made, and STL files were generated with the reference scanner. The pivotal point of the study was to digitalize these sectioned casts with the extraoral scanner (Straumann CARES Scan CS2 Visual 8.0 software, InstitutStraumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) and STL files were exported. Virtual caliper measurements were performed. Absolute deviations were compared using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Relative distortions were calculated with mean absolute errors and reference values. Differences were observed in measurements of tooth sizes. All four prepared teeth were affected. No relationship was observed in relative deviations. Absolute differences between all the indirect digitization steps considering arch distances were: impressions, − 0.004 mm; mastercasts, 0.136 mm; sectioned casts, − 0.028 mm; and extraoral scanner, − 0.089 mm. Prepared dies on the virtual casts (extraoral scanner) were closer to each other than those on the sectioned gypsum casts. Relative deviation calculations revealed no relationship with the position of the dies in the arch. The trueness of the virtual models generated by the extraoral scanner system used in this study was different from the dimensions of the sectioned casts. The digitization of gypsum casts changes both the dimensions of dies and the distances between the dies. The virtual casts had smaller distances than any distances measured at previous steps. Either bigger dies or longer distances did not result in greater distortions. We cannot, however, generalize our results to all scanners available on the market, because they might give different results.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing habits in oral implant surgery in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional survey
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Fabio Rodríguez Sánchez; Iciar Arteagoitia; Carlos Rodríguez Andrés; Josef Bruers

    There seems to be no consensus on the prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in oral implant surgery. The Dutch Association of Oral Implantology (NVOI) guidelines do not include a clear policy on prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions for oral implant surgery among healthy patients. The purpose of the study was to determine whether antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly prescribed in the Netherlands by general dentists, maxillofacial surgeons and oral implantologists in conjunction with oral implant surgery among healthy patients and to assess the type and amount of prophylactic antibiotic prescribed. This observational cross-sectional study is based on a web survey. A questionnaire developed in the United States of America was translated and slightly adjusted for use in the Netherlands. It contained predominantly close-ended questions relating to demographics, qualifications, antibiotic type, prescription duration and dosage. An email including an introduction to the study and an individual link to the questionnaire was sent in February 2018 to a sample of 600 general dental practitioners and all 302 specialized dentists (oral implantologists, periodontists and maxillofacial surgeons) recognized by the NVOI. Overall, 902 questionnaires were anonymously sent. Finally, 874 potential participants were reached. Collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. In total, 218 (24.9%) participants responded to the questionnaire, including 45 females (20.8%) and 171 males (79.2%). Overall, 151 (69.9%) regularly placed oral implants. Of them, 79 (52.7%) prescribe antibiotics only in specific situations, 66 (43.7%) regularly, and 5 (3.3%) did not prescribe antibiotics at all. Overall, 83 participants who prescribe antibiotics did so both pre- and postoperatively (57.2%), 47 only preoperatively (32.4%) and 12 exclusively postoperatively (8.3%). A single dose of 2000 mg of amoxicillin orally one hour prior to surgery was the most prescribed preoperative regimen. The most frequently prescribed postoperative regimen was 500 mg of amoxicillin three times daily for five days after surgery. On average, participants prescribe a total of 7018 mg of antibiotics before, during or after oral implant surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis in conjunction with oral implant surgery is prescribed in the Netherlands on a large scale, and recommendations based on the last published evidence are frequently not followed.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A pilot trial on lithium disilicate partial crowns using a novel prosthodontic functional index for teeth (FIT)
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Edoardo Ferrari Cagidiaco; Simone Grandini; Cecilia Goracci; Tim Joda

    Lithium disilicate is now a well accepted material for indirect restorations. The aim of this trial was to evaluate two lithium disilicate systems using a novel prosthodontic Functional Index for Teeth (FIT). Partial adhesive crowns on natural abutment posterior teeth were made on sixty patients. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 IPS e.max press (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liecthestein), and Group 2 Initial LiSi press (GC Co., Tokyo, Japan). The restorations were followed-up for 3 years, and the FIT evaluation was performed at last recall. The FIT is composed of seven variables (Interproximal, Occlusion, Design, Mucosa, Bone, Biology and Margins), each of them are evaluated using a 0–1-2 scoring scheme, and is investigated by an oral radiograph and occlusal and buccal pictures. More in details, three variables have the three scores made on the presence or not of major, minor or no discrepancy (for ‘Interproximal’, ‘Occlusion’ and ‘Design’), presence or not of keratinized and attached gingiva (‘Mucosa’), presence of bone loss > 1.5 mm, < 1.5 mm or not detectable (‘Bone’), presence or not of Bleeding on Probing and or Plaque Index (‘Biology’), presence of detectable gap and marginal stain or not (‘Margins’). The Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test was used and the level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Also, “success” of the crowns (restoration in place without any biological or technical complication) and “survival” (restoration still in place with biological or technical complication) were evaluated. Regarding FIT scores, all partial crowns showed a stable level of the alveolar crest without detectable signs of bone loss in the radiographic analysis. All other evaluated parameters showed a high score, between 1.73 and 2. No statistically significant difference emerged between the two groups in any of the assessed variables (p > 0.05). All FIT scores were compatible with the outcome of clinical success and no one restoration was replaced or repaired and the success rate was 100%. The results showed that it is possible to evaluate the clinical performance of partial crowns using FIT. The FIT proved to be an effective tool to monitor the performance of the restorations and their compatibility with periodontal tissues at the recall. The FIT can be really helpful for a standardized evaluation of the quality of the therapy in prosthodontic dentistry. The two lithium disilicate materials showed similar results after 3 years of clinical service. The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of University of Siena (clinicaltrial.gov # NCT 01835821), ‘retrospectively registered’.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Association between tooth loss and hypertension among older Chinese adults: a community-based study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Dongxin Da; Fei Wang; Hao Zhang; Xiaoli Zeng; Yiwei Jiang; Qianhua Zhao; Jianfeng Luo; Ding Ding; Ying Zhang; Bei Wu

    The purpose of the study is to examine the association between tooth loss and hypertension among older community residents in urban China. This study included 3677 participants aged ≥50 years from the Shanghai Aging Study. We determined the number of teeth missing from questionnaires. Hypertension was defined as the mean of two measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (140 mmHg or higher), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (90 mmHg or higher) or physician-diagnosed hypertension confirmed from medical records. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between tooth loss and hypertension. The average number of missing teeth among study participants was 9.67. Among them, participants with hypertension had lost an average of 10.88 teeth, significantly higher than those without hypertension (8.95) (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for covariates (socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other chronic conditions), teeth lost (15 or more) was significantly associated with grade III hypertension, with OR = 1.55(95% CI 1.09–2.20). Significant tooth loss maybe associated with severe hypertension among older Chinese adults. Prevention of tooth loss is important to the overall health of this population.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Dental caries is associated with severe periodontitis in Chilean adults: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Franz-Josef Strauss; Iris Espinoza; Alexandra Stähli; Mauricio Baeza; Ricardo Cortés; Alicia Morales; Jorge Gamonal

    The co-occurrence of caries and periodontitis and a possible association is still a matter of debate. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the co-occurrence of caries and periodontitis in Chilean adults. Evaluation of periodontal and dental status in 994 adults (35–44 years old) based on the First Chilean National Examination Survey 2007–2008. The prevalence of caries was defined as the percentage of participants with one or more teeth with untreated caries by using the D component of the DMFT index (DT ≠ 0). The prevalence of periodontitis was determined using standard case definitions for population-based surveillance of periodontitis described by the CDC–AAP. Individuals with caries had an approximately 40% higher prevalence of severe (29.3% vs 20.8%, p < 0.05) and a 13% higher prevalence of total periodontitis (89.3% vs 78.4%, p < 0.05) than those without caries. Ordinal logistic regression revealed a positive association between periodontitis and the number of teeth with caries (DT ≠ 0; 3 or 4 teeth with caries: OR 1.74; CI = 1.12–2.29 p < 0.05; 5 or more teeth with caries: OR 2.47; CI = 1.66–3.67 p < 0.01). Dental caries is associated with the severity and prevalence of periodontitis in Chilean adults. Individuals with 3 or more teeth with untreated caries are more likely to suffer from periodontal disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The human oral cavity microbiota composition during acute tonsillitis: a cross-sectional survey
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Yun Kit Yeoh; Man Hin Chan; Zigui Chen; Eddy W. H. Lam; Po Yee Wong; Chi Man Ngai; Paul K. S. Chan; Mamie Hui

    Microbial culture-based investigations of inflamed tonsil tissues have previously indicated enrichment of several microorganisms such as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Prevotella. These taxa were also largely reflected in DNA sequencing studies performed using tissue material. In comparison, less is known about the response of the overall oral cavity microbiota to acute tonsillitis despite their role in human health and evidence showing that their compositions are correlated with diseases such as oral cancers. In addition, the influence of subject-specific circumstances including consumption of prescription antibiotics and smoking habits on the microbiology of acute tonsillitis is unknown. We collected oral rinse samples from 43 individuals admitted into hospital for acute tonsillitis and 165 non-disease volunteers recruited from the public, and compared their microbial community compositions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We assessed the impact of tonsillitis, whether subjects were prescribed antibiotics, the presence of oral abscesses and their smoking habits on community composition, and identified specific microbial taxa associated with tonsillitis and smoking. Oral rinse community composition was primarily associated with disease state (tonsillitis vs non-tonsillitis) although its effect was subtle, followed by smoking habit. Multiple Prevotella taxa were enriched in tonsillitis subjects compared to the non-tonsillitis cohort, whereas the non-tonsillitis cohort primarily showed associations with several Neisseria sequence variants. The presence of oral abscesses did not significantly influence community composition. Antibiotics were prescribed to a subset of individuals in the tonsillitis cohort but we did not observe differences in community composition associated with antibiotics consumption. In both tonsillitis and non-tonsillitis cohorts, smoking habit was associated with enrichment of several Fusobacterium variants. These findings show that the oral cavity microbial community is altered during acute tonsillitis, with a consistent enrichment of Prevotella during tonsillitis raising the possibility of targeted interventions. It also supports the possible link between smoking, Fusobacteria and oral cancers.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Prevalence of dental caries and its association with body mass index among school-age children in Shenzhen, China
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yi-hong Cheng; Yi Liao; Ding-yan Chen; Yun Wang; Yu Wu

    Dental caries and overweight/obesity are health problems with shared risk factors, but the relationships between caries and BMI need to be further explored. The objective was to evaluate the current status of dental caries and the association between dental caries and Body Mass Index (BMI) among primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen, China, during the 2016–2017 academic year. A population-based, cross-sectional study that enrolled a total of 1,196,004 students was conducted in Shenzhen. Physical and dental examinations were given to all primary and secondary school students by certified physicians and dentists following the national specification for student health examinations, and dental caries was diagnosed using WHO criteria. Descriptive analysis was applied to assess current oral health status and a multifactorial, logistic regression model was employed to evaluate the relationship between dental caries and obesity. A total of 1,196,004 students participated in the census. Mean age of the participants was 10.3 years, ranging from 6 to 20 years. The prevalence of dental caries was 41.15% in the present study, which was higher among girls (42.88%) than that in boys (39.77%) with a p-value of < 0.001. Students in public schools showed a significantly lower (p < 0.001) caries prevalence (37.36%) compared with those in private schools (47.96%). The caries restoration rate of students in Shenzhen was only 10.30%, which means only one out of ten students with caries received restorations. The mean dmft and DMFT scores were 0.97 and 0.33, respectively. More girls (10.96%) had their teeth filled than boys (9.78%). The restoration rate was higher (p < 0.001) in public schools (11.73%) than in private ones (8.35%). Children who were overweight or obese had a lower risk of experiencing caries compared to those who were within a normal weight (OR = 0.74/0.64). Caries was inversely associated with BMI among primary and secondary school students in Shenzhen. The prevalence of dental caries among primary and secondary school children was found to be related to sex, type of schools, region, and BMI. Further studies and more government support are required to confirm the findings of this study and to address current oral health problems.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Management of paroxysmal atrial flutter that occurred in an outpatient prior to dental surgery: a case report
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Hajime Shimoda; Tetsu Takahashi

    It is essential to accomplish the appropriate emergency care particularly in patients undergoing stressful dento-oral surgical procedures. Atrial flutter may be induced by sympathetic hypertonia due to excessive mental and physical stress. There is no report regarding dental care in patients with atrial flutter. Herein, we describe a rare case of the antiarrhythmic management in an outpatient who presented with an electrocardiographic finding of paroxysmal atrial flutter before the initiation of the dento-oral surgical procedure. A 60-year-old male patient was scheduled for a dental extraction. He had a history of angina pectoris, diabetes mellitus, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with medication. The preoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and ST-T segment abnormality. Immediately before the dental extraction, II-lead ECG revealed atrial flutter; however, he complained of few subjective symptoms, such as precordial discomfort or palpitation. Observing the vital signs, ECG findings, and the general condition of the patient, low dose diltiazem was immediately administered by continuous infusion in order to control the heart rate and prevent atrial flutter-induced supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. Special attention was paid to prevent any critical cardiovascular condition under a preparation of intravenous disopyramide and verapamil and a defibrillator. The intravenous administration of diltiazem progressively restored the sinus rhythm after converting atrial flutter into atrial fibrillation, resulting in the prevention of tachycardia, and then was found to be appropriate as a prophylactic therapy of tachyarrhythmia. The present case suggests that it is possible to successfully manage some of such patients using our method during dento-oral surgery which is likely to be associated with mental and physical stress. Therefore, it is essential to accomplish an initial emergency care in parallel to the differential diagnosis of unforeseen serious medical conditions or paroxysmal arrhythmia such as atrial flutter.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Frequency of non-single canals in mandibular premolars and correlations with other anatomical variants: an in vivo cone beam computed tomography study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Young-Eun Jang; Yemi Kim; BomSahn Kim; Sin-Young Kim; Hyung-Jong Kim

    A knowledge regarding anatomical variants is important to achieve success in endodontic treatment. Root canal treatment of mandibular first premolars (PM1 s) is challenging due to the existence of numerous variations in canal configurations, including a C-shaped variant. We aim to determine the frequency and morphologic characteristics of non-single canals of mandibular first (PM1 s) and second (PM2 s) premolars in a Korean population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate correlations between non-single canals of PM1 s and other anatomical variants, such as distolingual roots (DLRs) in mandibular first molars (M1 s) and C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars (M2 s). A total of 971 PM1 s and 997 PM2 s from 500 patients were examined in vivo by CBCT. Root canal configurations and C-shaped canals were determined in accordance with the Vertucci classification and Fan classification, respectively. The correlation between non-single canals in PM1 s and DLRs in M1 s was evaluated using logistic regression analysis. PM2 s typically had one root (99.89%) with one canal (98.4%). Among PM1 s with non-single canals (21.2%), Vertucci type V (10.9%) and C-shaped (3.7%) canals were prevalent. Among C-shaped PM1 canals, the majority were Vertucci type V (77.8%); a C-shaped configuration (C2) was predominant mostly at the middle and/or apical third of the root. After adjusting for other variables (i.e., sex, age, and side), C-shaped canals in PM1 s was significantly correlated with the presence of DLRs in M1 s (odds ratio = 2.616; 95% confidence interval, 1.257–5.443; p = 0.010). The presence of C-shaped PM1 canals was positively related to the presence of DLRs in M1 s. Although C-shaped canals in PM1 s are difficult to distinguish, this finding could aid clinicians in predicting C-shaped canal configurations in PM1 s of patients who exhibit DLRs in M1 s.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Microhardness of glass carbomer and high-viscous glass Ionomer cement in different thickness and thermo-light curing durations after thermocycling aging
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Mehmet Buldur; Emine Sirin Karaarslan

    The objective of our study was to compare the upper and lower surface microhardness and surface changes of Glass Carbomer Cement (GCP) and EQUIA Forte (EF) in different thickness after thermo-light curing durations and aging. A total of 504 samples (5 mm-diameter) were prepared by using GCP-252 (GCP Dental, and Vianen, Netherlands) and EF-252 (EQUIA Forte, GC, Tokyo, Japan). Three different thickness samples (2, 4, and 6 mm) were prepared with 84 samples in each subgroup. The samples were prepared by three curing procedures (Non-exposed, 60s, 90s). Their varnishes were applied to the upper surfaces of half of each subgroup (n = 7). The upper microhardness measurements were evaluated before and after aging. To compare the effect of different thicknesses, the bottom surfaces of the samples were evaluated before aging in terms of microhardness measurements. Also, the upper surfaces were analyzed in the SEM before and after aging. The upper surface values of all the samples were higher than the bottom values (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the varnished and non-varnished samples in both materials (p > 0.05). Although this increase was not significant in some groups, temperature variations increased the surface microhardness values of both materials except for the non-exposed-varnished EF samples. The highest microhardnesses values were recorded in the non-exposed-varnished EF (125.6 ± 6.79) and unvarnished GCP (88.1 ± 7.59) samples which were thermo-light cured for 90 s before aging. The bottom hardness values were affected by thickness variations in both GCP and EF materials (p < 0.05). The sample deformations and microcracks after aging were greater than before in all the materials. Thermo-light curing in 90 s to the samples reduced the cracks in both the materials before and after aging. Thermal aging adversely affected the microhardness of the materials, which is important for clinical success. The thermo-light curing process improved the microhardness of the GCP group without varnish application. Varnish application increased the microhardness of the EF group without applying thermo-light curing. The microhardness of the bottom surfaces decreased with increasing thickness. The thermo-light curing did not increase the bottom surface microhardness of all the samples.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Dentin tubule obturation of a bioglass-based dentin desensitizer under repeated exposure to lactid acid and brushing
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Andrea S. Manz; Thomas Attin; Beatrice Sener; Philipp Sahrmann

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a frequent finding especially in periodontitis patients. Conventional treatment aims for obstruction of dentin tubules by disabling liquid and osmotic fluctuation to and from the pulpal chamber. A novel bioglass-based desensitizer was shown to obstruct tubules and to resist periodic exposure to lactic acid. Whether this obstruction is resistant to brushing had not been tested so far. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess dentin tubule obstruction after repeated acid exposure and brushing. Sixty dentin discs were cleaned with 17% EDTA, mounted into a pulp fluid simulator and randomly divided into 3 groups: No surface treatment in Group A, Seal&Protect® in group B and DentinoCer in group C. Discs were exposed to 0.1 M non-saturated lactic acid thrice and standardized brushing twice a day for 12 days. At baseline and after 2, 4 and 12 d samples were removed from the setting and prepared for top-view SEM analysis to assess tubule obstruction using the Olley score. Discs were then vertically cut and the section surface morphologically assessed using backscatter imaging. For both vertical and sectional surfaces EDX analysis was used to characterize the surface composition in the tubular and inter-tubular area. Group A showed clean tubular lumina at all time points. From day 2 onwards dentin showed exposed collagen fibers. Group 2 initially showed a complete surface coverage that flattened out during treatment without ever exposing tubules. At baseline, samples of Group C displayed a complete homogeneous coverage. From day 2 on tubules entrances with obstructed lumen became visible. While on day 4 and 12 the dentin surface exposed collagen fibers the lumina remained closed. EDX analysis of the vertical and horizontal views showed that P and Ca were predominant elements in both the inter- and tubular dentin while Si peaks were found in the tubule plugs. While group B displayed a packed layer on the surface during the whole investigation time group C samples lost their superficial layer within 48 h. Tubule plugs containing considerable Si proportions indicated previous presence of DentinoCer, while high Ca and P proportions suggest obturation by dentin-like material.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Comparing dental plaque microbiome diversity of extrinsic black stain in the primary dentition using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lulu Chen; Qiong Zhang; Yan Wang; Keke Zhang; Jing Zou

    Extrinsic black stain (EBS) is characterized by discrete dark dots or lines on the tooth surface. The relationship between EBS and oral microbiota in children remains elusive. The aim of this study was to compare dental plaque microbiome in EBS children with that in EBS-free children in the primary dentition. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing technique was utilized in the cross-sectional pilot study to investigate the diversity and composition of the supragingival plaque microbiota from 10 EBS-positive and 10 EBS-free children. The results were analysed with nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson Chi-Square test, Fisher’s Exact test and one-way ANOVA tests. We identified 13 different phyla, 22 classes, 33 orders, 54 families, 105 genera, and 227 species from a total of 52,646 high-quality sequences. Between two groups, no statistical differences were observed in the estimators of community richness and diversity at 97% similarity, as well as in the Unweighted Unifrac principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA). At the species level, higher level of relative abundance of Actinomyces naeslundii and lower level of relative abundance of a species belonging to Candidate_division_TM7 was observed in dental plaque of EBS-positive subjects, compared to dental plaque of EBS-free subjects (P < 0.05). This indicated that some species might be involved in the EBS process. Changes in dental plaque microbiota is possibly relevant to the process of EBS in the primary dentition.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Patient perceptions in quality of care: report from university veterans clinic
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Nayanjot K. Rai; Heidi Tyrrell; Clifton Carey; Tamanna Tiwari

    The Heroes Clinic is a unique dental clinic housed at the University of Colorado School of Dental Medicine that offers military veterans dental care at no or minimal cost. The aim of this study is to collect patient feedback on their perception of the quality of care they receive at the Heroes clinic. A cross-sectional study design was used to gather patient feedback on empathy and quality of care using Service Quality Measures (SERVQUAL) and Dental Satisfaction Questionnaire (DSQ) frameworks. Mean scores were calculated to determine the average of positive or negative responses. Fisher’s exact test was conducted to test any significant differences between the patients’ perception of quality of care they receive at the Heroes clinic (outcome variable) and the SERVQUAL and DSQ independent variables. One hundred and seventy-seven veterans responded to the survey with a response rate of 35%. Over 50% of patients were between the ages of 20–35 years and 63% were students. The mean scores demonstrated high levels of all variables. Bivariate analysis for SERVQUAL data determined that veterans agreed to conditions demonstrated by four scales of empathy and all scales of responsiveness (p < 0.05). DSQ bivariate analysis revealed that veterans agreed to conditions demonstrated by four scales of quality of care, two scales of pain management, one scale of accessibility, and also general satisfaction pertaining to the received dental care (p < 0.05). Heroes clinic has provided quality dental care to veterans as attested by the patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Applying intraoral scanner to residual ridge in edentulous regions: in vitro evaluation of inter-operator validity to confirm trueness
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Akinori Tasaka; Yuuki Uekubo; Tomoharu Mitsui; Takao Kasahara; Takuya Takanashi; Shinya Homma; Satoru Matsunaga; Shinichi Abe; Masao Yoshinari; Yasutomo Yajima; Kaoru Sakurai; Shuichiro Yamashita

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the trueness of intraoral scanning of residual ridge in edentulous regions during in vitro evaluation of inter-operator validity. Both edentulous maxillary and partially edentulous mandibular models were selected as a simulation model. As reference data, scanning of two models was performed using a dental laboratory scanner (D900, 3Shape A/S). Five dentists used an intraoral scanner (TRIOS 2, 3Shape A/S) five times to capture intraoral scanner data, and the “zig-zag” scanning technique was used. They did not have experience with using intraoral scanners in clinical treatment. The intraoral scanner data was overlapped with the reference data (Dental System, 3Shape A/S). Regarding differences that occurred between the reference and intraoral scanner data, the vertical maximum distance of the difference and the integral value obtained by integrating the total distance were analyzed. In terms of the maximum distances of the difference on the maxillary model, the means of five operators were as follows: premolar region, 0.30 mm; molar region, 0.18 mm; and midline region, 0.18 mm. The integral values were as follows: premolar region, 4.17 mm2; molar region, 6.82 mm2; and midline region, 4.70 mm2. Significant inter-operator differences were observed with regard to the integral values of the distance in the premolar and midline regions and with regard to the maximum distance in the premolar region, respectively. The maximum distances of the difference in the free end saddles on mandibular model were as follows: right side, 0.05 mm; and left side, 0.08 mm. The areas were as follows: right side, 0.78 mm2; and left side, 1.60 mm2. No significant inter-operator differences were observed in either region. The present study demonstrated satisfactory trueness of intraoral scanning of the residual ridge in edentulous regions during in vitro evaluation of inter-operator validity.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis habits in oral implant surgery among dentists in Italy: a cross-sectional survey
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Fabio Rodríguez Sánchez; Iciar Arteagoitia; Carlos Rodríguez Andrés; Alfonso Caiazzo

    The prescription of prophylactic antibiotics in conjunction with oral implant surgery remains inconsistent among different populations of dentists. The main objective of this study was to assess the current antibiotic prescribing habits of dentist in conjunction with oral implant surgery in Italy. The secondary objective was to assess the nature and amount (mg) of antibiotics prescriptions in order to evaluate whether any consensus has been reached and if the current recommendations are complied. Observational cross-sectional study based on a web-survey reported according to the STROBE guidelines. A questionnaire was sent via email to each registered member of the Italian Academy of Osseointegration (n = 400). The email included a link to the anonym web questionnaire developed on www.encuestafacil.com. It contained close-ended and some open-ended questions concerning demographics, antibiotic type, prescription duration and dosage. Collected data were analyzed using STATA® 14 software. 160 participants responded the survey (response rate = 40%). Approximately 84% routinely prescribed prophylactic antibiotics in conjunction with oral implant surgery, 15.6% prescribed antibiotics in certain situations and only 1 did not prescribe antibiotics at all. Overall, 116 respondents prescribed both pre- and postoperative antibiotics, 29 prescribed antibiotics only preoperatively and 14 prescribed antibiotics exclusively after surgery. Italian dentists prescribed an average amount of 10,331 mg antibiotics before, during or after oral implant surgery. Approximately, only 17% (n = 27) of the participants who prescribed antibiotics before oral implant surgery complied with the recommendations proposed by the latest publications (no more than 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin before oral implant surgery). Dentists in Italy on a large scale prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis in conjunction with oral implant surgery among healthy patients. A high range of prophylactic regimens is prescribed and they are not adhering to the new science-based specifications. Guidelines focused on the indications for prophylactic antibiotics among healthy patients are required to prevent bacterial resistance, side effects and costs caused by overtreatment and the irrational use of antibiotics.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Yan Wang; Lin Xing; Hui Yu; LiJuan Zhao

    Dental caries and type 1 diabetes are responsible for a large burden of global disease; however, the exact prevalence of dental caries among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains controversial, and no quantitative meta-analysis exists. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We performed a systematic search strategy using PubMed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant studies investigating the prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes from July 1971 until December 2018. The pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and subgroup analyses were calculated using a random effects model. After screening 358 non-duplicated articles, a total of 10 articles involving 538 individuals were included. The overall prevalence of dental caries among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes was 67% (95% CI: 0.56–0.77%; I2 = 83%). The prevalence was highest in South America (84%) and lowest in diabetic patients with good metabolic control (47%). The prevalence of dental caries was high among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Screening and preventive treatment should be included in dental clinical routines for diabetic children and adolescents, especially in those with poor metabolic control.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Unconventional implant strategy for patients with a limited interocclusal space in the posterior region: a case report
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Yi Wang; Wen Cen; Jiang-Qin Huang; Hong-Wu Wei

    Implant prostheses require sufficient interocclusal space. In cases of limited interocclusal space, reducing or extracting over-erupted opposing teeth, orthodontic intrusion, or surgical reconstruction of the edentulous space are commonly used to restore the interocclusal space. However, there are disadvantages to these approaches. The present case report describes a patient with a limited interocclusal space managed using an unconventional implant strategy. The patient presented satisfactory outcomes without any signs of implant failure, suggesting that the unconventional implant treatment strategy is a useful option for patients with a limited interocclusal space in the posterior region. This unconventional implant surgery provides a minimally invasive treatment alternative.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pilot GWAS of caries in African-Americans shows genetic heterogeneity
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    E. Orlova; J. C. Carlson; M. K. Lee; E. Feingold; D. W. McNeil; R. J. Crout; R. J. Weyant; M. L. Marazita; J. R. Shaffer

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in the US and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities. Caries is heritable, and though genetic heterogeneity exists between ancestries for a substantial portion of loci associated with complex disease, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of caries specifically in African Americans has not been performed previously. We performed exploratory GWAS of dental caries in 109 African American adults (age > 18) and 96 children (age 3–12) from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA1 cohort). Caries phenotypes (DMFS, DMFT, dft, and dfs indices) assessed by dental exams were tested for association with 5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), separately in the two age groups. The GWAS was performed using linear regression with adjustment for age, sex, and two principal components of ancestry. A maximum of 1 million adaptive permutations were run to determine empirical significance. No loci met the threshold for genome-wide significance, though some of the strongest signals were near genes previously implicated in caries such as antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 (rs2515501; p = 4.54 × 10− 6) and TUFT1 (rs11805632; p = 5.15 × 10− 6). Effect estimates of lead SNPs at suggestive loci were compared between African Americans and Caucasians (adults N = 918; children N = 983). Significant (p < 5 × 10− 8) genetic heterogeneity for caries risk was found between racial groups for 50% of the suggestive loci in children, and 12–18% of the suggestive loci in adults. The genetic heterogeneity results suggest that there may be differences in the contributions of genetic variants to caries across racial groups, and highlight the critical need for the inclusion of minorities in subsequent and larger genetic studies of caries in order to meet the goals of precision medicine and to reduce oral health disparities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A comparative study of the microtensile bond strength and microstructural differences between sclerotic and Normal dentine after surface pretreatment
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Jinhua Wang; Weijian Song; Lei Zhu; Xin Wei

    The resin bond strength of sclerotic dentine is significantly lower than that of the normal dentine, which paused a challenge for bonding procedures clinically. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different surface pretreatments on the micro-tensile bond strength and microstructure between sclerotic dentine and normal dentine. Eighty teeth that were collected, forty premolars with typical wedge-shaped defects visually graded as class III were assigned as the sclerotic dentine group (SD), the other forty normal premolars with artificial wedge-shaped defects were assigned as the normal dentine group (ND). Each group was randomly subdivided into eight subgroups according to the solution used: 35% phosphoric acid, 15% EDTA, 5% or 10% NaClO. Then the dentine surface was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The lesions were restored using self-etching adhesive and the subsequent resin composite. The teeth were sectioned into sticks for the micro-tensile bond strength analysis, and the data were analysed using the SPSS17.0 software package (α = 0.05). First, for the ND groups, after pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid, and 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the normal dentine were higher than that of the other groups (P < 0.05). Second, for the SD groups, after pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid, 15% EDTA, and 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the sclerotic dentine were higher than that of the other groups (P < 0.05). Third, the bond strengths of the sclerotic dentine were lower than that of the normal dentine without any pretreatment (P < 0.05). After pretreatment using 35% phosphoric acid + 5% or 10% sodium hypochlorite, the bonding strengths of the sclerotic dentine were higher than that of the normal dentine (P < 0.05). SEM observation showed that the appearances of dentine surface were changed after pretreatment using the above solutions, with the reduced smear layer, opened small groove and increased dentinal tubules. Pretreatment of dentine using 35% phosphoric acid+ 5% or + 10% sodium hypochlorite changed the microstructure of the sclerotic dentine surface and subsequently increased the micro-tensile bond strength.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Designing a customized clinical practice guideline regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for Iranian general dentists
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Najmeh Savadi; Omid Barati; Hossein Mirhadi; Ali Golkari

    Clinical practice guidelines produced by developed countries seemed to be not completely feasible for developing countries due to their different local context. In this study, we designed a customized guideline about antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures for Iranian general dentists. This study was conducted of two parts, including a qualitative part and a cross-sectional analytic part. A multidisciplinary team searched for related guidelines and other documents, selected the most updated and high quality ones, customized their recommendations based on available antibiotics in Iran, prepared a draft adapted guideline and summarized its recommendations in 3 flowcharts. An expert panel (20 specialists of four Iranian dental universities) participated in a consensus process, afterwards to determine the relevance and clarity of the flowcharts and their items. Then the Content Validity Indices (CVIs) were calculated and any items with CVI higher than 0.79 remained. The adapted recommendations were summarized in flowcharts A to C. Two separate groups of patients who need antibiotic prophylaxis were presented in flowchart A; including those with high risk for distant-site infection (infective endocarditis and prosthetic joint infection) and those at risk for poor healing and orofacial infection (due to impaired immunologic function). Flowcharts B and C described antibiotic regimen and also the dental procedures where antibiotic prophylaxis was needed for mentioned groups. The content validity indices and the percentages of agreement between the expert panel members were considerably high. A localized, clear and straight forward guideline that addresses all groups of dental patients who need antibiotic prophylaxis has been produced for Iranian general dentists.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Folate-receptor 1 level in periodontal disease: a pilot study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Duygu Alkan; Berrak Guven; Cigdem Coskun Turer; Umut Balli; Murat Can

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum folate-receptor 1 (FOLR1) levels in subjects with different periodontal status. The study consists of three groups: Healthy group (n = 15), gingivitis group (n = 15) and chronic periodontitis group (n = 15). Clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed. GCF and serum samples were collected from each patient and were analyzed FOLR1 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The values of FOLR1 in GCF were higher in gingivitis and periodontitis groups than among patient in control group (p < 0.016). Serum FOLR1 levels showed no significant difference between the groups. A significant correlation was observed between FOLR1 levels of GCF and BOP (p < 0.05). Our preliminary data suggest that FOLR1 is not useful in monitoring the periodontal disease. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role, regulation and function of folate and it’s receptors in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Denture stomatitis associated with small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus: a case report
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Katarzyna Garbacz; Ewa Kwapisz; Maria Wierzbowska

    The small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from persistent and recurrent infections, especially after placement of medical devices having direct contact with human tissues. The emergence of SCVs is a survival strategy of S. aureus which enables them to hide inside host’s cells and induces a less severe immune response than to wild-type S. aureus. However, contrary to other medical devices, dental prosthesis as a surface potentially colonized by SCVs of S. aureus has not been examined thus far. We reported the first case of SCVs - S. aureus infection in denture wearer. A 62-year-old woman with a complete removable acrylic denture presented extensive elevated erythematous lesions on the palate, compatible with denture stomatitis. The patient had a history of arterial hypertension, cigarette smoking and wearing denture at night. The fungal colonies, identified as Candida albicans, were cultured on Sabouraud agar. From three swabs (from hard palate mucosa, denture surface and angular cheilitis lesions) were cultured of pinpoint, clear, non-pigmented, and non-haemolytic colonies on Columbia agar. The small colonies turned out to be Gram-positive cocci, catalase-, Pastorex Staph Plus -, and clumping factor-positive, and oxidase-negative. Suspected phenotypically SCVs forms were definitively identified as S. aureus based on PCR amplification of species specific nuc and coa genes. Methicillin-resistance was verified by mecA gene detection. The isolates turned out to be susceptible to methicillin (MSSA) and resistant to gentamicin. The isolate was identified as menadione-auxotrophic variant. This case demonstrated that oral cavity in denture wearers may be a reservoir of small-colony variants of S. aureus, besides C. albicans. The prevalence of these bacteria and their role in the pathogenesis of oral diseases are not understood. Due to problems with their detection and identification, the true prevalence of oral SCVs may be underestimated.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Predisposing and enabling factors associated with public denture service utilization among older Thai people: a cross-sectional population-based study
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Nareudee Limpuangthip; Supaboon Purnaveja; Tewarit Somkotra

    Tooth loss is one of the major oral health problems among older Thai people. However, there is the existence of socioeconomic-related inequalities in dental service utilization, especially denture service. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants associated with inequalities in denture service utilization among older Thai people using the Andersen Behavioural model. This cross-sectional study involved secondary data analysis of the 2014 survey of older Thai people (N = 38,695). The dependent variable was a public denture service utilization over the past 5 years. Determinants were classified as predisposing and enabling factors. Predisposing variables included age, sex, education, economic condition and dependency status. Enabling variables included working status, health behaviours, health care utilization experience and social/community support. Data were analysed by using bivariate and multivariable analyses at α = 0.05. For bivariate analysis, chi-square test was used to determine the association between dependent and each independent variable. Then, all variables were incorporated into a multivariable binary logistic regression. The odds of denture service utilization were significantly higher for individuals who were older, female, and had a higher educational level and health-promoting behaviors. A positive dose-response relationship was demonstrated between denture service utilization and increased quartile of household assets. Predisposing variables had a greater impact than enabling variables in denture service utilization among older Thai people. Despite free public denture service, socioeconomic-related inequalities persist. The government needs to reduce socioeconomic disparities to improve denture treatment inequality.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: User satisfaction with public oral health services in the Brazilian unified health system
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Leonardo de Paula Amorim; Maria Inês Barreiros Senna; Gizelton Pereira Alencar; Lorrany Gabriela Rodrigues; Janice Simpson de Paula; Raquel Conceição Ferreira

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors have reported that there is an error in Table 2 - Distribution of users concerning satisfaction with oral health services: the categories ‘No’ and ‘Yes’ should swap places.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The influence of dental experience on a dental implant navigation system
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Ting-Mao Sun; Huey-Er Lee; Ting-Hsun Lan

    This study evaluated the operating performance of an implant navigation system used by dental students and dentists of prosthodontic background with varying levels of experience. A surgical navigation system and optical tracking system were used, and dentists’ accuracies were evaluated in terms of differences between the positions of actually drilled holes and those of the holes planned using software before surgeries. The study participants were 5 dental students or dentists who had studied in the same university and hospital but had different experience levels regarding implants. All participants were trained in operating the AqNavi system in the beginning of the study. Subsequently, using 5 pairs of dental models, each participant drilled 5 implant holes at 6 partially edentulous positions (11, 17, 26, 31, 36, and 47). In total, each participant conducted 30 drilling tests. In total, 150 tests among 5 dentists at 6 tooth positions (11, 17, 26, 31, 36, and 47) were conducted. Although a comparison of the tests revealed significant differences in the longitudinal error (P < .0001) and angular error (P = .0011), no significant difference was observed in the total error among the dentists. A relatively long operating time was associated with relatively little implant experience. Through the dental navigation system, dental students can be introduced to dental implant surgery earlier than what was possible in the past. The results demonstrated that the operational accuracy of the dental implant navigation system is not restricted by participants’ implant experience levels. The implant navigation system assists the dentist in the ability to accurately insert the dental implant into the correct position without being affected by his/her own experience of implant surgery.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: a case report and the evaluation of diagnostic procedures
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Shenjie Xu; Weilian Sun; Jiamei Liu

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, known as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, is a benign, self-limiting and systemic disorder involving lymph nodes with unknown aetiology. First reported in Japan, there has been an increase in its incidence globally. Because of its non-specific clinical features, the disease can be easily mistaken for other forms of lymphadenitis with a high rate of misdiagnosis and mistreatment, posing a considerable challenge. A case of young Chinese woman with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy is presented. Physical examinations and imaging techniques were used to rule out common forms of lymphadenitis (e.g. cat-scratch disease and tuberculous lymphadenitis). Laboratory tests were then conducted to exclude others such as systemic lupus erythematosus and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease was identified, the patient was managed with symptomatic treatments. Our case was compared with relevant cases in the literature. A diagnostic flow chart was proposed to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. With its shared clinical features, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease can be mistaken for other forms of lymphadenitis. A combined use of medical imaging and laboratory tests is the effective way to avoid misdiagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of uncomplicated traumatic dental injuries on the quality of life of children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Diego Lopez; Nilakshi Waidyatillake; Carlos Zaror; Rodrigo Mariño

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are highly prevalent during childhood and adolescence and have a significant effect on their oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL). Uncomplicated TDIs, dental trauma involving enamel, enamel and dentin and tooth discolorations, account for approximately two-thirds of all diagnosed TDIs in children and adolescents. Hence, it may be important to understand the impact of uncomplicated TDIs on OHRQoL, by synthesizing the available literature. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus databases were systematically searched from January 1966 to April 2018. Studies that evaluated the effect of TDIs on the OHRQoL of children and adolescents using validated methods were selected for analysis. A narrative synthesis and a meta-analysis were performed. The studies were pooled according to age groups and OHRQoL questionnaire used. A random-effect model was applied to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. There were 712 identified studies. Of these, 26 articles were selected for the review and included in the narrative synthesis, 20 of these articles concluded that uncomplicated TDIs were not associated with a negative impact in OHRQoL. Seventeen were included in the meta-analysis. The estimates were pooled by age groups: children (OR: 1.01; 95%CI; 0.85–1.19; I2 = 51.9%) and adolescents (OR: 1.07; 95%CI; 0.91, 1.26; I2 = 50.2%).When pooling all estimates the OR was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85–1.10; I2 = 61.4%). Uncomplicated TDIs do not have a negative impact on the OHRQoL of children and adolescents. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the results of this review. The majority of the studies included were of cross-sectional design, which may have limited the ability to reach conclusions on the nature of this association. The PROSPERO systematic review registry is CRD42018110471.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in Tunisian patients with periodontal disease
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Ahmed Gharbi; Ali Hamila; Adel Bouguezzi; Azza Dandana; Salima Ferchichi; Fatiha Chandad; Leila Guezguez; Abdelhedi Miled

    Oxidative stress is involved in many diseases including diabetes and cancer. Numbers of studies have suggested its involvement in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in plasma of healthy and chronic periodontitis patients. One hundred thirty subjects were divided into two groups; patients (mean age = 42 ± 13.6 y.o) and control (mean age = 44.8 ± 12.6 y.o). Patients and healthy subjects were free from any infection, coronary or heart disease, diabetes or liver failure. Total cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, Triglycerides (TG), creatinine, uric acid (UA), glucose and urea levels as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), were measured in plasma samples using colorimetric assays. Statistical differences between groups were determined by Student’s t-test and p ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Periodontitis patients exhibited significant decrease in the activities of catalase, TAOC, GR and TG, cholesterol, LDLc, glucose, HDLc, uric acid levels in plasma samples in comparison with healthy subjects. However, no statistically significant differences in the levels of creatinine and urea were observed between the two groups. The reduction of plasma antioxidant activities (Catalase, TAOC, GR) may have a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Our findings suggest a decrease in the host capacity to control the damage caused by oxidative stress. Therefore, therapeutic strategies, aiming at modulating the oxidative stress could be considered as potential tools for the prevention or treatment of periodontal diseases and their potential systemic effects on the general health.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of toothpaste on oral health-related quality of life in people with dentine hypersensitivity
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Stephen Mason; Gary R. Burnett; Nisha Patel; Avinash Patil; Robert Maclure

    Dentine hypersensitivity can impact functional status and everyday activities such as eating and talking. This study aimed to assess changes in oral health-related quality of life measures in individuals with dentine hypersensitivity following long-term use (24 weeks) of a commercially available toothpaste marketed for dentine hypersensitivity relief. This study was conducted across two sites and enrolled 75 adults with ≥2 non-adjacent sensitive teeth. Participants were assigned to twice-daily brushing with toothpaste containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride (1100 ppm fluoride). Every 4 weeks, participant-reported outcomes were assessed using the Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ), a condition specific oral health-related quality of life scale that has five domains and includes questions on social and emotional impact, restrictions, adaptations and effect on life overall. Responses to a clinically applied evaporative (air) stimulus were assessed using the examiner-observed Schiff sensitivity scale and Labelled Magnitude Scales (LMS), which included dentine hypersensitivity-specific descriptors of intensity, duration, tolerability and descriptive qualities of the participant’s response. Participant-reported outcomes demonstrated reduction of the impact of dentine hypersensitivity over time on health-related quality of life, as measured by the DHEQ. This reached statistical significance from Week 8 onwards (p < 0.0001 versus baseline) for the Total DHEQ score, with scores continually decreasing at each timepoint. Most domain scores followed a similar pattern. Statistically significant reductions were also detected for the examiner-observed Schiff Sensitivity Scale scores at all timepoints (including at 4 weeks) (p < 0.05), which were mirrored by LMS responses. The toothpaste was generally well-tolerated. These results show that long-term use of a sensitivity toothpaste containing 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride has a beneficial, ongoing, impact on the oral health-related quality of life of people with dentine hypersensitivity. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02752958 ) on April 27, 2016.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Materials for pulpotomy in immature permanent teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Yuan Chen; Xinlei Chen; Yali Zhang; Fangjie Zhou; Jiaxin Deng; Jing Zou; Yan Wang

    Pulpotomy is one of the most widely used methods in preserving vital pulp in teeth, which is of great significance in achieving continue root formation in immature permanent teeth suffering from dental caries or trauma. The aim of this meta-analysis and systemic review is to synthesize the available evidences to compare different pulpotomy dressing agents for pulpotomy treatment in immature permanent teeth. Electronic databases including MEDLINE (via Pubmed), EMBASE, the Cochrane library (CENTRAL) and the clinicaltrials.gov database were searched. The references of all included articles or relevant reviews were cross-checked. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing two or more pulp dressing agent in permanent teeth with open apex would be included. Also, the studies should have at least 6 months of follow-up, report clinical and radiographic success in detail and publish in English. Five RCTs were included for a systematic review, and all of them had a high risk of bias. There is little difference in success rate between mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (CH) at 6-month follow-up (risk ratio (RR) 1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.06) and 12-month follow-up (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.13). There is no difference between MTA versus platelet-rich fibrin and MTA versus calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). There is only weak evidence of increased success rate in using MTA and triple antibiotic paste (TAP) rather than abscess remedy. Based on the present evidence, similar success rates with MTA were found between the dressing agents CH, CEM, RPF and TAP as pulpotomy-dressing agents in the treatment of immature permanent teeth. More high-quality RCTs are needed in this field in future studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A survey of caregiver acculturation and acceptance of silver diamine fluoride treatment for childhood caries
    BMC Oral Health (IF 2.048) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Anjali Kumar; Dana Cernigliaro; Mary E. Northridge; Yinxiang Wu; Andrea B. Troxel; Joana Cunha-Cruz; Jay Balzer; David M. Okuji

    Interest in aqueous silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been growing as a treatment for caries arrest. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify factors associated with caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment for children presenting with caries at 8 Federally Qualified Health Centers. The study purpose was to examine associations between caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment for children with caries and (1) sociodemographic and acculturation characteristics of caregivers and (2) clinical assessments of the children by dentists. A caregiver survey collected information on: sociodemographic characteristics; acculturation characteristics, measured using the validated Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (SASH); perceived benefits and barriers of SDF treatment, including caregiver comfort; and perceived health-related knowledge. Chart reviews were conducted to assess: the medical / dental insurance of pediatric patients; cumulative caries experience, measured using decayed, missing, filled teeth total scores (dmft / DMFT); whether operating room treatment was needed; and a record of caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment (the outcome measure). Standard logistic regression models were developed for caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment for their children as the binary outcome of interest (yes / no) to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs for covariates of interest. Overall, 434 of 546 caregivers (79.5%) accepted SDF treatment for their children. A U-shaped relationship between caregiver odds of accepting SDF treatment and age group of pediatric patients was present, where caregivers were most likely to accept SDF treatment for their children who were either < 6 years or 9–14 years, and least likely to accept SDF treatment for children 6 to < 9 years. The relationship between acculturation and caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment depended upon whether or not caregivers were born in the United States: greater acculturation was associated with caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment among caregivers born in this country, and lower acculturation was associated with caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment among caregivers born elsewhere. Caregiver acceptance of SDF treatment is high; child’s age and caregiver comfort are associated with acceptance. Providers need to communicate the risks and benefits of evidence-based dental treatments to increasingly diverse caregiver and patient populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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