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  • Can advanced glycation end‐products and their receptors be affected by weight loss? A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Juliana F. Tavares; Priscila V. M. Ribeiro; Olívia G. L. Coelho; Laís E. da Silva; Rita C. G. Alfenas

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of most chronic diseases. Therefore, identification of treatments that can attenuate the effects of these compounds and prevent cardiometabolic complications is of extreme public health interest. Recently, body weight management interventions showed positive results on reducing serum AGE concentrations. Moreover, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is considered to be a novel biomarker to identify patients with obesity most likely to benefit from weight management interventions. This systematic review aimed to critically analyze papers evaluating the effects of weight loss on serum AGEs and its receptors in adults with excess body weight. MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus, and Lilacs databases were searched. Three studies evaluating the response of AGEs to energy‐restricted diets and six assessing sRAGE as the primary outcome were included. Energy‐restricted diets and bariatric surgery reduced serum AGE concentrations, but effects on endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) and sRAGE concentrations are conflicting. These results may be associated with mechanisms related to changes in dietary intake and limiting endogenous AGE formation. Therefore, the role of energy‐restricted diets and bariatric surgery on lowering serum AGE concentrations, as well as its effects on AGEs receptors, deserves further investigation.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Laboratory‐based interventions targeting food craving: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ines Wolz; Julia Nannt; Jennifer Svaldi

    This systematic review and meta‐analysis aimed to quantify the effects of laboratory‐based interventions targeting specific mechanisms of food craving, to identify moderators of effects, and to qualitatively summarize findings. The study was conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Sixty‐nine studies were included in the quantitative synthesis, and separate meta‐analyses were conducted for the outcomes self‐reported craving and objective food intake. Results show small to medium positive effects across specific craving interventions on both outcomes. Effect sizes were partly moderated by intervention type. The most effective intervention regarding food intake was in sensu cue exposure. For subjective craving, the most robust evidence was found for beneficial effects of cognitive regulation strategies (ie, reappraisal, suppression, and distraction). Results further indicate that training inhibitory control through behavioral inhibition might be more effective than approach‐avoidance training when considering its effect on subjective craving and food intake. People with external eating habits, overeating, or loss‐of‐control eating might benefit from these types of specific craving interventions. Future research should focus on long‐term effects, transferability, and effectiveness in clinical samples.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Access to fruit and vegetable markets and childhood obesity: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Shujuan Yang; Xiao Zhang; Ping Feng; Tong Wu; Ruochen Tian; Donglan Zhang; Li Zhao; Chenghan Xiao; Zonglei Zhou; Fang He; Guo Cheng; Peng Jia

    The lack of access to fruit/vegetable markets (FVMs) is thought to be a risk factor for childhood obesity by discouraging healthy dietary behaviours while encouraging access to venues that offer more unhealthy food (and thus the compensatory intake of those options). However, findings remain mixed, and there has not been a review of the association between FVM access and childhood obesity. A comprehensive and systematic understanding of this epidemiologic relationship is important to the design and implementation of relevant public health policies. In this study, a literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science for articles published before 1 January 2019 that focused on the association between neighbourhood FVM access and weight‐related behaviours and outcomes among children and adolescents. Eight cross‐sectional studies, two longitudinal studies, and one ecological study conducted in five countries were identified. The median sample size was 2142 ± 1371. Weight‐related behaviours and outcomes were used as the outcome variable in two and eight studies, respectively, with one study using both weight‐related behaviours and outcomes as outcome variables. We still found a negative association between access to FVMs in children's residential and school neighbourhoods and weight‐related behaviours and an inconclusive association between FVM access and overweight or obesity. This conclusion should be regarded as provisional because of a limited amount of relevant evidence and may not be a strong guide for policymaking. Nonetheless, it points to an important research gap that needs to be filled if successful public health interventions are to be undertaken.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Guidelines for the management of pregnant women with obesity: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Alexandre Simon; Misty Pratt; Brian Hutton; Becky Skidmore; Romina Fakhraei; Natalie Rybak; Daniel J. Corsi; Mark Walker; Maria P. Velez; Graeme N. Smith; Laura M. Gaudet

    Multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been established for pregnant women with obesity. The quality and consistency of recommendations remain unknown. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to synthesize and appraise evidence from CPGs, available worldwide, for pregnant women affected by obesity. An experienced information specialist performed a rigorous search of the literature, searching MEDLINE, Embase, grey literature, and guideline registries to locate CPGs that reported on pregnancy care relating to obesity. CPGs related to antenatal care of pregnant women with obesity (pre‐pregnancy body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) in low‐risk (eg, care provider = family physician or midwife) or high‐risk settings (eg, obstetrician or maternal fetal medicine) were included. CPGs were appraised for quality with independent data collection by two raters. Information was categorized into five domains: preconception care. care during pregnancy, diet and exercise during pregnancy, care immediately before, during, and after delivery, and postpartum care. The literature search yielded 2614 unique citations. Following screening of abstracts and full texts, 32 CPGs were included, with quality ranging between 0 and 100 on the AGREE II tool. The strongest evidence related to nutritional advice, exercise, and pregnancy risk counselling. Guidance was limited for timing of screening tests, antenatal visits and delivery, ideal postpartum care, and management of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most guidelines in this population are not evidence based. Research is needed to bridge knowledge gaps pertaining to fetal antenatal surveillance, management of adverse outcomes and postpartum care, and enhance consistency across CPGs.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Correlates of sedentary behaviour in Asian adults: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Andre Matthias Müller; Bozhi Chen; Nan Xin Wang; Clare Whitton; Artur Direito; Nick Petrunoff; Falk Müller‐Riemenschneider

    The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence on correlates of sedentary behaviour (SB) among Asian adults. We searched for studies that examined individual, environmental, and political/cultural correlates of total and domain‐specific SB (transport, occupation, leisure, and screen time) in Asian adults published from 2000 onwards in nine scientific databases. Two reviewers independently screened identified references. Following quality assessment of included studies, we performed narrative synthesis that considered differences based on SB measurements, regions, and population characteristics (PROSPERO: CRD42018095268). We identified 13 249 papers of which we included 49, from four regions and 12 countries. Researchers conducted cross‐sectional analyses and most relied on SB self‐report for SB measurement. Of the 118 correlates studied, the following associations were consistent: higher age, living in an urban area (East Asia), and lower mental health with higher total SB; higher education with higher total and occupational SB; higher income with higher leisure‐time SB; higher transit density with higher total SB in older East Asians; and being an unmarried women with higher SB in the Middle East. We encourage more research in non‐high‐income countries across regions, further exploration of important but neglected correlates using longitudinal designs and qualitative research, and the use of objective instruments to collect SB data.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • An evaluation of the impact of lifestyle interventions on body weight in postpartum women: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Siew Lim; Briony Hill; Helena J. Teede; Lisa J. Moran; Sharleen O'Reilly

    The established efficacy in postpartum lifestyle interventions has not been translated into better outcomes. This systematic review and meta‐analysis assess the penetration (the proportion of women invited within the target population), implementation (fidelity), participation (the proportion of those invited who enrolled), and effect (weight loss compared to controls) (PIPE) of randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions in postpartum women (within two years after birth). MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, and other databases and clinical trial registries were searched up to the 3rd of May 2019. Data was extracted from published reports and missing data was obtained from study authors. The quality of the studies was appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (2·0). Main outcomes were the PIPE impact metrics and changes in body weight. Thirty‐six trials (49 publications) were included (n=5,315 women). One study provided sufficient information to calculate the population penetration rate (2·5%). All studies provided implementation (fidelity) information, but over half had low program fidelity. The participation rate was calculated for nine studies (0·94% to 86%). There was significant change in body weight (mean difference (MD) (95% confidence interval, CI) of ‐2·33 (‐3·10 to ‐1·56). This highlights the inadequacy of conventional RCTs to inform implementation. Future research should broaden methods to pragmatic trials.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Association of anthropometry and weight change with risk of dementia and its major subtypes: A meta‐analysis consisting 2.8 million adults with 57 294 cases of dementia
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Crystal ManYing Lee; Mark Woodward; G. David Batty; Alexa S. Beiser; Steven Bell; Claudine Berr; Espen Bjertness; John Chalmers; Robert Clarke; Jean‐Francois Dartigues; Kendra Davis‐Plourde; Stéphanie Debette; Emanuele Di Angelantonio; Catherine Feart; Ruth Frikke‐Schmidt; John Gregson; Mary N. Haan; Linda B. Hassing; Kathleen M. Hayden; Marieke P. Hoevenaar‐Blom; Jaakko Kaprio; Mika Kivimaki; Georgios Lappas; Eric B. Larson; Erin S. LeBlanc; Anne Lee; Li‐Yung Lui; Eric P. Moll van Charante; Toshiharu Ninomiya; Liv Tybjærg Nordestgaard; Tomoyuki Ohara; Toshiaki Ohkuma; Teemu Palviainen; Karine Peres; Ruth Peters; Nawab Qizilbash; Edo Richard; Annika Rosengren; Sudha Seshadri; Martin Shipley; Archana Singh‐Manoux; Bjorn Heine Strand; Willem A. van Gool; Eero Vuoksimaa; Kristine Yaffe; Rachel R. Huxley

    Uncertainty exists regarding the relation of body size and weight change with dementia risk. As populations continue to age and the global obesity epidemic shows no sign of waning, reliable quantification of such associations is important. We examined the relationship of body mass index, waist circumference, and annual percent weight change with risk of dementia and its subtypes by pooling data from 19 prospective cohort studies and four clinical trials using meta‐analysis. Compared with body mass index–defined lower‐normal weight (18.5‐22.4 kg/m2), the risk of all‐cause dementia was higher among underweight individuals but lower among those with upper‐normal (22.5‐24.9 kg/m2) levels. Obesity was associated with higher risk in vascular dementia. Similarly, relative to the lowest fifth of waist circumference, those in the highest fifth had nonsignificant higher vascular dementia risk. Weight loss was associated with higher all‐cause dementia risk relative to weight maintenance. Weight gain was weakly associated with higher vascular dementia risk. The relationship between body size, weight change, and dementia is complex and exhibits non‐linear associations depending on dementia subtype under scrutiny. Weight loss was associated with an elevated risk most likely due to reverse causality and/or pathophysiological changes in the brain, although the latter remains speculative.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Current and emerging therapies for managing hyperphagia and obesity in Prader‐Willi syndrome: A narrative review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Qiming Tan; Camila E. Orsso; Edward C. Deehan; Lucila Triador; Catherine J. Field; Hein Min Tun; Joan C. Han; Timo D. Müller; Andrea M. Haqq

    In early childhood, individuals with Prader‐Willi syndrome (PWS) experience excess weight gain and severe hyperphagia with food compulsivity, which often leads to early onset morbid obesity. Effective treatments for appetite suppression and weight control are currently unavailable for PWS. Our aim to further understand the pathogenesis of PWS led us to carry out a comprehensive search of the current and emerging therapies for managing hyperphagia and extreme weight gain in PWS. A literature search was performed using PubMed and the following keywords: “PWS” AND “therapy” OR “[drug name]”; reference lists, pharmaceutical websites, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry were also reviewed. Articles presenting data from current standard treatments in PWS and also clinical trials of pharmacological agents in the pipeline were selected. Current standard treatments include dietary restriction/modifications, exercise, and growth hormone replacement, which appear to have limited efficacy for appetite and weight control in patients with PWS. The long‐term safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in PWS remains unknown. However, many promising pharmacotherapies are in development and, if approved, will bring much needed choices into the PWS pharmacological armamentarium. With the progress that is currently being made in our understanding of PWS, an effective treatment may not be far off.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • What works and why in the identification and referral of adults with comorbid obesity in primary care: A realist review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-22
    David N. Blane; Sara Macdonald; Catherine A. O'Donnell

    Primary care practitioners (PCPs) are well placed to identify individuals with obesity and weight‐related comorbidities and to refer them to weight management services (WMS), but this does not often happen in practice. In this realist review, we searched six databases for intervention studies targeted at PCPs to improve the identification and referral of adults with comorbid obesity. Realist analysis was used to identify context‐mechanism‐outcome (CMO) configurations across 30 included papers (reporting on 27 studies). Most studies used multiple intervention strategies, categorised into: (a) training, (b) tools to improve identification, (c) tools to improve ease of referral, (d) audit/feedback, (e) working in networks/quality circles, and (f) other. The realist synthesis identified 12 mechanisms through which interventions work to improve identification and referral, including increasing knowledge about obesity and awareness of and confidence in WMS among practitioners, improved communication and trust between practitioners and WMS, and higher priority given to weight management among primary care teams. The theory of “candidacy” (a person's eligibility for medical attention and intervention) provided a robust explanatory framework but required refinement: (a) to take account of the different services (primary care and weight management) that patients must navigate to access support; and (b) to acknowledge the importance of wider contextual factors.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Humans in the cold: Regulating energy balance
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Kurt McInnis; François Haman; Éric Doucet

    For humans to maintain a stable core temperature in cold environments, an increase in energy expenditure (EE) is required. However, little is known about how cold stimulus impacts energy balance as a whole, as energy intake (EI) has been largely overlooked. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge regarding how cold exposure (CE) impacts both EE and EI, while highlighting key gaps and shortcomings in the literature. Animal models clearly reveal that CE produces large increases in EE, while decreasing environmental temperatures results in a significant negative dose‐response effect in EI (r=‐.787, P<.001), meaning animals eat more as temperature decreases. In humans, multiple methods are used to administer cold stimuli, which result in consistent yet quantitatively small increases in EE. However, only two studies have measured ad libitum food intake in combination with acute CE in humans. Chronic CE (i.e., cold acclimation) studies have been shown to produce minimal changes in body weight, with an average compensation of ~126%. Although more studies are required to investigate how cold impacts EI in humans, results presented in this review warrant caution before presenting or considering CE as a potential adjunct to weight loss strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • The obesity paradox for outcomes in atrial fibrillation: Evidence from an exposure‐effect analysis of prospective studies
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Xiao Liu; Linjuan Guo; Kaiwen Xiao; Wengen Zhu; Menglu Liu; Rong Wan; Kui Hong

    The impact of obesity on the prognosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial. We conducted an exposure‐effect meta‐analysis of prospective studies to clarify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in patients with AF. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched through May 1, 2019. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using random‐effects models. Nonlinear associations were explored using restricted cubic spline models. Twenty publications involving 161,922 individuals were included. Categorical variable analysis showed that underweight was associated with an increased risk of all‐cause mortality (RR: 2.6), cardiovascular death (RR: 2.91), major bleeding (RR: 1.57), stroke or systemic embolism (RR: 1.62), and a composite endpoint (RR: 2.23). In exposure‐effect analysis, the risk per 5 BMI increase was reduced for adverse outcomes (RR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80‐0.92 for all‐cause death; RR=0.82, 95% CI: 0.71‐0.95 for cardiovascular death; RR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.84‐0.95 for stroke or systemic embolism; and RR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.67‐0.92 for a composite endpoint). There was a significant “U”‐shaped exposure‐effect relationship with all‐cause death, and the nadir of the curve was observed at a BMI of approximately 28. Our results showed that underweight is associated with a worse prognosis, but that overweight and obesity are associated with improved adverse outcomes in patients with AF.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Unravelling the association between accelerometer‐derived physical activity and adiposity among preschool children: A systematic review and meta‐analyses
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Rikstje Wiersma; Barbara F. Haverkamp; Jasper H. van Beek; André M.J. Riemersma; H. Marike Boezen; Nynke Smidt; Eva Corpeleijn; Esther Hartman

    Evidence on the association between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in young children is inconclusive. A systematic review and meta‐analyses were conducted to examine associations between accelerometer‐derived PA and varying adiposity outcomes in preschool children. Searches were conducted in Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science to identify studies on the association between total PA, sedentary behaviour or different PA intensities and adiposity in children aged 2 to 7 years. Separate random effects meta‐analyses were performed for varying PA intensities and adiposity outcomes. Fifty‐six articles were included in the review and 48 in the meta‐analyses. There was substantial evidence of an inverse association between moderate‐to‐vigorous‐ or vigorous PA and body fat percentage (stdβ [SE] = −0.162[0.041]; 5 studies), weight status (r = −0.120, P<.001; 11 studies), fat mass (stdβ [SE] = −0.103[0.051]; 5 studies), fat mass index (stdβ [SE] = −0.121[0.036]; 2 studies) and skinfold thickness (stdβ [SE] = −0.145[0.036]; 4 studies). However, total PA, sedentary behaviour, and different PA intensities were not associated with body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Adiposity levels were lower among preschool children engaged in more (moderate‐to‐) vigorous PA compared with their peers, but no associations between PA and BMI or waist circumference were found.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Histidine‐containing dipeptides reduce central obesity and improve glycaemic outcomes: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Kirthi Menon; Clara Marquina; Danny Liew; Aya Mousa; Barbora de Courten

    Supplementation with histidine‐containing dipeptides has been shown to improve obesity and glycaemic outcomes in animal and human studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine these effects. Electronic databases were searched investigating the effects of histidine‐containing dipeptides supplementation on anthropometric and glycaemic outcomes. Meta‐analyses were performed using random‐effects models to calculate the weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval. There were 30 studies for the systematic review and 23 studies pooled for meta‐analysis. Histidine‐containing dipeptide groups had a lower waist circumference (WMD [95% CI] = −3.53 cm [−5.65, −1.41], p = 0.001) and HbA1c level (WMD [95% CI] = −0.76% (8.5 mmol/mol) [−1.29% (14.3 mmol/mol), −0.24% (2.8 mmol/mol)], p = 0.004) at follow‐up compared with controls. In sensitivity analyses of studies with low risk of bias, waist circumference, HbA1c, and fasting glucose levels (WMD [95% CI] = −0.63 mmol/L [−1.09, −0.18], p = 0.006) were significantly lower in intervention groups versus controls. There was also a trend toward lower fat mass (p = 0.09), insulin resistance (p = 0.07), and higher insulin secretion (p = 0.06) in intervention versus control groups. Supplementation with histidine‐containing dipeptides may reduce central obesity and improve glycaemic outcomes. Further studies exploring histidine‐containing dipeptide use in obesity and diabetes prevention and treatment are warranted.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A systematic review of body mass gain after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Julia Steinhardt, Thomas F. Münte, Sebastian M. Schmid, Britta Wilms, Norbert Brüggemann

    This systematic review investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on extent and time course of body mass changes in patients with Parkinson's disease. A computerized search identified relevant articles using a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A descriptive analysis was calculated for the main outcome parameters body mass and BMI. Thirty‐eight out of 206 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (979 patients aged 59.0±7.5 years). Considering the longest follow‐up time for each study, body mass and BMI showed a mean increase across studies of +5.71kg (p < .0001; d = 0.64) and +1.8kg/m2 (p < .0001; d = 1.61). The time course of body mass gain revealed a continuous increase ranging from +3.25kg (d = 0.69) at 3 months, +3.88kg (d = 0.21) at 6 months, +6.35kg (d = 0.72) at 12 months, and +6.11kg (d = 1.02) greater than 12 months. Changes in BMI were associated with changes in disease severity (r = 0.502, p = .010) and pharmacological treatment (r = 0.440, p = .0231). Data suggest that body mass gain is one of the most common side effects of deep brain stimulation going beyond normalization of preoperative weight loss. Considering the negative health implications of overweight, we recommend the development of tailored therapies to prevent overweight and associated metabolic disorders following this treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Pathophysiological connections between gallstone disease, insulin resistance, and obesity
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-08
    Víctor A. Cortés, Francisco Barrera, Flavio Nervi

    Obesity and cholesterol gallstone disease (GSD) are frequently coexisting diseases; therefore and considering the current worldwide obesity epidemics, a precise understanding of the pathophysiological relationships between GSD and insulin resistance (IR) is important. Classically, obesity has been understood as a risk factor for GSD and the gallbladder (GB) viewed as a simple bile reservoir, with no metabolic roles whatsoever. However, consistent evidence has showed that both GSD and cholecystectomy associates with fatty liver and IR, raising the possibility that the GB is indeed an organ with metabolic regulatory roles. Herein, we review the pathophysiological mechanisms by which GSD, IR, and obesity are interconnected, with emphasis in the actions of the GB as a regulator of bile acids kinetics and a hormone secreting organ, with metabolic actions at the systemic level. We also examine the relationships between increased hepatic lipogenic in IR states and GSD pathogenesis. We propose a model in which GSD and hepatic IR mutually interact to determine a state of dysregulated lipid and energy metabolism that potentiate the metabolic dysregulation of obesity.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Are long working hours associated with weight‐related outcomes? A meta‐analysis of observational studies
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-08
    Yi Zhu, Jianxin Liu, Heng Jiang, Tracey J. Brown, Qingfeng Tian, Yudi Yang, Chao Wang, Hongbin Xu, Junan Liu, Yong Gan, Zuxun Lu

    The relationship between long working hours and body weight outcomes remains inconclusive; thus, we conducted a meta‐analysis to assess the effect of long working hours on weight‐related outcomes. PubMed and Embase databases were searched from their inception to June 2019. A random‐effects model was used to assess the pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by the Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 29 articles involving 374 863 participants were included. The pooled OR of long working hours on weight‐related outcomes was 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07‐1.19). In subgroup analysis stratified by definition of outcomes, the pooled ORs of long working hours on “weight gain/BMI increase,” “BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2,” and “BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2” were 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02‐1.40), 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00‐1.14), and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.09‐1.39), respectively. We found evidence of publication bias, but correction for this bias using the trim‐and‐fill method did not alter the combined OR substantially. There was evidence to suggest that long working hours are associated with adverse weight‐related outcomes. Preventative interventions such as improved flexibility and healthy working schedules should be established for employees.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • A developmental cascade perspective of paediatric obesity: A systematic review of preventive interventions from infancy through late adolescence
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Sara M. St. George, Yaray Agosto, Lourdes M. Rojas, Mary Soares, Monica Bahamon, Guillermo Prado, Justin D. Smith

    The goals of this systematic review were to identify and describe paediatric obesity prevention interventions from infancy to late adolescence and to provide recommendations for future intervention research in light of a recently proposed developmental cascade (DC) model of paediatric obesity. We conducted an electronic search of randomized controlled trials with a minimum 6‐month postintervention follow‐up published between 1995 and 2019. We included 74 interventions: prenatal/infancy (n = 4), early childhood (n = 11), childhood (n = 38), early to mid‐adolescence (n = 18), and late adolescence (n = 3). Infancy and early childhood trials targeted early feeding and positive parenting skills. Half of the childhood and adolescence trials were school based and used universal prevention strategies; those classified as selective or indicated prevention tended to involve the family for more intensive lifestyle modification. Less than 10% of studies followed participants over long periods of time (greater than or equal to 5 years), and only 16% and 31% of studies assessed intervention mediators and moderators, respectively. We recommend that future interventions focus on early prevention, assess long‐term intervention effects, use a standardized taxonomy for defining intervention behavioural strategies, assess underlying mechanisms of action and intervention moderators, target parent and family management strategies across development, and increase scientific equity. We also provide specific recommendations regarding intervention targets for each developmental stage.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • A systematic review of the Australian food retail environment: Characteristics, variation by geographic area, socioeconomic position and associations with diet and obesity
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Cindy Needham, Gary Sacks, Liliana Orellana, Ella Robinson, Steven Allender, Claudia Strugnell

    There is strong support across multiple sectors for the implementation of policies to create healthier food environments as part of comprehensive strategies to address obesity and improve population diets. The existing evidence base describing food retail environments and their relationship with health outcomes is limited in several respects. This systematic review examines the current evidence regarding food retail environments in Australia, including associations with diet and people with obesity, and socioeconomic and geographic disparities. Three databases were searched and independently screened. Studies were included if they were undertaken in Australia and objectively measured the food retail environment. Sixty papers were included. The broad range of methodological approaches used across studies limited the ability to synthesize the evidence and draw conclusions. Results indicated that there is some evidence that disparities exist in food retail environments across measures of socioeconomic position and geographic area in parts of Australia. Overall, there were inconsistent findings regarding the association between the healthiness of food retail environments and diet or people with obesity. Findings support previous calls for standardized tools and measures for monitoring the healthiness of food retail environments. This is imperative to inform evidence‐based policy and evaluation in this critical component of recommended obesity prevention strategies.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • A systematic review of the association of neuregulin 4, a brown fat–enriched secreted factor, with obesity and related metabolic disturbances
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Helda Tutunchi, Alireza Ostadrahimi, Mohammad‐Javad Hosseinzadeh‐Attar, Mahsa Miryan, Majid Mobasseri, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi‐Mameghani

    Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a novel brown fat–enriched hormone, plays a key role in the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance. Recent data have demonstrated that the expression of Nrg4 is substantially down‐regulated in mouse and human obesity, making its regulatory aspect intriguing. Because of the close relationship between Nrg4, obesity, and associated metabolic diseases, this systematic review aimed to assess the association of Nrg4 with obesity and related metabolic disturbances, emphasizing its possible mechanisms of action in these disorders. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Google Scholar up until June 2019. The evidence reviewed here indicates that Nrg4 may contribute to the prevention of obesity and related metabolic complications by elevating brown adipose tissue activity, increasing the expression of thermogenic markers, decreasing the expression of lipogenic/adipogenic genes, exacerbating white adipose tissue browning, increasing the number of brite/beige adipocytes, promoting hepatic fat oxidation and ketogenesis, inducing neurite outgrowth, enhancing blood vessels in adipose tissue, increasing the circulatory levels of healthy adipokines, and improving glucose homeostasis. Thus, Nrg4 appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic complications. However, prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm these outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • White adipose tissue mitochondrial metabolism in health and in obesity
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Sini Heinonen, Riikka Jokinen, Aila Rissanen, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen

    White adipose tissue is one of the largest organs of the body. It plays a key role in whole‐body energy status and metabolism; it not only stores excess energy but also secretes various hormones and metabolites to regulate body energy balance. Healthy adipose tissue capable of expanding is needed for metabolic well‐being and to prevent accumulation of triglycerides to other organs. Mitochondria govern several important functions in the adipose tissue. We review the derangements of mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue in the obese state. Downregulation of mitochondrial function or biogenesis in the white adipose tissue is a central driver for obesity‐associated metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial functions compromised in obesity include oxidative functions and renewal and enlargement of the adipose tissue through recruitment and differentiation of adipocyte progenitor cells. These changes adversely affect whole‐body metabolic health. Dysfunction of the white adipose tissue mitochondria in obesity has long‐term consequences for the metabolism of adipose tissue and the whole body. Understanding the pathways behind mitochondrial dysfunction may help reveal targets for pharmacological or nutritional interventions that enhance mitochondrial biogenesis or function in adipose tissue.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Core outcome set for behavioural weight management interventions for adults with overweight and obesity: Standardised reporting of lifestyle weight management interventions to aid evaluation (STAR‐LITE)
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Ruth M. Mackenzie, Louisa J. Ells, Sharon Anne Simpson, Jennifer Logue

    Behavioural weight management interventions in research studies and clinical practice differ in length, advice, frequency of meetings, staff, and cost. Few real‐world programmes have published patient outcomes and those that have used different ways of reporting information, making it impossible to compare interventions and develop the evidence base. To address this issue, we have developed a core outcome set for behavioural weight management intervention programmes for adults with overweight and obesity. Outcomes were identified via systematic review of the literature. A representative expert group was formed comprising people with experience of adult weight management services. An online Delphi process was employed to reach consensus as to which outcomes should be measured and reported and which definitions/instruments should be utilised. The expert group identified eight core outcomes and 12 core processes for reporting by weight management services. Eleven outcomes and five processes were identified as optional. The most appropriate definitions/instruments for measuring each outcome/process were also agreed. Our core outcome set will ensure consistency of reporting. This will allow behavioural weight management interventions to be compared, revealing which interventions work best for which members of the population and helping inform development of adult behavioural weight management interventions.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • The impact of interpregnancy weight change on perinatal outcomes in women and their children: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Yvon E.G. Timmermans, Kim D.G. van de Kant, Elise O. Oosterman, Marc E.A. Spaanderman, Eduardo Villamor‐Martinez, Jos Kleijnen, Anita C.E. Vreugdenhil

    Prepregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with higher risk of perinatal complications. However, the effect of weight change prior to pregnancy on perinatal outcome is largely unknown. Therefore, it is aimed to examine the impact on perinatal outcomes of interpregnancy BMI change in women of different BMI categories. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL databases were searched (1990‐August 2019). Observational studies on interpregnancy BMI change were selected. Outcomes evaluated were gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, gestational hypertension (GH), cesarean section, preterm birth, and newborns being large (LGA) or small (SGA) for gestational age. Meta‐analyses and meta‐regression analyses were executed. Thirty studies were included (n > 1 million). Interpregnancy BMI gain was associated with a higher risk of GDM (for BMI gain ≥3 kg/m2: OR 2.21; [95%CI 1.53‐3.19]), preeclampsia (1.77 [1.53‐2.04]), GH (1.78 [1.61‐1.97]), cesarean section (1.32 [1.24‐1.39]), and LGA (1.54 [1.28‐1.86]). The effects of BMI gain were most pronounced in women with BMI <25 kg/m2 before the first pregnancy regarding GDM, GH, and cesarean section. Except for LGA, interpregnancy BMI loss did not result in a decreased risk of perinatal complications. In this study, women of normal weight who gain weight before pregnancy were identified as a high‐risk population for perinatal complications. This emphasizes that weight management is important for women of all BMI categories and a pregnancy wish.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Physiological mechanisms underlying children's circannual growth patterns and their contributions to the obesity epidemic in elementary school age children
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Jennette P. Moreno, Stephanie J. Crowley, Candice A. Alfano, Debbe Thompson

    Several studies since the 1990s have demonstrated that children increase their body mass index at a faster rate during summer months compared with the school year, leading some to conclude that the out‐of‐school summer environment is responsible. Other studies, however, have suggested that seasonality may play a role in children's height and weight changes across the year. This article reviews evidence for seasonal differences in the rate of children's height and weight gain and proposes potential physiological mechanisms that may explain these seasonal variations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Translating systems thinking into practice for community action on childhood obesity
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-29
    Steven Allender, Andrew D. Brown, Kristy A. Bolton, Penny Fraser, Janette Lowe, Peter Hovmand

    We report on the first 18 months of two communities' efforts using methods inspired by community‐based participatory system dynamics for the development, implementation, and evaluation of whole of community efforts to improve the health of children. We apply Foster‐Fishman's theoretical framework for characterizing systems change to describe the initiatives. Bounding the system began with defining leaders more broadly than standard health interventions to be those who had the ability to change environments to improve health, including food retailers, government, and business, and using high‐quality childhood monitoring data to define the problem. Widespread access to junk food, barriers to physical activity, and efforts to promote health predominantly through programmatic approaches were identified as potential root causes. System interactions existed in the form of relationships between stakeholder groups and organizations. The approach described built new relationships and strengthened existing relationships. Willingness in taking risks, changing existing practice, and redesigning health promotion work to have a community development focus, were levers for change. This approach has resulted in hundreds of community‐led actions focused on changing norms and environments. Insights from this approach may be useful to support other communities in translating systems theory into systems practice. Further empirical research is recommended to explore the observations in this paper.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A comparison of the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages from 12 countries using the Health Star Rating nutrient profiling system, 2013–2018
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Elizabeth K. Dunford, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Liping Huang, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Boyd Swinburn, Igor Pravst, Lizbeth Tolentino‐Mayo, Marcela Reyes, Mary L'Abbe, Bruce C. Neal

    We compared the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages between selected countries using the Health Star Rating (HSR) nutrient profiling system. Packaged food and beverage data collected 2013–2018 were obtained for Australia, Canada, Chile, China, India, Hong Kong, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa, the UK, and USA. Each product was assigned to a food or beverage category and mean HSR was calculated overall by category and by country. Median energy density (kJ/100 g), saturated fat (g/100 g), total sugars (g/100 g) and sodium (mg/100 g) contents were calculated. Countries were ranked by mean HSR and median nutrient levels. Mean HSR for all products (n = 394,815) was 2.73 (SD 1.38) out of 5.0 (healthiest profile). The UK, USA, Australia and Canada ranked highest for overall nutrient profile (HSR 2.74–2.83) and India, Hong Kong, China and Chile ranked lowest (HSR 2.27–2.44). Countries with higher overall HSR generally ranked better with respect to nutrient levels. India ranked consistently in the least healthy third for all measures. There is considerable variability in the healthiness of packaged foods and beverages in different countries. The finding that packaged foods and beverages are less healthy in middle‐income countries such as China and India suggests that nutrient profiling is an important tool to enable policymakers and industry actors to reformulate products available in the marketplace to reduce the risk of obesity and NCDs among populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The challenge for global health systems in preventing and managing obesity
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Luke Wolfenden, Majid Ezzati, Bagher Larijani, William Dietz

    Few health crises have been as predictable as the unfolding obesity pandemic. Clinical and public health services remain the front line of efforts to reduce the burden of obesity. While a range of clinical practice guidelines exist, the need for clinical interventions exceeds the capacity of health systems to provide care for those affected with obesity, and routine clinical practices fall far short of guidelines recommendations even in high‐income countries. In this manuscript, we discuss current recommendations regarding obesity interventions and key challenges facing global health systems in managing the health needs of people with obesity. Improving the provision of obesity‐related health care is a considerable challenge and will require changing existing perceptions of obesity as a matter of personal failure to its recognition as a disease, innovative approaches to health system reform, clinician capacity building and implementation support, a focus on prevention, and wise resource allocation. Leadership from governments, the medical profession, and patient and community groups to address the issues raised in this manuscript is urgently needed to address the growing health concern.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • BIA‐Obesity (Business Impact Assessment—Obesity and population‐level nutrition): A tool and process to assess food company policies and commitments related to obesity prevention and population nutrition at the national level
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Gary Sacks, Lana Vanderlee, Ella Robinson, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Adrian J. Cameron, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Amanda Lee, See Hoe Ng, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Laura Vergeer, Mary L'Abbé, Boyd Swinburn

    Addressing obesity and improving the diets of populations requires a comprehensive societal response. The need for broad‐based action has led to a focus on accountability of the key factors that influence food environments, including the food and beverage industry. This paper describes the Business Impact Assessment—Obesity and population‐level nutrition (BIA‐Obesity) tool and process for benchmarking food and beverage company policies and practices related to obesity and population‐level nutrition at the national level. The methods for BIA‐Obesity draw largely from relevant components of the Access to Nutrition Index (ATNI), with specific assessment criteria developed for food and nonalcoholic beverage manufacturers, supermarkets, and chain restaurants, based on international recommendations and evidence of best practices related to each sector. The process for implementing the BIA‐Obesity tool involves independent civil society organisations selecting the most prominent food and beverage companies in each country, engaging with the companies to understand their policies and practices, and assessing each company's policies and practices across six domains. The domains include: “corporate strategy,” “product formulation,” “nutrition labelling,” “product and brand promotion,” “product accessibility,” and “relationships with other organisations.” Assessment of company policies is based on their level of transparency, comprehensiveness, and specificity, with reference to best practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A systematic review of system dynamics and agent‐based obesity models: Evaluating obesity as part of the global syndemic
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Alexandra B. Morshed, Matt Kasman, Benjamin Heuberger, Ross A. Hammond, Peter S. Hovmand

    The problem of obesity has recently been reframed as part of the global syndemic—the co‐occurring, interacting pandemics of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change that are driven by common underlying societal drivers. System science modeling approaches may help clarify how these shared drivers operate and the best ways to address them. The objective of this paper was to determine to what extent existing agent‐based and system dynamics computational models of obesity provide insights into the shared drivers of the global syndemic. Peer‐reviewed studies published until July 2018 were identified from Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases. Thirty‐eight studies representing 30 computational models were included. They show a growing use of system dynamics and agent‐based modeling in the past decade. They most often examined mechanisms and interventions in the areas of social network‐based influences on obesity, physiology and disease state mechanics, and the role of food and physical activity environments. Usefulness for identifying common drivers of the global syndemic was mixed; most models represented Western settings and focused on obesity determinants close to the person (eg, social circles, school settings, and neighborhood environments), with a relative paucity in models at mesolevel and macrolevel and in developing country contexts.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Identifying a human rights–based approach to obesity for States and civil society
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    David Patterson, Kent Buse, Roger Magnusson, Brigit Toebes

    Obesity and its comorbidities pose daunting challenges to global health and development in the 21st century. This paper reviews some commonalities between obesity and another global health challenge, the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). International human rights law was an important catalyst for civil society movements that helped to overcome inertia and generate political will for State action in response to HIV and AIDS. Drawing on the HIV experience, the authors propose a conceptual model for a human rights–based response to obesity founded on the twin pillars of State obligations and civil society engagement. Framing States' obligations to address the global obesity pandemic as a matter of international law, informed by the examples of the United Nations “International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights” and the General Comments of the United Nations human rights treaty bodies on HIV and AIDS, provides a normative framework to guide State actions and opportunities to engage the extensive accountability mechanisms of the United Nations international human rights system. In addition, it provides civil society organizations with the language and tools to demand State action on obesity. The authors call for similar authoritative guidance for States on the application of international human rights law to obesity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Association between access to convenience stores and childhood obesity: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Junguo Xin, Li Zhao, Tong Wu, Longhao Zhang, Yan Li, Hong Xue, Qian Xiao, Ruiou Wang, Peiyao Xu, Tommy Visscher, Xiao Ma, Peng Jia

    Childhood obesity increases the risk of adulthood obesity and is associated with other adverse health outcomes later in life. It may be influenced by environmental characteristics of neighborhoods where children live, particularly dietary supply–related environmental factors. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association between access to convenience stores and childhood obesity. We searched and filtered relevant literature in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library published before 1 January 2019. Data on the basic characteristics of studies, measures of access to convenience stores, and associations of convenience stores with weight‐related behaviors and outcomes were extracted from 41 included studies. In general, the density of and proximity to convenience stores in children's residential and school neighborhoods were positively associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. However, their associations with children's weight status varied significantly by regions. The association between convenience store access and children's weight status was found to be negative in Canada, rather mixed in the United States and the United Kingdom, and not significant in East Asia. We suggest future research to clearly define the convenience store, better measure the access to convenience store, and also measure children's journey and food purchasing and consumption behaviors, to explain pathways from convenience store access to childhood obesity for designing effective interventions and policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Anticipatory effects of the implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labeling and Advertising on food and beverage product reformulation
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Rebecca Kanter, Marcela Reyes, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Boyd Swinburn, Camila Corvalán

    This study evaluated the anticipated food and beverage product reformulation by industry before the Chilean Law of Food Labeling and Advertising (Law 20.606) was implemented in June 2016 requiring a front‐of‐package (FOP) warning label for products high in sodium, total sugars, saturated fats, and/or total energy. Fieldworkers photographed a purposive sample of packaged food and beverage products in February 2015 (n = 5421) and February 2016 (n = 5479) from six different supermarkets in Santiago, Chile. The same products collected in both years (n = 2086) from 17 food and beverage categories with added critical nutrients (nutrients of concern: sodium, total sugars, and saturated fats) were included in this longitudinal study. The average change in energy and critical nutrient content was estimated by category. The number of warning labels potentially avoided because of reformulation was determined. Between February 2015 and February 2016, no category experienced reductions >5% average change in energy or critical nutrient content; and some increased in critical nutrient content. Few products (<2%) would have avoided at least one warning label with reformulation. In a diverse sample of food and beverage products, there was minimal reformulation by industry in anticipation of the implementation of the 2016 Chilean Law of Food Labeling and Advertising.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Generating political commitment for ending malnutrition in all its forms: A system dynamics approach for strengthening nutrition actor networks
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Phillip Baker, Andrew D. Brown, Kate Wingrove, Steve Allender, Helen Walls, Katherine Cullerton, Amanda Lee, Alessandro Demaio, Mark Lawrence

    Generating political commitment for ending all forms of malnutrition represents a key challenge for the global nutrition community. Without commitment, the policies, programs, and resources needed to improve nutrition are unlikely to be adopted, effectively implemented, nor sustained. One essential driver of commitment is nutrition actor network (NAN) effectiveness, the web of individuals and organizations operating within a given country who share a common interest in improving nutrition and who act collectively to do so. To inform new thinking and action towards strengthening NAN effectiveness, we use a systems dynamics theoretical approach and literature review to build initial causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of political commitment and NAN effectiveness and a qualitative group model building (GMB) method involving an expert workshop to strengthen model validity. First, a “nutrition commitment system” CLD demonstrates how five interrelated forms of commitment—rhetorical, institutional, operational, embedded, and system‐wide—can dynamically reinforce or diminish one another over time. Second, we present CLDs demonstrating factors shaping NAN effectiveness organized into three categories: actor features, resources, and capacities; framing strategies, evidence, and norms; and institutional, political, and societal contexts. Together, these models generate hypotheses on how political commitment and NAN effectiveness could be strengthened in future and may provide potential starting points for country‐specific conversations for doing so.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Global trends in ultraprocessed food and drink product sales and their association with adult body mass index trajectories
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Stefanie Vandevijvere, Lindsay M. Jaacks, Carlos A. Monteiro, Jean‐Claude Moubarac, Martin Girling‐Butcher, Arier C. Lee, An Pan, James Bentham, Boyd Swinburn

    This study evaluated global trends in ultraprocessed food and drink (UPFD) volume sales/capita and associations with adult body mass index (BMI) trajectories. Total food/drink volume sales/capita from Euromonitor for 80 countries (2002‐2016) were matched to mean adult BMI from the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2002‐2014). Products were classified as UPFD/non‐UPFD according to the NOVA classification system. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyse associations between UPFD volume sales/capita and adult BMI trajectories, controlling for confounding factors. The increase in UPF volume sales was highest for South and Southeast Asia (67.3%) and North Africa and the Middle East (57.6%), while for UPD, the increase was highest for South and Southeast Asia (120.0%) and Africa (70.7%). In 2016, baked goods were the biggest contributor to UPF volume sales (13.1%‐44.5%), while carbonated drinks were the biggest contributor to UPD volume sales (40.2%‐86.0%). For every standard deviation increase (51 kg/capita, 2002) in UPD volume sales, mean BMI increased by 0.195 kg/m2 for men (P < .001) and 0.072 kg/m2 for women (P = .003). For every standard deviation (40 kg/capita, 2002) increase in UPF volume sales, mean BMI increased by 0.316 kg/m2 for men (P < .001), while the association was not significant for women. Increases in UPFD volume sales/capita were positively associated with population‐level BMI trajectories.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An accountability evaluation for the International Food & Beverage Alliance's Global Policy on Marketing Communications to Children to reduce obesity: A narrative review to inform policy
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Vivica I. Kraak, Sofia Rincón‐Gallardo Patiño, Gary Sacks

    United Nations (UN) organizations have urged governments to restrict the marketing of unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage products to children. This study conducted an accountability evaluation for the International Food & Beverage Alliance's (IFBA's) Global Policy on Marketing Communications to Children (Global Policy) compared with UN and other best‐practice recommendations. We used the National Academy of Medicine's LEAD (ie, locate, evaluate, assemble evidence to inform decisions) framework to identify evidence (January 2004 to October 2018). We assigned a progress score (ie, none, limited, some, extensive) for five accountability steps. No progress was made to appoint an empowered body to evaluate IFBA's Global Policy. IFBA and the Access to Nutrition Foundation made some progress to take and share the account. Diverse actors made no progress to hold IFBA to account for nonadherence or to strengthen accountability structures for future compliance. IFBA could strengthen its Global Policy to align with best practices. UN organizations and other stakeholders should encourage IFBA firms to restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to reduce children's obesity risk. This evaluation is relevant to all firms and industry associations that market products to children that undermine their diet and health.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Global benchmarking of children's exposure to television advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages across 22 countries
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-04-11
    Bridget Kelly, Stefanie Vandevijvere, SeeHoe Ng, Jean Adams, Lorena Allemandi, Liliana Bahena‐Espina, Simon Barquera, Emma Boyland, Paul Calleja, Isabel Cristina Carmona‐Garcés, Luciana Castronuovo, Daniel Cauchi, Teresa Correa, Camila Corvalán, Emma Lucia Cosenza‐Quintana, Carlos Fernández‐Escobar, Laura I. González‐Zapata, Jason Halford, Nongnuch Jaichuen, Melissa L. Jensen, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Asha Kaur, María F. Kroker‐Lobos, Zandile Mchiza, Krista Miklavec, Whadi‐ah Parker, Monique Potvin Kent, Igor Pravst, Manuel Ramírez‐Zea, Sascha Reiff, Marcela Reyes, Miguel Ángel Royo‐Bordonada, Putthipanya Rueangsom, Peter Scarborough, Maria Victoria Tiscornia, Lizbeth Tolentino‐Mayo, Jillian Wate, Martin White, Irina Zamora‐Corrales, Lingxia Zeng, Boyd Swinburn

    Restricting children's exposures to marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages is a global obesity prevention priority. Monitoring marketing exposures supports informed policymaking. This study presents a global overview of children's television advertising exposure to healthy and unhealthy products. Twenty‐two countries contributed data, captured between 2008 and 2017. Advertisements were coded for the nature of foods and beverages, using the 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Nutrient Profile Model (should be permitted/not‐permitted to be advertised). Peak viewing times were defined as the top five hour timeslots for children. On average, there were four times more advertisements for foods/beverages that should not be permitted than for permitted foods/beverages. The frequency of food/beverages advertisements that should not be permitted per hour was higher during peak viewing times compared with other times (P < 0.001). During peak viewing times, food and beverage advertisements that should not be permitted were higher in countries with industry self‐regulatory programmes for responsible advertising compared with countries with no policies. Globally, children are exposed to a large volume of television advertisements for unhealthy foods and beverages, despite the implementation of food industry programmes. Governments should enact regulation to protect children from television advertising of unhealthy products that undermine their health.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The INFORMAS healthy food environment policy index (Food‐EPI) in Mexico: An assessment of implementation gaps and priority recommendations
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-01-07
    Claudia Nieto, Estefania Rodríguez, Karina Sánchez‐Bazán, Lizbeth Tolentino‐Mayo, Angela Carriedo‐Lutzenkirchen, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Simón Barquera

    Mexico is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of obesity and recently declared a national epidemic of diabetes. Healthy food environments have the potential to improve the diet of the population and decrease the burden of disease. The aim of the study was to assess the efforts of the Mexican Government towards creating healthier food environments using the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food‐EPI). The tool was developed by the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non‐communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS). Then, it was adapted to the Latin‐American context and assessed the components of policy and infrastructure support. Actors from academia, civil society, government, and food industry assessed the level of implementation of food policies compared with international best practices. Actors were classified as (1) independents from academia and civil society (n = 36), (2) government (n = 28), and (3) industry (n = 6). The indicators with the highest percentage of implementation were those related to monitoring and intelligence. Those related to food retail were rated lowest. When stratified by type of actor, the government officials rated several indicators at a higher percentage of implementation compared with independent actors. None of the indicators were rated at high implementation. Government officials and independent actors agreed upon nine priority actions to improve the food environment in Mexico. These actions have the potential to improve government commitment and advocacy efforts to create healthier food environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An 11‐country study to benchmark the implementation of recommended nutrition policies by national governments using the Healthy Food Environment Policy Index, 2015‐2018
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    Stefanie Vandevijvere, Simon Barquera, Gabriela Caceres, Camila Corvalan, Tilakavati Karupaiah, Maria Fernanda Kroker‐Lobos, Mary L'Abbé, See Hoe Ng, Sirinya Phulkerd, Manuel Ramirez‐Zea, Salome A. Rebello, Marcela Reyes, Gary Sacks, Carmen María Sánchez Nóchez, Karina Sanchez, David Sanders, Mark Spires, Rina Swart, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Zoey Tay, Anna Taylor, Lizbeth Tolentino‐Mayo, Rob Van Dam, Lana Vanderlee, Fiona Watson, Clare Whitton, Boyd Swinburn

    The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food‐EPI) aims to assess the extent of implementation of recommended food environment policies by governments compared with international best practices and prioritize actions to fill implementation gaps. The Food‐EPI was applied in 11 countries across six regions (2015‐2018). National public health nutrition panels (n = 11‐101 experts) rated the extent of implementation of 47 policy and infrastructure support good practice indicators by their government(s) against best practices, using an evidence document verified by government officials. Experts identified and prioritized actions to address implementation gaps. The proportion of indicators at “very low if any,” “low,” “medium,” and “high” implementation, overall Food‐EPI scores, and priority action areas were compared across countries. Inter‐rater reliability was good (GwetAC2 = 0.6‐0.8). Chile had the highest proportion of policies (13%) rated at “high” implementation, while Guatemala had the highest proportion of policies (83%) rated at “very low if any” implementation. The overall Food‐EPI score was “medium” for Australia, England, Chile, and Singapore, while “very low if any” for Guatemala. Policy areas most frequently prioritized included taxes on unhealthy foods, restricting unhealthy food promotion and front‐of‐pack labelling. The Food‐EPI was found to be a robust tool and process to benchmark governments' progress to create healthy food environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Bariatric surgery is a cost‐saving treatment for obesity—A comprehensive meta‐analysis and updated systematic review of health economic evaluations of bariatric surgery
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Qing Xia, Julie A. Campbell, Hasnat Ahmad, Lei Si, Barbara de Graaff, Andrew J. Palmer

    Demand for bariatric surgery to treat severe and resistant obesity far outstrips supply. We aimed to comprehensively synthesise health economic evidence regarding bariatric surgery from 1995 to 2018 (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018094189). Meta‐analyses were conducted to calculate the annual cost changes “before” and “after” surgery, and cumulative cost differences between surgical and nonsurgical groups. An updated narrative review also summarized the full and partial health economic evaluations of surgery from September 2015. N = 101 studies were eligible for the qualitative analyses since 1995, with n = 24 studies after September 2015. Quality of reporting has increased, and the inclusion of complications/reoperations was predominantly contained in the full economic evaluations after September 2015. Technical improvements in surgery were also reflected across the studies. Sixty‐one studies were eligible for the quantitative meta‐analyses. Compared with no/conventional treatment, surgery was cost saving over a lifetime scenario. Additionally, consideration of indirect costs through sensitivity analyses increased cost savings. Medication cost savings were dominant in the before versus after meta‐analysis. Overall, bariatric surgery is cost saving over the life course even without considering indirect costs. Health economists are hearing the call to present higher quality studies and include the costs of complications/reoperations; however, indirect costs and body contouring surgery are still not appropriately considered.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • A scoping review on economic globalization in relation to the obesity epidemic
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Ruopeng An, Jing Shen, Tiffany Bullard, Yu Han, Dingyi Qiu, Shiman Wang

    This study reviewed evidence linking economic globalization to the obesity epidemic. Keyword/reference search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EconLit, Google Scholar, and BMC Globalization and Health. A total of 16 studies were identified, in which six adopted a cross‐sectional study design, nine adopted a longitudinal study design, and the remaining one adopted a case‐control study design. Thirteen studies assessed the relationship between economic globalization and obesity at the country level, whereas the remaining three analyzed individual‐level data. Fourteen studies found at least one aspect and/or measure of economic globalization to be positively associated with overweight/obesity, one found an inverse association, and the remaining one reported a null finding. Through market deregulation, tariff reduction, and investment liberalization, economic globalization tends to accelerate the market entry of modern food manufacturers, supermarket chains, and fast‐food restaurants, resulting in substantially increased supply of high‐sugar/fat energy‐dense foods with enhanced variety and accessibility and reduced price. The potential impact of economic globalization on obesity through the adoption of modern workplace and domestic technologies and motorized transportation and through changes in social norms and culture were hypothesized in the literature but not empirically examined, which warrants future data‐driven research.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Depression subtypes and obesity in adults: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Daniela Alves Silva, Evandro da Silva Freire Coutinho, Lara Onofre Ferriani, Maria Carmen Viana

    Examining clinical features of depressive episodes may help elucidating the nature of association between depression and obesity, related to specific symptoms such as appetite and weight changes. This meta‐analysis of observational studies evaluated whether subtypes of depression are associated with specific anthropometric profiles in adults. We searched MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science databases, and Grey Literature for articles published up to October 2016 that examined depressive subtypes and adiposity measures among adults. The pooled effect size was estimated with random effects models. The PRISMA guidelines were adopted to reporting results, and this review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016035685). A total of 22 articles were included in this systematic review, of which eight had data included in the meta‐analysis, assessing 14 757 individuals with depression. Patients with atypical depression presented a 2.55 higher BMI score compared with those with melancholic depression. Subgroup analysis identified a differential distribution of anthropometric measures in studies conducted with Chinese populations. Among the remainder studies, only one reported discrepant results, possibly due to the exclusion of “weight change” in defining subtypes of depression. Atypical depression was significantly associated with elevated BMI compared with melancholic depression, deserving particular attention due to its clinical importance.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Obesity and dental caries in early childhood: A systematic review and meta‐analyses
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Narendar Manohar, Andrew Hayen, Paul Fahey, Amit Arora

    Obesity and dental caries in children are significant health problems. The aims of this review are to identify whether children aged 6 years and younger with overweight and/or obesity have higher dental caries experience compared with children with normal weight and, secondly, to identify the common risk factors associated with both conditions. Medline, Embase, and seven other databases were systematically searched followed by lateral searches from reference lists, grey literature, theses, conference proceedings, and contacting field experts. Longitudinal observational studies addressing overweight and/or obesity and dental caries in children aged 6 years and younger were included. A random effects model meta‐analyses were applied. Nine studies were included in this review. Children with overweight and obesity had a significantly higher dental caries experience compared with children with normal weight (n = 6). The pooled estimates showed that difference in caries experience between the two groups was statistically significant. Low levels of parental income and education were identified to be associated with both conditions in the sample population. Children with overweight and obesity are more vulnerable to dental caries. Low levels of parental income and education influence the relationship between the two conditions. However, the quality of evidence varied considerably; therefore, findings should be interpreted cautiously.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Built environment for physical activity—An urban barometer, surveillance, and monitoring
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Raji Devarajan, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Shifalika Goenka

    The Lancet Commission on Obesity (LCO), also known as the “syndemic commission,” states that radical changes are required to harness the common drivers of “obesity, undernutrition, and climate change.” Urban design, land use, and the built environment are few such drivers. Holding individuals responsible for obesity detracts from the obesogenic built environments. Pedestrian priority and dignity, wide pavements with tree canopies, water fountains with potable water, benches for the elderly at regular intervals, access to open‐green spaces within 0.5‐km radius and playgrounds in schools are required. Facilities for physical activity at worksite, prioritization of staircases and ramps in building construction, redistribution of land use, and access to quality, adequate capacity, comfortable, and well‐networked public transport, which are elderly and differently abled sensitive with universal design are some of the interventions that require urgent implementation and monitoring. An urban barometer consisting of valid relevant indicators aligned to the sustainable development goals (SDGs), UN‐Habitat‐3 and healthy cities, should be considered a basic human right and ought to be mounted for purposes of surveillance and monitoring. A “Framework Convention on Built Environment and Physical Activity” needs to be taken up by WHO and the UN for uptake and implementation by member countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Experimental and observational studies on alcohol use and dietary intake: a systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Jenna R. Cummings, Ashley N. Gearhardt, Lara A. Ray, Alyssa K. Choi, A. Janet Tomiyama

    The scientific literature on links among alcohol use, total energy intake, cardiometabolic disease and obesity is conflicting. To clarify the link between alcohol use and cardiometabolic health, this systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42016039308A) uses PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses) guidelines to synthesize how alcohol use affects dietary intake (carbohydrate, fat and protein intake) in humans. A search of Google Scholar, PsycINFO and PubMed from June 2016‐March 2019 yielded 30 qualified studies. Experimental and observational studies allowed for inferences about effects of a single drinking occasion and of frequent drinking, respectively. Alcohol quantities were standardized according to the 2015‐2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. On average, methodological quality of the studies was medium strength. Results indicated that a single occasion of light and moderate drinking as well as frequent light and moderate drinking were linked to greater fat and protein intake, albeit the majority of studies did not detect differences in dietary intake due to these drinking behaviours. Frequent heavy drinking, on the other hand, was linked to less carbohydrate intake in the majority of studies. Overall, alcohol use does not appear to uniformly affect diet but instead appears to affect intake of specific macronutrients in a dose‐dependent manner, most consistently decreasing carbohydrate intake with heavier use.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • The challenge of keeping it off, a descriptive systematic review of high‐quality, follow‐up studies of obesity treatments
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Morten Nordmo, Yngvild Sørebø Danielsen, Magnus Nordmo

    The aim of this systematic review is to answer the question: Is substantial, stable, and long‐term weight loss a viable goal for adults with obesity? To answer this question, we conducted a broad systematic search of non‐surgical and non‐pharmacological obesity treatment studies with the following strict criteria: (a) minimum 3‐year follow‐up, (b) 5% body mass lost, (c) no continued interventions in the follow‐up‐period, (d) prospective design, and (e) less than 30% attrition from the start of the follow‐up period. While the search revealed a very large number of published articles, only eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of the nonincluded studies report a majority of participants achieving satisfactory weight loss and little regain, especially among studies with continued interventions during the follow‐up period. In contrast, the eight high‐quality studies included in this study demonstrate a trend of weight regain towards pretreatment baseline. This review concludes that the majority of high‐quality follow‐up treatment studies of individuals with obesity are not successful in maintaining weight loss over time. The results suggest that excess weight can be lost but is likely regained over time, for the majority of participants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metformin in pregnancy to avert gestational diabetes in women at high risk: Meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Suhail A.R. Doi, Luis Furuya‐Kanamori, Egon Toft, Omran A.H. Musa, Nazmul Islam, Justin Clark, Lukman Thalib

    Previous randomized and observational studies on the efficacy of metformin in pregnancy to reduce incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women at high risk (obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS], or pregestational insulin resistance) have been conflicting and several groups are planning further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to answer this question conclusively. This work assesses the efficacy of metformin in pregnancy to avert one outcome—incident GDM in women at high risk. We included RCTs comparing metformin with usual care or placebo controls in terms of incident GDM and recruiting women at high risk during early pregnancy. Eleven eligible trials enrolled 2370 adult women whose intervention arm consisted of metformin started at conception or before 20 weeks of gestation. Risk of GDM was similar in intervention compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85‐1.24). The data were of sufficient quality meeting the criteria for consistency and directness. We conclude that metformin does not contribute to averting the GDM outcome in women at high risk when initiated in pregnancy. The evidence provided by this synthesis affirms that further broad clinical trials investigating this question are no longer needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microbiome‐immune‐metabolic axis in the epidemic of childhood obesity: Evidence and opportunities
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Halle J. Kincaid, Ravinder Nagpal, Hariom Yadav

    Obesity epidemic responsible for increase in diabetes, heart diseases, infections and cancer shows no signs of abating. Obesity in children is also on rise, indicating the urgent need of strategies for prevention and intervention that must begin in early life. While originally posited that obesity results from the simple concept of consuming more calories, or genetics, emerging research suggests that the bacteria living in our gut (gut microbiome) and its interactions with immune cells and metabolic organs including adipose tissues (microbiome‐immune‐metabolic axis) play significant role in obesity development in childhood. Specifically, abnormal changes (dysbiosis) in the gut microbiome, stimulation of inflammatory cytokines, and shifts in the metabolic functions of brown adipose tissue and the browning of white adipose tissue are associated with increased obesity. Many factors from as early as gestation appear to contribute in obesity, such as maternal health, diet, antibiotic use by mother and/or child, and birth and feeding methods. Herein, using evidence from animal and human studies, we discuss how these factors impact microbiome‐immune‐metabolic axis and cause obesity epidemic in children, and describe the gaps in knowledge that are warranted for future research.

    更新日期:2019-10-30
  • Grocery store access and childhood obesity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Yamei Li, Miyang Luo, Xinyin Wu, Qian Xiao, Jiayou Luo, Peng Jia

    Grocery store is usually considered to be a healthy food outlet as it provides access to a variety of healthy food, such as fruits and vegetables, which may potentially improve overall dietary quality and protect against obesity. However, findings of the association between grocery store and childhood obesity are controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association between access to grocery stores and childhood obesity. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for articles published before January 1, 2019, using the combinations of three groups of keywords separately for grocery store, children and adolescents, and weight‐related behaviours and outcomes. A total of 27 cross‐sectional and eight longitudinal studies were identified. Controversial results existed among 24 studies, which examined the association between the access to grocery stores and weight‐related outcomes. A null association was observed in almost all meta‐analyses conducted by different measures of grocery stores and weight status, except the analysis between presence of grocery stores and overweight, which reached borderline significance. For weight‐related behaviours, mixed findings were reported between grocery stores and dietary behaviours, and no significant associations were found for physical activity. This systematic review and meta‐analysis suggested that access to grocery stores may have a rather small influence on child weight.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Associations between maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring obesity risk later in life—A systematic literature review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Nishan Lamichhane, Nanna Julie Olsen, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Carsten Obel, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann, Mina Nicole Händel

    Exposure to prenatal stress is linked to health consequences in the offspring. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize and critically appraise primary human studies that have examined the association between prenatal exposure to psychosocial stress, or adverse life events, stress hormones, and later risk of developing obesity. We searched Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, WorldCat, and OpenGrey up to January 2019 to identify relevant literature. We critically appraised the identified studies, assessed their quality, and summarized their findings. From a total of 5930 search results and references of studies that authors considered pertinent, we identified 15 relevant studies among which three were of high quality and the rest were medium‐quality studies. We found direct association between exposure to stress in fetal life and different measures of obesity in the offspring in eight studies. The direct association was usually observed in studies that involved measurement of stress among mothers exposed to natural disasters. Due to lack of adequate and comparable data from the included studies, we did not conduct a meta‐analysis. We concluded that there may be direct association between prenatal stress and later obesity, but further research with more comparable sources of stressors is recommended.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Longitudinal changes in moderate‐to‐vigorous‐intensity physical activity in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Abdulaziz Farooq, Anne Martin, Xanne Janssen, Mathew G. Wilson, Ann‐Marie Gibson, Adrienne Hughes, John J. Reilly

    Moderate‐to‐vigorous‐intensity physical activity (MVPA) is important for childhood obesity prevention and treatment, yet declines with age. Timing and magnitude of the decline in MVPA in children and adolescents are unclear but important for informing effective obesity intervention development. This systematic review aimed to determine and compare the year‐to‐year changes in MVPA among children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies were identified by searching 10 relevant databases up to December 2018. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported accelerometer‐assessed MVPA (min day−1) separately for boys and girls and had follow‐up duration of at least 1 year. After screening 9,232 studies, 52 were included representing 22,091 aged 3 to 18 year olds (boys=8,857; girls=13,234). Pooled‐analysis of the relative change in MVPA per year showed a decline of −3.4% (95% CI, −5.9 to −0.9) in boys and −5.3% (95% CI, −7.6 to −3.1) in girls, across all age groups. There were notable declines in MVPA at age 9 for both boys (−7.8%, 95% CI, −11.2 to −4.4) and girls (−10.2%, 95% CI, −14.2 to −6.3). The relative decline in MVPA affects both sexes from an early age; however, it is greater among girls. Interventions to promote MVPA should start before adolescence.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Prevalence of healthy and unhealthy food and beverage price promotions and their potential influence on shopper purchasing behaviour: A systematic review of the literature
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Rebecca Bennett, Christina Zorbas, Oliver Huse, Anna Peeters, Adrian J. Cameron, Gary Sacks, Kathryn Backholer

    Policies to restrict unhealthy food and beverage price promotions have been recommended, as part of a broader strategy to reduce obesity, but little evidence underpins such recommendations. We aimed to synthesize the literature on the prevalence of healthy and unhealthy food and beverage price promotions and their potential influence on purchasing behaviour. Eight scientific databases (covering health, business, and marketing) and grey literature were systematically searched using search terms related to “food and beverage price promotions” up until July 2019. Articles were included if they examined prevalence of, and/or consumer response to, food and non‐alcoholic beverage price promotions, from a nutritional perspective. Of the 16 included studies, eight examined the prevalence of price promotions and eight examined the potential influence of price promotions on purchasing behaviour. Seven of the “prevalence” studies found that price promotions were more common for unhealthy foods and beverages. Seven “influence” studies found a greater proportion of price‐promoted purchases were for unhealthy compared with healthy products. Policies that reduce the prevalence and/or influence of price promotions on unhealthy foods and beverages may shift consumer purchasing away from unhealthy foods and beverages. Empirical studies are required to better understand how consumers and industry may respond to such policies.

    更新日期:2019-10-21
  • The risk of overweight and obesity in children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Chanaka N. Kahathuduwa, Blake D. West, Jessica Blume, Nagaraju Dharavath, Naima Moustaid‐Moussa, Ann Mastergeorge

    Multiple studies have suggested that autism spectrum disorders seem to increase the risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the pooled prevalence and relative risk of developing overweight or obesity among children with autism spectrum disorders in a systematic review and meta‐analysis. We searched PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases and subsequently screened the records to identify studies that reported prevalence of overweight and/or obesity in children with ASD and matched groups of neurotypical children. DerSimonian‐Laird random‐effects meta‐analyses were performed to examine pooled prevalence and relative risk of obesity in children with autism spectrum disorders using the “meta” package in R software. Among children with autism spectrum disorders, the prevalence of obesity was 22.2%. Children with ASD had a 41.1% greater risk (P = .018) of development of obesity. Non‐Caucasian race, increasing age, female sex, and living in the United States emerged as positive moderators of the association between autism spectrum disorders and prevalence of overweight or obesity. Autism spectrum disorders seem to increase the risk of childhood obesity. Increased awareness of this association may allow the implementation of early interventions to reduce obesity and prevent potential deterioration of quality‐of‐life in this population.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Effects of antidepressant and antipsychotic use on weight gain: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Lucia Alonso‐Pedrero, Maira Bes‐Rastrollo, Amelia Marti

    Weight gain is an adverse effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics. This side effect can lead to numerous comorbidities and reduces life expectancy. The use of these drugs is increasing worldwide, and the weight gain produced by them represents a common clinical challenge. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the potential association of antidepressant and antipsychotic therapy with body weight gain in cohort studies. A search of cohort studies investigating the association between weight gain and the use of antidepressants and antipsychotics in individuals was conducted through the PubMed database from 1 January 2008 to 31 January 2019 following the PRISMA statement. We found 27 independent eligible cohort studies that included children (2‐18 years old) and adult (18‐103 years old) subjects. Most of the included studies showed a 5% weight gain in individuals using antidepressant therapy. However, Quetiapine, Haloperidol, Trifluoperazine, Risperidone, Aripiprazole, Olanzapine, and Clozapine increased body weight ≥7% from baseline, which is considered a clinically significant result. Weight loss was found in individuals treated with Bupropion. Further cohort studies with higher sample sizes and longer durations of treatment are needed to confirm our observations.

    更新日期:2019-09-16
  • Fast‐food restaurant, unhealthy eating, and childhood obesity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Peng Jia, Miyang Luo, Yamei Li, Ju‐Sheng Zheng, Qian Xiao, Jiayou Luo

    Excessive access to fast‐food restaurants (FFRs) in the neighbourhood is thought to be a risk factor for childhood obesity by discouraging healthful dietary behaviours while encouraging the exposure to unhealthful food venues and hence the compensatory intake of unhealthy food option. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase for articles published until 1 January 2019 that analysed the association between access to FFRs and weight‐related behaviours and outcomes among children aged younger than 18. Sixteen cohort studies and 71 cross‐sectional studies conducted in 14 countries were identified. While higher FFR access was not associated with weight‐related behaviours (eg, dietary quality score and frequency of food consumption) in most studies, it was commonly associated with more fast‐food consumption. Despite that, insignificant results were observed for all meta‐analyses conducted by different measures of FFR access in the neighbourhood and weight‐related outcomes, although 17 of 39 studies reported positive associations when using overweight/obesity as the outcome. This systematic review and meta‐analysis revealed a rather mixed relationship between FFR access and weight‐related behaviours/outcomes among children and adolescents.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
  • Street connectivity, physical activity, and childhood obesity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Peng Jia, Yuxuan Zou, Zhifeng Wu, Dong Zhang, Tong Wu, Melody Smith, Qian Xiao

    Street connectivity, as a neighbourhood built environmental factor, may affect individual physical activity (PA) and subsequently weight status. However, these associations remain inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the association between street connectivity and childhood obesity. A literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science for articles published before January 1, 2019. All original studies that investigated the association between street connectivity and weight‐related behaviours or outcomes among children and adolescents were included. Forty‐seven articles were identified, including eight longitudinal and 41 cross‐sectional studies conducted in eight countries. The sample size ranged from 88 to 46 813. Street intersection density (SID), measured by Geographic Information Systems in 36 studies and reported in 13 studies, was the main indicator used to represent street connectivity. Forty‐four studies examined the association between SID and weight‐related behaviours, including overall PA (n = 15), moderate‐to‐vigorous PA (n = 13), active transport (n = 12), dog walking (n = 1), walking (n = 1), sedentary behaviours (n = 2), and TV viewing (n = 1). Fifteen studies focused on the association between SID and weight‐related outcomes. Overall, evidence from this systematic review and meta‐analyses suggested a positive association between street connectivity and PA. However, it was difficult to draw a conclusion on the association between street connectivity and BMI. More longitudinal evidence is needed to confirm the causal association between street connectivity and weight status.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
  • The association between weight stigma and mental health: A meta‐analysis
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Christine Emmer, Michael Bosnjak, Jutta Mata

    In recent years, there has been considerable research on the relation between weight stigma and mental health, but no quantitative synthesis of the empirical evidence is available to date. This meta‐analysis (105 studies, 59 172 participants, and 497 effect sizes) fills this gap by quantifying the association between weight stigma and mental health. Age, gender, and factors presumed to exert a protective role (i.e., adaptive coping strategies and perceived social support) were tested as potential moderators. The three‐level meta‐analytic model estimated under a random effects assumption revealed a medium to large negative association between weight stigma and mental health (r = −0.35). The overall association remained significant when controlling for publication year, education, and body weight. There was substantial heterogeneity in effect sizes between studies (I2 = 43%) and within studies (I2 = 56%). Surprisingly, all moderator hypotheses had to be rejected. Body weight was a significant moderator, indicating a stronger association between weight stigma and diminished mental health with increasing body mass index. Future research might focus on explaining the heterogeneity of findings and on testing causality as well as potential underlying mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
  • Optimum waist circumference‐height indices for evaluating adult adiposity: An analytic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Phoenix Hwaung, Moonseong Heo, Samantha Kennedy, Sangmo Hong, Diana M. Thomas, John Shepherd, Steven B. Heymsfield

    Phenotyping adults for excess adiposity and related health risks usually include three body size measurements: height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Height and weight are now widely used as components of the body shape measure, body mass index (BMI, weight/height2), with the height power referred to as the scaling factor, α. At present, WC is usually not adjusted for height or is expressed as WC/height in which α = 1. Although other α values have been proposed, a critical review of these shape measures is lacking. Here, we examine classical pathways by which the scaling exponent for height used in BMI was developed and then apply this strategy to identify the optimum WC index characteristic of adult shape. Our analyses explored anthropometric, body composition and clinically‐relevant data from US and Korean National Health and Nutrition Surveys. Our findings provide further support for the WC index of WC/height0.5 as having the strongest associations with adiposity while having the weakest correlations with height across non‐Hispanic white and black, Mexican American and Korean men and women. The WC index, defined as WC/height0.5, when combined with BMI, can play an important role when phenotyping adults for excess adiposity and associated health risks in research and clinical settings.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
  • The first INFORMAS national food environments and policies survey in New Zealand: A blueprint country profile for measuring progress on creating healthy food environments
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Stefanie Vandevijvere, Sally Mackay, Erica D'Souza, Boyd Swinburn

    The International Network for Food and Obesity/NCDs Research, Monitoring and Action Support aims to benchmark national food environments. This study proposes a blueprint country profile to measure progress on creating healthy food environments, based on the results of the first, comprehensive survey in New Zealand (NZ). We assessed the implementation of national food environment policies and food industry commitments to improve population nutrition and the strength and comprehensiveness of public sector settings' nutrition policies. The healthiness of the packaged food supply, including health‐related labelling, was evaluated. Food environments were measured in 833 schools, 204 supermarkets, 1500 takeaway outlets, 28 hospitals, 70 sport centres, and around all NZ schools. Food swamps, defined as areas with high relative density of unhealthy food outlets, were identified, and food marketing to children on television, websites, social media and packages, in magazines, and in and around schools was measured. The cost differential between healthy and current household diets was calculated for different population groups. NZ's food environment profile is largely unhealthy, and there are inequalities in access to healthy food environments. It is anticipated that the proposed country profile can help other countries tackle unhealthy food environments through increasing accountability of governments and the industry.

    更新日期:2019-09-05
  • Neighborhood supermarket access and childhood obesity: A systematic review†
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Qian Zhou, Li Zhao, Longhao Zhang, Qian Xiao, Tong Wu, Tommy Visscher, Jinfeng Zhao, Junguo Xin, Xueshuang Yu, Hong Xue, Hong Li, Jay Pan, Peng Jia

    Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing public health issues nowadays. The environmental factors have been identified as potential risks for obesity, as they may influence people's lifestyle behaviours. Lack of access to supermarkets that usually provide healthy food options has been found to be a risk factor for childhood obesity in several studies. However, findings remained inconclusive. We aimed to systematically review the association between access to supermarkets and childhood obesity. A literature search was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase for studies published before 1 January 2019. Twenty‐four studies conducted in four countries were identified, from which data on the basic characteristics of studies and participants, measures of access to supermarkets, and associations between access to supermarkets and weight‐related behaviours and outcomes were extracted. The median sample size was 1858 participants. Half of the included studies indicated a negative association, one fourth reported a positive association, and the remaining one fourth did not find a significant association. Better designed studies are necessary to achieve a robust understanding of this epidemiological relationship in the future.

    更新日期:2019-09-04
  • Emerging role of m6A RNA methylation in nutritional physiology and metabolism
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Jiamin Wu, Katya Frazier, Jingfei Zhang, Zhending Gan, Tian Wang, Xiang Zhong

    N6‐methyladenine (m6A) is the most prevalent type of internal RNA methylation in eukaryotic mRNA and plays critical roles in regulating gene expression for fundamental cellular processes and diverse physiological functions. Recent evidence indicates that m6A methylation regulates physiology and metabolism, and m6A has been increasingly implicated in a variety of human diseases, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Conversely, nutrition and diet can modulate or reverse m6A methylation patterns on gene expression. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the study of the m6A methylation mechanisms and highlight the crosstalk between m6A modification, nutritional physiology and metabolism.

    更新日期:2019-09-03
  • Gene‐lifestyle interaction on risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Obes. Rev. (IF 8.192) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Stefan Dietrich, Simone Jacobs, Ju‐Sheng Zheng, Karina Meidtner, Lukas Schwingshackl, Matthias B. Schulze

    The pathophysiological influence of gene‐lifestyle interactions on the risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) is currently under intensive research. This systematic review summarizes the evidence for gene‐lifestyle interactions regarding T2D incidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched until 31 January 2019 to identify publication with (a) prospective study design; (b) T2D incidence; (c) gene‐diet, gene‐physical activity, and gene‐weight loss intervention interaction; and (d) population who are healthy or prediabetic. Of 66 eligible publications, 28 reported significant interactions. A variety of different genetic variants and dietary factors were studied. Variants at TCF7L2 were most frequently investigated and showed interactions with fiber and whole grain on T2D incidence. Further gene‐diet interactions were reported for, eg, a western dietary pattern with a T2D‐GRS, fat and carbohydrate with IRS1 rs2943641, and heme iron with variants of HFE. Physical activity showed interaction with HNF1B, IRS1, PPARγ, ADRA2B, SLC2A2, and ABCC8 variants and weight loss interventions with ENPP1, PPARγ, ADIPOR2, ADRA2B, TNFα, and LIPC variants. However, most findings represent single study findings obtained in European ethnicities. Although some interactions have been reported, their conclusiveness is still low, as most findings were not yet replicated across multiple study populations.

    更新日期:2019-09-03
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