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  • Nutritionist and obesity: brief overview on efficacy, safety, and drug interactions of the main weight-loss dietary supplements
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Luigi Barrea, Barbara Altieri, Barbara Polese, Barbara De Conno, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano

    Over the past 20 years the use of dietary supplements as adjuvant therapy for weight loss gained growing favor among consumers and dietician–nutritionists, with the subsequent astounding increase in health costs. Despite the reassuring label of natural remedy for losing weight, dietary supplements contain a wide variety of ingredients on which available information is rather scanty and scientifically incomplete. Currently, there is little evidence that weight-loss supplements offer effective aids to reduce weight and meet criteria for recommended use. Robust, randomized, placebo-controlled studies to provide clear-cut scientific evidence of their efficacy and potential side effects in clinical practice are still lacking. Understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements among nutritionists and physicians is critical to counsel patients appropriately, especially considering the risk of serious adverse effects and interference with concomitant therapies. Detailed information on the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used weight-loss dietary supplements has been recently published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). However, in this report the thorny issue that may result from drug interactions with weight-loss dietary supplements has been not sufficiently addressed. The aim of this review was to provide a synthetic, evidence-based report on efficacy and safety of the most commonly used ingredients in dietary supplements marketed for weight loss, particularly focusing on their possible drug interactions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Taste and the Gastrointestinal tract: from physiology to potential therapeutic target for obesity
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Giovanni Sarnelli, Giuseppe Annunziata, Silvia Magno, Claudia Oriolo, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao

    Flavor is the combination of gustatory, olfactory and trigeminal sensations, representing the three main sensory pathways that allow detecting environmental chemical substances. Taste, in particular, is a complex chemosensory path that allows identification of substances present in ingested foods and beverages. In this manuscript, we propose a conceptual roadmap from aspects related to the evolution and the physiological role of taste, up to the current knowledge about its implication in the modulation of a healthy state, or obesity. More specifically, we focused on the role of stimulation of taste receptors in releasing gut hormones (also known as enterohormones), and their effects on the regulation of food intake, by inducing satiety, either by locally acting (in the gastrointestinal tract), or centrally (in the brain). Recent evidence demonstrated that some enterohormones are able to modulate gastrointestinal motility, thus affecting an orexigenic responses in the central nervous system. In keeping with this, we discuss the ability of the gustatory system to be a final checkpoint control for food intake regulation, and we speculate about taste perception manipulation in the management of obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • How much does obesity affect the male reproductive function?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Giuseppe Bellastella, Davide Menafra, Giulia Puliani, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Obesity and hypovitaminosis D: causality or casualty?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Silvia Migliaccio, Andrea Di Nisio, Chiara Mele, Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Female infertility: which role for obesity?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Alessandra Gambineri, Daniela Laudisio, Chiara Marocco, Stefano Radellini, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Giovanna Muscogiuri, Elena Cantone, Sara Cassarano, Dario Tuccinardi, Luigi Barrea, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abstracts from the 5 th UK Congress on Obesity 2018: Poster Presentation Abstracts
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2018-08-30

    Sponsorship: Publication of this supplement was sponsored by the Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO). All content was reviewed and approved by the ASO Committee, which held full responsibility for the abstract selections.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abstracts from the 5 th UK Congress on Obesity 2018: Organising Committee
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2018-08-30

    September 6-7 2018, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom Sponsorship: Publication of this supplement was sponsored by the Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO). All content was reviewed and approved by the ASO Committee, which held full responsibility for the abstract selections.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abstracts from the 5 th UK Congress on Obesity 2018: Award Presentation Abstracts
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2018-08-30

    September 6-7 2018, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom Sponsorship: Publication of this supplement was sponsored by the Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO). All content was reviewed and approved by the ASO Committee, which held full responsibility for the abstract selections.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abstracts from the 5 th UK Congress on Obesity 2018: Oral Presentation Abstracts
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2018-08-30

    September 6-7 2018, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom Sponsorship: Publication of this supplement was sponsored by the Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO). All content was reviewed and approved by the ASO Committee, which held full responsibility for the abstract selections.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abstracts from the 5th UK Congress on Obesity 2018: Author Index
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2018-08-30

    Sponsorship: Publication of this supplement was sponsored by the Association for the Study of Obesity (ASO). All content was reviewed and approved by the ASO Committee, which held full responsibility for the abstract selections.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Targeting the gut to treat obesity and its metabolic consequences: view from the Chair
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    K A Sharkey

    The neurohumoral signaling systems of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are considered the most significant of the peripheral inputs controlling both food intake in the short term and energy balance over a longer time course. The importance of the GI tract in the control of energy balance is underscored by the marked beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries for the treatment of obesity. Despite their effectiveness, the mechanisms of bariatric surgery remain to be fully elucidated. Considerable new evidence points to the importance of gut–brain communication, gut barrier function and microbial signaling as three of the most important mechanisms of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. These mechanisms are reviewed in the present article and the accompanying four papers.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Gut hormones such as amylin and GLP-1 in the control of eating and energy expenditure
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    T A Lutz

    The control of meal size is the best studied aspect of the control of energy balance, and manipulation of this system constitutes a promising target to treat obesity. A major part of this control system is based on gastrointestinal hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or amylin, which are released in response to a meal and which limit the size of an ongoing meal. Both amylin and GLP-1 have also been shown to increase energy expenditure in experimental rodents, but mechanistically we know much less how this effect may be mediated, which brain sites may be involved, and what the physiological relevance of these findings may be. Most studies indicate that the effect of peripheral amylin is centrally mediated via the area postrema, but other brain areas, such as the ventral tegmental area, may also be involved. GLP-1’s effect on eating seems to be mainly mediated by vagal afferents projecting to the caudal hindbrain. Chronic exposure to amylin, GLP-1 or their analogs decrease food intake and body weight gain. Next to the induction of satiation, amylin may also constitute an adiposity signal and in fact interact with the adiposity signal leptin. Amylin analogs are under clinical consideration for their effect to reduce food intake and body weight in humans, and similar to rodents, amylin analogs seem to be particularly active when combined with leptin analogs.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Bariatric surgery and obesity: influence on the incretins
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    B Laferrère

    The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP. The incretin effect on insulin secretion, or the greater insulin response to oral glucose compared to an isoglycemic intravenous glucose challenge, is severely impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes, but is recovered rapidly after RYGBP. The improvement in insulin secretion rate and β-cell sensitivity to oral glucose after RYGBP is mediated by endogenous GLP-1, and is abolished by exendin 9–39, a specific GLP-1 receptor antagonist. While calorie restriction and weight loss have major effects on the rapid and sustained improvement of fasted glucose metabolism, the enhanced incretin effect is a key player in post-prandial glucose control after RYGBP.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
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  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Targeting the gut to treat obesity and its metabolic comorbidities: focus on bariatric surgery - view from the chair
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    A C Carpentier

    Over the past decade, bariatric surgery emerged as the most effective treatment modality for obesity and its complications, especially type 2 diabetes. Initially introduced on the basis of their capacity to restrict food intake and/or induce dietary fat malabsorption, the current bariatric surgery procedures result in many more physiological changes that may also partly explain their potent and sustained anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the session 2 of the 17th International Symposium of the Université Laval Research Chair in Obesity, outstanding speakers have provided insight into novel clinical and pathophysiological aspects in bariatric surgery. Dr Blandine Laferrère discussed the growing body of evidence implicating incretin hormones in the anti-diabetic effects of bariatric surgery and Dr Hans-Rudolf Berthoud explored emerging evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery may reset the defended body mass set point. As data are rapidly accruing about the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery, these procedures not only take a greater place in clinical practice, but they also offer outstanding occasions to peek into the intricate and complex links between diet and gastrointestinal track, and obesity and its complications.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Does gastric bypass surgery change body weight set point?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2016-11-16
    Z Hao, M B Mumphrey, C D Morrison, H Münzberg, J Ye, H R Berthoud
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    T V Barreira, J M Schuna, C Tudor-Locke, J-P Chaput, T S Church, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Unique contributions of ISCOLE to the advancement of accelerometry in large studies
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    C Tudor-Locke, T V Barreira, J M Schuna, P T Katzmarzyk

    Accelerometry has become a mainstay approach for objectively monitoring children’s physical activity and sedentary time in epidemiological studies. The magnitude of effort underlying successful data collection, management and treatment is prodigious and its complexity has been associated with increasingly diverse methodological choices that, while defensible relative to specific research questions, conspire to undermine the ability to compare results between studies. Although respecting widespread calls for best practices, it is also important to openly share tools and resources supporting potential improvements to research practice and study design, thus allowing others to replicate, further improve, and/or otherwise build on this foundation. The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is a large multinational study that included accelerometer-based measures of physical activity, sedentary time and sleep. This review summarizes the unique contributions of ISCOLE to the advancement of accelerometry in large studies of children’s behavior, and in particular: (1) open-access publication of the ISCOLE accelerometry Manual of Operations; (2) 24-h waist-worn accelerometry protocol; (3) identification and extraction of nocturnal total sleep episode time (with open access to editable SAS syntax); (4) development of the first interpretive infrastructure for identifying and defining an evolved list of sleep-related variables from 24-h waist-worn accelerometry; (5) provision of a detailed model for reporting accelerometer paradata (administrative data related to accelerometry); and (6) cataloging the most detailed and defensible list of accelerometry-derived physical activity and sedentary time variables to date. The novel tools and resources associated with these innovations are shared openly in an effort to support methodological harmonization and overall advancement of accelerometry in large epidemiological studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    P T Katzmarzyk, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T S Church
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    H Vepsäläinen, V Mikkilä, M Erkkola, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, M Fogelholm
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity indicators in children from 12 countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    J K Zakrzewski, F B Gillison, S Cumming, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, S T Broyles, C M Champagne, J-P Chaput, K D Denstel, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, E F Mire, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M Standage
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    K D Denstel, S T Broyles, R Larouche, O L Sarmiento, T V Barreira, J-P Chaput, T S Church, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Are participant characteristics from ISCOLE study sites comparable to the rest of their country?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    A G LeBlanc, P T Katzmarzyk, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, J-P Chaput, T S Church, M Fogelholm, D M Harrington, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M S Tremblay
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    T Saloheimo, S A González, M Erkkola, D M Milauskas, J D Meisel, C M Champagne, C Tudor-Locke, O Sarmiento, P T Katzmarzyk, M Fogelholm
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Development and reliability of an audit tool to assess the school physical activity environment across 12 countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    S T Broyles, K T Drazba, T S Church, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Associations between sleep patterns and lifestyle behaviors in children: an international comparison
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    J-P Chaput, P T Katzmarzyk, A G LeBlanc, M S Tremblay, T V Barreira, S T Broyles, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, D E Rae, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T Olds
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    C Tudor-Locke, E F Mire, T V Barreira, J M Schuna, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, A Kurpad, R Kuriyan, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, P Zhao, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    Y Qiao, J Ma, Y Wang, W Li, P T Katzmarzyk, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, W D Johnson, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, T S Church, P Zhao, G Hu
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    R Larouche, O L Sarmiento, S T Broyles, K D Denstel, T S Church, T V Barreira, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Relationships between active school transport and adiposity indicators in school-age children from low-, middle- and high-income countries
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    O L Sarmiento, P Lemoine, S A Gonzalez, S T Broyles, K D Denstel, R Larouche, V Onywera, T V Barreira, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The epidemiological transition and the global childhood obesity epidemic
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    S T Broyles, K D Denstel, T S Church, J-P Chaput, M Fogelholm, G Hu, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, P T Katzmarzyk
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-12-08
    V Mikkilä, H Vepsäläinen, T Saloheimo, S A Gonzalez, J D Meisel, G Hu, C M Champagne, J-P Chaput, T S Church, P T Katzmarzyk, R Kuriyan, A Kurpad, E V Lambert, C Maher, J Maia, V Matsudo, T Olds, V Onywera, O L Sarmiento, M Standage, M S Tremblay, C Tudor-Locke, P Zhao, M Fogelholm
    更新日期:2019-11-18
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  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Physiological determinants and impacts of the adipocyte phenotype
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    A Tchernof, D Richard

    The properties of adipose tissues accumulating in various compartments and ectopic sites around the body represent critical determinants of the relationship between obesity and metabolic disease. The increasingly recognized plasticity of the adipose cell phenotype led to many articles on the cellular characteristics and origins on brown, white and also of ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes in recent years. This overview is a summary of manuscripts that were prepared by speakers at the 16th International Symposium of the Laval University Research Chair in Obesity. The data reviewed herein suggest that brown adipose tissue-inducing therapies may also modulate skeletal status through their effects on bone morphology and structure. Moreover, recently identified beige-like properties of epicardial fat in humans could eventually be considered for the management of coronary heart disease in humans. The regulation of brown adipose tissue activation through sympathetic nervous system innervation or non-sympathetic activators is also a complex phenomenon that needs further investigation. Scientific work aimed at better understanding the characteristics and regulation of metabolic homeostasis in each adipose compartment is an important aspect of our progression toward preventive or even curative approaches for obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Renaissance of brown adipose tissue research: integrating the old and new
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    J G Granneman

    The recent demonstration of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans, along with the discovery of vast cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipocyte phenotypes, has given new hope of targeting adipose tissue for therapeutic benefit. Application of principles learned from the first wave of obesity-related BAT research, conducted 30 years earlier, suggests that the activity and/or mass of brown fat will need to be greatly expanded for it to significantly contribute to total energy expenditure. Although the thermogenic capacity of human brown fat is very modest, its presence often correlates with improved metabolic status, suggesting possible beneficial endocrine functions. Recent advances in our understanding of the nature of progenitors and the transcriptional programs that guide phenotypic diversity have demonstrated the possibility of expanding the population of brown adipocytes in rodent models. Expanded populations of brown and beige adipocytes will require tight control of their metabolic activity, which might be achieved by selective neural activation, tissue-selective signaling or direct activation of lipolysis, which supplies the central fuel of thermogenesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Brown adipose tissue and bone
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    M E Lidell, S Enerbäck

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neural control of white, beige and brown adipocytes
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    T J Bartness, V Ryu

    Reports of brown-like adipocytes in traditionally white adipose tissue (WAT) depots occurred ~30 years ago, but interest in white adipocyte ‘browning’ only has gained attention more recently. We integrate some of what is known about the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation of WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) with the few studies focusing on the sympathetic innervation of the so-called ‘brite’ or ‘beige’ adipocytes that appear when WAT sympathetic drive increases (for example, cold exposure and food deprivation). Only one brain site, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), selectively browns some (inguinal WAT (IWAT) and dorsomedial subcutaneous WAT), but not all WAT depots and only when DMH neuropeptide Y gene expression is knocked down, a browning effect is mediated by WAT SNS innervation. Other studies show that WAT sympathetic fiber density is correlated with the number of brown-like adipocytes (multilocular lipid droplets, uncoupling protein-1 immunoreactivity) at both warm and cold ambient temperatures. WAT and BAT have sensory innervation, the latter important for acute BAT cold-induced temperature increases, therefore suggesting the possible importance of sensory neural feedback from brite/beige cells for heat production. Only one report shows browned WAT capable of producing heat in vivo. Collectively, increases in WAT sympathetic drive and the phenotype of these stimulated adipocytes seems critical for the production of new and/or transdifferentiation of white to brite/beige adipocytes. Selective harnessing of WAT SNS drive to produce browning or selective browning independent of the SNS to counter increases in adiposity by increasing expenditure appears to be extremely challenging.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Non-sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2015-08-04
    R Cereijo, J Villarroya, F Villarroya
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Center for Healthy Weight: an academic medical center response to childhood obesity.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    T N Robinson,K M Kemby

    Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sedentary behavior: target for change, challenge to assess.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    M Rosenberger

    Sedentary behavior is not a new topic, but trying to examine the direct links between sedentary behavior and health outcomes, independent of time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, is a relatively new addition to the relationships between physical activity and health. Defining sedentary behavior as a risk factor and target for intervention opens up novel avenues for disease prevention and health promotion. The relationship between sedentary behavior and obesity is complex and not well understood, but the increased risk of disease due to sedentary behavior may be even greater in obese patients. Objective measurement of sedentary behavior is an important link in being able to understand the real effects of being sedentary, and a few measurement devices are described. Interventions targeting sedentary behavior should reduce total sedentary time, break long bouts of sitting with intermittent activity and encourage light-intensity activity throughout the day. New technologies can both measure and deliver an intervention aimed at reducing sitting time, the most common category of sedentary behavior. An optimal activity profile will include minimal amounts of sedentary behavior, in addition to regular physical activity and healthy sleep patterns.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Treatment matching for obesity: identifying mediators of psychosocial and behavioral intervention components.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    M Kiernan

    In light of the limited long-term success of obesity treatments, it is tempting to consider the elusive goal of 'treatment matching', in which characteristics of individuals are optimally matched to targeted treatments to improve success. Previous frameworks for treatment matching in obesity have primarily focused on basic physiological characteristics, such as initial degree of overweight, and on treatment intensity, such as stepped-care alternatives (self-help manuals, group support, medication and surgery). Few studies have empirically evaluated the success of these frameworks. Given recent advances in genomics, neuroscience and other fields, both the breadth of domains and combinations of individuals' characteristics that could be used for treatment matching have increased markedly. Although the obesity field seems poised to build on these advances, a crucial challenge remains regarding the treatments themselves. Ultimately, the success of treatment matching will rely on identifying treatment intervention components with well-differentiated and empirically supported mediators, that is, clear insights into how intervention components work. Here we examine the scope of this challenge specifically for the design of efficacious psychosocial and behavioral intervention components, and identify areas for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Obesity prevention in defined (high school) populations.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    C B Taylor,K Taylor,M Jones,A Shorter,M Yee,B Genkin,A Burrows,A E Kass,M Rizk,M Redman,P Romer,J Williams,D E Wilfley

    BACKGROUND A challenge for the widespread dissemination of Internet-based programs designed to produce weight maintenance/loss in defined (high school) populations is to adapt them to local needs and interests, whereas demonstrating effectiveness and salience for both universal and targeted populations. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of providing an inexpensive, Internet-based universal (healthy weight regulation) and targeted (weight maintenance/loss) health program to all ninth-grade students in a high school serving a lower socioecnomic status, diverse population. DESIGN A total of 118 normal-weight and 64 overweight/obese students in the same ninth-grade class completed a baseline screen and were allocated to a healthy weight regulation program or a weight-loss maintenance program. Both groups simultaneously received a 10-week Internet-based intervention. Program implementation required minimal teacher time. Measurement included self-reported fruit, vegetable and high-fat/-calorie food consumption, self-reported change in body mass index (BMI), weight and shape concerns, as well as program engagement. RESULTS The program was successfully implemented in nine classes, with minimal help from the investigators. There was a significant increase in self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (P=0.001). There was a significant reduction in self-reported BMI in the overweight/obese group (P=0.001). Students found the program helpful and engaging. There was a significant reduction in weight and shape concerns in the high-risk female students, consistent with a reduced risk for the development of an eating disorder. Providing a universal and targeted online healthy weight regulation program to ninth-grade students is feasible and inexpensive. The results suggest the program can serve as 'core' for future studies using adaptive, continuous quality-improvement designs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic heterogeneity of obesity: role of adipose tissue.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    T McLaughlin

    Obesity is not synonymous with insulin resistance. Why some but not all individuals develop insulin resistance with weight excess is not clear, but a number of plausible hypotheses with ample support now exist. This article reviews regional fat distribution, inflammation, lipotoxicity/ectopic fat and impaired adipogenesis as leading theories as to why excess body weight has the potential to promote insulin resistance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • B lymphocytes as emerging mediators of insulin resistance.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    D A Winer,S Winer,L Shen,M H Y Chng,E G Engleman

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of various tissues including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which contributes to insulin resistance. T cells and macrophages infiltrate VAT in obesity and orchestrate this inflammation. Recently, we made the surprising discovery that B cells are important contributors to this process. Thus, some B cells and the antibodies they produce can promote VAT-associated and systemic inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. This report will focus on the properties of these B cells, and how they contribute to insulin resistance through T-cell modulation and production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Understanding the mechanisms by which B cells contribute to insulin resistance should lead to new antibody-based diagnostics and B-cell modulating therapeutics to manage this increasingly prevalent disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    C D Gardner

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to one type of diet over another for increasing weight-loss success. Future research to address the macronutrient intake component of the obesity epidemic should build on these recent insights and be directed toward effectively classifying individuals who can be differentially matched to alternate types of weight-loss diets that maximize weight-loss and weight-control success.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Childhood obesity prevention: a life-course framework.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2014-07-16
    R Pérez-Escamilla,G Kac

    Overweight/obese women are more likely to deliver newborns that also have a predisposition to store excessive amounts of fat since the early infancy period. Two evidence-based cycles are considered on the explanation of the maternal-child life-course approach for obesity prevention. The 'maternal' cycle indicates that pre-pregnancy overweight primiparous women are more likely to gain excessive weight during gestation and to retain excessive weight postpartum. The 'offspring' cycle indicates that newborns of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese women are more likely themselves to store excessive body fat starting very early on in life. The social ecological model (SEM) has been adopted as the framework needed to guide obesity prevention initiatives. The SEM considers the complex interrelationship among highly interconnected systems embedded within each other and having the individual on its inner most. Recommendations to women should include prevention of overweight/obesity prenatally, to attain adequate gestational weight and to lose the weight normally gained as part of the physiological response to pregnancy in the postpartum period. For the 'offspring' the aims should be to promote optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, and to foster physical activity and adequate dietary habits. Well-coordinated inter-sectorial national obesity prevention programs built upon the life-course framework foundation requires in-depth early life systems analyses driven by the SEM.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Education for childhood obesity prevention across the life-course: workshop conclusions.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2014-07-16
    R Pérez-Escamilla,J Hospedales,A Contreras,G Kac

    The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop 'Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health to address the childhood obesity epidemic through diverse education-based initiatives. Workshop participants agreed that both education per se and the education sector are key for obesity prevention and must form part of multidisciplinary interventions and collaboration between schools, families and the entire society. Capacity building in obesity prevention is required and should include the entire learning community, teachers, leaders, health-care providers, related services personnel, university professors and other interested community members. Obesity prevention initiatives should also engage key community institutions outside the formal education system, including early childhood centers, churches, pediatric/family medicine clinics, among others, to support family nutrition education, healthy food access and daily physical activity-all of which are key to promote a child's 'healthy weight'.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Inflammation, ectopic fat and lipid metabolism: view from the chair.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-12-01
    F Picard,Y Deshaies

    How meals containing large amounts of lipids induce insulin resistance in the short and long term remains a topic of intense research. Speakers of the afternoon session showed recent findings on the modulation of mitochondria-induced oxidative stress by energy substrates, both in chronic and acute (single high-fat intake) contexts, which have enabled a better understanding of insulin action at the molecular and cellular levels. These advances are highly amenable to being combined with innovative, elegant imaging techniques to look at the fate of these energy substrates at the in vivo level within optimally defined experimental protocols, both in human and nonhuman models.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maternal diet: a modulator for epigenomic regulation during development in nonhuman primates and humans.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-12-01
    R S Ganu,R A Harris,K Collins,K M Aagaard

    The importance of diet in health and disease has been well characterized in the past decades. Although the earlier focus of diet research was in the context of undernutrition and the importance of adequate nutrient intake to prevent malnutrition, in the current era of epidemic obesity the focus of our efforts has evolved toward understanding the effects of excess caloric intake. The current surge in childhood obesity rates suggests a correlation of maternal metabolic syndrome and obesity with programming of the fetal epigenome for metabolic diseases later in life. Alterations of the fetal genome, epigenome and metabolome have been well documented in cases of maternal malnutrition, including both overnutrition and undernutrition. It is of great interest and importance to understand how these divergent maternal factors regulate/program the fetus for metabolic diseases, and we and others have observed that epigenetic modifications to the fetal and placental epigenome accompany these reprogramming events. The following review summarizes recent studies on the effects of maternal diet and obesity on fetal epigenetics contributing to adult diseases later in life by taking advantage of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and metagenomic techniques in nonhuman primate model systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Weighing in on bariatric surgery: who and when?
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    N A Lodhia,J M Morton

    Over two-thirds of the United States is overweight or obese, and over 5% of the country is morbidly obese. Numerous public health preventative measures have been established to help battle this public health epidemic. Surgical obesity treatment, although now gaining popularity, has been an underutilized treatment option for obesity. Patients with a body mass index (BMI) of >40 or >35 kg m-2 with two or more comorbid conditions are eligible for bariatric surgery. Currently, the three most popular bariatric surgeries are Roux-en-y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding procedures, all overwhelmingly performed laparoscopically. The purpose of this article is to discuss the heterogeneity of bariatric surgery. In our practice, among 834 patients operated over a 4-year period (2006-2010), patients were of an average age of 45 years (16-73 years), 80.4% were female patients, 82.5% had private insurance, 61% were White, 17% were Hispanic and 9% were Black. Patients had an average BMI of 46.2 kg m-2 (30.1-75.3 kg m-2), waist circumference of 133.6 cm (68.6-207.8 cm) and four preoperative comorbidities (0-11 comorbidities). Variation exists in surgeon practice patterns for preoperative weight-loss recommendations and complication rates based on surgery case volume. Despite variation in patient, surgeon and hospital characteristics, bariatric surgery outcomes are generally highly safe and effective.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conceptual basis and clinical rationale for the development of a multidisciplinary weight management center.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    M K Artandi

    Overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg m-2) or obesity (BMI 30>kg m-2) affects more than two-thirds of Americans. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with multiple coexisting conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea and cancer. Lifestyle modification can induce a modest weight loss, which is associated with the prevention or improvement of many of these comorbidities. A combination of diet, exercise and behavioral therapy is considered the cornerstone of treatment for all overweight and obese individuals. As the etiology and therapy of obesity is complex, what is needed for these patients is a multidisciplinary clinic where specialists from different disciplines share their knowledge and participate in the treatment of the obese patient.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Filling the treatment gap in the weight management of overweight and obese patients.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-07-01
    N Gesundheit

    Approximately two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese. Despite widespread recognition of this disorder, there has been little progress in the past 20 years in finding effective noninvasive treatments for weight loss. The consequences of obesity are increasingly well recognized and include increases in blood pressure, plasma lipids, the onset of type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis and a variety of cancers. Obesity can increase the rate of pregnancy complications and fetal malformations in normoglycemic women. Current medical approaches to obesity, including intensive lifestyle interventions and drug therapies, have been successful in achieving modest weight loss of 4-7%, less than the 1998 NIH Guidelines target of 10%. Surgical approaches, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are much more successful, achieving weight loss of 15-50%. A treatment gap therefore exists in the management of obese and overweight patients, because many patients desire and would receive great health benefits by achieving weight loss of 7-15%. This review will discuss the dilemma of the treatment gap and explore possible ways by which it may be filled in the future by the use of innovative approaches.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Impact of Maternal High-Fat Diet Consumption on Neural Development and Behavior of Offspring.
    Int. J. Obesity Suppl. Pub Date : 2012-01-01
    Elinor L Sullivan,Elizabeth K Nousen,Katherine A Chamlou,Kevin L Grove

    Maternal diet and metabolic state are important factors in determining the environment experienced during perinatal development. Epidemiological studies and evidence from animal models provide evidence that a mother's diet and metabolic condition are important in programming the neural circuitry that regulates behavior, resulting in a persistent impact on the offspring's behavior. Potential mechanisms by which maternal diet and metabolic profile influence the perinatal environment include placental dysfunction and increases in circulating factors such as inflammatory cytokines, nutrients (glucose and fatty acids) and hormones (insulin and leptin). Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) consumption exposure during development have been observed to increase the risk of developing serious mental health and behavioral disorders including anxiety, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The increased risk of developing these behavioral disorders is postulated to be due to perturbations in the development of neural pathways that regulate behavior, including the serotonergic, dopaminergic and melanocortinergic systems. It is critical to examine the influence that a mother's nutrition and metabolic profile have on the developing offspring considering the current and alarmingly high prevalence of obesity and HFD consumption in pregnant women.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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