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  • Web Browsing Habits of Healthcare Professions Students in Gross Anatomy Laboratory
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Michael A. Pascoe

    Personal computer use for educational purposes by the healthcare professions students has become ubiquitous. Although the effect of computer‐based dissection instructions has been studied, there is a paucity of information regarding student browsing habits of information available on the Internet. Although current students have favorable attitudes toward accessing anatomical information online, web browsing habits have not yet been investigated specifically in the dissection laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to describe the browsing habits of the healthcare professions students in the gross anatomy setting using a retrospective analysis. Files containing web browser history were retrieved from desktop computers in the gross anatomy laboratory and custom code was written to parse them into comma separated value files. Each web address was categorized and descriptive statistics was calculated. Browser history for 24 computers was analyzed from June 2013 to January 2015. During this period, students accumulated 100,857 webpage visits. Most often, students performed a Google search for anatomy (22.0% of all visits) and non‐anatomy related (20.6% of all visits) information. Students also used the web browser to access various entertainment (16.4% of all visits) and productivity related services (15.9% of all visits). This analysis revealed a large volume of webpage visits by the healthcare professions students in the gross anatomy laboratory. A wide diversity of anatomy and non‐anatomy related webpages were visited. Future analyses could be directed at examination of when in relation to class time students accessed the information, how browsing habits change over time, and what anatomical structures were most commonly searched for.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • A Novel Approach to Gross Dissection of the Human Pelvis and Perineum
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Leah D. Hunter; Claudia F. Mosley; Melissa M. Quinn; James J. Cray; Anthony S. Baker; Jennifer M. Burgoon; Eileen Kalmar; Kirk M. McHugh

    Progressive curricular changes in medical education over the past two decades have resulted in the diaspora of gross anatomy content into integrated curricula while significantly reducing total contact hours. Despite the development of a wide range of alternative teaching modalities, gross dissection remains a critical component of medical education. The challenge posed to modern anatomists is how to maximize and integrate the time spent dissecting under the current curricular changes. In this study, an alternative approach to the dissection of the pelvis and perineum is presented in an effort to improve content delivery and student satisfaction. The approach involves removal of the perineum en bloc from the cadaver followed by excision of the pubic symphysis, removal and examination of the bladder and associated structures, examination and bisection of the midline pelvic organs in situ, and midsagittal hemisection of the pelvis for identification of the neurovasculature. Results indicate that this novel dissecting approach increases the number of structures identified by 46% ± 14% over current dissecting methods. Survey results indicate that students were better able to integrate lecture and laboratory concepts, understand the concepts, and successfully identify more structures using the new approach (P < 0.05). The concept of anatomic efficiency is introduced and proposed as a standard quantitative measure of gross dissection proficiency across programs and institutions. These findings provide evidence that innovative solutions to anatomy education can be found that help to maintain critical content and student satisfaction in a modern medical curriculum.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Summative and Formative Style Anatomy Practical Examinations: Do They Have Impact on Students’ Performance and Drive for Learning?
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Sreenivasulu Reddy Mogali; Jerome I. Rotgans; Lucy Rosby; Michael Alan Ferenczi; Naomi Low Beer

    Anatomical knowledge is commonly assessed by practical examinations that are often administered in summative format. The format of anatomy practical examination was changed at the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine in Singapore from summative (graded; must pass) to formative (ungraded; no pass/fail) in academic year (AY) 2017–2018. Both assessment formats were undertaken online, but the formative mode used a team‐based learning activity comprising individual and team assessments. This gave an unique opportunity to investigate: (1) the impact of two different online assessment formats on student performance in practical examination; (2) the impact of new formative practical examination on students’ performance in summative examinations; and (3) students’ opinions of these two practical examination formats. The class of 2021 perceptions was obtained as they experienced both formats. A retrospective cohort study was also conducted to analyze the Year 2 students’ performance in anatomy practical and year‐end summative examinations of cohorts AY 2015–2016, AY 2016–2017 (summative format), and AY 2017–2018 (formative format). There were no significant differences in students’ performance between two practical examination formats. The cohort who experienced the formative format, performed significantly better in summative examinations (mean ± SD: 82.32 ± 10.22%) compared with the cohort who experienced the summative format (73.77 ± 11.09%) (P < 0.001). Students highlighted positive features of the formative practical examination, including team reinforcement of learning, instant feedback, and enhanced learning. These findings indicate that students continue to study for anatomy practical examination without the need for external drivers. The team‐based learning style practical examination enhances students’ performance in summative examinations.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Ethical Perspectives on Body Donation Following Physician‐Assisted Death
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    David Gareth Jones

    The increasing availability of physician‐assisted death (PAD) has opened up a novel means of making donated bodies available for anatomical dissection. This practice has come to the fore in Canada, but is unlikely to be confined to that country as legislation changes in other countries. The ethical considerations raised by this development are placed within the framework of the ethical guidelines on body donation promulgated by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. The discussion centers on understanding the ethical dimensions of moral complicity, and whether it is accepted or rejected. If rejected it is possible to separate ethical concerns regarding PAD from subsequent use of donated bodies, as long as there is fully informed consent and complete ethical and procedural separation of the two. Openness about the origin of bodies for dissection is essential. Students should be instructed on the nuances of moral complicity, and consideration be given to those with moral doubts about PAD. Two issues are raised in considering whether these moves represent an ethical slippery slope: the attraction represented by obtaining relatively “high quality” bodies, and the manner in which organ donation following PAD has led to challenges to the dead donor rule. Although body donation raises fewer concerns, the ethical dimensions of the two are similar. The ethical constraints outlined here have the capacity to prevent an ethical slippery slope and constitute a sound basis for addressing an innovative opportunity for anatomists.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Focused Multisensory Anatomy Observation and Drawing for Enhancing Social Learning and Three‐Dimensional Spatial Understanding
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Leonard Shapiro, Kathryn Bell, Kallpana Dhas, Toby Branson, Graham Louw, Iain D. Keenan

    The concept that multisensory observation and drawing can be effective for enhancing anatomy learning is supported by pedagogic research and theory, and theories of drawing. A haptico‐visual observation and drawing (HVOD) process has been previously introduced to support understanding of the three‐dimensional (3D) spatial form of anatomical structures. The HVOD process involves exploration of 3D anatomy with the combined use of touch and sight, and the simultaneous act of making graphite marks on paper which correspond to the anatomy under observation. Findings from a previous study suggest that HVOD can increase perceptual understanding of anatomy through memorization and recall of the 3D form of observed structures. Here, additional pedagogic and cognitive underpinnings are presented to further demonstrate how and why HVOD can be effective for anatomy learning. Delivery of a HVOD workshop is described as a detailed guide for instructors, and themes arising from a phenomenological study of educator experiences of the HVOD process are presented. Findings indicate that HVOD can provide an engaging approach for the spatial exploration of anatomy within a supportive social learning environment, but also requires modification for effective curricular integration. Consequently, based on the most effective research‐informed, theoretical, and logistical elements of art‐based approaches in anatomy learning, including the framework provided by the observe–reflect–draw–edit–repeat (ORDER) method, an optimized “ORDER Touch” observation and drawing process has been developed. This is with the aim of providing a widely accessible resource for supporting social learning and 3D spatial understanding of anatomy, in addition to improving specific anatomical knowledge.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • The Usefulness of Saturated Salt Solution Embalming Method for Oral Surgical Skills Training: A New Cadaveric Training Model for Bone Harvesting
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Masato Watanabe, Yuya Yoneyama, Hayato Hamada, Michihide Kohno, On Hasegawa, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kawase‐Koga, Akira Matsuo, Daichi Chikazu, Shinichi Kawata, Masahiro Itoh

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of saturated salt solution‐embalmed cadavers for oral surgical skills training related to bone graft harvesting. Two half‐day surgical skills training workshops were held at the Tokyo Medical University utilizing eight cadavers embalmed with the saturated salt solution. A total of 22 participants including oral surgeons, residents, and dentists attended the workshop. Surgical training consisted of six procedures related to intraoral and extraoral bone harvesting. The participants were surveyed to assess self‐confidence levels for each surgical procedure before and after completion of each workshop. The Wilcoxon signed‐rank test was used to compare the differences between each median score before and after the workshop. There were statistically significant increases in the self‐assessed confidence scores in bone harvesting procedures for the zygomatic bone (P = 0.003), maxillary tuberosity (P = 0.002), and other sites (P < 0.001). The anatomical features of saturated salt solution‐embalmed cadavers were also examined. The textures of the oral mucosa and skin were similar to those of living individuals. The structure of bone tissues was well‐preserved and the hardness was realistic. Consequently, all procedures were performed with sufficient realism. The saturated salt solution method has a relatively low cost of preparation and storage, and almost no odor. The authors suggest that saturated salt solution‐embalmed cadavers could provide a new model for oral surgical skills training in bone harvesting.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Game‐Based Learning in Virtual Worlds: A Multiuser Online Game for Medical Undergraduate Radiology Education within Second Life
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Rocio Lorenzo‐Alvarez, Teodoro Rudolphi‐Solero, Miguel J. Ruiz‐Gomez, Francisco Sendra‐Portero

    Game‐based learning can have a positive impact on medical education, and virtual worlds have great potential for supporting immersive online games. It is necessary to reinforce current medical students' knowledge about radiological anatomy and radiological signs. To meet this need, the objectives of this study were: to design a competition‐based game in the virtual world, Second Life and to analyze the students' perceptions of Second Life and the game, as well as to analyze the medium‐term retention of knowledge and the potential impact on the final grades. Ninety out of 197 (45.6%) third‐year medical students voluntarily participated in an online game based on self‐guided presentations and multiple‐choice tests over six 6‐day stages. Participants and non‐participants were invited to perform an evaluation questionnaire about the experience and a post‐exposure knowledge test. Participants rated the experience with mean scores equal to or higher than 8.1 on a 10‐point scale, highlighting the professor (9.5 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) and the virtual environment (8.9 ± 1.1). Participants had better results in the post‐exposure test than non‐participants (59.0 ± 13.5 versus 45.3 ± 11.5; P < 0.001) and a lower percentage of answers left blank (6.7 ± 8.4 versus 13.1 ± 12.9; P = 0.014). Competitive game‐based learning within Second Life is an effective and well‐accepted means of teaching core radiological anatomy and radiological signs content to medical students. The higher medium‐term outcomes obtained by participants may indicate effective learning with the game. Additionally, valuable positive perceptions about the game, the educational contents, and the potential benefit for their education were discovered among non‐participants.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • The Critical Role of Stereopsis in Virtual and Mixed Reality Learning Environments
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Bruce Wainman, Giancarlo Pukas, Liliana Wolak, Sylvia Mohanraj, Jason Lamb, Geoffrey R. Norman

    Anatomy education has been revolutionized through digital media, resulting in major advances in realism, portability, scalability, and user satisfaction. However, while such approaches may well be more portable, realistic, or satisfying than traditional photographic presentations, it is less clear that they have any superiority in terms of student learning. In this study, it was hypothesized that virtual and mixed reality presentations of pelvic anatomy will have an advantage over two‐dimensional (2D) presentations and perform approximately equal to physical models and that this advantage over 2D presentations will be reduced when stereopsis is decreased by covering the non‐dominant eye. Groups of 20 undergraduate students learned pelvic anatomy under seven conditions: physical model with and without stereo vision, mixed reality with and without stereo vision, virtual reality with and without stereo vision, and key views on a computer monitor. All were tested with a cadaveric pelvis and a 15‐item, short‐answer recognition test. Compared to the key views, the physical model had a 70% increase in accuracy in structure identification; the virtual reality a 25% increase, and the mixed reality a non‐significant 2.5% change. Blocking stereopsis reduced performance on the physical model by 15%, on virtual reality by 60%, but by only 2.5% on the mixed reality technology. The data show that virtual and mixed reality technologies tested are inferior to physical models and that true stereopsis is critical in learning anatomy.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Anatomy Dissection Course Improves the Initially Lower Levels of Visual‐Spatial Abilities of Medical Undergraduates
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Katerina Bogomolova, Beerend P. Hierck, Jos A. van der Hage, Steven E.R. Hovius

    Visual‐spatial abilities are considered a successful predictor in anatomy learning. Previous research suggest that visual‐spatial abilities can be trained, and the magnitude of improvement can be affected by initial levels of spatial skills. This case‐control study aimed to evaluate (1) the impact of an extra‐curricular anatomy dissection course on visual‐spatial abilities of medical undergraduates and (2) the magnitude of improvement in students with initially lower levels of visual‐spatial abilities, and (3) whether the choice for the course was related to visual‐spatial abilities. Course participants (n = 45) and controls (n = 65) were first and second‐year medical undergraduates who performed a Mental Rotations Test (MRT) before and 10 weeks after the course. At baseline, there was no significant difference in MRT scores between course participants and controls. At the end of the course, participants achieved a greater improvement than controls (first‐year: ∆6.0 ± 4.1 vs. ∆4.9 ± 3.2; ANCOVA, P = 0.019, Cohen's d = 0.41; second‐year: ∆6.5 ± 3.3 vs. ∆6.1 ± 4.0; P = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.11). Individuals with initially lower scores on the MRT pretest showed the largest improvement (∆8.4 ± 2.3 vs. ∆6.8 ± 2.8; P = 0.011, Cohen's d = 0.61). In summary, (1) an anatomy dissection course improved visual‐spatial abilities of medical undergraduates; (2) a substantial improvement was observed in individuals with initially lower scores on the visual‐spatial abilities test indicating a different trajectory of improvement; (3) students' preferences for attending extracurricular anatomy dissection course was not driven by visual‐spatial abilities.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Anatomy Learning from Prosected Cadaveric Specimens Versus Plastic Models: A Comparative Study of Upper Limb Anatomy
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Vasileios Mitrousias, Theofilos S. Karachalios, Sokratis E. Varitimidis, Konstantinos Natsis, Dimitrios L. Arvanitis, Aristeidis H. Zibis

    Human cadaveric prosections are a traditional, effective, and highly appreciated modality of anatomy learning. Plastic models are an alternative teaching modality, though few studies examine their effectiveness in learning of upper limb musculoskeletal anatomy. The purpose of this study is to investigate which modality is associated with a better outcome, as assessed by students' performance on examinations. Overall, 60 undergraduate medical students without previous knowledge of anatomy participated in the study. Students were assigned into two groups. Group 1 attended lectures and studied from cadaveric prosections (n = 30) and Group 2 attended lectures and used plastic models in the laboratory (n = 30). A knowledge assessment, including examination with tag questions (spot test) and written multiple‐choice questions, was held after the end of the study. Students' perceptions were also investigated via an anonymous questionnaire. No significant difference in students' performance was observed between the group using prosections and the group using plastic models (32.2 ± 14.7 vs 35.0 ± 14.8, respectively; P = 0.477). Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found regarding students' satisfaction from using each learning modality (P = 0.441). Plastic models may be a valuable supplementary modality in learning upper limb musculoskeletal anatomy, despite their limitations. Easy to use and with no need for maintaining facilities, they are highly appreciated by students and can be useful when preparing for the use of cadaveric specimens.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neuroanatomy Learning: Augmented Reality vs. Cross‐Sections
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Dylan J.H.A. Henssen, Loes van den Heuvel, Guido De Jong, Marc A.T.M. Vorstenbosch, Anne‐Marie van Cappellen van Walsum, Marianne M. Van den Hurk, Jan G.M. Kooloos, Ronald H.M.A. Bartels

    Neuroanatomy education is a challenging field which could benefit from modern innovations, such as augmented reality (AR) applications. This study investigates the differences on test scores, cognitive load, and motivation after neuroanatomy learning using AR applications or using cross‐sections of the brain. Prior to two practical assignments, a pretest (extended matching questions, double‐choice questions and a test on cross‐sectional anatomy) and a mental rotation test (MRT) were completed. Sex and MRT scores were used to stratify students over the two groups. The two practical assignments were designed to study (1) general brain anatomy and (2) subcortical structures. Subsequently, participants completed a posttest similar to the pretest and a motivational questionnaire. Finally, a focus group interview was conducted to appraise participants’ perceptions. Medical and biomedical students (n = 31); 19 males (61.3%) and 12 females (38.7%), mean age 19.2 ± 1.7 years participated in this experiment. Students who worked with cross‐sections (n = 16) showed significantly more improvement on test scores than students who worked with GreyMapp‐AR (P = 0.035) (n = 15). Further analysis showed that this difference was primarily caused by significant improvement on the cross‐sectional questions. Students in the cross‐section group, moreover, experienced a significantly higher germane (P = 0.009) and extraneous cognitive load (P = 0.016) than students in the GreyMapp‐AR group. No significant differences were found in motivational scores. To conclude, this study suggests that AR applications can play a role in future anatomy education as an add‐on educational tool, especially in learning three‐dimensional relations of anatomical structures.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Quality and Readability of English Wikipedia Anatomy Articles
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Athikhun Suwannakhan, Daniel Casanova‐Martínez, Laphatrada Yurasakpong, Punchalee Montriwat, Krai Meemon, Taweetham Limpanuparb

    Forty anatomy articles were sampled from English Wikipedia and assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitatively, each article’s edit history was analyzed by Wikipedia X‐tools, references and media were counted manually, and two readability indices were used to evaluate article readability. This analysis revealed that each article was updated 8.3 ± 6.8 times per month, and referenced with 33.5 ± 24.3 sources, such as journal articles and textbooks. Each article contained on average 14.0 ± 7.6 media items. The readability indices including: (1) Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level Readability Test and (2) Flesch Reading Ease Readability Formula demonstrated that the articles had low readability and were more appropriate for college students and above. Qualitatively, the sampled articles were evaluated by experts using a modified DISCERN survey. According to the modified DISCERN, 13 articles (32.5%), 24 articles (60%), 3 articles (7.5%), were rated as “good,” “moderate,” and “poor,” respectively. There were positive correlations between the DISCERN score and the number of edits (r = 0.537), number of editors (r = 0.560), and article length (r = 0.536). Strengths reported by the panel included completeness and coverage in 11 articles (27.5%), anatomical details in 10 articles (25%), and clinical details in 5 articles (12.5%). The panel also noted areas which could be improved, such as providing missing information in 28 articles (70%), inaccuracies in 10 articles (25%), and lack or poor use of images in 17 articles (42.5%). In conclusion, this study revealed that many Wikipedia anatomy articles were difficult to read. Each article’s quality was dependent on edit frequency and article length. Learners and students should be cautious when using Wikipedia articles for anatomy education due to these limitations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Dissection in the Modern Medical Curriculum: An Exploration into Student Perception and Adaptions for the Future
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
    Arunan Jeyakumar, Bhanuka Dissanayake, Lakal Dissabandara

    For centuries cadaveric dissection has been a cornerstone of medical anatomy education. However, time and financial limitations in modern, compressed medical curricula, coupled with the abundance of alternate modalities, have raised questions about the role of dissection. This study was designed to explore student perceptions of the efficacy of a dissection program for learning musculoskeletal anatomy, and possible adaptations for appropriate inclusion of dissection in the modern medical curricula. A paper‐based questionnaire was used to collect data from 174 medical students after completion of cadaveric dissections. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Students strongly believed that cadaver‐based learning is essential to anatomy education and modern teaching modalities only complement this. Moreover, most students reported that dissection provided an additional, immersive learning experience that facilitated active learning and helped in developing manual competencies. Students with previous dissection experience or an interest in anatomy‐related specialties were significantly more likely to attend dissection sessions. Students found that the procedural dissection components enhanced the knowledge of applied anatomy and is beneficial for the development of clinical skills. They welcomed the idea of implementing more procedure‐based dissections alongside lectures and prosections‐based practical (PBP) sessions. Cadaveric dissection plays an integral role in medical anatomy education. Time restraints and an increased focus on clinical significance, however, demand carefully considered adaptations of existing dissection protocols. The introduction of procedure‐based dissection offers an innovative, highly engaging and clinically relevant package that would amalgamate skills essential to medical practice while retaining the benefits that have allowed dissection to stand the test of time.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cadaveric Simulation Training in Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Systematic Review
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Davida A. Robinson, Diane T. Piekut, Linda Hasman, Peter A. Knight

    Simulation training has become increasingly relevant in the educational curriculum of surgical trainees. The types of simulation models used, goals of simulation training, and an objective assessment of its utility and effectiveness are highly variable. The role and effectiveness of cadaveric simulation in cardiothoracic surgical training has not been well established. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current medical literature available on the utility and the effectiveness of cadaveric simulation in cardiothoracic surgical residency training. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL from inception to February 2019. Of the 362 citations obtained, 23 articles were identified and retrieved for full review, yielding ten eligible articles that were included for analysis. One additional study was identified and included in the analysis. Extraction of data from the selected articles was performed using predetermined data fields, including study design, study participants, simulation task, performance metrics, and costs. Most of these studies were only descriptive of a cadaveric or perfused cadaveric simulation model that could be used to augment clinical operative training in cardiothoracic surgery. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature that specifically evaluates the utility and the efficacy of cadavers in cardiothoracic surgery training. Of the few studies that have been published in the literature, cadaveric simulation does seem to have a role in cardiothoracic surgery training beyond simply learning basic skills. Additional research in this area is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Second‐Year Nursing Students’ Retention of Gross Anatomical Knowledge
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Yuwaraj (Raj) Narnaware, Melanie Neumeier

    Human anatomy is a foundational course in nursing education, however, there is growing concern that students do not retain enough anatomical knowledge to successfully apply it in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to determine retention level of anatomy knowledge among second‐year nursing students from their first‐year anatomy class, and to determine if there is a difference in level of retention based on organ system. For each system, second‐year students were asked to answer 9 to 11 multiple‐choice questions (MCQs), and the scores from these quizzes were compared to matched test items from their first‐year anatomy examinations. There was a significant decrease in the overall mean score from 83.05 ± 8.34 (±SD) in first year to 54.36 ±12.9 in second year (P = 0.0001). Retention levels were system specific. System‐specific knowledge retention was highest for the gastrointestinal system (89.7%), respiratory system (88.5%), and genitourinary system (83.6%). This was followed by the integumentary system (80.1%), special senses (79.4%), nervous system (74.9%), and musculoskeletal system (69.3%). Retention was lowest for the lymphatic system (64.3%), cranial nerves (58.8%), vascular system (53.9%), and head and neck (42.6%). The present study shows that nursing students’ anatomy knowledge retention was comparatively higher than rates reported by others in medical and allied‐health students. The researchers are now investigating knowledge retention in third‐ and fourth‐year nursing students. Further investigation into why retention is higher for specific systems and intervention strategies to improve knowledge acquisition and retention in nursing students is recommended.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Evaluation of Neuroanatomy Web Resources for Undergraduate Education: Educators’ and Students’ Perspectives
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    Muhammad Asim Javaid, Harriët Schellekens, John F. Cryan, André Toulouse

    Despite the development of novel teaching strategies and the abundance of adjunct teaching web resources, students and early career physicians have continuously reported difficulties in learning and clinically applying neuroanatomy. Differences in instructional design of these resources, the lack of assessment of their capacity to meet intended educational goals, and a poor understanding of the user’s perspective may have hindered their success in increasing understanding and retention of neuroanatomical knowledge. To decipher the limitations of existing web resources, an online search for neuroanatomy web resources was performed and distilled through a strict filtration rubric. A selection of resources were analyzed by a panel of educators and rated using Likert scales, focusing on the identification of features influencing their usefulness in learning the anatomy of the spinal pathways. The top three ranked web resources were subsequently evaluated by a panel of medical and neuroscience students to assess how specific features aided in their learning of the subject. This detailed analysis has identified features of neuroanatomy web resources that are valued by both educators and users with regard to instructional design. One resource was rated highest by end users and educators on a series of Likert scale questions in terms of clarity of explanation, step‐wise teaching design, summarization of information, control of instructional‐pace, integration with neurophysiology, neuroradiology and clinical correlates, deployment of a wide array of pedagogical tools, and factors for visualizing neuroanatomical inter‐relationships. These results have provided a novel user perspective on the influence of specific elements of neuroanatomy web resources to improve instructional design and enhance learner performance.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Look at the Anatomy Educator Job Market: Anatomists Remain in Short Supply
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Adam B. Wilson, Andrew J. Notebaert, Audra F. Schaefer, Bernard J. Moxham, Shiby Stephens, Caroline Mueller, Michelle D. Lazarus, Aaron Z. Katrikh, Williams S. Brooks

    In 2002, a widely publicized report projected an anatomy educator shortage based on department chairpersons' perceptions. Now, 17 years later, the question lingers: “Does an anatomy educator shortage persist and, if so, how severe is the shortage?” Trends in the number, type, and fill rate of anatomy educator job openings were explored by analyzing job posting in the United States over the past two years. A survey was distributed to leaders of anatomy‐related departments in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Most departmental leaders who responded (65% or more) from the United States/Canada (n = 81) and the European Union (n = 52) anticipate they will have “moderate” to “great” difficulty hiring anatomy educators in gross anatomy, histology, and embryology over the next five years. Within the United States, the number of anatomy educator job postings at medical schools more than doubled from at least 21 postings in 2017 to 52 postings in 2018. Twenty‐one percent of postings between 2017 and 2018 were never filled. While the number of anatomy educator openings within the United States/Canada is perceived to remain in a steady state for the next five years, the European Union estimates a five‐fold increase in the number of openings. Departmental leaders prioritize anatomy educator applicants who have teaching experience (mean ± SD = 4.64 ± 0.84 on five‐point Likert scale), versatility in teaching multiple anatomy disciplines (3.93 ± 1.07), and flexibility in implementing various teaching pedagogies (3.69 ± 1.17). Collectively, these data suggest the shortage of anatomy educators continues in the United States/Canada and the European Union.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Sharps Injuries during Dissection: A Five‐Year Retrospective Study in the Context of Safety
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Jakub Foytl, Fraser Chisholm, Ourania Varsou

    The supplementation of lecture‐based anatomy teaching with laboratory sessions, involving dissection or anatomical specimens, is commonly used. Hands‐on dissection allows students to handle instruments correctly while actively exploring three‐dimensional anatomy. However, dissection carries a potential risk of sharps and splash injuries. The aim of this study was to quantify the frequency rate of such cases per 1,000 student‐hours of dissection and identify potential factors than might influence safety in anatomy laboratories. Data were retrospectively collected from September 2013 to June 2018 at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK. Overall, 35 sharps injuries were recorded in undergraduate medical students, with a frequency rate of 0.384 and no splash cases. A statistically significant, moderate negative association between year of study and frequency rate (rho(25) = −0.663; P < 0.001) was noted. A statistically significant difference in the frequency rate between different semester modules (χ2(4) = 13.577, P = 0.009) was observed with the difference being between Year 1 Semester 2 and Year 3 Semester 1 (P = 0.004). The decreasing trend with advancing year of study might be linked to increasing dissecting experience or the surface area of the region dissected. The following factors might have contributed to increased safety influencing frequency rates: single‐handed blade removal systems; mandatory personal protective equipment; and having only one student dissecting at a given time. The authors propose that safety familiarization alongside standardized training and safety measures, as part of an evidence‐based culture shift, will instill safety conscious behaviors and reduce injuries in anatomy laboratories.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Effects of Commemorations and Postdonation Services on Public Willingness to Donate Bodies in China
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Jingwen Jiang, Qinghuo Chen, Mingyi Zhang, Tongtong Hong, Kun Huang, Haojie Meng, Jiong Ding, Luqing Zhang

    Multiple body donation programs have been established throughout China over the last 20 years, but these programs remain challenged by an insufficient supply of cadavers for medical education. The commemoration of body donors is a feature of many successful programs, and adopting this practice throughout the country could be an important element of raising public awareness and encouraging body donation among the public. The present study aimed to investigate public views on the commemoration of whole‐body donors and postdonation services in China by analyzing the factors that influence participants' willingness to donate. A survey was conducted using convenience sampling with a non‐probability sampling method, and data were analyzed using chi‐square and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. A total of 1,800 questionnaires were distributed, 1,717 were returned, and 1,605 were considered valid. Of the respondents, 20.87% were willing to donate, and 64.80% thought that it is necessary to commemorate donors. The results of multiple comparisons demonstrated that the elderly and those with a higher educational level were more willing to donate than participants in other groups. Education was also found to influence views on donation memorial activities, and the chi‐square test revealed that conducting commemorations and improving postdonation services can promote the establishment of successful donor programs in China and improve the social acceptance of body donation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • How Can We Show You, If You Can't See It? Trialing the Use of an Interactive Three‐Dimensional Micro‐CT Model in Medical Education
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Joseph C. O'Rourke, Lillian Smyth, Alexandra L. Webb, Krisztina Valter

    Teaching internal structures obscured from direct view is a major challenge of anatomy education. High‐fidelity interactive three‐dimensional (3D) micro‐computed tomography (CT) models with virtual dissection present a possible solution. However, their utility for teaching complex internal structures of the human body is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a realistic 3D micro‐CT interactive visualization computer model to teach paranasal sinus anatomy in a laboratory setting during pre‐clinical medical training. Year 1 (n = 79) and Year 2 (n = 59) medical students undertook self‐directed activities focused on paranasal sinus anatomy in one of two laboratories (traditional laboratory and 3D model). All participants completed pre and posttests before and after the laboratory session. Results of regression analyses predicting post‐laboratory knowledge indicate that, when students were inexperienced with the 3D computer technology, use of the model was detrimental to learning for students with greater prior knowledge of the relevant anatomy (P < 0.05). For participants experienced with the 3D computer technology, however, the use of the model was detrimental for students with less prior knowledge of the relevant anatomy (P < 0.001). These results emphasize that several factors need to be considered in the design and effective implementation of such models in the classroom. Under the right conditions, the 3D model is equal to traditional laboratory resources when used as a learning tool. This paper discusses the importance of preparatory training for students and the technical consideration necessary to successfully integrate such models into medical anatomical curricula.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Beyond Average Information: How Q‐Methodology Enhances Course Evaluations in Anatomy
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-20
    Danielle Brewer‐Deluce, Bhanu Sharma, Noori Akhtar‐Danesh, Thomas Jackson, Bruce C. Wainman

    Course evaluations can be used for curriculum improvement and have the potential to better the student learning experience. However, because most are based on Likert scales and open‐ended feedback, understanding diversity in student opinion and uncovering optimal options for course change and improvement are often difficult. Alternatively, Q‐methodology can be used to investigate patterns of thought within a group and may offer greater potential for course reform. This manuscript offers a tutorial‐based explanation of the three components of Q‐methodology studies (1) survey instrument development, (2) data collection, and (3) analysis and interpretation, then demonstrates, via case study, the use of Q‐methodology to evaluate a fourth‐year undergraduate pathoanatomy course. The goal of this article is to enable the reader to broadly apply Q‐methodology in other courses to gain insight and feedback beyond that offered by traditional Likert scale methods. As demonstrated through the pathoanatomy case study, Q‐methodology highlights groups (denoted by factors) of like‐minded students that share opinions, preferences, and values. Overall, Q‐methodology analyses support course instructors in identifying areas of course strength and improvement in an evidence‐based way. This alternative to traditional Likert scales represents a promising solution to ongoing course evaluation limitations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Perceptions and Attitudes toward Brain Donation among the Chinese People
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Qi Zhang, Jing Deng, Ya‐Nan Li, Yue Gou, Xiao‐Xin Yan, Fang Li, Ai‐Hua Pan

    Postmortem human brain donation is crucial to both anatomy education and research. The China Human Brain Banking Consortium was established recently to foster brain donation in China. The purpose of this study was to gain information about the public perception of and attitudes toward brain donation and to identify factors that may impact the willingness to participate in brain donation among the Chinese people. A specifically designed questionnaire was delivered to community residents in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) with a total of 1,249 completed forms returned and statistically analyzed. The majority of the participants considered that brain donation would help medical research and education, and 32.0% of respondents agreed that the brain donation would help change the traditional Chinese funeral belief in keeping the body intact after death. However, participants aged over 60 years old were less supportive of this concept. Among all participants, 63.7% stated that they were not knowledgeable about brain donation, while 26.4% explicitly expressed a willingness to participate in brain donation. Age, gender, monthly household income, and knowledge about brain donation significantly affected the willingness. Compared with other age groups, a higher proportion of participants aged over 60 years old preferred to be informed by a medical college. To promote brain donation in China, especially among the elderly, better communication of its medical benefits and a reinterpretation of the Confucius view of the human body should be provided. Efforts are also needed to provide appropriate forums and sources of brain donation information to targeted communities and society in general.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Stimulating Intrinsic Motivation in Millennial Students: A New Generation, a New Approach
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Joydeep Dutta Chaudhuri

    There has been a fundamental change in health care pedagogy to address the demands and challenges posed by the present generation of millennial students. There is also a growing recognition of the role of intrinsic motivation as a catalyst in a positive learning experience. The term intrinsic motivation refers to energizing behavior that comes from within an individual and develops due to an inherent interest in the activity at hand. However, stimulating intrinsic motivation in the present generation of millennial health care students is a daunting task, considering their diverse and disparate nature. In addition, the inherent generational differences between educators and students, and an increasing emphasis on technological tools have resulted in a dichotomy in the educational environment leading to the development of a greater incidence of burnouts among students. Hence, numerous innovative techniques have been introduced in health care education to enhance the levels of intrinsic motivation in these students. Unfortunately, most of these approaches have only been moderately successful due to their limited ability to address the unique educational expectations of millennial students. The cumulative evidence suggests that specific approaches to stimulate intrinsic motivation should aim at nurturing the learning efforts of students, bridging the generational barriers between educators and students, and ameliorating the stress associated with health care education. Hence, the specific aim of this narrative review is to suggest empirically proven curricular strategies and institutional reforms to enhance intrinsic motivation in health care students belonging to the Millennial Generation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Investigating Student Perceptions of a Dissection‐Based Undergraduate Gross Anatomy Course Using Q Methodology
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Jessica N. Byram, Jason M. Organ, Michael Yard, Naomi A. Schmalz

    The demand for upper‐level undergraduate dissection‐based anatomy courses is growing, as professional programs require more advanced anatomy training prior to matriculation. To address this need, Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) partnered with Indiana University‐Purdue University Indianapolis—a large, urban, life science‐focused campus nearby to IUSM—to offer an undergraduate, dissection‐based course in regional gross anatomy. Because this is a new course, a deeper post‐course evaluation of student perceptions was conducted using Q methodology. In this study, Q methodology was used to evaluate student views of the overall course structure, pre‐laboratory materials and activities, assessments, and quality of instruction. Of the 15 students in the spring semester 2018 cohort, 80% (n = 12) participated in the evaluation, and 10 of those students followed up with written explanations for their rationale in selecting the four statements with which they most strongly agreed and disagreed. The Q methodology sorted the students into one of three statistically significant groups: Motivated Dissectors (n = 6), Traditional Students (n = 3), and Inspired Learners (n = 3). Motivated Dissectors and Inspired Learners felt strongly that the course did not encourage self‐directed learning and that the pre‐laboratory materials were not adequate to prepare them for quizzes. Traditional Students, however, disagreed, having a favorable opinion of the pre‐laboratory materials, even though this group felt most strongly that the amount of material covered in the course was overwhelming. This study demonstrates the utility of Q methodology to evaluate courses to elucidate student perspectives and inform future course modifications.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Perceived Benefits of Anatomy Coursework Prior to Medical and Dental School
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-25
    Ellen M. Robertson, Kenneth L. Thompson, Andrew J. Notebaert

    Student struggles in gross anatomy coursework at the professional level can result in hours of remediation along with a need to allot time and other resources by both the student and the faculty. Since this course typically occurs in the first semester of the first year, programs can turn to admissions data to try to determine which of these students may struggle. This study looked at two years of medical (n = 280) and dental (n = 78) students to determine if there is a relationship between pre‐admissions anatomy coursework and performance in gross anatomy at the professional school level. Students provided data regarding their past anatomy coursework and final grades in professional school gross anatomy courses were obtained. In addition, students responded to questions regarding their feelings of preparation and how they valued the prior anatomy coursework as it related to the professional course. Statistical analysis showed no difference in final course grade between students with and without prior anatomy in either program. Counter to the numerical data, 96.6% of the students in the study recommended an anatomy course prior to pursuing a health science degree. The primary reasons given for this recommendation were the benefits of repeated content exposure, knowledge of the anatomy terminology, and decreased stress regarding the course. The results from this study suggest that the benefits of prior anatomy may be seen more in the students’ stress and quality of life rather in the numerical performance of course grades.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Musculoskeletal Anatomy Knowledge Retention in the Macquarie University Chiropractic Program: A Cross‐Sectional Study
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Anneliese K. Hulme, Kehui Luo, Goran Štrkalj

    Attrition of anatomy knowledge has been an area of concern in health professions curricula. To ensure safe and effective clinical practice, the study of chiropractic requires a good knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. In this study, musculoskeletal limb knowledge retention was investigated among students in the 5‐year chiropractic program at Macquarie University, Australia. A test of 20 multiple‐choice questions, categorized into low‐order (LO) and high‐order (HO) cognitive ability according to Bloom’s Taxonomy, was developed. Students enrolled in the program were invited to participate with 257 of the 387 choosing to participate, (response rate ranging 56%–72% per year level). No attrition of knowledge across the years was observed, instead, a significant increase in knowledge, measured by total LO and HO scores (P < 0.0005), throughout the program. There were significant increases in both low and high cognitive scores which were not uniform, with high‐order scores increasing significantly in the last two year levels. The increase of knowledge, may be explained, at least partially, by the vertical and horizontal integrated curriculum. Retrieval of knowledge, especially in clinically applied formats, may have led to an enhanced ability to apply anatomy knowledge and account for the increased scores in the high‐order knowledge seen in the later clinical years. Evaluating anatomy knowledge retention at different cognitive levels seems to provide a better assessment and is worth considering in future anatomy educational research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Superficial Face Dissection as an Example for Integrating Clinical Approaches, Authentic Learning, and Changing Perspectives in Anatomy Dissection
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Sebastian Cotofana, Nirusha Lachman

    Hands‐on dissection‐based learning of anatomy offers an unique and valued experience for medical students. Too often however, the inexperienced student's focus is to avoid damage to unfamiliar structures instead of understanding spatial relationships between structures. This results in unfortunate surrender of a critical learning experience. Additionally, approaches to dissection and anatomic exposure share little alignment to clinical approaches, making it less powerful in clinical applicability. The goal of this viewpoint commentary is based on the experience of the two authors and aims to demonstrate opportunity to introduce clinical approaches for dissection while incorporating relevant anatomical concepts in medical school curriculum that aligns with authentic healthcare practice. Using the dissections of the superficial face as a relevant and current topic of clinical interest, we point out that applying the currently performed dissection approach (medial‐to‐lateral) falls short of providing sufficient knowledge and understanding of the layered arrangement of facial structures. The lateral‐to‐medial approach, as performed in surgical face lifting procedures would offer a better understanding of the layers of the face and especially the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) accounting for the difficulties of facial dissections on embalmed cadavers. This commentary could offer a potential change in paradigm for students and course facilitators for how to maximize the knowledge transfer during facial dissections. It potentially opens a door to rethink dissection‐based learning of anatomy toward techniques and approaches that are aligned to surgical access pathways and thus considered more clinically relevant.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Use of a Mobile Learning Tool by Medical Students in Undergraduate Anatomy and its Effects on Assessment Outcomes
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Nikola Golenhofen, Felix Heindl, Claudia Grab‐Kroll, David A.C. Messerer, Tobias M. Böckers, Anja Böckers

    Hand‐held devices have revolutionized communication and education in the last decade. Consequently, mobile learning (m‐learning) has become popular among medical students. Nevertheless, there are relatively few studies assessing students’ learning outcomes using m‐learning devices. This observational study presents an anatomy m‐learning tool (eMed‐App), an application developed to accompany an anatomy seminar and support medical students’ self‐directed learning of the skeletal system. Questionnaire data describe where, how frequently, and why students used the app. Multiple choice examination results were analyzed to evaluate whether usage of the app had an effect on test scores. The eMed‐App application was used by 77.5% of the students, mainly accessed by Android smartphones, and at students’ homes (62.2%) in order to prepare themselves for seminar sessions (60.8%), or to review learning content (67%). Most commonly, students logged on for less than 15 minutes each time (67.8%). Frequent app users showed better test results on items covering eMed‐App learning content. In addition, users also achieved better results on items that were not related to the content of the app and, thus, gained better overall test results and lower failure rates. The top quartile of test performers used the eMed‐App more frequently compared to students in lower quartiles. This study demonstrated that many students, especially the high‐performing ones, made use of the eMed‐App. However, the app itself did not result in better outcomes, suggesting that top students might have been more motivated to use the app than students who were generally weak in anatomy.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Anatomical Sciences in Chiropractic Education: A Survey of Chiropractic Programs in Australia
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Rosemary Giuriato, Goran Štrkalj, Amanda J. Meyer, Nalini Pather

    Human anatomy knowledge is a core requirement for all health care clinicians. There is a paucity of information relating to anatomy content and delivery in Australian chiropractic programs. The aim of this study was to describe anatomy teaching in Australian chiropractic programs, utilizing a survey which was distributed to all four programs, requesting information on: anatomy program structure, delivery methods, assessment, teaching resources, and academic staff profile at their institution. The survey was undertaken in 2016 and documented practices in that academic year. All four institutions responded. There was a reported difference in the teaching hours, content, delivery and assessment of anatomy utilized in Australian chiropractic programs. Anatomy was compulsory at all four institutions with the mean total of 214 (SD ± 100.2) teaching hours. Teaching was undertaken by permanent ongoing (30%) and sessional academic staff, and student to teacher ratio varied from 15:1 to 12:1. A variety of teaching resources were utilized, including human tissue access, either as prosected cadavers or plastinated body parts. The results of this survey confirm that anatomy has an established place in chiropractic education programs in Australia and while curricular variations exist, all programs had similar course design, delivery, and assessment methods. This study confirmed the provision of a strong foundation in topographical anatomy and neuroanatomy, while other anatomical sciences, such as histology and embryology were not consistently delivered. Formalization of a core anatomy curriculum together with competency standards is needed to assist program evaluation and development, and for accreditation purposes.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Spatial Abilities Training in Anatomy Education: A Systematic Review
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-04-03
    Jean Langlois, Christian Bellemare, Josée Toulouse, George A. Wells

    Spatial abilities have been correlated to anatomy knowledge assessment and spatial training has been found to improve spatial abilities in previous systematic reviews. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate spatial abilities training in anatomy education. A literature search was done from inception to 3 August 2017 in Scopus® and several databases on the EBSCOhost platform. Citations were reviewed and those involving anatomy education, an intervention, and a spatial abilities test were retained and the corresponding full‐text articles were reviewed for inclusion. Before and after training studies, as well as comparative training programs, relating a spatial training intervention to spatial abilities were eligible. Of the 2,405 citations obtained, 52 articles were identified and reviewed, yielding eight eligible articles. Instruction in anatomy and mental rotations training were found to improve spatial abilities. For the seven studies retained for the meta‐analysis that included the effect of interventions on spatial abilities test scores, the pooled treatment effect difference was 0.49 (95% CI [0.17; 0.82]; n = 11) improvement. For the two studies that included the practice effect on spatial abilities test scores in a control group, the pooled treatment effect difference was 0.47 (95% CI [−0.03; 0.97]; n = 2) improvement. In these two studies, the impact of the intervention on spatial abilities test scores was found despite the practice effect. Evidence was found for improvement of spatial abilities in anatomy education using instruction in anatomy and mental rotations training.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Knowledge Gains and Changing Attitudes from the Anatomy Education Research Institute (AERI 2017): A Mixed Methods Analysis
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Polly R. Husmann, Valerie D. O’Loughlin, James J. Brokaw

    The inaugural Anatomy Education Research Institute (AERI 2017) was held in Bloomington, Indiana in July of 2017. This workshop style conference paired experienced educational researchers (invited speakers) with individuals interested in learning more about the field (accepted applicants). In 2017, AERI was held over a five‐day period and entailed plenary style presentations, break‐out sessions, and specific times for small group mentorship. All participants (applicants and invited speakers) completed a pre‐conference survey at the beginning of the institute and a post‐conference survey at the end of the institute. Both surveys included categorical and Likert scale questions as well as open‐ended questions for participant feedback. Quantitative and qualitative analyses indicate that both applicants and speakers increased their knowledge of anatomy education research, but that additional obstacles remain. Funding, time, and a lack of respect for the field remain problematic for faculty that wish to complete educational research. Mentorship and a community of practice also emerged as major themes necessary for educational research to be successful.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Use of Anatomical Dissection Videos in Medical Education
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Sarah J. Greene

    Dissection videos are commonly utilized in gross anatomy courses; however, the actual usage of such videos, as well as the academic impact of student use of these videos, is largely unknown. Understanding how dissection videos impact learning is important in making curricular decisions. In this study, 22 dissection videos were created to review structures identified in laboratory sessions throughout the Organ Systems 1 (OS1), 2 (OS2), and 3 (OS3) courses. Dissection videos were provided to 201 first‐year medical students, and viewing data were recorded. Demographic data for age and gender identity were also collected from students. Overall, there was a significant decrease in total views (P = 0.001), the number of students who pressed play (P < 0.001), and the number of students who viewed ≥ 90% of the total length of videos (P < 0.001) from OS1 to OS3. The total adjusted time spent viewing videos was not significantly different between individual OS courses. There were some instances where significant differences existed in examination performance between those who did and did not view videos, and by time spent viewing videos. There were no significant differences in time spent viewing videos by gender. Together these data suggest that students may utilize dissection videos more at the beginning of a dissection course, although they remain an important resource throughout the year for a subset of students.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Spectrum of Learning and Teaching: The Impact of a Fourth‐Year Anatomy Course on Medical Student Knowledge and Confidence
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Rebecca S. Lufler, Michelle D. Lazarus, Joshua J. Stefanik

    There is growing demand from accrediting agencies for improved basic science integration into fourth‐year medical curricula and inculcation of medical students with teaching skills. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a fourth‐year medical school elective course focused on teaching gross anatomy on anatomical knowledge and teaching confidence. Fourth‐year medical student “teacher” participants' gross anatomy knowledge was assessed before and after the course. Students rated their overall perceived anatomy knowledge and teaching skills on a scale from 0 (worst) to 10 (best), and responded to specific knowledge and teaching confidence items using a similar scale. First‐year students were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the fourth‐year student teaching on their learning. Thirty‐two students completed the course. The mean anatomy knowledge pretest score and posttest scores were 43.2 (±22.1) and 74.1 (±18.4), respectively (P < 0.001). The mean perceived anatomy knowledge ratings before and after the course were 6.19 (±1.84) and 7.84 (±1.30), respectively (P < 0.0001) and mean perceived teaching skills ratings before and after the course were 7.94 (±1.24) and 8.53 (±0.95), respectively (P = 0.002). Student feedback highlighted five themes which impacted fourth‐year teaching assistant effectiveness, including social/cognitive congruence and improved access to learning opportunities. Together these results suggest that integrating fourth‐year medical students in anatomy teaching increases their anatomical knowledge and improves measures of perceived confidence in both teaching and anatomy knowledge. The thematic analysis revealed that this initiative has positive benefits for first‐year students.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Use of Clinical Reasoning Skills in the Setting of Uncertainty: A Case of Trial Femoral Head Migration
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-03-04
    Alejandro Quiroga‐Garza, Rodrigo Teran‐Garza, Rodrigo Enrique Elizondo‐Omaña, Santos Guzmán-López

    Clinical skills and medical knowledge enable physicians to overcome the uncertainty of emergent and rare clinical scenarios. Recently, a growing emphasis on evidence‐based medicine (EBM) has flooded medical curricula of universities across the globe with guideline‐based material, and while it has given teachers and students new tools to improve medical education, clinical reasoning must be reaffirmed in its capacity to provide physicians with the ability to solve unexpected clinical scenarios. Anatomical education in medical school should have two main objectives: to acquire anatomical knowledge and to develop the skill of applying that knowledge in clinical scenarios. The authors present a clinical scenario in which an unexpected and rare complication occurred during a routine elective hip replacement surgery. The general surgeon presiding over the case, also an anatomy professor, solved the problem using clinical reasoning and anatomical knowledge. It was a clear example of how clinical reasoning is key in approaching unprecedented, rare, or unknown complications. The intention of this scenario is to remind colleagues and medical schools that, although EBM is the standard, educators must uphold sound clinical reasoning to best prepare health care providers for their careers.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neuroanatomy, the Achille’s Heel of Medical Students. A Systematic Analysis of Educational Strategies for the Teaching of Neuroanatomy
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Maria Alessandra Sotgiu, Vittorio Mazzarello, Pasquale Bandiera, Roberto Madeddu, Andrea Montella, Bernard Moxham

    Neuroanatomy has been deemed crucial for clinical neurosciences. It has been one of the most challenging parts of the anatomical curriculum and is one of the causes of “neurophobia,” whose main implication is a negative influence on the choice of neurology in the near future. In the last decades, several educational strategies have been identified to improve the skills of students and to promote a deep learning. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify the most effective method/s to teach human neuroanatomy. The search was restricted to publications written in English language and to articles describing teaching tools in undergraduate medical courses from January 2006 through December 2017. The primary outcome was the observation of improvement of anatomical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. Secondary outcomes were the amelioration of long‐term retention knowledge and the grade of satisfaction of students. Among 18 selected studies, 44.4% have used three‐dimensional (3D) teaching tools, 16.6% near peer teaching tool, 5.55% flipped classroom tool, 5.55% applied neuroanatomy elective course, 5.55% equivalence‐based instruction‐rote learning, 5.55% mobile augmented reality, 5.55% inquiry‐based clinical case, 5.55% cadaver dissection, and 5.55% Twitter. The high in‐between study heterogeneity was the main issue to identify the most helpful teaching tool to improve neuroanatomical knowledge among medical students. Data from this study suggest that a combination of multiple pedagogical resources seems to be the more advantageous for teaching neuroanatomy.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Voice in Digital Education: The Impact of Instructor’s Perceived Age and Gender on Student Learning and Evaluation
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Laura J. Weinkle, Jennifer M. Stratford, Lisa M. J. Lee

    Instructor evaluations are influenced by implicit age and gender bias, with lower ratings and negative feedback given to instructors believed to stray from stereotypical age and gender norms. Female instructors exhibiting typically male‐associated qualities such as leadership and authority, are often negatively impacted. Implicit bias also influences evaluation of digital resources and instructors, regardless of students’ positive learning outcomes. As digital learning resources become the norm in education, it is crucial to explore the impact of implicit bias at various educational levels. In this study, undergraduate and graduate students were randomly exposed to one of five digital tutorials; four experimental tutorials presenting identical anatomy content with narrators of different gender and age, and a control tutorial featuring origami (paper folding) instructions without audio. Learning outcomes were measured by pre‐quiz vs. post‐quiz comparisons using repeated measures MANOVA. Implicit bias was analyzed by evaluation response comparisons using repeated measures MANOVA and three‐way MANOVA. Post‐quiz scores increased significantly in the four experimental groups (P < 0.05) but not in the control (P = 0.99). The increased performance was not statistically different across the four experimental groups (P > 0.26), suggesting that learning occurred irrespective of the instructor gender and age. Students’ evaluations were consistently higher for the experimental resources than the control. There was no significant difference in evaluations across the four experimental groups but compared to the control, younger male and younger female narrators received significantly higher ratings for approachability, acceptance, inclusivity, and care for student learning. The study highlights important considerations for digital resources development and interpretation of student evaluations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Participation in Dissection Affects Student Performance on Gross Anatomy Practical and Written Examinations: Results of a Four‐Year Comparative Study
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-02-13
    Andrew R. Thompson, Aaron M. Marshall

    The role of human dissection in modern medical curricula has been a topic of intense debate. In part, this is because dissection can be time‐consuming and curricular hours are being monitored more carefully. This has led some to question the efficacy and importance of dissection as a teaching method. While this topic has received considerable attention in the literature, the question of how dissection impacts learning has been difficult to evaluate in a real‐world, high‐stakes setting since participation in dissection is often one of many variables. In this study, this challenge was overcome due to a change in the curriculum of a Special Master Program (SMP) that permitted a comparison between two years of students that learned anatomy using prosection only and two years of students that participated in dissection laboratories. Since each class of SMP students took courses in the medical school, and the medical school anatomy curriculum was constant, medical student performance served as a control throughout the study period. Results demonstrate that SMP students who learned through prosection had lower performance on anatomy practical and written examinations compared to medical students. When the SMP program changed and students started participating in dissection, there were measurable improvements in both practical and written examinations. These findings provide evidence of dissection’s role in learning and applying anatomy knowledge both within and outside the gross anatomy laboratory.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Comparison of Team‐Based Learning versus Traditional Lectures in Neuroanatomy: Medical Student Knowledge and Satisfaction
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Alice B. Rezende, André G.F. de Oliveira, Thiago C. Vale, Luciana A.S. Teixeira, Alba R.A. Lima, Alessandra L.G. Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti, Sandra H.C. Tibiriçá, Oscarina S. Ezequiel

    Neuroanatomy is often considered a difficult subject to teach, due to its broad scope, multitude of terms, and high degree of complexity. Thus, newer educational strategies that facilitate learning while also stimulating students by allowing increased student autonomy and group discussions should be carefully considered. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of introducing team‐based learning (TBL) in the traditional discipline of neuroanatomy and to measure student knowledge acquisition and perception relative to traditional lectures (TL). A quasi‐experimental, nonrandomized study was performed using two consecutive TBL classes (intervention group, n = 157 students, 25% content using TBL) with a TL class (control group, n = 76). Team‐based learning sessions included all stages according to the classic description of the method. Student knowledge acquisition was assessed in regularly scheduled tests during the discipline, and their perception regarding TBL was evaluated using a questionnaire (developed by the authors). The groups presented a similar sociodemographic profile (sex and age) and the same performance in another anatomy discipline before the study. Team‐based learning was significantly associated with greater acceptance, higher motivation, better student perception, and feelings that the methodology was able to integrate clinical and basic sciences. Nevertheless, according to tests, knowledge acquisition was similar between the TBL and lectures. In conclusion, since TBL is comparable to TL for knowledge acquisition, TBL seems to be a promising strategy to improve the teaching of neuroanatomy in medical schools. It fosters group discussions and increases satisfaction and the perception of integration between clinical and basic sciences.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • The Effect of Passive and Active Education Methods Applied in Repetition Activities on the Retention of Anatomical Knowledge
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Jan G.M. Kooloos, Esther M. Bergman, Marieke A.G.P. Scheffers, Annelieke N. Schepens‐Franke, Marc A.T.M. Vorstenbosch

    This study examines the long‐term retention of anatomical knowledge from 180 students after various repetition activities. The retention of anatomical knowledge was assessed by multiple‐choice tests at five different points in time: before and after a course in Functional Anatomy, before and after repetition activities that occurred 14 weeks after this course, and 28 weeks after this course to establish long‐term retention. Students were divided into five groups: one without any repetition activity, one with a restricted repetition activity (the multiple‐choice test), and three groups that were offered repetition activities (traditional lecture, e‐learning module, and small group work in the dissection room). During all three repetition activities the same information was conveyed, and this content was not revisited in other courses for the duration of the study. The results showed that students who did not engage in a repetition activity scored significantly lower on the long‐term retention test compared to all other groups (ANCOVA: P = 0.0001). Pair‐wise comparison with estimated means showed that the other four groups, regardless of the type of repeating activity, did not differ in the amount of knowledge they retained during any of the five assessments (P = 0.008, P = 0.0001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.0001, respectively). This study suggests that the type of repetition activity has no effect on knowledge retention both immediately following the activity and in the long term. It is concluded that the repetition of anatomical knowledge in any form is beneficial for students and will likely improve student outcomes in a curriculum that builds on prior knowledge.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Virtual Reality in Anatomy: A Pilot Study Evaluating Different Delivery Modalities
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Nicolette S. Birbara, Claude Sammut, Nalini Pather

    Technologies such as virtual reality are used in higher education to develop virtual learning resources (VLRs). These VLRs can be delivered in multiple modalities, from truly immersive involving wearable devices to less immersive modalities such as desktop. However, research investigating perceptions of VLRs in anatomy has mainly focused on a single delivery modality and a limited‐demographic participant cohort, warranting a comparison of different modalities and a consideration of different cohorts. This pilot study aimed to compare perceptions of highly immersive and less immersive VLR deliveries among anatomy students and tutors and evaluate the impact of prior university experience on students' perceptions of VLRs. A skull anatomy VLR was developed using the Unity® gaming platform and participants were voluntarily recruited to assess highly immersive stereoscopic and less immersive desktop deliveries of the VLR. A validated survey tool was used to gather perceptions of both deliveries. Most participants agreed that both VLR deliveries were interesting and engaging and provided an immersive experience. Anatomy students perceived the stereoscopic delivery to be significantly more useful for understanding (P = 0.013), while anatomy tutors perceived the desktop delivery as more useful. A degree of physical discomfort and disorientation was reported by some participants for both deliveries, although to a greater extent for the stereoscopic delivery. The stereoscopic delivery was also found to be more mentally taxing than desktop delivery. These results suggest that desktop VLR delivery may minimize the risk of discomfort and disorientation associated with more immersive modalities while still providing a valuable learning experience.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erratum: Application of flipped classroom pedagogy to the human gross anatomy laboratory: Student preferences and learning outcomes.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2018-07-03
    Timothy R Fleagle,Nicholas C Borcherding,Jennie Harris,Darren S Hoffmann

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phenoxyethanol-based embalming for anatomy teaching: An 18-years' experience with Crosado embalming at the University of Otago in New Zealand.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    Brynley Crosado,Sabine Löffler,Benjamin Ondruschka,Ming Zhang,Johann Zwirner,Niels Hammer

    Embalming fixatives such as formaldehyde and phenol have been associated to occupational health hazards. While anatomists aim at replacing these chemicals, this seems presently unfeasible in particular for formaldehyde. Furthermore, fixation protocols usually require well-equipped facilities with highly-experienced staff to achieve good fixation results in spite of only a minimal use of formaldehyde. Combining these aspects, a technique robust enough to be carried out by morticians is presented, resulting in durable tissues with minimal formaldehyde use. An embalming protocol involving phenoxyethanol was established, using concentrations of 7 and 1.5 Vol% of phenoxyethanol in the fixative and the conservation fluid, respectively. Visual, haptic, histological and biomechanical properties and their perceived potential to positively influence student learning outcomes were compared to standard embalming techniques. The phenoxyethanol technique provides aesthetic, durable and odorless tissues. Bleaching is less pronounced compared to ethanol- or formaldehyde-based protocols. The tissues remain pliable following the phenoxyethanol-based embalming, and can be used for biomechanical experiments to some extent. Phenoxyethanol-fixed tissues are well-suited for undergraduate teaching with perceived positive learning outcomes and partly for postgraduate training. Phenoxyethanol tissues provide the option to obtain well-preserved histology samples, similar to those derived from formaldehyde. The provided protocol helps replace the use of phenol and formaldehyde for conservation purposes, and minimizes the use of formaldehyde for the initial injection fixation. Phenoxyethanol-based embalming forms an effective alternative to standard embalming techniques for human cadavers. It is simple to use, allowing fixation procedures to be carried out in less sophisticated facilities with non-anatomy staff.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Design and implementation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2014-06-13
    Stefanie M Attardi,Kem A Rogers

    Systemic Human Anatomy is a full credit, upper year undergraduate course with a (prosection) laboratory component at Western University Canada. To meet enrollment demands beyond the physical space of the laboratory facility, a fully online section was developed to run concurrently with the traditional face to face (F2F) course. Lectures given to F2F students are simultaneously broadcasted to online students using collaborative software (Blackboard Collaborate). The same collaborative software is used by a teaching assistant to deliver laboratory demonstrations in which three-dimensional (3D) virtual anatomical models are manipulated. Ten commercial software programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for demonstrating the virtual models, resulting in the selection of Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy. Supplementary online materials for the central nervous system were developed by creating 360° images of plastinated prosected brain specimens and a website through which they could be accessed. This is the first description of a fully online undergraduate anatomy course with a live, interactive laboratory component. Preliminary data comparing the online and F2F student grades suggest that previous student academic performance, and not course delivery format, predicts performance in anatomy. Future qualitative studies will reveal student perceptions about their learning experiences in both of the course delivery formats.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of usage of virtual microscopy for the study of histology in the medical, dental, and veterinary undergraduate programs of a UK University.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2014-10-16
    Margaret K Gatumu,Frances M MacMillan,Philip D Langton,P Max Headley,Judy R Harris

    This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation include: (1) the facility for students and teachers to make annotations on the digital slides; (2) in-house development of VM-based quizzes that are used for both formative and summative assessments; (3) archiving of teaching materials generated each year, enabling students to access their personalized learning resources throughout their programs; and (4) retention of light microscopy capability alongside the VM. Student feedback on the VM is particularly positive about its ease of use, the value of the annotation tool, the quizzes, and the accessibility of all components off-campus. Analysis of login data indicates considerable, although variable, use of the VM by students outside timetabled teaching. The median number of annual logins per student account for every course exceeded the number of timetabled histology classes for that course (1.6–3.5 times). The total number of annual student logins across all cohorts increased from approximately 9,000 in the year 2007–2008 to 22,000 in the year 2010–2011. The implementation of the VM has improved teaching and learning in practical classes within the histology laboratory and facilitated consolidation and revision of material outside the laboratory. Discussion is provided of some novel strategies that capitalize on the benefits of introducing a VM, as well as strategies adopted to overcome some potential challenges.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Rapidly Changing Landscape of Student Social Media Use in Anatomy Education.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-03-16
    Scott Border,Catherine Hennessy,James Pickering

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Anatomy, Education, and Ethics in a Changing World.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Jon Cornwall,Sabine Hildebrandt

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In Pursuit of Excellence Reconsidered: Expertise and Expert Performance in the Teaching, Learning, and Application of Anatomy.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2019-01-12
    Nirusha Lachman,Lap Ki Chan,Darrell J R Evans,Timothy D Wilson,Wojciech Pawlina

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Putting gross anatomy into the curriculum: New anatomy syllabi for nursing and pharmacy students.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2018-03-24
    Gabrielle M Finn,Siobhan A Connolly,Thomas H Gillingwater,Claire F Smith

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Working with students as partners in anatomy education.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Scott Border

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The incompatibility of the use of unclaimed bodies with ethical anatomical education in the United States.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2016-12-03
    Peter A Kahn,Thomas H Champney,Sabine Hildebrandt

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • It's all in the mime: Actions speak louder than words when teaching the cranial nerves.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2015-05-09
    Kerry Ann Dickson,Bruce Warren Stephens

    Cranial nerve (CN) knowledge is essential for students in health professions. Gestures and body movements (e.g., mime) have been shown to improve cognition and satisfaction with anatomy teaching. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of didactic lecturing with that of miming lecturing for student learning of the CNs. The research design involved exposure of the same group of students to didactic followed by miming lecturing of CNs. The effectiveness of each lecturing strategy was measured via pre- and post-testing. Student perceptions of these strategies were measured by a survey. As an example of miming, gestures for CN VII included funny faces for muscles of facial expression, kangaroo vocalization for taste, spitting action for saliva production, and crying for lacrimal gland production. Accounting for extra duration of the miming lecture, it was shown that pre- to post-test improvement was higher for the miming presentation than for the didactic (0.47 ± 0.03 marks/minute versus 0.33 ± 0.03, n = 39, P < 0.005). Students perceived that the miming lecture was more interactive, engaging, effective, and motivating to attend (mean on five-point Likert scale: 4.62, 4.64, 4.56, 4.31, respectively) than the didactic lecture. In the final examination, performance was better (P < 0.001, n = 39) on the CN than on the non-CN questions-particularly for students scoring ≤60%. While mediating factors need elucidation (e.g., learning due to repetition of content), this study's findings support the theory that gestures and body movements help learners to acquire anatomical knowledge.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Item difficulty in the evaluation of computer-based instruction: an example from neuroanatomy.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2012-01-11
    Julia H Chariker,Farah Naaz,John R Pani

    This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of comparisons between instructional methods changed with the difficulty of the items to be learned. More challenging items better differentiated between instructional methods. This set of results is important for two reasons. First, it suggests that instruction may be more efficient if sets of consistently difficult items are the targets of instructional methods particularly suited to them. Second, there is wide variation in the published literature regarding the outcomes of empirical evaluations of computer-based instruction. As a consequence, many questions arise as to the factors that may affect such evaluations. The present article demonstrates that the level of challenge in the material that is presented to learners is an important factor to consider in the evaluation of a computer-based instructional system.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An analysis of the educational value of low-fidelity anatomy models as external representations.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2011-07-12
    Lap Ki Chan,Maurice M W Cheng

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the literature on cognition, learning, and external representations. A literature search on these physical models in three popular anatomy journals published over a 10-year period from 2001 to 2010 found that all of them have low fidelity: they oftentimes do not closely resemble the regions of the human body they are representing. They include only a small number of the structures that exist in these regions of the human body and do not accurately represent the shape and surface details of these structures. However, these models strongly correspond to the human body in the spatial relationship of the represented structures, which is crucial to achieving their educational purpose of teaching three-dimensional comprehension and anatomical reasoning. The educational value of these models includes acting as memory aids, reducing cognitive overload, facilitating problem solving, and arousing students' enthusiasm and participation. Because these models often lack a close resemblance to the human body, their use in anatomy teaching should always be accompanied by adequate explanations to the students to establish the correspondence between the models and the parts of the human body they are representing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Demystifying the Millennial student: a reassessment in measures of character and engagement in professional education.
    Anat. Sci. Educ. (IF 4.027) Pub Date : 2011-07-08
    Camille DiLullo,Patricia McGee,Richard M Kriebel

    The characteristic profile of Millennial Generation students, driving many educational reforms, can be challenged by research in a number of fields including cognition, learning style, neurology, and psychology. This evidence suggests that the current aggregate view of the Millennial student may be less than accurate. Statistics show that Millennial students are considerably diverse in backgrounds, personalities, and learning styles. Data are presented regarding technological predilection, multitasking, reading, critical thinking, professional behaviors, and learning styles, which indicate that students in the Millennial Generation may not be as homogenous in fundamental learning strategies and attitudes as is regularly proposed. Although their common character traits have implications for instruction, no available evidence demonstrates that these traits impact their fundamental process of learning. Many curricular strategies have been implemented to address alleged changes in the manner by which Millennial students learn. None has clearly shown superior outcomes in academic accomplishments or developing expertise for graduating students and concerns persist related to the successful engagement of Millennial students in the process of learning. Four factors for consideration in general curricular design are proposed to address student engagement and optimal knowledge acquisition for 21st century learners.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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