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  • Prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine and the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood across consecutive generations
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Shiwei Yan; Wanying Hou; Huanyu Wu; Wenbo Jiang; Yinling Li; Yuan Zhang; Hongyin Li; Sen Yang; Changhao Sun; Tianshu Han; Ying Li

    Background/objectives The purpose of our study was to explore the relation of prenatal exposure to the Chinese famine and the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood in consecutive generations. Subjects/methods A total of 960 families, including 1920 parents (F1) who were born near the time of the Great Chinese famine and 1145 of their offspring (F2), were selected from the Suihua rural area. Parental participants were defined as nonexposed (born between 1 October 1956 and 30 September 1958 or between 1 October 1962 and 30 September 1964) and famine exposed (born between 1 October 1959 and 30 September 1961). In F2, participants were divided into having no parents exposed to famine, only a mother exposed to famine, only a father exposed to famine or both parents exposed to famine. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Exposure to famine during gestation was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio: 2.79, 95% confidence interval: 2.16, 3.60) in F1 adults. However, similar association was not observed (maternal: odds ratio: 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.69, 2.52; paternal: odds ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 3.21; parental: odds ratio: 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 2.31) in F2 adults. Conclusions Exposure to the Chinese famine during foetal life was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in F1 participants. In F2 adults, there might be an important relationship between exposure to famine and the risk of metabolic syndrome with increasing age.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Association between the faecal short-chain fatty acid propionate and infant sleep
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Anne-Louise M. Heath; Jillian J. Haszard; Barbara C. Galland; Blair Lawley; Nancy J. Rehrer; Lynley N. Drummond; Ian M. Sims; Rachael W. Taylor; Ana Otal; Barry Taylor; Gerald W. Tannock

    The gut microbiota harvests energy from indigestible plant polysaccharides, forming short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are absorbed from the bowel. SCFAs provide energy—presumably after easily digested food components have been absorbed from the small intestine. Infant night waking is believed by many parents to be due to hunger. Our objective was to determine whether faecal SCFAs are associated with longer uninterrupted sleep in infants. Infants (n = 57) provided faecal samples for determining SCFAs (7 months of age), and questionnaire data for determining infant sleep (7 and 8 months). Linear regression determined associations between SCFAs—faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate—and sleep. For each 1% higher propionate at 7 months of age, the longest night sleep was 6 (95% CI: 1, 10) minutes longer at both 7 and 8 months. A higher proportion of total faecal SCFA as propionate was associated with longer uninterrupted infant sleep.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Karin Amrein; Mario Scherkl; Magdalena Hoffmann; Stefan Neuwersch-Sommeregger; Markus Köstenberger; Adelina Tmava Berisha; Gennaro Martucci; Stefan Pilz; Oliver Malle

    Vitamin D testing and the use of vitamin D supplements have increased substantially in recent years. Currently, the role of vitamin D supplementation, and the optimal vitamin D dose and status, is a subject of debate, because large interventional studies have been unable to show a clear benefit (in mostly vitamin D replete populations). This may be attributed to limitations in trial design, as most studies did not meet the basic requirements of a nutrient intervention study, including vitamin D-replete populations, too small sample sizes, and inconsistent intervention methods regarding dose and metabolites. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] < 50 nmol/L or 20 ng/ml) is associated with unfavorable skeletal outcomes, including fractures and bone loss. A 25(OH)D level of >50 nmol/L or 20 ng/ml is, therefore, the primary treatment goal, although some data suggest a benefit for a higher threshold. Severe vitamin D deficiency with a 25(OH)D concentration below <30 nmol/L (or 12 ng/ml) dramatically increases the risk of excess mortality, infections, and many other diseases, and should be avoided whenever possible. The data on a benefit for mortality and prevention of infections, at least in severely deficient individuals, appear convincing. Vitamin D is clearly not a panacea, and is most likely efficient only in deficiency. Given its rare side effects and its relatively wide safety margin, it may be an important, inexpensive, and safe adjuvant therapy for many diseases, but future large and well-designed studies should evaluate this further. A worldwide public health intervention that includes vitamin D supplementation in certain risk groups, and systematic vitamin D food fortification to avoid severe vitamin D deficiency, would appear to be important. In this narrative review, the current international literature on vitamin D deficiency, its relevance, and therapeutic options is discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The association of elevated serum ferritin concentration in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective observational study
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yan Cheng; Tingting Li; Mulan He; Junxiu Liu; Kui Wu; Shuangping Liu; Ziwen Ma; Jingbo Lu; Qingying Zhang; Haidong Cheng

    Background/Objectives The results linking body iron stores to the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are conflicting. We aimed to measure the serum ferritin level of women in early pregnancy and evaluate the risk of GDM in a Chinese urban population. Subjects/Methods In total, 851 pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation took part in the prospective, observational study conducted. The women were divided into four groups by quartiles of serum ferritin levels (Q1–4). Their blood samples were collected and assayed for several biochemical variables at the beginning of the study, and the women were followed up with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Results The participants had an average serum ferritin concentration of 65.67 μg/L. GDM prevalence within each serum ferritin quartile was 9.4%, 14.6%, 18.8% and 19.3%, respectively, (P = 0.016). The odds ratio for GDM in the ferritin Q2–4 was 1.64 (CI: 0.90–2.99), 2.23 (CI: 1.26–3.96) and 2.31 (CI: 1.30–4.10), compared with Q1, respectively. This association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders factors. In addition, in Q4, pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index ≥24 kg/m2, maternal age ≤35 years old or haemoglobin≥ 110 g/L did have an increased risk of developing GDM. Conclusions Elevated serum ferritin concentrations in early gestation are associated with an increased risk of GDM, especially in pregnant women who have a high baseline iron storage status with no anaemia or who are overweight/obese. Individual iron supplementation should be considered to minimize the risk of GDM.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • 更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Nutrition care for chronic kidney disease during pregnancy: an updated review
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    María Angélica Reyes-López; Giorgina B Piccoli; Filomena Leone; Alejandra Orozco-Guillén; Otilia Perichart-Perera

    Cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including CKD in pregnant women, have increased globally in recent years. CKD during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth, among others. Nutrition plays a significant role in many metabolic and physiological changes during pregnancy. Women with CKD are at increased risk of nutrition deficiencies and metabolic issues than women without CKD. Currently, we lack evidence regarding metabolic and nutritional adaptations during pregnancy in women with CKD and how these adaptations relate to perinatal outcomes. In this review, dietary and supplementation recommendations for CKD in adults and pregnant women are summarized from current clinical guidelines. We present the main nutrition care practices that have been studied in CKD pregnancies. This review will be helpful to health professionals as a preliminary reference for nutrition assessment and therapy in pregnant women with CKD.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • 更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Vitamin D testing: advantages and limits of the current assays
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Barbara Altieri; Etienne Cavalier; Harjit Pal Bhattoa; Faustino R. Pérez-López; María T. López-Baena; Gonzalo R. Pérez-Roncero; Peter Chedraui; Cedric Annweiler; Silvia Della Casa; Sieglinde Zelzer; Markus Herrmann; Antongiulio Faggiano; Annamaria Colao; Michael F Holick

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency has become a pandemic health problem with a consequent increase of requests for determining circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. However, the analytical performance of these immunoassays, including radioimmunoassay and ELISA, is highly variable, and even mass spectrometric methods, which nowadays serves as the gold standard for the quantitatively determination of 25(OH)D, do not necessarily produce comparable results, creating limitations for the definition of normal vitamin D status ranges. To solve this problem, great efforts have been made to promote standardization of laboratory assays, which is important to achieve comparable results across different methods and manufacturers. In this review, we performed a systematic analysis evaluating critically the advantages and limits of the current assays available for the measure of vitamin D status, i.e., circulating 25(OH)D and its metabolites, making suggestions that could be used in the clinical practice. Moreover, we also suggest the use of alternatives to blood test, including standardized surveys that may be of value in alerting health-care professionals about the vitamin D status of their patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The effects of extra virgin olive oil and canola oil on inflammatory markers and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Mehrnaz Morvaridi; Sima Jafarirad; Seyed Saeed Seyedian; Pezhman Alavinejad; Bahman Cheraghian
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • 更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Early-onset coronary atherosclerosis in patients with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    D. O. Bittner; M. Goeller; Y. Zopf; S. Achenbach; M. Marwan
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • “HEALTH-FOR”: a pilot study to assess eating habits during pregnancy among Arab and Chinese immigrants living in Italy
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Maddalena Massari; Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia; Cristiana Berti; Mauro Cozzolino; Martina Aldinucci; Mariarosaria Di Tommaso; Giovanni Nazzaro; Mariavittoria Locci; Irene Cetin

    A 1-year pilot cross-sectional study was performed to assess eating behaviours and lifestyle among Chinese and Arab pregnant immigrants to Italy. A number of 95 Chinese and 83 Arab women were interviewed. Two ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires were designed to reflect the habitual diet of women belonging to these ethnic groups. Food items frequency of consumption was discussed using healthy eating guidelines. In both populations, women met healthy eating guidelines, except for salt intake, which was double than recommended; meat, sweet products and sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed more frequently than recommended, while olive oil and yogurt were eaten less frequently. Chinese women did not reach the recommendations for dairy products and fatty fish and exceeded those for red and processed meat, whereas Arab women exceeded the recommendations for cheese. Our findings suggest that the Italian food environment did not significantly affect Chinese and Arab pregnant immigrants’ diet.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dietary determinants of aflatoxin B 1 -lysine adduct in pregnant women consuming a rice-dominated diet in Nepal
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Johanna Y. Andrews-Trevino; Patrick Webb; Gerald Shively; Beatrice Rogers; Kedar Baral; Dale Davis; Krishna Paudel; Ashish Pokharel; Robin Shrestha; Jia-Sheng Wang; Kathy S. Xue; Shibani Ghosh
    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • 更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Correction: Update of the European consensus on sarcopenia: what has changed in diagnosis and prevalence in peritoneal dialysis?
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Maryanne Zilli Canedo Silva; Barbara Perez Vogt; Nayrana Soares Carmo Reis; Jacqueline Costa Teixeira Caramori

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may increase the detrimental effect of VDR variants on the risk of essential hypertension
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Fang Shen, Changman Guo, Yan Wang, Fei Yu, Dongdong Zhang, Xue Liu, Yue Ba, Chongjian Wang, Wenjie Li, Xing Li
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Retraction Note: Dietary patterns and their associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in Tasmanian older adults: a longitudinal cohort study
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Hoa H. Nguyen, Feitong Wu, Wendy H. Oddy, Karen Wills, Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen, Graeme Jones, Tania Winzenberg

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Xiaoling Zhang, Hongjuan Han, Xiaoyan Ge, Long Liu, Tong Wang, Hongmei Yu
    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Associations of diet quality and blood serum lipoprotein levels in a population at high risk for diabetes: the Strong Heart Family Study
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Sophie A. E. Kauffman, Michelle M. Averill, Joseph A. C Delaney, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Barbara V. Howard, Amanda M. Fretts

    Background/objectives Previous studies consistently report that diet quality is inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. However, few studies have assessed the association of diet quality with serum lipoproteins, an intermediate marker of cardio-metabolic health, or assessed whether type 2 diabetes modifies these associations. This study assessed associations of diet quality (evaluated using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)), and the interaction of diet quality with diabetes, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (apoA1), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) among American Indians (AIs). Subjects/methods Participants comprised AIs who participated in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS)—a study of CVD and its risk factors in 12 AI communities. Generalized estimated equations (GEEs) were used to examine the following associations: (1) the cross-sectional associations of diet quality (as determined by AHEI) with serum lipoproteins (n = 2200); and (2) the prospective associations of the AHEI measured at baseline with serum lipoproteins (n = 1899). Results In cross-sectional analyses, associations of AHEI with TC (p < 0.0001) LDL-C (p = 0.005), and ApoB (p = 0.002) differed according to diabetes status. In prospective analysis, AHEI was associated with more favorable levels of TC (p = 0.029) and LDL-C (p = 0.008) among participants with diabetes independent of other demographic, behavioral, and health factors; associations of diet quality with TC, LDL-C, and ApoB were much weaker among participants without diabetes. There was no association of diet quality with TG, HDL-C, or ApoA. Conclusions The associations of diet quality with TC, LDL-C, and ApoB differ according to diabetes status.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Usefulness of the satiety quotient in a clinical pediatric obesity context
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Alicia Fillon, Julie Masurier, Bruno Pereira, Maud Miguet, Marie-Eve Mathieu, Vicky Drapeau, Angelo Tremblay, Yves Boirie, David Thivel
    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Are Asian foods as “fattening” as western-styled fast foods?
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Bhupinder Kaur, Rina Yu Chin Quek
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Association between serum folate and cardiovascular deaths among adults with hypertension
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Stanley Nkemjika, Emeka Ifebi, Logan T. Cowan, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Felix Twum, Fengqi Liu, Jian Zhang
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of isocaloric exchanges of carbohydrate for fat on postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and free fatty acid responses—a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Anoush Kdekian, Marjan Alssema, Eline M. Van Der Beek, Arno Greyling, Mario A. Vermeer, David J. Mela, Elke A. Trautwein

    Varying the macronutrient composition of meals alters acute postprandial responses, but the effect sizes for specific macronutrient exchanges have not been quantified by systematic reviews. Therefore the aim is to quantify the effect size of exchanging fat for carbohydrates in mixed meals on postprandial glucose (PPG), insulin (PPI), triglycerides (PPTG), and free fatty acids (PPFFA) responses by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic literature search was undertaken on randomized controlled trials comparing isocaloric high fat with high carbohydrate meals, with comparable protein contents and at least one postprandial glycemic- and one lipid outcome. The outcome data were extracted and expressed as mean postprandial levels over 2 h. Ten studies involving 14 comparisons met the eligibility criteria. Data were available for meta-analysis from 347 participants, consuming mixed meals containing 250–1003 kcal, and total fat contents of 33.3–75.6 percentage of energy (en%) (intervention) versus 0–31.7 en% (control). Each 10en% increase in fat, replacing carbohydrates produced a mean reduction in PPG of 0.32 mmol/l (95% CI −0.64 to −0.00, p = 0.047), a reduction in PPI of 18.2 pmol/l (95% CI −24.86 to −11.54), an increase in PPTG of 0.06 mmol/l (95% CI 0.02 to 0.09, p = 0.004), with no statistically significant effect on PPFFA. Modest exchange of carbohydrates for fats in mixed meals significantly reduces PPG and PPI and increases PPTG responses. The quantitative relationships derived here may be applied to predict responses, and to design and optimize meal macronutrient compositions in dietary intervention studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • (Dis) Agreement between the first and the recent European consensus on definition and diagnosis for sarcopenia in kidney transplant patients
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Larissa S. Limirio, Heitor O. Santos, Aline S. dos Reis, Erick P. de Oliveira

    We previously detected that ~50% of kidney transplant patients (KTPs) present sarcopenia using the first European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP1) consensus. Our aim was to evaluate the agreement between the sarcopenia diagnosis using EWGSOP1 and the new consensus (EWGSOP2) in KTPs. A cross-sectional study was performed evaluating 127 KTPs. Total and appendicular muscle mass were estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Strength was evaluated by handgrip strength (HGS) and five times sit to stand (5STS). Functional capacity was evaluated by 4-m walk test and short physical performance battery. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2. The agreement between EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2 (using HGS criteria for muscle strength) was fair (k = 0.341–0.402). Slight agreement was observed between EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2 using 5STS criteria for muscle strength (k = 0.031–0.046). We conclude that EWGSOP2 definitions have a low agreement with EWGSOP1 in KTPs.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Association of oral health with body weight: a prospective study in community-dwelling older adults
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Eva Kiesswetter, Bart J. F. Keijser, Dorothee Volkert, Marjolein Visser

    Background To prevent involuntary weight loss in older people, the knowledge about factors affecting body weight (BW) is essential. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations of multiple oral health aspects with BW in community-dwelling older adults. Methods This analysis is based on prospective data with a 10-year follow-up of 657 Dutch community-dwelling older adults (age 66.4 ± 5.8 years, 54% female) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Participants’ characteristics, BW, and 12 oral health variables (teeth, dentures, nine oral problems, self-rated oral health) were assessed in 2005/07 and 2015/16. The association between oral health and BW was analyzed by mixed models and adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, smoking, health, and functional aspects considering data of both assessments. Results Mean BW was 79.1 ± 13.3 kg at baseline (B) and 77.6 ± 13.8 kg at follow-up (FU). At baseline, 29.6% of the participants reported being edentulous (FU:34.4%) and 55.8% to wear dentures (FU:62.3%). Dental pain while chewing was the oral problem with the lowest (B:5.2%, FU:6.6%) and xerostomia with the highest prevalence at both examinations (B:24.3%, FU:30.0%). Most participants rated their oral status as healthy (B:65.2%, FU:66.9%). Neither edentulism and denture use nor oral problems showed a longitudinal association with BW. In contrast, self-rated oral health was associated with BW (b = 0.724, SE = 0.296, p = 0.015) after adjusting for multiple confounders. Conclusions In community-dwelling older adults self-rated oral health may indicate changes in body weight in the long term. Therefore, this simple measure could serve to identify a risk for weight loss and to initiate oral interventions in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Correction: Effect of high milk and sugar-sweetened and noncaloric soft drink intake on insulin sensitivity after 6 months in overweight and obese adults: a randomized controlled trial
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Sara Engel, Tine Tholstrup, Jens M. Bruun, Arne Astrup, Bjørn Richelsen, Anne Raben

    Since publication the authors noticed an error in Tables 2, 3, and 4 of the original article, where the pre-intervention values were presented by mean and SD instead of mean and SE as described in the table text. The correct tables are reproduced below where SD’s are replaced by SE’s.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Frequency and variety of usual intakes of healthy foods, fruit, and vegetables predicts lower 6-year weight gain in young women
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Haya M. Aljadani, Amanda Patterson, David Sibbritt, Rachael M. Taylor, Clare E. Collins
    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Association between atherogenic index of plasma and subclinical renal damage over a 12-year follow-up: Hanzhong adolescent hypertension study
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Yue Yuan, Jia-Wen Hu, Yang Wang, Ke-Ke Wang, Wen-Ling Zheng, Chao Chu, Qiong Ma, Yu Yan, Yue-Yuan Liao, Jian-Jun Mu
    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Effect of milk fat on LDL cholesterol and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy humans: the INNOVALAIT project
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Jean-Marie Bard, Ludovic Drouet, Denis Lairon, Murielle Cazaubiel, Corinne Marmonier, Ewa Ninio, Claire Bal dit Sollier, Jean-Charles Martin, Constance Boyer, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • 更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Association of dietary components with dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation biomarkers in adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia from different countries
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Luiza Antoniazzi, Raquel Arroyo-Olivares, Marcio S. Bittencourt, Mauricio Teruo Tada, Isabella Lima, Cinthia E. Jannes, Jose E. Krieger, Alexandre C. Pereira, Gracia Quintana-Navarro, Ovidio Muñiz-Grijalvo, José Luís Díaz-Díaz, Daniel Zambón, Pedro Mata, Raul D. Santos
    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Association between dietary calcium intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease among Korean adults
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    M. J. Chae, J. Y. Jang, K. Park

    Background/Objectives Although dietary calcium intake is associated with a risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has not been studied extensively in Asian populations. We therefore investigated the association between dietary calcium intake and CVD among Korean adults and the effect of obesity on this association. Subjects/Methods In total, 9186 participants were included in the analysis after excluding 844 with prevalent CVD/cancer or implausible energy intake. Nutrient intake, including dietary calcium, was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. CVD included myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and stroke per the World Health Organization criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results In the fully adjusted model, HRs of CVD across increasing quintiles of dietary calcium intake were 1.0 (reference), 0.85 (95% CI: 0.66–1.10), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58–1.02), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42–0.83), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.48–1.08); a significant linear trend was detected (p for trend = 0.04). However, this association varied according to the obesity status. High dietary calcium intake was associated with a reduced CVD risk among nonobese participants (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m2; p for trend = 0.02), whereas this was not significant among obese participants (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; p for trend = 0.88). Conclusions The association between dietary calcium intake and incident CVD may be influenced by obesity status. We provide evidence for developing dietary calcium intake guidelines for Koreans, allowing for the effects of obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Digital anthropometry via three-dimensional optical scanning: evaluation of four commercially available systems
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Grant M. Tinsley, M. Lane Moore, Jacob R. Dellinger, Brian T. Adamson, Marqui L. Benavides
    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • A multilevel approach to correlates of anaemia in women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: findings from a nationally representative survey
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Ngianga II Kandala, Saseendran Pallikadavath, Andrew Amos Channon, Gavin Knight, Nyovani Janet Madise
    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Assessment of body composition in Sri Lankan adults: development and validation of bioelectrical impedance prediction equation
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    R. Jayawardena, W. M. U. A. Wijetunga, P. Ranasinghe, L. Wanninayake, V. P. Wickramasinghe

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a simple and quick method used for assessment of body composition (BC). Present study aims to develop and validate a BIA prediction equation for Sri Lankan adults. Healthy adults (≥18 years) were randomly selected for development and validation of the equation. BIA was performed using the Inbody 230 multifrequency analyzer. BC analysis was also evaluated by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution. Prediction equations for TBW/FFM were derived by linear-regression analysis. Study population included 170 adults, of which 32.9% were males. Mean age and BMI were 43.2 ± 12.6 years and 24.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2, respectively. Final equation for TBW (r = 0.915, p < 0.001) and FFM (r = 0.906, p < 0.001) correlated significantly with values obtained by D2O dilution. Therefore, this equation is suitable for estimation of BC parameters, such as TBW, FM, FFM, and %BF in Sri Lankan adults, and is possibly appropriate for use in other South Asian populations, including those living in Western countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hormonal regulation of longitudinal bone growth.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 1994-02-01
    A Nilsson,C Ohlsson,O G Isaksson,A Lindahl,J Isgaard

    The regulation of postnatal somatic growth is complex. Genetic, nutritional factors and hormones exert regulatory functions. Hormones that have an established role in the regulation include growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormone and sex steroids. GH promotes mainly the growth of the long bones in terms of final height, while the action of the sex steroids and thyroid hormone is less well known. Longitudinal bone growth is the result of chondrocyte proliferation and subsequent endochondral ossification in the epiphyseal growth-plates. The growth-plate is a cartilaginous template that is located between the epiphysis and the metaphysis of the long bones. GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have different target cells in the epiphyseal growth-plate. GH stimulates the slowly dividing prechondrocytes in the germinative cell layer while IGF-I promotes the clonal expansion in the proliferative cell layer of a GH primed cell. Thyroid hormone blocks the clonal expansion and stimulates chondrocyte maturation. IGF-I mRNA is primarily regulated by GH, and IGF-I is produced in several tissues such as the liver, muscle, fat and epiphyseal growth plates. However, IGF-I mRNA is also increased during compensatory growth of heart and kidneys and by estrogen in the Fallopian tube in the rat. Nutrition, i.e. energy from fat and carbohydrates and proteins, also influences the final height, but the cellular mechanism of action is not known. The aim of this article is to review hormonal action on longitudinal bone growth.

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  • A medical menu.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2003-10-24
    I H Gewolb

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  • Effects of an 8-week weight-loss program on cardiovascular disease risk factors and regional body composition.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2002-08-14
    J S Volek,A L Gómez,D M Love,A M Weyers,R Hesslink,J A Wise,W J Kraemer

    OBJECTIVE To determine the influence of weight loss on multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. DESIGN Overweight women (n = 12; mean 44.2% fat) and men (n = 10; mean 30.7% fat) participated in an 8 week weight-loss program that included dietary, exercise, multi-vitamin/mineral supplementation, and behavior modification components. Measurement of total and regional body composition assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), circumferences and blood sampling for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, insulin and leptin were performed before and after the weight loss intervention. RESULTS Subjects increased their physical activity and decreased their energy intake, resulting in a mean decrease in body mass of - 4.3 +/- 3.4 kg in women and -4.7 +/- 3.1 kg in men. Fat accounted for 88 and 58% of the decrease in body mass in men and women, respectively. Proportionally, men lost significantly more fat mass from the trunk region compared to women. Serum total and LDL cholesterol were significantly decreased in men (-11 and -14%, respectively) but not women (-3 and -3%, respectively) and there were no changes in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Serum leptin was significantly decreased (-36%) and highly correlated to fat mass (r= 0.839). There were no changes in serum insulin and plasma homocysteine. CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that short-term weight loss resulting from reducing percentage energy from fat, increasing physical activity and vitamin/mineral supplements including folic acid has a favorable effect on regional body composition and total and LDL cholesterol with minimal effects on HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine and insulin and the effects are greater in men compared to women. Supplementation with folic acid or emphasis on folic acid-rich foods may be an important component of a weight loss program to prevent increases in homocysteine.

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  • The adaptive response of the immune system to the particular malnutrition of eating disorders.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2002-07-27
    E Nova,S Samartín,S Gómez,G Morandé,A Marcos

    Despite the seriously undernourished state of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), controversial findings have been published regarding some aspects of the immune system that are otherwise impaired in more typical types of malnutrition, such as protein-energy malnutrition. In general, adaptation processes seem to occur enabling immune function to be preserved during long periods of the illness. However, cell-mediated immunity is usually altered in AN and BN as reflected by lymphocyte subset counts and the response to delayed hypersensitivity tests. Regarding the helper/cytotoxic T cell ratio (CD4:CD8), an immunological marker of the nutritional status, the results of our studies on AN and BN patients showed that the duration of the eating disorder and the time when appropriate treatment is achieved are likely contributors to the alteration of this ratio. Despite these findings, it has been repeatedly pointed out that anorexic patients seem to be free of common viral infections at least until the most advanced stages of debilitation. Some hypotheses that could explain the lack of infection symptoms are reviewed. Cytokines and the altered acute phase response to infection, as well as cortisol and leptin, are considered to be potential factors involved in the adaptation processes occurring in these syndromes. Further progress in the knowledge of the psychoneuroendocrine-immune interactions established in AN and BN will be relevant to the understanding of the aetiology and maintenance mechanisms of these pathologies.

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  • Relations between vegetable, fruit and micronutrient intake. Implications for odds ratios in a case-control study.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2002-02-22
    E Negri,C La Vecchia,S Franceschi

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the protection observed for some micronutrients, such as beta-carotene, in several observational studies may simply reflect vegetable and fruit intake. DESIGN A case-control study conducted in Italy. SUBJECTS The subjects were 1225 colon cancer patients, 728 rectal cancer patients and 4154 hospital controls. RESULTS For the 16 micronutrients considered, the more closely a micronutrient was correlated with total vegetable and fruit intake, the more it appeared protective against colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION When studying the effect of a nutrient on disease risk in an observational setting, its relation to other nutrients and foods must be taken into account.

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  • Socio-economic status and puberty are the main factors determining anaemia in adolescent girls and boys in East Java, Indonesia.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-10-20
    D D Soekarjo,S de Pee,M W Bloem,R Tjiong,R Yip,W H Schreurs,Muhilal

    OBJECTIVE To determine prevalence and contributing factors of anaemia in adolescents. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of anaemia prevalence, socio-economic status and puberty. SETTING Schools in East Java, Indonesia. SUBJECTS Male and female adolescent pupils (age 12-15 y; n=6486). RESULTS Anaemia prevalence was 25.8% among girls (n=3486), 24.5% among pre-pubertal boys (n=821), and 12.1% among pubertal boys (n=2179). Socio-economic status, indicated by type of school attended, was an important factor determining the risk of anaemia. Girls had a higher risk when they attended a poor school (OR poorest school, 1.00; other schools, 0.67-0.87), had reached puberty (OR, 1.25), had lower retinol intake (OR 1st-4th quartiles-1.00, 0.97, 0.89, 0.77) and higher vitamin A intake from plant sources (OR 1st-4th quartiles-1.00, 1.10, 1.31, 1.04). Boys had a higher risk of anaemia when they attended a poor school (OR poorest school 1.00, other schools 0.54-0.63), were younger (OR per year=0.79), had not yet reached puberty (OR not yet, 1.00; already, 0.78), were shorter (OR per cm 0.95), had smaller mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) (OR per mm 0.99) and lower retinol intake (OR 1st-4th quartile 1.00, 0.67, 0.74, 0.68). CONCLUSIONS Anaemia in adolescents should be reported separately for pre-pubertal and pubertal subjects and for different ages, and the population's socio-economic status should be specified. The results of this survey call for treatment of anaemia in adolescents. Given Indonesia's current situation, micronutrient intake of adolescents should be increased using supplements for all girls and for pre-pubertal boys. SPONSORSHIP This survey was funded by USAID through the OMNI project.

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  • The realization of a project aimed at reducing the plasmatic lipid level in a large Italian population improves the mean calcium daily intake: the Brisighella Study.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    A Gaddi,A F Cicero,F O Wani,A Dormi,V Pasquarelli,S D'Addato

    OBJECTIVES Evaluation of the impact of a coronary heart disease prevention program on calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin D dietary intake in respect of recommended daily allowances in a large Italian rural population. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of the Brisighella Study dietary data. The Brisighella Study started in 1972 as a longitudinal study on atherosclerosis risk factors. SETTING Brisighella, a rural North Italian village. SUBJECTS The Brisighella population's dietary habits were monitored from 1980 every 4 h through a dietary record sheet. 1,350 constantly tested subjects were subdivided according to NHI Consensus Conference on Calcium RDA. INTERVENTION In 1986, the studied subjects were invited to reduce their consumption of animal fats and cholesterol through a Nutrition Educational Program (NEP). RESULTS Before NEP, calcium intake was low in each sex and age category: 20-40% of the populatioin had a daily intake < 550 mg. In 1988, among the 1350 subjects who constantly completed the questionnaire (M = 651, F = 699), the mean calcium intake significantly rose in all age categories: M = 1,003 (25-65 y) and 877 ( > 65) mg/24h (P < 0.001 vs 1984); F = 923 (25-50), 860 (51-65) and 767 (> 65)mg/24h (P < 0.05). In 1992, 3y after the NEP conclusion, calcium intake dropped in each sex and age category. The NEP influenced vitamin D, phosphorus and magnesium intakes less. CONCLUSIONS A collective NEP aimed at lowering saturated fats and cholesterol intakes, improves the calcium intake; in order to maintain their efficacy on nutritional habit changes, these programs must become an ongoing item.

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  • A stearic acid-rich diet improves thrombogenic and atherogenic risk factor profiles in healthy males.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    F D Kelly,A J Sinclair,N J Mann,A H Turner,L Abedin,D Li

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether healthy males who consumed increased amounts of dietary stearic acid compared with increased dietary palmitic acid exhibited any changes in their platelet aggregability, platelet fatty acid profiles, platelet morphology, or haemostatic factors. DESIGN A randomized cross-over dietary intervention. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS Thirteen free-living healthy males consumed two experimental diets for 4 weeks with a 7 week washout between the two dietary periods. The diets consisted of approximately 30% of energy as fat (66% of which was the treatment fat) providing approximately 6.6% of energy as stearic acid (diet S) or approximately 7.8% of energy as palmitic acid (diet P). On days 0 and 28 of each dietary period, blood samples were collected and anthropometric and physiological measurements were recorded. RESULTS Stearic acid was increased significantly in platelet phospholipids on diet S (by 22%), while on diet P palmitic acid levels in platelet phospholipids also increased significantly (8%). Mean platelet volume, coagulation factor FVII activity and plasma lipid concentrations were significantly decreased on diet S, while platelet aggregation was significantly increased on diet P. CONCLUSION Results from this study indicate that stearic acid (19g/day) in the diet has beneficial effects on thrombogenic and atherogenic risk factors in males. The food industry might wish to consider the enrichment of foods with stearic acid in place of palmitic acid and trans fatty acids.

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  • Five decades of trends in anemia in Israeli infants: implications for food fortification policy.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    D N Kaluski,A Leventhal,Y Averbuch,S Rishpon,M Cohen-Dar,S Habib,I Bellmaker,L Rubin,S Rachmiel,Y Amitai,H Palti

    OBJECTIVE To describe the secular trends in the prevalence rates of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants in Israel, identify population group differences and assess the effectiveness of the 1985 Public Health directives on iron supplementation and avoidance of cow's milk in the first year of life. DESIGN A systematic analysis of published and unpublished cross-sectional studies. METHODS IDA rates in 1-y-old infants between 1946 and 1997 were assessed from published papers and reports. Rates for Arab infants were available from 1984. Data on routine hemoglobin tests on 1-y-old infants for Arabs and Jews separately were obtained from four health districts for the period 1987 to 1997. Analyses were done for the periods prior to and following the Public Health directives. RESULTS The prevalence of IDA in Jewish infants declined from 68% in 1946 to 50% in 1985 at an average annual rate of -1.43%. Following the iron supplementation directives, the average annual rate of decline increased to -4.0% and reached a prevalence of about 11% in 1996. IDA rates in Arab infants declined by an annual average of -3.7%, and were consistently almost twice as high as for Jewish infants. CONCLUSIONS Despite the contribution of the iron supplementation program to the reduction in TDA, the persistently high rates indicate inadequate iron content in the diet. This emphasizes the important role of a national food fortification program, using staple foods commonly consumed.

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  • Catechin intake and associated dietary and lifestyle factors in a representative sample of Dutch men and women.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    I C Arts,P C Hollman,E J Feskens,H B Bueno de Mesquita,D Kromhout

    OBJECTIVE To study the intake of catechins in the Dutch population and to assess the relation between catechin intake and other dietary factors. Catechins, dietary components that belong to the flavonoid family, potentially protect against chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Catechins are the major components of tea, but they are present in many other plant foods as well. DESIGN Data were used from a nationwide dietary survey carried out in 1998 among a representative sample of 6200 Dutch men and women aged 1-97y. Dietary data were collected using a 2 day dietary record method. RESULTS The average daily catechin intake was 50 mg (s.d. 56 mg/day). Catechin intake increased with age, and the intake was higher in women (60 mg/day) than in men (40 mg/day). Tea was the main catechin source in all age groups, whereas chocolate was second in children, and apples and pears were second in adults and elderly. Catechin intake was lower in smokers than in non-smokers, and increased with socio-economic status. A high intake was associated with a high intake of fiber (r = 0.20), vitamin C (r = 0.17) and beta-carotene (r = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS Catechins are quantitatively important bioactive components of the daily diet, which should be taken into account when studying the relation between diet and chronic diseases. Catechin intake is only moderately associated with the intake of other nutrients, but much stronger with certain health behaviours such as smoking.

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  • Multi-component body composition models: recent advances and future directions.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    A Pietrobelli,S B Heymsfield,Z M Wang,D Gallagher

    This overview examines concepts related to a category of body composition methods generally referred to as multi-component models, that is, those models that include three or more components. We summarize the rationale for, applications, and types of multi-component models along with sources of error. Our review presents the strengths and limitations of available models and identifies important future research directions.

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  • Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    D R Jacobs,H E Meyer,K Solvoll

    OBJECTIVE To study whether mortality is reduced among whole grain eaters in Norway. DESIGN Non-interventional, prospective, baseline 1977-1983, followed for mortality through to 1994. SETTING Three Norwegian counties. SUBJECTS A total of 16,933 men and 16,915 women; systematic screening of all residents aged 35-56y at baseline, not disabled and free of cardiovascular disease (79% response rate). PREDICTOR VARIABLE We combined self-report of type and number of bread slices (white, light whole grain, dense whole grain) to form a whole grain bread score, with range 0.05 (1 slice per day, made with 5% whole grain flour) to 5.4 (9 slices per day, made with 60% whole grain flour). RESULTS Norwegian whole grain bread eaters were less likely to be smokers, were more physically active, had lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure, and ate less total and saturated fat as a proportion of energy intake than white bread eaters. After adjustment for age, energy intake, sex, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking, body mass index, physical activity at leisure and work, and use of cod liver oil or other vitamin supplements, hazard rate ratios (HRR) for total mortality were inverse and graded across whole grain bread score categories (category 5 vs category 1 HRR: 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.89 in men and 0.66, 0.44-0.98 in women). CONCLUSION Protection by whole grain intake against chronic disease is suggested in Norway, where four times as much whole grain is consumed as in the United States.

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  • Dietary habits during adolescence--results of the Belgian Adolux Study.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    D Paulus,A Saint-Remy,M Jeanjean

    UNLABELLED OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENT STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS A total of 1,526 adolescents (12-17y) selected by a multiclustered stage sampling (participation: 83.6%). RESULTS Respectively 46% and 60% of the adolescents did not eat fruit and vegetables daily. Most of the adolescents (72%) consumed at least one dairy product daily. The frequent consumption of chocolate and French fries indicated the strong cultural influence on dietary habits while imported foods (like hamburgers) had little success. One-third of the adolescents (33%, n = 509) drank alcohol at least once a week and this proportion rose to 57% in the oldest age group. Boys and girls differed significantly in their diet, with girls choosing healthier foods. Dietary habits, in particular drinking habits, differed also significantly between education levels, assessed by the learning option of the participants. The semi-quantitative questionnaire showed that two-thirds of the adolescents had a lipid intake (mainly saturated fatty acids) which exceeded 35% of the total caloric intake. Complex carbohydrates represented less than half of the total carbohydrates intake. CONCLUSION The study of the diet of Belgian adolescents confirmed the strong influence of tradition, in particular on the consumption of high fat content foods. The promotion of healthy diet in adolescents should consider the cultural influence, even for this young age group.

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  • Validation of food diary method for assessment of dietary energy and macronutrient intake in infants and children aged 6-24 months.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    J A Lanigan,J C Wells,M S Lawson,A Lucas

    OBJECTIVES To compare the estimated food diary record (ED) method against weighed intake record method (WI) for assessing dietary intake in infants and children aged 6-24 months; additionally, to compare WI with metabolisable energy intake (ME) measured by doubly labelled water (DLW) in infants aged 6 12 months. DESIGN Cross-over study of 5 day WI vs 5 day ED. SUBJECTS Seventy-two children aged 6-24 months. METHODS Subjects were randomly assigned to one method during week 1 crossing over to the alternative method in week 2. Data were coded and translated into daily nutrient intakes using COMP-EAT version 5 nutritional analysis software. The analysis compared energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. Twenty-one infants were dosed with DLW for measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) and ME. RESULTS Mean energy intake calculated from WI and ED was 3,782 and 3,920 kJ/day, respectively. There was no significant difference between these values. Using WI as a reference, ED showed a mean bias of 138 kJ/day, equivalent to 3.6% of mean energy intake. Limits of agreement (+/- 2 s.d. of the bias) were wide at +/- 1,385 kJ/day. There were no significant differences between methods for any of the nutrient sub-classes. Using DLW as a reference, WI showed a mean bias of 243 kJ/day, equivalent to 7.3% of mean energy intake, limits of agreement were wide at +/- 1686 kJ/day. CONCLUSION There is no evidence from the present analysis that ED is less accurate than WI for assessing energy and nutrient sub-class intakes in groups of this age but this good agreement between methods in groups does not extend to individuals.

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  • Lipophilic antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipoprotein classes: distribution and interaction.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    V H Sunesen,C Weber,G Hølmer

    OBJECTIVE To study the lipoprotein distribution of supplemented coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), vitamin E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). DESIGN Balanced three-period crossover study. SETTING University research unit. SUBJECTS Eighteen apparently healthy free-living non-smoking volunteers (nine women, nine men), mean age 26 +/- 3 y, recruited among the university students; no dropouts. INTERVENTIONS Three supplementation periods of 10 days: 100 mg/day CoQ10, 350 mg/day D-alpha-tocopherol, and 2 g/day concentrated fish oil. Fasting venous blood samples were collected twice before the first period and then after each period. Plasma and isolated lipoproteins were analysed for cholesterol, triacylglycerol, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, CoQ10, and fatty acid composition. RESULTS Significant (P < 0.05) increase in CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol occurred in all lipoprotein classes after supplementation. CoQ10 was primarily incorporated into low-density lipoprotein (LDL). alpha-tocopherol and fish oil n-3 PUFAs had similar patterns. They were equally distributed between LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), with a smaller part in VLDL. The total sum of PUFA was unchanged following all supplementations, but fish oil increased the amount of n-3 fatty acids at the expense of n-6 fatty acids. CONCLUSION Lipoprotein distribution of CoQ10 is markedly different from that of alpha-tocopherol, suggesting that they may be metabolised by distinct routes. alpha-Tocopherol is distributed similarly to n-3 fatty acids, thus providing protection on location for the oxidatively labile PUFAs.

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  • A preliminary open label dose comparison using an antioxidant regimen to determine the effect on viral load and oxidative stress in men with HIV/AIDS.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    M Batterham,J Gold,D Naidoo,O Lux,S Sadler,S Bridle,M Ewing,C Oliver

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of antioxidant supplementation on viral load and the antioxidant/reactive oxygen species system in people with HIV. DESIGN Single centre, prospective, dose comparison study. SETTING Outpatient clinic specializing in HIV care. SUBJECTS Sixty-six participants were sequentially recruited by advertisement, and 48 subjects completed the study. INTERVENTIONS A recommended dose antioxidant regimen (5,450 IU vitamin A as beta-carotene, 250 mg vitamin C, 100 IU vitamin E, 100 microg selenium, 50 mg coenzyme Q10) or a high-dose antioxidant regimen (21,800 IU vitamin A as beta-carotene, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, 200 microg selenium, 200 mg coenzyme Q10) for a 12 week period. RESULTS Using repeated measures analysis of variance, the changes over treatment time were significant for selenium, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxides (P < 0.03). Changes in allantoin, uric acid and viral load were not significant (P > 0.05). The main effects for group and the interaction effects were not significant for any of the parameters measured (P > or = 0.05). CONCLUSION Antioxidant supplementation significantly improved some measures of oxidative defence. There was no benefit in using a high-dose supplement in this study.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Mediterranean score of dietary habits in Chinese populations in four different geographical areas.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    J Woo,K S Woo,S S Leung,P Chook,B Liu,R Ip,S C Ho,S W Chan,J Z Feng,D S Celermajer

    OBJECTIVE To compare the dietary intake of Chinese people living in Pan Yu, Hong Kong, San Francisco and Sydney with respect to cardiovascular health, using the Mediterranean diet score, examining the effects of age, gender, urbanization and acculturation on the diet score. SUBJECTS A total of 500 men and 510 women in Hong Kong were recruited as a territory-wide stratified random sample. Subjects were recruited in response to local advertisements for the other three sites: Pan Yu, 58 men, 95 women; San Francisco, 166 men, 192 women; Sydney, 95 men, 73 women. METHOD Food-frequency questionnaire over a 7 week period. A high/healthy score was taken as > or =4 for men and >3 for women, representing a dietary pattern beneficial for cardiovascular health. RESULTS In Hong Kong, more women in the middle age group (35-54) had a high score than other age groups, and overall more women had high scores than men. In comparing the four geographical regions, Pan Yu had the highest number of subjects with high score, and Hong Kong had the lowest. With the exception of the younger population and men in Hong Kong, the percentage of the population with a high score in all sites is greater than among elderly Greeks consuming a more traditional heart-healthy Mediterranean diet. CONCLUSION Considerable variations in Chinese dietary patterns exist with respect to age, gender and geographic location. Overall, the Chinese diet is comparable to the Mediterranean diet and may be expected to have similar health benefits that have been documented for the traditional Mediterranean diet.

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  • Measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in Italian males and females, aged 18-59 y.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    A De Lorenzo,A Tagliabue,A Andreoli,G Testolin,M Comelli,P Deurenberg

    OBJECTIVES To determine the resting metabolic rate in a sample of the Italian population, and to evaluate the validity of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) from the literature in normal and obese subjects. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. SETTINGS Department of Human Physiology and Nutrition, University 'Tor Vergata', Rome. SUBJECTS A total of 320 healthy subjects, 127 males and 193 females, aged 18-59 y. METHODS Weight, height and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were measured. Resting metabolic rate was also predicted using equations from the literature. RESULTS Resting metabolic rate (mean s.d.) in normal weight subjects was 7983+/-1007 kJ/24 h (males) and 6127 907 kJ/24h (females). Measured RMR and predicted RMR values using various equations from the literature were significantly different in males and females, except for the Harris-Benedict equation and the Schofield equations. Also, in overweight and obese subjects the prediction error was generally larger compared to normal-weight subjects for all formulas except for the Harris-Benedict and Schofield formulas. In overweight and obese males but not in females, RMR was lower than in normal-weight subjects after correcting for weight and age differences. Stepwise multiple regression of resting metabolic rate against weight, height and age in males and females did not reveal a prediction formula with a lower prediction error than the Harris-Benedict or Schofield formulas and thus was not further explored. CONCLUSIONS The Harris-Benedict formula and the Schofield formula provide a valid estimation of resting metabolic rate at a group level in both normal-weight and overweight Italians. However, the individual error can be so high that for individual use a measured value has to be preferred over an estimated value.

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  • Macronutrient and food intake in the Baltic republics.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    J Pomerleau,M McKee,A Robertson,K Kadziauskiene,A Abaravicius,S Vaask,I Pudule,D Grinberga

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe mean macronutrient and food intakes in the Baltic republics, with a particular focus on fat, vegetable and fruit consumption. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data from surveys conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the summer of 1997 were used. Information was collected using a 24 h recall of dietary intake and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. SUBJECTS Representative national samples of adults were selected. All those with information from the dietary recall were included in the study (Estonia: n = 2015; Latvia: n = 2300; Lithuania: n = 2094). RESULTS The mean proportion of energy from fat was high in each country, but particularly in Lithuania (44%) and Latvia (42%) compared with Estonia (36%). In contrast, percentage energy from carbohydrate, protein and alcohol was higher in Estonia. Mean protein intake was generally sufficient if not high in some population sub-groups. Median vegetable intakes were very low (<200 g/day) in each country, particularly in Latvia. While 78% of the Lithuanian respondents consumed vegetables daily, this was the case in only 60% of the Latvian and 48% of the Estonian respondents. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that there is a pressing need to replace high-fat energy dense foods by foods rich in complex carbohydrates and dietary fibre, such as vegetables and fruits, in the Baltic republics. This could provide the populations with a reduced risk and increased protection against non-communicable diseases. These issues will need to be tackled through comprehensive food and nutrition policies and health promotion campaigns.

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  • Food and nutritional profile of high energy density consumers in an adult Mediterranean population.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    G Cucó,V Arija,C Martí-Henneberg,J Fernández-Ballart

    OBJECTIVE To test if an adult Mediterranean population consumes different food volumes while spontaneously ingesting diets of different energy density and to estimate which are the food and nutritional profiles of these diets. DESIGN A cross-sectional study of food consumption. SETTING Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus. SUBJECTS Five hundred and seventy two adult individuals (25 65 y) randomly selected from the population census of Reus. INTERVENTION 24 hour recall method for 3 non-consecutive days including one holiday. The population was classified into three groups of differing energy densities by simple linear regression analysis. Means were compared by ANOVA. RESULTS Both sexes consume similar food volumes across the different levels of energy density. High energy density consumers ingest significantly more red meat, olive oil, sweet cereals, cereals and sugars and less reduced fat milk, green vegetables and fruit compared to low energy density consumers. Male and female high energy density consumers show a significantly higher consumption of energy (1686 kJ and 2200 kJ, respectively) (P < 0.001), a 5.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.3% (P < 0.05) respectively higher energy intake derived from fat and a 1.3% (P < 0.05) and 1.3% (P < 0.05) respectively higher energy intake derived from saturated fatty acids compared to low energy density consumers. CONCLUSIONS Our adult Mediterranean population normally consumes similar food volumes, independently of the energy density ingested. High energy dense diets in our population could represent an important health risk because they are excessively rich in energy, fats and saturated fatty acids.

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  • Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet on nitrogen excretion in morbid obese women.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    R Vilà,M L Granada,R M Gutiérrez,J A Fernández-López,X Remesar,X Formiguera,M Foz,M Alemany

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether the daily pattern of urine excretion of N wastes is affected by obesity and very low-calorie diets (VLCD). DESIGN The plasma amino acid, urea and other energy parameters, as well as the urinary excretion of total nitrogen, urea and creatinine were studied in obese and normal-weight women. The obese women's data were obtained under hospital basal controlled conditions (8.1 MJ/day) and after 3 days of VLCD diet (1.9 MJ/day) controls were studied only once (5.8 MJ/day). The hourly excretion patterns of total N, urea and creatinine were determined from the composition of each bladder voiding. SUBJECTS Twenty morbidly obese and 10 age-matched normal-weight control women. RESULTS Plasma amino acid levels were higher in obese women, which showed a limited ability to metabolize amino acid hydrocarbon skeletons. Neither differences in the patterns between groups nor total 24 h values for urine volume were found. Total N and urea excretion diminished under VLCD diet. Hourly creatinine excretion showed a flat pattern and was higher in obese women than in the controls, VLCD diet diminished the amount of creatinine excreted in 24 h. CONCLUSIONS The early change in energy availability that the creatinine excretion figures reflect may result from the energy conservation mechanisms induced in response to energy restriction. The early onset of this effect (3 days, and the extent of decrease (approximately 19%) also suggest that the impact of VLCD on the muscle energy budget of the obese is more marked than usually assumed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breast-feeding duration and the risk of malignant diseases in childhood in Sweden.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    L Hardell,A C Dreifaldt

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate childhood cancer in relation to duration of breast-feeding. SETTING Sweden. Records from Child Healthcare Centres were scrutinised regarding information on breast-feeding and other health-related items. SUBJECTS All children aged 0-14 y with a malignant disease (benign brain tumours included) during the time period 1988-91 (n = 962) were identified from the Swedish Cancer Register. An equal number of controls matched for sex and age were selected from the Swedish Birth Register. RESULTS Information was obtained for 835 cases and 860 controls. Overall, duration of breast-feeding did not influence the risk for a malignant disease in this age group. However, breast-feeding > or = 1 month increased the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) yielding an odds ratio (OR) 5.5 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-25. Breast-feeding 1 -< 6 months gave OR 5.1, CI 1.1-24 and > 6 months gave OR 7.0, CI 1.3-37 with a significant trend (P = 0.04). Adjustment for maternal and birth-related co-variates gave similar results. For other malignancies no significant changes of the risk were obtained. CONCLUSIONS Overall, no association between duration of breast-feeding and childhood malignancies was found except for a significantly increased risk for NHL, but this was based on low numbers of cases and needs to be confirmed in other investigations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determinants of infant growth in the slums of Dhaka: size and maturity at birth, breastfeeding and morbidity.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    S E Arifeen,R E Black,L E Caulfield,G Antelman,A H Baqui

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influences of size at birth, breastfeeding and morbidity on growth during infancy in poor areas of urban Bangladesh. DESIGN This was a prospective observational study of a cohort of newborn infants followed until 12 months of age. SETTING Slum areas of Dhaka City in Bangladesh. SUBJECTS A total of 1654 newborn infants were enrolled at birth, and follow-up was completed for 1207 infants. Repeated anthropometric measurements and interviews of caretakers on infant feeding and morbidity were conducted. A mixed effects regression method was used for modeling infant growth. RESULTS After adjusting for other variables, mean differences in body weight by birth weight and length, small-for-gestational age and prematurity categories remained relatively constant throughout infancy. A positive impact of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 3 5 months on infant growth was detectable at 12 months of age. Although the bigger babies in the sample tended to grow relatively even bigger; exclusive breastfeeding appeared to counteract this pattern. Reported diarrhoea was associated with lower body weights and lengths even after adjusting for feeding patterns. CONCLUSIONS Size at birth has an important role in determining growth during infancy. Effective strategies for improving birth weight, poorly addressed till now in Bangladesh, are needed. The sustained effect on growth and the even more beneficial effect in lighter infants are compelling reasons for promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    S Y Hess,M B Zimmermann,T Torresani,H Bürgi,R F Hurrell

    BACKGROUND Several countries with long-standing salt iodization programs, including Switzerland, have recently reported declining and/or low urinary iodine (UI) levels in their populations. In Switzerland, in response to studies indicating low UI levels in children and pregnant women, the salt iodine level was increased in 1998 from 15 to 20 mg/kg. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to evaluate iodine nutrition in a national sample of Swiss school children and pregnant women 8 16 months after the increase in the salt iodine level. DESIGN A 3-stage probability proportionate to size cluster sampling method was used to obtain a representative national sample of 600 children aged 6-12 y and 600 pregnant women. We then measured UI in both groups, thyrotropin (TSH) in pregnant women and thyroid volume by ultrasound to determine goiter prevalence in school children. RESULTS The median UI (range) of the children and pregnant women was 115 microg/l (5-413) and 138 microg/l (5-1881), respectively. The median blood TSH concentration (range) of pregnant women was 0.6 mU/l (0.2-2.1). Based on the current WHO/ICCIDD normative data for thyroid volume, none of the children were goitrous, using either age/sex-specific or BSA/sex-specific cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS The iodine status of the Swiss population is once again adequate, illustrating the value of periodic monitoring and prudent adjustments to the iodine level in salt. This approach could serve as a model for countries struggling to maintain dietary iodine intake in the face of shifting dietary habits and changes in the food supply.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • High phosphorus intake only slightly affects serum minerals, urinary pyridinium crosslinks and renal function in young women.
    Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (IF 3.114) Pub Date : 2001-04-18
    M Grimm,A Müller,G Hein,R Fünfstück,G Jahreis

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of the physiological effects of a diet rich in phosphorus in young women. DESIGN Control period I--commercial basic diet containing 1700 mg P and 1500 mg Ca/day for 4 weeks. Supplementation period--a 6 week high-phosphorus period of 3008 mg P and 1995 mg Ca/day. Control period II--4 weeks washout with basic diet as in period I. SETTING Institute of Nutritional Science, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena. SUBJECTS Ten healthy women, aged 20-30y. INTERVENTIONS Orange juice and tablets, containing supplements of Ca5(PO4)3OH and NaH2PO4, totalling 1436 mg elemental phosphorus per day. RESULTS There was an increase of 10.7+/-13.7 pg/ml in serum PTH, a decrease of 0.6+/-0.6 ng/ml in serum osteocalcin, an increase of 73.6+/-136.6 nmol/mmol creatinine in urinary pyridinoline and of 19.3+/-36.0 nmol/ mmol creatinine in urinary deoxypyridinoline, and a decrease of 2.6+/-9.3 mg/l in urinary microalbumin. All changes were insignificant. There were no changes in serum levels of Ca, PO4 or Zn, in serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3, and in urinary beta-2-microglobulin excretion. Phosphorus supplementation caused intestinal distress, soft stools or mild diarrhoea. CONCLUSIONS In spite of a high phosphorus supplementation no significant changes in bone-related hormones, pyridinium crosslinks as markers of bone resorption and parameters of renal function in young women were found.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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