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  • Ten-year temporal trends (2006–2015) and seasonal-differences in urinary metabolite concentrations of novel, hygiene-used pyrethroids in Japanese children
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Risa Hamada; Yuko Ueda; Keiko Wada; Isao Saito; Hiroshi Nomura; Michihiro Kamijima; Kunihiko Nakane; Chisato Nagata; Takaaki Kondo; Jun Ueyama

    Background and aim Metofluthrin, profluthrin, tefluthrin, and transfluthrin are pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides increasingly used to control mosquitoes, flies, and moths in households and public places (hygiene-PYRs). Currently, there is limited data available concerning exposure to these novel hygiene-PYRs. The goal of this study was to monitor exposure to these hygiene-PYRs by analysing their urinary metabolites and to investigate the temporal and seasonal trends in the concentrations of these metabolites. Methods First morning urine samples were obtained from 50 Japanese children (four-six years old) in October of 2006, 2011, and 2015 (total = 150 children) in order to investigate temporal trends. Additionally, first-morning urine samples were collected from 44 three-year-old children in August–September of 2012 (summer) and in February of 2013 (winter) to investigate seasonal differences. The urinary concentrations of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (FB-Al; a specific metabolite of transfluthrin), 4-methyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3-FB-Al; a common metabolite of tefluthrin and profluthrin), 4-methoxymethyl-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl alcohol (CH3OCH2-FB-Al; a specific metabolite of metofluthrin), and 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedimethanol (HOCH2-FB-Al; a common metabolite of metofluthrin, tefluthrin, and profluthrin) were measured using GC-MS/MS. Results For the investigated years, rapid increases in the detection rates of the hygiene-PYR metabolites were observed. In 2015, FB-Al was identified in 64% of the samples, CH3-FB-Al in 46%, CH3OCH2-FB-Al in 50%, and HOCH2-FB-Al in 83%. Significant increasing trends were found for the concentrations of all hygiene-PYR metabolites from 2006 to 2015 (Jonckheere-Terpstra test, p < 0.001). The concentrations of FB-Al and CH3OCH2-FB-Al were higher in summer than in winter (Mann Whitney-U test, p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that, in Japanese children, exposure to hygiene-PYRs has increased over the past decade, and that children are exposed to higher levels of hygiene-PYRs in summer than in winter.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Regional variations in human chemical exposures in Canada: A case study using biomonitoring data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey for the provinces of Quebec and Ontario
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Mathieu Valcke; Subramanian Karthikeyan; Mike Walker; Michelle Gagné; Ray Copes; Annie St-Amand

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), an ongoing national health survey conducted in two-year cycles, collects extensive biomonitoring data that is used to assess the exposure of Canadians to environmental chemicals of concern. Combining data from multiple cycles of the CHMS allows for the calculation of robust regional estimates of chemical concentrations in blood and urine. The objective of this work was to compare biomarkers of exposure to several environmental chemicals for the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, two major CHMS regions, as well as the entire CHMS (representing Canada) minus Quebec (CMQ), and the entire CHMS minus Ontario (CMO), and to interpret differences between regions. Geometric means and 95th percentiles of blood and/or urinary concentrations of 45 environmental chemicals or their metabolites for Ontario, Quebec, CMQ, and CMO were calculated by combining the two most recent cycles of data available for a chemical (cycles 1 and 2, or cycles 2 and 3) from the first three cycles of the CHMS (2007–2013). Weighted one-way ANOVA was used to test the differences between regional estimates. After applying a Bonferonni-Holm adjustment for multiple comparisons, the following measures were significantly higher in Quebec as compared to Ontario and CMQ: blood lead, urinary lead and the urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2- hydroxyphenanthrene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene. In Quebec compared to CMQ only, urinary 2-hydroxfluorene, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene were higher. The concentration of urinary fluoride was significantly higher in Ontario as compared to Quebec and CMO. Blood manganese and urinary fluoride were significantly lower in Quebec compared to CMQ, and blood and urinary selenium were significantly lower in Ontario compared to CMO. Regional differences in tobacco use, age of dwellings and drinking water fluoridation are among the possible contributing factors to some of the observed differences. In conclusion, this is the first study where biomonitoring data from multiple cycles of CHMS were combined in order to generate robust estimates for subsets of the Canadian population. Such assessments can contribute to a regional-level prioritization of control measures to reduce the exposure of Canadians to chemicals in their environment.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Multi-exposures to suspected endocrine disruptors in electronic waste recycling workers: Associations with thyroid and reproductive hormones
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sabrina Gravel; Jérôme Lavoué; Bouchra Bakhiyi; Jacques Lavoie; Brigitte Roberge; Louis Patry; Maryse F. Bouchard; Marc-André Verner; Joseph Zayed; France Labrèche

    Electronic waste recycling (e-recycling) exposes workers to substances such as flame retardants and metals. Some of them are known or suspected endocrine disruptors that could affect hormonal homeostasis and eventually result in adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to measure biological concentrations of organophosphate ester (OPE) metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), mercury, lead and cadmium in e-recycling workers, and to explore associations with thyroid and sexual hormones. In a cross-sectional study, end-of-shift blood and urine spot samples were collected from 23 women and 77 men in six e-recycling facilities and one commercial recycling facility. Urinary concentrations of 15 OPE metabolites and mercury, and blood concentrations of 12 PBDE congeners, lead, cadmium, and thyroid (thyroxine [T4], triiodothyronine [T3], thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and sexual (testosterone [T], estradiol, Follicle Stimulating Hormone [FSH], Luteinizing hormone [LH]) hormones were measured. E-recycling workers had higher concentrations of BDE209, all OPE metabolites, and lead than commercial recycling workers. In e-recycling workers, plasma geometric mean concentration of BDE209 was 18 ng/g lipids (geometric standard deviation [GSD]: 2.8) vs.1.7 ng/g lipids (GSD: 2.8) in commercial recycling, and urinary geometric mean concentration of diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), a major metabolite of triphenyl phosphate, was 1.7 ng/ml (GSD: 2.5), vs. 0.95 ng/ml (GSD: 2.0). In men, a two-fold increase in BDE209 was associated with 3.1% (95% Confidence interval: 0.07, 6.1) higher levels of total T4, and a two-fold increase in tert-butyl diphenyl phosphate (tb-DPhP) was associated with 18% (−29, −4.7) lower total T, 18% (−27, −6.9) lower free T and 13% (−25, 0.70) lower free T/estradiol ratio. In women, a two-fold increase in BDE153 was associated with 10% (−17, −3.2) lower free T3. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show associations between OPE metabolites and sex hormones in adults. Although some of our results are not conclusive and need replication, they suggest that prudent avoidance should be applied in risk management of flame retardants.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Microbial indicators and molecular markers used to differentiate the source of faecal pollution in the Bogotá River (Colombia)
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Andrea C. Sánchez-Alfonso; Camilo Venegas; Hugo Díez; Javier Méndez; Anicet R. Blanch; Joan Jofre; Claudia Campos

    Intestinal pathogenic microorganisms are introduced into the water by means of faecal contamination, thus creating a threat to public health and to the environment. Detecting these contaminants has been difficult due to such an analysis being costly and time-intensive; as an alternative, microbiological indicators have been used for this purpose, although they cannot differentiate between human or animal sources of contamination because these indicators are part of the digestive tracts of both. To identify the sources of faecal pollution, the use of chemical, microbiological and molecular markers has been proposed. Currently available markers present some geographical specificity. The aim of this study was to select microbial and molecular markers that could be used to differentiate the sources of faecal pollution in the Bogotá River and to use them as tools for the evaluation and identification of the origin of discharges and for quality control of the water. In addition to existing microbial source markers, a phage host strain (PZ8) that differentiates porcine contamination was isolated from porcine intestinal content. The strain was identified biochemically and genotypically as Bacteroides. The use of this strain as a microbial source tracking indicator was evaluated in bovine and porcine slaughterhouse wastewaters, raw municipal wastewaters and the Bogotá River. The results obtained indicate that the selected microbial and molecular markers enable the determination of the source of faecal contamination in the Bogotá River by using different algorithms to develop prediction models.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • The investigation of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant organisms in a drinking water reservoir system in Germany
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    A.M. Voigt; P. Ciorba; M. Döhla; M. Exner; C. Felder; F. Lenz-Plet; E. Sib; D. Skutlarek; R.M. Schmithausen; H.A. Faerber

    Between August 2018 and June 2019, a river system in Germany that supplies a drinking water reservoir and is subject to the discharge from two sewage treatment plants was monitored for antibiotic residues via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, antibiotic resistance genes (including blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, blaKPC, blaGIM, blaSME, blaIMI, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaSIM, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, mcr) via qualitative real-time PCR and antibiotic-resistant bacteria [belonging to the ESKAPE-group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphyhlococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter ssp.; with resistance against Carbapenemases, Cephalosporines and Colistin) and Escherichia coli] based on cultivation methods followed by a characterization via MALDI-TOF MS and susceptibility testing applying microdilution. Residues of macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin (up to 0.60 μg/L) and residues of sulfamethoxazole (up to 0.40 μg/L) and trimethoprim (up to 0.39 μg/L) were detected downstream of the sewage treatment plants. In addition, no antibiotic residues were detected upstream the respective sewage treatment plants, except for anhydroerythromycin (n = 1,

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Prenatal manganese exposure and neuropsychological development in early childhood in the INMA cohort
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Raquel Soler-Blasco; Mario Murcia; Manuel Lozano; Llúcia González-Safont; Rubén Amorós; Jesús Ibarluzea; Karin Broberg; Amaia Irizar; Maria-José Lopez-Espinosa; Nerea Lertxundi; Loreto Santa Marina; Ferran Ballester; Sabrina Llop

    Introduction Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, diet being its main source. Some epidemiological studies have found that a prenatal excess of Mn could negatively affect neuropsychological development during infancy, but the evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal serum Mn concentrations and child neuropsychological development assessed at 1 year of age. Methods study subjects were 1179 mother–child pairs from two Spanish cohorts (Valencia and Gipuzkoa) of the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project. Mn was measured in serum samples collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. Child neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, composed of both mental and psychomotor scales. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy and during the child's first year of life. Serum Mn was log-2 transformed. Multivariable linear regression models were built. Generalized additive models were used to assess the shape of the relation between prenatal exposure to Mn and the neuropsychological test scores. Results geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of maternal serum Mn was 1.50 (1.48–1.53) μg/L. Levels of Mn were higher among non-working mothers and in those with a higher consumption of nuts. The association between maternal Mn levels and child neuropsychological development was negative in the multivariable models for the mental (β [95% CI] = −0.39 [-2.73, 1.95]) and psychomotor scales (β [95% CI] = −0.92 [-3.48, 1.65]), although the coefficients were not statistically significant. The best shape describing the relationship between Mn and the Bayley scales was linear in both cases. Conclusion This study shows a null association between maternal prenatal levels of Mn and neuropsychological development at one year after birth in two cohorts within the INMA study.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Individual and community-level risk factors in under-five children diarrhea among agro-ecological zones in southwestern Ethiopia
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Bezuayehu Alemayehu; Birhanu Teshome Ayele; Helmut Kloos; Argaw Ambelu

    Under-five children diarrhea remains a major public health problem in resource-limited areas, including Ethiopia, due to multiple risk factors. This study aimed to identify individual and community-level risk factors affecting under-five children diarrhea (UFCD) in five districts of the Bench Maji Zone, southwestern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018. A total of 826 households were recruited from five randomly selected districts using stratified sampling. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify risk factors associated with UFCD. The prevalence of UFCD in the study area was found to be 18.3%. Children less than six months of age are more at risk for diarrhea (95% CI for AOR2.5;1.23–4.90). Most probably initiating supplementary feedings before six months of age is one of the main risk factor for diarrhea (95% CI for AOR 0.65; 0.45–0.98). Similarly, mothers with low educational status (95% CI for AOR 0.30; 0.10–0.84), limited knowledge of mothers’ about diarrhea (95% CI for AOR 0.24; 0.15–0.40), absence of hand washing among mothers/caregivers at critical times (95% CI for AOR 4.6; 2.88–7.67), and sharing of the residence with domestic animals (95% CI for AOR 2.87, 1.75–4.67) were the predictors of UFCD at individual-level. Children living in semi pastoral areas (95% CI for AOR 0.22; 0.10–0.50) unvaccinated children for rotavirus prevention (95% CI AOR 5.22, 3.33–8.20), households obtaining water from unimproved sources (95% CI for AOR 2.53; 1.60–4.40), and households with unimproved latrine facilities (95% CI for AOR 0.60; 0.33–0.99) were the risk factors of UFCD at the community-level. The study revealed that UFCD is a critical health concern in southwestern Ethiopia, where integrated intervention approach at individual and community level could help to alleviate the problem. At individual level, behavioral change intervention on handwashing, exclusive breast-feeding before the age of six months, and awareness on diarrhea prevention methods are critical areas of intervention. Likewise, provision of safe and adequate water source combined with household water chlorination, and vaccination for rotavirus are interventions at community that need to be integrated with the individual-level of intervention. This could significantly contribute for the reduction of UFCD in the resource limited areas through intersectoral collaboration of the health and other sectors.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Variation in E. coli concentrations in open drains across neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana: The influence of onsite sanitation coverage and interconnectedness of urban environments
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    David M. Berendes; Laura de Mondesert; Amy E. Kirby; Habib Yakubu; Lady Adomako; James Michiel; Suraja Raj; Katharine Robb; Yuke Wang; Benjamin Doe; Joseph Ampofo; Christine L. Moe

    Alongside efforts to improve safe management of feces along the entire sanitation chain, including after the toilet, global sanitation efforts are focusing on universal access ‘basic’ services: onsite facilities that safely contain excreta away from human contact. Although fecal sludge management is improving in urban areas, open drains remain a common fate for feces in these often densely-populated neighborhoods in low-income countries. To-date, it is unclear to what extent complete coverage of onsite sanitation reduces fecal contamination in the urban environment and how fecal contamination varies within urban drains across neighborhoods by sanitation status within a city. We assessed how neighborhood levels of environmental fecal contamination (via spatially-representative sampling of open drains for E. coli) varied across four neighborhoods with varying income, type and coverage of household sanitation facilities, and population density in Accra, Ghana. Neighborhoods with very high sanitation coverage (≥89%) still had high (>4 log10 CFU/100 mL) E. coli concentrations in drains. Between-neighborhood variation in E. coli levels among the high coverage neighborhoods was significant: drain concentrations in neighborhoods with 93% and 89% coverage (4.7 (95% CI: 4.5, 4.9) & 4.9 (95% CI: 4.5, 5.3) log10 CFU/100 mL, respectively) were higher than in the neighborhood with 97% coverage (4.1 log10 CFU/100 mL, 95% CI: 3.8, 4.4 log10 CFU/100 mL). Compared with the highest coverage neighborhood, the neighborhood with lowest coverage (48%) also had higher E. coli concentrations (5.6 log10 CFU/100 mL, 95% CI: 5.3, 5.9 log10 CFU/100 mL). Although fecal contamination in open drains appeared lower in neighborhoods with higher onsite sanitation coverage (and vice versa), other factors (e.g. fecal sludge management, animals, population density) may affect drain concentrations. These results underscore that neighborhood-level onsite sanitation improvements alone may not sufficiently reduce fecal hazards to public health from open drains. These findings supporting the need for integrated, city-level fecal sludge management alongside multifaceted interventions to reduce fecal contamination levels and human exposure.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Serotyping and detection of pathogenecity loci of environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila using MALDI-TOF MS
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Maria A. Kyritsi; Ioulianna Kristo; Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    Background The majority of Legionnaires’ disease cases is attributed to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1). Moreover, pathogenicity loci lvh and rtxA were associated with the ability of Lp strains to cause the disease. Consequently, except from serogroup assignment the detection of the aforementioned virulence genes during Legionella detection in water samples, could help environmental risk assessment and the implementation of targeted control measures. Aim To establish and validate a rapid and robust MALDI-TOF MS-based method for the assignment of Lp isolates to serogroup, and identify distinct peak biomarkers for the detection of lvh and rtxA loci during environmental investigations. Method Fifteen reference strains and 150 Lp environmental isolates (70 Lp1 and 80 Lp2-15 strains) were used. All strains were PCR-tested for the presence of lvh and rtxA loci. Independent training and validation strain sets were constituted and all strains were protein-extracted and submitted to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The raw spectra of the training set strains obtained, were introduced into the Mass-Up software platform for biomarker detection, for both serogroup assignment and pathogenicity loci detection. Validation of the assigned biomarkers followed using the validation set strains. Results For serogroup assignment, the Mass-up analysis indicated five potential discriminating peaks and correctly classified 115 out of 132 validation set strains, displaying sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 86.7% and 87.1% accuracy. Concerning the pathogenicity loci detection, the Mass-up analysis indicated two ion peaks for rtxA locus discrimination and one peak for lvh locus discrimination. Concerning the lvh virulence gene, the algorithm correctly classified 113 out of 137 positive and all negative strains 14 in total-showing sensitivity of 82.5%, specificity of 100.% and 84.1% accuracy. For rtxA locus, 134 out of 134 positive and 14 out of 17 negative strains were correctly classified with sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 76.5% and 97.4% accuracy. Conclusion MALDI-TOF MS displayed good performance for Lp serogroup assignment and detection of the lvh and rtxA virulence genes. These findings could contribute to the rapid, inexpensive and comprehensive case investigation and risk assessment. Further studies are needed to standardize and evaluate the method using the direct target plate protein profiling instead of protein extraction in order to simplify the protocol. .

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Evaluating associations between early pregnancy trace elements mixture and 2nd trimester gestational glucose levels: A comparison of three statistical approaches
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Yinnan Zheng; Cuilin Zhang; Marc G. Weisskopf; Paige L. Williams; Birgit Claus Henn; Patrick J. Parsons; Christopher D. Palmer; Germaine M. Buck Louis; Tamarra James-Todd

    Objective Studies have shown that individual trace element levels might be associated with abnormal glycemic status, with implications for diabetes. Few studies have considered these trace elements as a mixture and their impact on gestational glucose levels. Comparing three statistical approaches, we assessed the associations between essential trace elements mixture and gestational glucose levels. Methods We used data from 1720 women enrolled in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Fetal Growth Study, for whom trace element concentrations (zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using plasma collected during the 1st trimester. Non-fasting glucose levels were measured during the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening test in the 2nd trimester. We applied (1) Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR); (2) adaptive Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) in a mutually adjusted linear regression model; and (3) generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the joint associations between trace elements mixture and glucose levels adjusting for potential confounders. Results Using BKMR, we observed a mean 2.7 mg/dL higher glucose level for each interquartile increase of plasma copper (95% credible interval: 0.9, 4.5). The positive association between plasma copper and glucose levels was more pronounced at higher quartiles of zinc. Similar associations were detected using adaptive LASSO and GAM. In addition, results from adaptive LASSO and GAM suggested a super-additive interaction between molybdenum and selenium (both p-values = 0.04). Conclusion Employing different statistical methods, we found consistent evidence of higher gestational glucose levels associated with higher copper and potential synergism between zinc and copper on glucose levels.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Occurrence of potentially pathogenic bacteria on shared bicycles
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Chaonan Sun; Tao Yuan; Ling Chen; Zhen Xie; Zhu Shen

    Background Shared bicycles offer the potential to be sources for interindividual bacterial community transfer. However, the overall ecology of the bacterial community persisting on the shared bicycles is still unknown. Methods We used 16S rRNA sequencing techniques in combination with multiple bioinformatic analyses to profile bacterial communities on shared bicycle handles and saddles in selected five locations in a metropolitan area (Chengdu, China). Samples of air around shared bicycles were collected as a control. Results We demonstrate that the species richness and diversity of samples from shared bicycles are significantly higher than those of surrounding air samples. Taxonomical composition indicates that community structure of shared bicycle handles and saddles are also different. Additionally, high occurrence of pathogenic or potentially pathogenic genera is found on the surfaces of shared bicycles, including Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, and Cutibacterium. Moreover, PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) further verifies that bacteria involved in signaling pathways related to human diseases are at significantly higher levels in shared bicycle samples, while bacteria associated with environmental information processing pathways are at significantly higher levels in the air samples. Conclusion Our results reveal the profiles of bacterial communities on shared bicycles, and suggest that potentially pathogenic bacteria may impair human health through shared bicycles, especially in susceptible individuals. Notably, this investigation will prompt the public to pay more attention to the management of bicycle sharing programs worldwide, and it also provides research basis for the government to formulate corresponding public health policies.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Refined reference doses and new procedures for phthalate mixture risk assessment focused on male developmental toxicity
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Andreas Kortenkamp; Holger M. Koch

    New procedures for phthalate mixture risk assessments (MRAs) focused on male developmental toxicity (anti-androgenicity) are overdue. Previous efforts suffer from several shortcomings: There is a lack of consistency in terms of the phthalates entered into the assessments, and in the choice of tolerable intakes. Many of these values do not reflect new evidence about low dose male developmental effects. Nearly all previous mixture risk assessments have focused solely on phthalates, with no regard for exposures to other chemicals that also induce male developmental toxicity, leading to underestimations of risks. Here, we address these weaknesses and inconsistencies by proposing criteria for the selection of phthalates for MRA based on structure-activity relationships. We suggest new reference doses for phthalates for use in MRA, as follows: DBP 6.7 μg/kg/d, DIBP 100 μg/kg/d, BBP 10 μg/kg/d, DEHP 10 μg/kg/d, DINP 59 μg/kg/d. We conclude that the fixation on the Hazard Index (HI) = 1 as signalling acceptable combined phthalate exposures is misguided as it ignores co-exposure to other anti-androgenic chemicals that also contribute to male developmental risks. Until more comprehensive assessments of phthalates in combination with other anti-androgens become feasible, we propose the use of a HI of 0.1–0.2 as a benchmark for interpreting phthalate mixture risk assessments.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • PCB in serum and hand wipes from exposed residents living in contaminated high-rise apartment buildings and a reference group
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Marie Frederiksen; Helle Vibeke Andersen; Line Småstuen Haug; Cathrine Thomsen; Sharon Lynn Broadwell; Emilie Lund Egsmose; Barbara Kolarik; Lars Gunnarsen; Lisbeth E. Knudsen
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Potential microbial transmission pathways in rural communities using multiple alternative water sources in semi-arid Brazil
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Mario Rodrigues Peres; James Ebdon; Sarah Purnell; Huw Taylor

    Background Water scarcity combined with high incidences of diarrhoeal disease amongst many rural communities, suggests that the provision of ‘safe’ water supplies remains a challenge. Subsequent reliance on multi-source water supplies means that microbial transmission pathways may be numerous and complex. Objectives This study aimed to identify and elucidate water supply issues and potential microbial transmission pathways at the household level in rural communities in semi-arid Brazil. Methods Community and sanitary surveys were applied to 99 households from 10 communities located in four municipalities of Paraiba State, Brazil. Moreover, physicochemical and microbial parameters were investigated throughout the water supply chain. Results High levels of faecal indicator organisms (FIO) were detected in water from Water Storage Reservoirs (WSR) and from in-house Drinking Water Storage Containers (DWSC). A decrease in microbial water quality was observed between water stored within WSR's and DWSC's, suggesting potential cross-contamination at the household level. Several common practices were observed among rural residents, such as the use of collection buckets left unprotected outside on the ground, that may have also contributed to the observed decrease. Schematic diagrams illustrating the complex water supply chains and potential microbial transmission pathways were developed to facilitate identification of effective intervention strategies. Discussion Decreases in water supply quality were found to be predominantly caused by cross-contamination within the domestic environment due to several factors, including, a lack of awareness and knowledge of ‘safe’ collection, handling and storage of water, as well as inadequate sanitation services and/or unhygienic practices. In order to improve public health in such communities, more effort should be directed towards education and training of all stakeholders involved in the water supply chain. This would, certainly, support the successful implementation of further WASH interventions, consequently increasing the likelihood of achieving reduction of excreta-borne diseases.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Modeling the bioaccessibility of inhaled semivolatile organic compounds in the human respiratory tract
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Wenjuan Wei; Olivier Ramalho; Corinne Mandin

    The bioaccessibility of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via inhalation has rarely been studied, as indicated by the literature. There is no model to calculate the SVOC bioaccessibility following inhalation, and measurement data have focused on only a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particle phase. The present work developed a mechanistic model to address the mass transfer of inhaled SVOCs among the gas, particle and mucus phases in the human respiratory tract. The model considers (1) the SVOC partitioning between the gas and particle phases as well as between the gas and mucus phases and (2) the deposition of gas- and particle-phase SVOCs in the mucus of the respiratory tract. Based on the model, the inhalation bioaccessibility for 72 SVOCs was calculated. The SVOCs were measured in French dwellings at the nationwide scale, and their median concentrations in both the gas and particle phases were used for the bioaccessibility calculations. The results show that the inhalation bioaccessibility varies considerably from one compound to another, e.g., between 0.62 and 1.00 for phthalates, between 0.71 and 0.79 for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), between 0.48 and 0.56 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), between 0.48 and 1.00 for different chemical families of pesticides and between 0.48 and 0.90 for PAHs.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Legionella risk in evaporative cooling systems and underlying causes of associated breaches in health and safety compliance
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Brian Crook; Laura Willerton; Duncan Smith; Lee Wilson; Vin Poran; Julie Helps; Paul McDermott

    Legionella bacteria can colonise and proliferate in water systems in the built environment and can be spread by aerosol generation. If inhaled by a susceptible individual, this can lead to respiratory infections such as Legionnaires’ Disease (LD), or the generally milder Pontiac fever. Evaporative cooling systems (ECS), including cooling towers, used in industrial processes to dissipate excessive heat are prone to contamination by Legionella. From these systems it is possible for contaminated aerosols to be dispersed over a wide area, potentially exposing workers on site, neighbouring workplaces or nearby members of the public. Analysis of reported data on outbreaks of LD in Great Britain, collated for a ten year period, identified 44 separate legionellosis outbreaks of which seven were attributed to ECS and were responsible for 229 infections and 10 fatalities. This prompted an examination of health and safety inspection records which revealed, over a five year period, 321 enforcement actions taken against failings in Legionella control, of which 31% were attributed to cooling towers. Based on this evidence, an intervention programme was undertaken by health and safety inspectors in which 1,906 sites with ECS were inspected. During these inspections, sites were rated against four topics that are used to demonstrate compliance with statutory requirements for Legionella control: Risk Assessment; Written Control Scheme; Implementation of Control Scheme; and Record Keeping. While there was compliance at the majority of sites, breaches of the legislation were found at 625 sites (33% of those inspected), leading to 409 Improvement Notices (compelling dutyholders to make improvements to health and safety breaches of law in a given timeframe) and 12 Prohibition Notices (compelling dutyholders to stop work until they have remedied breaches in health and safety law) being served at 229 sites (12.0% of those inspected). Data from the intervention programme was analysed to identify root causes of these breaches of legislation on Legionella control. The majority of Improvement Notices (53%) were issued for the ‘lack of effective implementation of a Written Control Scheme’, with ‘Risk Assessment’ and ‘Written Control Scheme’ both accounting for 23%. More detailed examination showed major problems to be lack of training; failure to maintain the cleanliness of cooling towers and the water within them; risk assessments either being absent or not up to date, i.e., no longer representing the risks present; and Written Control Schemes being absent or insufficiently detailed. This provides a valuable data resource for dutyholders, so that they can understand where they need to focus to achieve significant improvement in legal compliance and therefore reduce the risk of LD for employees and members of the public affected by their workplace, and valuable data for regulators to target future interventions aimed at improving dutyholder compliance leading to better protection of workers and members of the public.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Virus removal by ceramic pot filter disks: Effect of biofilm growth and surface cleaning
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Mona Y.M. Soliman; Doris van Halem; Gertjan Medema
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Metagenomic analysis of viruses, bacteria and protozoa in irrigation water
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Marta Rusiñol; Sandra Martínez-Puchol; Natalia Timoneda; Xavier Fernández-Cassi; Alba Pérez-Cataluña; Ana Fernández-Bravo; Laura Moreno-Mesonero; Yolanda Moreno; Jose Luís Alonso; Maria José Figueras; Josep Francesc Abril; Sílvia Bofill-Mas; Rosina Girones
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in blood plasma – Results of the German environmental survey for children and adolescents 2014–2017 (GerES V)
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Nicole Bandow; André Conrad; Marike Kolossa-Gehring; Aline Murawski; George Sawal

    The German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014–2017 (GerES V) investigated the current internal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). These analyses were carried out for a population-representative sub-sample of 1135 children and adolescents (aged 3–17 years) of all 2394 GerES V participants. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for seven indicator PCB (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) and selected OCP (hexachlorobenzene, three hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, 4,4′-DDT, 4,4′-DDD and 4,4′-DDE). Despite risk mitigation measures and bans put into force some decades ago children and adolescents living in Germany are still exposed to PCB and OCP: Highest geometric mean plasma concentrations were measured for 4,4′-DDE (0.158 μg/L), followed by PCB 138 (0.049 μg/L), PCB 153 (0.066 μg/L) and PCB 180 (0.032 μg/L). Different application patterns of compounds between former East and former West Germany are still reflected by differences in plasma concentrations. Significant differences between age groups and by sexes were found. Moreover, the influence of breastfeeding and fish consumption, which was also found in other studies, was confirmed. Comparison with the results of GerES 2003–2006 confirms a decreasing trend in blood samples observed world-wide. Currently, health-based guidance values for PCB are still exceeded, though to a very limited extent. Also, the widespread occurrence of these compounds underlines the need for further monitoring of these compounds in humans although they are no longer marketed.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Spatial and spatiotemporal patterns of typhoid fever and investigation of their relationship with potential risk factors in Iran, 2012–2017
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Masoud Masinaei; Babak Eshrati; Mehdi Yaseri

    Typhoid fever is a global infectious disease which remains a severe health problem in Asia and Africa. In subnational levels of Iran, environmental and socio-economic properties are often so divergent, that can have a major effect on the incidence of typhoid fever. We used the data of MOHME that has reported 2474 cases of typhoid fever from 20th Feb 2012 to 31st Dec 2017 in Iran. First, we ran a spatial autocorrelation analysis to see whether there is any spatial trend in incidence cases and find the high-high clusters of typhoid (at different confidence levels) using Local indicators of spatial association (LISAs). To explore the spatial and temporal patterns of typhoid fever and examine their relationship with climatic and socio-economic variables; we have employed a spatiotemporal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model in a Bayesian framework. Our results show thirteen High-High clusters and windspeed (RR [95% CrI] = 1.39 [1.15–1.69]), public sewerage system (RR [95% CrI] = 0.76 [0.63–0.92]), years of schooling (RR [95% CrI] = 0.78 [0.65–0.95]), wealth index (RR [95% CrI] = 0.59 [0.55–0.63]) and urbanization (RR [95% CrI] = 0.6 [0.48–0.76]) as variables that are importantly associated with typhoid fever incidence. Therefore, typhoid fever is spatially clustered with a high incidence in children and adolescents. Windy, poor, rural, and uneducated areas are high-risk regions that can be controlled by proliferating the standard sewerage networks, which eventually leads to safer water supplies.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • 更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Early life triclosan exposure and neurodevelopment of children at 3 years in a prospective birth cohort
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Jianqiu Guo, Chunhua Wu, Jiming Zhang, Hongxi Xiao, Shenliang Lv, Dasheng Lu, Xiaojuan Qi, Chao Feng, Weijiu Liang, Xiuli Chang, Yubin Zhang, Hao Xu, Yang Cao, Guoquan Wang, Zhijun Zhou

    Background Early life exposure to triclosan, an emerging endocrine disrupting chemical, may adversely impact childhood neurodevelopment, but limited epidemiologic studies have examined the associations. Objective We evaluated the associations between prenatal and postnatal triclosan exposure and child neurodevelopment at 3 years. Methods The study included 377 mother-child pairs who participated in Sheyang Mini Birth Cohort Study (SMBCS), a longitudinal birth cohort in China. Triclosan concentrations in maternal and 3-year-old child urine samples were quantified using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Gesell Developmental Schedules (GDS) were used to assess child neurodevelopment at 3 years of age. Multivariate linear regression models were applied to estimate associations of prenatal and postnatal urinary triclosan concentrations with children's developmental quotients (DQs). Results Detection frequencies of triclosan in maternal and childhood urine samples were 100% and 99.5%, respectively. The median values of prenatal and postnatal urinary triclosan levels were 0.65 and 0.44 μg/L, respectively. One ln-unit increase of maternal urinary triclosan concentration was associated with increase of DQ scores in motor area of children (regression coefficient, β = 0.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03, 0.54; p = 0.03). In sex-stratified analyses, maternal urinary triclosan levels were significantly related to increases in DQ scores in motor area among boys (β = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.50; p = 0.04), while postnatal urinary triclosan concentrations were inversely associated with DQ scores in social area in boys (β = -0.37, 95%CI: -0.72, -0.03; p = 0.03). Conclusions The findings suggested that prenatal triclosan exposure predicted increases in motor scores, while postnatal triclosan exposure was related to reductions in social scores of 3-year-old children. These associations were only observed in boys. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to neurodevelopment await further studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Emerging indoor pollutants
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Tunga Salthammer

    There is an increasing use of so-called emerging substances or substances of emerging concern. These terms describe, inter alia, the replacement of commonly used chemicals in formulations by supposedly less harmful chemicals. A well-known example is the shift from DEHP to higher molecular weight phthalates and later the shift from phthalates to DINCH, adipates, terephthalates, etc. Similar trends can be observed in the case of solvents and flame retardants. Over the years, new compound groups such as perfluorocarbons, UV-filters, synthetic musks, parabens, siloxanes, neonicotinoids and drug residues also appeared on the scene. Today, however, the term “emerging substances” has to be defined much more broadly as regards the indoor environment. As a result of the extensive measures for energy-related renovation, contaminated waste products such as asbestos, PCBs, PAHs and PCNs are once again forming the focus of attention as re-emerging chemicals. Many relevant compounds, in particular reaction products, were unknown until recently due to the fact, that they can only now be detected using highly sensitive methods. Furthermore, already known chemicals attract scientific and public interest through reclassification or through the derivation of indoor guideline and reference values. The classical way of monitoring emerging compounds is air and dust analysis and therefore, the spectrum of analytical techniques needs to be continuously broadened. However, there is also a demand for human biomarkers, preferably in urine. A further important aspect is the post-hoc analysis of house dust and urine samples, which are stored in environmental specimen banks. The identification and temporal tracking of emerging chemicals is thereby enabled. It is strongly recommended to take advantage of the possibilities resulting from the combination of classical interior analytics and human biomonitoring to promptly detect emerging pollutants and chemicals of concern.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • 更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Phthalate exposure increased the risk of early renal impairment in Taiwanese without type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Jung-Wei Chang, Kai-Wei Liao, Chien-Yuan Huang, Han-Bin Huang, Wan-Ting Chang, Jouni J.K. Jaakkola, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Pau-Chun Chen, Po-Chin Huang
    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Development and implementation of a water-safety plan for drinking-water supply system of Cali, Colombia
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Andrea Pérez-Vidal, Juan Carlos Escobar-Rivera, Patricia Torres-Lozada

    The water-safety plan (WSP) approach integrates risk assessment and management practices into a drinking-water supply system (DWSS), ensuring water quality from the catchment to the consumer. This research was oriented toward the development and implementation of a WSP in the DWSS for the city of Santiago de Cali, Colombia. We adapted the methodological stages of the WSP established by the World Health Organization: (i.) assemble a WSP team, (ii.) describe the existing DWSS, (iii.) identify hazards and hazardous events, (iv.) evaluate risks, and (v.) plan risk management. In this methodological structure, we propose the use of different risk assessment tools at each step of DWSS, which can be implemented in water systems of different sizes. The results of our study allowed the identification of hazardous events that may compromise the effectiveness of the WSP: Of the 103 events found, 16 were related to the catchment, 40 to treatment processes, 27 to the distribution system, and 9 to consumers, while the remaining 11 were associated with organizational, planning, contingency, and emergency factors. We found that the most critical components of the DWSS are the distribution system and the consumers, with 29.6% and 33.3% of the hazardous events classified as at a very high risk level, respectively. Clearly, improvement and support programs for the WSP were needed to optimize existing control measures and corrective actions and to evaluate new ones to reduce risk levels. The treatment processes and distribution system steps were shown as the main barriers of the DWSS mainly they are under governance of water company, unlike the catchment and consumers which presented higher levels of risk because in these steps the water company has less control and influence. Our research confirms that the WSP is an important tool for decision-making by water-service companies—improving their administrative, financial, organizational, and operational management. It also shows that it is essential that their senior management and other stakeholders be part of the WSP team at each stage of implementation of the DWSS.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Changes in urinary cotinine concentrations in non-smoking adults from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) II (2012–2014) after implementation of partial smoke-free regulations
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Jeonghoon Kim, Kiyoung Lee

    Background The Korean government implemented partial smoke-free regulations in hospitality venues ≥150 m2 in July 2013 and in venues ≥100 m2 in February 2014. This study examined changes in urinary cotinine concentrations in the Korean non-smoking adult population, and socio-demographic subgroups thereof, between 2012 and 2014, and the relationships between urinary cotinine concentrations and socio-demographic factors in 2014. Methods Data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey II (2012–2014), a nationally representative cross-sectional study, were used. In total, 4218 non-smoking adults (≥19 years) were selected based on questionnaires and urinary cotinine concentrations. Linear trend tests of urinary cotinine over time and socio-demographic factors associated with urinary cotinine in 2014 were examined based on weighted linear regression models. Results Overall, the covariate-adjusted least-square geometric mean concentrations of urinary cotinine were 2.95 μg/g creatinine (Cr) (95% confidence interval, CI = 2.37–3.67) in 2012, 1.54 μg/g Cr (95% CI = 1.26–1.88) in 2013, and 1.47 μg/g Cr (95% CI = 1.23–1.76) in 2014, a significant decrease during 2012–2014. Urinary cotinine concentrations decreased significantly during 2012–2014 in most socio-demographic subgroups. However, concentrations in adults who worked in hospitality venues, including restaurants, bars, cafes, fast-food franchises, and bakeries, remained unchanged. Data from 2014, when smoke-free regulations were implemented in hospitality venues ≥100 m2, showed urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in adults working in hospitality venues than in unemployed adults. Conclusions Overall, urinary cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smoking adults decreased during 2012–2014. However, implementation of partial smoke-free regulations in hospitality venues was not effective in reducing secondhand smoke exposure in workers at hospitality venues.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Short-term effects of ambient PM1 and PM2.5 air pollution on hospital admission for respiratory diseases: Case-crossover evidence from Shenzhen, China
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Yunquan Zhang, Zan Ding, Qianqian Xiang, Wei Wang, Li Huang, Feiyue Mao

    Background Ambient PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm) is an important contribution of PM2.5 mass. However, little is known worldwide regarding the PM1-associated health effects due to a wide lack of ground-based PM1 measurements from air monitoring stations. Methods We collected daily records of hospital admission for respiratory diseases and station-based measurements of air pollution and weather conditions in Shenzhen, China, 2015–2016. Time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models were adopted to estimate hospitalization risks associated with short-term exposures to PM1 and PM2.5. Results PM1 and PM2.5 showed significant adverse effects on respiratory disease hospitalizations, while no evident associations with PM1–2.5 were identified. Admission risks for total respiratory diseases were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.14) and 1.06 (1.02 to 1.10), corresponding to per 10 μg/m3 rise in exposure to PM1 and PM2.5 at lag 0–2 days, respectively. Both PM1 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with increased admission for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but exhibited no effects on asthma and upper respiratory tract infection. Largely comparable risk estimates were observed between male and female patients. Groups aged 0–14 years and 45–74 years were significantly affected by PM1- and PM2.5-associated risks. PM-hospitalization associations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with significantly larger risks in cold season than those in warm season among some subgroups. Conclusions Our study suggested that PM1 rather than PM1–2.5 contributed to PM2.5-induced risks of hospitalization for respiratory diseases and effects of PM1 and PM2.5 mainly occurred in cold season.

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • Benefits of cooperation among large-scale cohort studies and human biomonitoring projects in environmental health research: An exercise in blood lead analysis of the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Shoji F. Nakayama, Carolina Espina, Michihiro Kamijima, Per Magnus, Marie-Aline Charles, Jun Zhang, Birgit Wolz, André Conrad, Aline Murawski, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Cécile Zaros, Ida Henriette Caspersen, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Sjurdur F. Olsen, Ruth A. Etzel, Joachim Schüz

    A number of prospective cohort studies are ongoing worldwide to investigate the impact of foetal and neonatal exposures to chemical substances on child health. To assess multiple exposure (mixture) effects and low prevalence health outcomes it is useful to pool data from several studies and conduct mega-data-analysis. To discuss a path towards data harmonization, representatives from several large-scale birth cohort studies and a biomonitoring programme formed a collaborative group, the Environment and Child Health International Birth Cohort Group (ECHIBCG). In this study, an intra-laboratory trial was performed to harmonize existing blood lead measurements within the groups' studies. Then, decentralized analyses were conducted in individual countries' laboratories to evaluate blood lead levels (BLL) in each study. The measurements of pooled BLL samples in French, German and three Japanese laboratories resulted in an overall mean blood lead concentration of 8.66 μg l−1 (95% confidence interval: 8.59–8.72 μg l−1) with 3.0% relative standard deviation. Except for China's samples, BLL from each study were comparable with mean concentrations below or close to 10 μg l−1. The decentralized multivariate analyses revealed that all models had coefficients of determination below 0.1. Determinants of BLL were current smoking, age >35 years and overweight or obese status. The three variables were associated with an increase in BLL in each of the five studies, most strongly in France by almost 80% and the weakest effect being in Norway with only 15%; for Japan, with the far largest sample (~18,000), the difference was 36%. This study successfully demonstrated that the laboratory analytical methods were sufficiently similar to allow direct comparison of data and showed that it is possible to harmonize the epidemiological data for joint analysis. This exercise showed the challenges in decentralized data analyses and reinforces the need for data harmonization among studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Human exposure to antimicrobial resistance from poultry production: Assessing hygiene and waste-disposal practices in Bangladesh
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Mahbub-Ul Alam, Mahbubur Rahman, Abdullah-Al-Masud, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Supta Sarker, Emily Rousham, Leanne Unicomb

    The unregulated use of antibiotics is linked with intensive poultry farming in developing economies. In low-and middle-income countries, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has also been attributed to contamination, poor public health infrastructure and inadequate waste disposal practices. There are limited data on hygiene and waste disposal practices in small-scale commercial and household poultry farming and market sales in Bangladesh. Our objective was to explore human exposures, hygiene and waste disposal practices in poultry raising and processing to identify probable pathways for transmission of AMR bacteria. We employed mixed methods approaches of in-depth interviews and structured observations to assess exposures, hygiene behaviours and waste-disposal practices relating to poultry production in Bangladesh. Interviews (n = 18) were conducted with commercial poultry farmers, backyard poultry owners, and live poultry market workers. Structured observations were conducted for 6-h in five households, five commercial farms and five urban live bird markets to assess the frequency of transmission/exposure events in these settings. Interviews highlighted existing practices that can contribute to transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria from poultry to humans. In households and farms, untreated poultry waste and carcasses were disposed of on agricultural fields and in water bodies which may contaminate surface water and soil with poultry faeces. Biosecurity precautions were not used, and hands were rarely washed with soap after handling poultry. In urban markets, live poultry slaughter and processing was done on site with bare hands which were subsequently rinsed in water stored in containers without soap. Solid waste from poultry processing was disposed into municipal waste disposal stations and liquid waste was discarded into open drains. Structured observations revealed that workers in live poultry markets had the highest direct contact with poultry and poultry waste, almost tenfold higher than those working in poultry farms or with domestic poultry (59 vs 544 observed direct poultry exposure events) placing them at particularly high risk of exposure to faecal bacteria. Biosecurity measures were limited; in some cases, workers in commercial farms and urban markets had gloves and masks but often did not use them. In 88% (606/689) of exposure events no handwashing took place. Eating and drinking after handling poultry and without washing hands was observed in all three settings. These data suggest effective intervention strategies to reduce environmental contamination and to decrease risks of transmission should be prioritized. Data on prevalence of risk behaviours and AMR transmission to humans along environmental pathways can inform policy and intervention strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • DNA-based faecal source tracking of contaminated drinking water causing a large Campylobacter outbreak in Norway 2019
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Lisa Paruch, Adam M. Paruch, Roald Sørheim

    During June 2019, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis occurred in Askøy, an island northwest of Bergen, Norway. According to the publicly available records, over 2000 residents fell ill and 76 were hospitalised, and two deaths were suspected to be associated with Campylobacter infection. By investigating the epidemic pattern and scope, an old caved drinking water holding pool was identified that had been faecally contaminated as indicated by the presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Furthermore, Campylobacter bacteria were found at several points in the water distribution system. In the escalated water health crisis, tracking down the infectious source became pivotal for the local municipality in order to take prompt and appropriate action to control the epidemic. A major task was to identify the primary faecal pollution source, which could further assist in tracking down the epidemic origin. Water from the affected pool was analysed using quantitative microbial source tracking (QMST) applying host-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. In addition, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli were detected. The QMST outcomes revealed that non-human (zoogenic) sources accounted predominantly for faecal pollution. More precisely, 69% of the faecal water contamination originated from horses.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Self-reported residential pesticide use and survival after breast cancer
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Nicole M. Niehoff, Marilie D. Gammon, Humberto Parada, Steven D. Stellman, Alfred I. Neugut, Susan L. Teitelbaum

    Introduction Previous investigations found elevated mortality after breast cancer in association with biomarkers of persistent organochlorine pesticides in non-occupationally exposed women. We hypothesized that lifetime residential pesticide use, which includes persistent and non-persistent pesticides, would also be associated with increased mortality after breast cancer. Methods A population-based cohort of 1505 women with invasive or in situ breast cancer was interviewed in 1996–1997, shortly after diagnosis, about pre-diagnostic lifetime residential pesticide use. Participants were followed for mortality through 2014 (595 deaths from any cause and 236 from breast cancer, after 17.6 years of follow-up). Pesticides were examined as 15 individual categories; a group of seven used for lawn and garden purposes; a group of eight used for nuisance-pest purposes; and all combined. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. Modification by estrogen receptor (ER) status, body mass index, and long-term residence was examined. Results Ever use (HR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.63–0.95) and higher lifetime applications (4th quartile: HR = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.47–0.81, ptrend = 0.3) of the lawn and garden group of pesticides were inversely associated with all-cause mortality, compared to never use. The inverse association for lawn and garden pesticide use was limited to ER positive (vs. negative) tumors (pinteraction = 0.05). Nuisance-pest pesticides, and all groups combined, were not associated with all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, lifetime residential use of lawn and garden pesticides, but not all combined or nuisance-pest pesticides, was inversely associated with all-cause mortality after breast cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Economic cost analysis of low-cost sanitation technology options in informal settlement areas (case study: Soweto, Johannesburg)
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Musa Manga, Jamie Bartram, Barbara E. Evans

    In Urban Africa, water and sanitation utility companies are facing a huge backlog of sanitation provision in the informal settlement areas. In order to clear this backlog, new investment is required. However, to select appropriate sanitation technologies, lifecycle costs need to be assessed. The aim of this research was to establish lifecycle costs for appropriate sanitation technologies in informal settlement areas. Three sanitation options were compared: simplified sewerage, urine diversion dry toilet (UDDT) and Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrine. Three scenarios for simplified sewerage were considered; gravity flow into existing conventional sewers with treatment; new-build with pumping and treatment; and new-build gravity flow with treatment. The study revealed that simplified sewerage is the cheapest option for Soweto informal settlement, even when the costs of pumping and treatment are included. Gravity simplified sewerage with treatment is cheaper than the UDDT system and VIP latrine at all population densities above 158 and 172 persons/ha, respectively. The total annual cost per household of simplified sewerage and treatment was US$142 compared to US$156 and US$144 for UDDT and VIP latrine respectively. The costs of simplified sewerage could be recovered through a monthly household surcharge and cross-subsidy summing US$5.3 The study concluded that simplified sewerage system was the first choice for Soweto informal settlement areas, given the current population density.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Role of wastewater treatment plants on environmental abundance of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Chilean rivers
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Irene Bueno, Claudio Verdugo, Omar Jimenez-Lopez, Pedro Pablo Alvarez, Gerardo Gonzalez-Rocha, Celia A. Lima, Dominic A. Travis, Britta Wass, Qian Zhang, Satoshi Ishii, Randall S. Singer
    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Multiple pesticides in mothers' hair samples and children's measurements at birth: Results from the French national birth cohort (ELFE)
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Rémi Béranger, Emilie M. Hardy, Anne-Claire Binter, Marie-Aline Charles, Cécile Zaros, Brice M.R. Appenzeller, Cécile Chevrier

    Background A growing body of studies now suggests that the general population is continuously and ubiquitously exposed to numerous pesticides. However, studies investigating the possible role of environmental exposure to pesticides on fetal growth have focused on a limited set of substances, despite the hundreds of modern pesticides currently available. Aim To explore the relation between maternal hair concentrations of 64 pesticides and metabolites and their newborns’ measurements at birth, with data from the ELFE French nationwide birth cohort. Methods We measured 64 compounds (10–100% detection) in bundles of hair 9 cm long collected at birth from 311 women who gave birth in France in 2011. We assessed their associations with birth weight, length, and head circumference, adjusted for potential confounders, and used elastic net regularization to simultaneously select the strongest predictors of measurements at birth. Selected variables were multiply imputed for missing values, and unpenalized estimators were assessed by standard linear regression. Results We observed statistically significant associations between maternal hair concentrations of seven pesticides or pesticide metabolites and birth measurements (weight: fipronil sulfone; length: TCPy, bitertanol, DEP, and isoproturon; head circumference: tebuconazole and prochloraz). Analyses restricted to boys identified 12 additional compounds: 8 independently associated with birth weight (3Me4NP, DCPMU, DMST, fipronil, mecoprop, propoxur, fenhexamid, and thiabendazole), 2 with birth length (dieldrin and β-endosulfan), and 6 with head circumference (β-endosulfan, β-HCH, fenuron, DCPMU, propoxur, and thiabendazole). Conclusion Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to 19 pesticides or metabolites from various chemical families may influence measurements at birth. As with any exploratory research findings, results should be interpreted cautiously, until they are replicated or verified by further epidemiological or mechanistic studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • A longitudinal study of polychlorinated biphenyls and neuropsychological function among older adults from New York State
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Eva M. Tanner, Michael S. Bloom, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Julie Lynch, Wei Wang, Recai Yucel, Edward F. Fitzgerald

    Background Cross-sectional studies have linked greater polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure to adverse neuropsychological effects in older adults, including learning, memory, and depressive symptoms. However, no studies among older adults have evaluated the association over time. Objectives To assess the effect of serum PCB levels on neuropsychological function over a 14-year period in a cohort of older men and women from a PCB-contaminated area of New York State. Methods In 2000–2002, we assessed serum PCB levels and neuropsychological function (including the California Verbal Learning Test Trial 1 (CVLTT1) for verbal memory and learning, and the Beck Depression Index (BDI) for depressive symptoms) in 253 men and women, ages 55–74 years. A total of 116 (46%) persons repeated the PCB and neuropsychological assessment 14 years later. To assess the association over time, we used generalized estimating equations with clustering variables time, total PCB (∑PCB), and ∑PCB × time, and adjusted for baseline age, sex, smoking, and total serum-lipids. For statistically significant ∑PCB × time interactions, we evaluated the association between PCBs and either verbal memory and learning or depressive symptoms while holding ∑PCB constant at the 10th and 90th percentiles to clarify the direction of the interaction. Results Over the study period, serum ∑PCB levels (wet-weight) declined by 22%, and were associated with different patterns of change over time for memory (∑PCB × Time β = 0.08 p = 0.009) and depressive symptoms (∑PCB × Time β = -0.16 p = 0.013). Specifically, verbal memory and learning decreased (β = -0.08 p = 0.008) and depressive symptoms increased (β = 0.17 p = 0.008) among persons with low exposure (∑PCB levels at the 10th percentile), while persons with high exposure (90th percentile) showed non-significant improvements. Discussion In this cohort, declining ∑PCB levels were likely due at least in part to low rates of local fish consumption in recent decades, given the ban since 1976. The decreased verbal memory and learning and increased depressive symptoms over time among persons with low serum ∑PCB levels is consistent with studies of normative aging. However, the small improvements in those outcomes among those with high serum ∑PCB levels was unexpected. Healthy survivor selection bias or uncontrolled confounding may explain this result. It may also indicate that the neurotoxic impacts of PCBs in older adults are not permanent, but future studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Presence of pharmaceutical compounds, levels of biochemical biomarkers in seafood tissues and risk assessment for human health: Results from a case study in North-Western Spain
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Salomé Martínez-Morcillo, José Luis Rodríguez-Gil, Javier Fernández-Rubio, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, María Prado Míguez-Santiyán, María Eugenia Valdes, Damià Barceló, Yolanda Valcárcel
    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Green spaces, excess weight and obesity in Spain
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Cristina O'Callaghan-Gordo, Ana Espinosa, Antonia Valentin, Cathryn Tone, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Conchi Moreno-Iribas, Silvia de Sanjose, Guillermo Fernandez-Tardón, Mercedes Vanaclocha-Espi, María Dolores Chirlaque, Marta Cirach, Nuria Aragonés, Inés Gómez-Acebo, Eva Ardanaz, Víctor Moreno, Marina Pollan, Manolis Kogevinas

    Background The epidemiological evidence on green spaces and obesity is inconsistent. Objectives To study the association of access to green spaces and surrounding greenness with obesity in Spain. Methods We enrolled 2354 individuals 20–85 years from urban areas of seven provinces of Spain between 2008–13. Subjects were randomly selected population controls of the MCC-Spain case-control study. We geocoded current residences and defined exposures in a buffer of 300 m around them: i) access to green space, identified using Urban Atlas, and ii) levels of surrounding greenness, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We examined excess weight/obesity as binary outcomes based on body mass index and waist-hip ratio. We examined effect modification by genetic factors, sex and individual socio-economic status and mediation by physical activity and concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2. To assess potential effect modification by genetic factors, we used a polygenic risk score based on obesity polymorphisms detected in genome-wide association studies. We used logistic mixed-effects models with a random effect for catchment area adjusted for potential confounders. Results Access to green space was associated with a reduced risk of excess weight/obesity after adjusting for confounders [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.82 (0.63, 1.07), p-value = 0.143; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.45, 1.01), p-value = 0.057]. In the stratified analysis, this association was only observed in women. Associations between surrounding greenness and excess weight/obesity were null or modest based on a 1 IQR increase in NDVI [excess weight: OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.88, 1.11), p-value = 0.875; abdominal obesity: OR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.79, 1.05), p-value = 0.186]. The observed associations were not mediated by physical activity or air pollution. Discussion Access to green space may be associated with decreased risk of excess weight/obesity among women in Spain. Mechanisms explaining this association remain unclear.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biomonitoring of emerging contaminants, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), in New Jersey adults in 2016–2018
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Chang Ho Yu, C. David Riker, Shou-en Lu, Zhihua (Tina) Fan

    New Jersey (NJ) residents in some areas may be exposed to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) due to PFAS contamination of public drinking water. This contamination stems from industrial discharges and the use of aqueous film-foaming foams at military bases and commercial airports for drills and locations where fires occurred. Exposure to PFAS has raised significant public health concerns due to its persistence both in the environment and human body. The potential toxicity of these chemicals may pose risks to human health. Statewide biomonitoring data is needed to establish a baseline of exposure and to identify the subpopulations at risk. The NJ Department of Health (NJDOH) conducted a statewide NJ Biomonitoring (NJBM) study for PFAS utilizing a cost-effective sampling approach, i.e. acquiring remnant sera from both clinical laboratories and blood banks across NJ. This convenience sampling approach was adopted as an alternative to a costly and labor-intensive probability-based population sampling. One thousand and thirty human sera were collected from NJ adults between 20 and 74 years of age from 2016 to 2018, with additional information of county, sex, and age. The serum collection was demographically and geographically dispersed across four seasons. Twelve PFAS analytes were measured for the specimens collected. The data were post-stratified by county, sex, and age groups (20–39, 40–59, and 60–74 years old). Stratified individual sample weights were developed and used to estimate population means, compare least-squared mean differences, and examine contributing variables. Geometric means (GMs) and percentiles with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the target analytes are presented, providing preliminary baselines of the statewide PFAS exposure for NJ adults. PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFOS were selected for in-depth analyses because their GMs were greater than 0.5 ng/mL and they were detected over 99% in study population. Subjects from this study had higher serum levels of PFOA, PFNA, and PFHxS compared to the general U.S. population reported by the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES in 2015–2016). However, the distributions of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFOS across sex and age groups were consistent with the patterns found in NHANES, i.e. all differed by sex and age group. Further sex and age stratification showed significantly lower concentrations of the 4 analytes in younger females (20–59 years old) than in older females (60–74 years old) and males (20–74 years old). Future research is needed to identify PFAS exposure sources and to develop effective intervention strategies. Continuing PFAS biomonitoring using population sampling is recommended for tracking trends and better identifying subpopulations at risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maternal periconceptional occupational exposure to pesticides and selected musculoskeletal birth defects.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2013-07-23
    Christine Kielb,Shao Lin,Michele Herdt-Losavio,Erin Bell,Bonnie Chapman,Carissa M Rocheleau,Christina Lawson,Martha Waters,Patricia Stewart,Richard S Olney,Paul A Romitti,Yanyan Cao,Charlotte Druschel,

    This population-based U.S. study investigated the association between major musculoskeletal malformations and periconceptional maternal occupational pesticide exposure for a wide range of occupations. We conducted a multi-site case-control analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study among employed women with due dates from October 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002. Cases included 871 live-born, stillborn, or electively terminated fetuses with isolated craniosynostosis, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, or transverse limb deficiencies. Controls included 2857 live-born infants without major malformations. Using self-reported maternal occupational information, an industrial hygienist used a job-exposure matrix and expert opinion to evaluate the potential for exposure to insecticides, herbicides or fungicides for each job held during one month pre-conception through three months post-conception. Exposures analyzed included any exposure (yes/no) to pesticides, to insecticides only, to both insecticides and herbicides (I+H) and to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (I+H+F). We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposures and defects, controlling for infant and maternal risk factors. Occupational exposure to I+H+F was associated with gastroschisis among infants of women aged 20 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.05), but not for women under age 20 (aOR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.20-1.16). We found no significant associations for the other defects. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in a separate population.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Consensus report: E. coli O104:H4 (HUSEC041) and the potential threat to European water supplies.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2011-12-30
    Martin Exner,Philippe Hartemann,Paul R Hunter,Yves Levi,Jean-Francois Loret,Werner Mathys,Daniel Villesot,Michael Wilhelm

    Among the 3rd Seminar for PhD students working on Water and Health which was held in Cannes on 27–29 June 2011, experts from a number of universities and research institutes took the opportunity to discuss the emergence of Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe. Especially, possible threats for European water suppliers were considered. The consensus is summarized in this report. The main conclusion was that E. coli O104:H4 would not pose a substantial risk to well managed water supplies, especially where regular monitoring of indicator E. coli is negative. However, this may not apply for small and very small water systems which are quite common in Europe. New strategies like the Water Safety Plan approach are needed to protect also small scale drinking water systems and private wells in Europe. Water used in the processing of foods likely to be eaten raw, especially sprouts, should be of drinking water quality.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Revised and new reference values for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood or urine of children: basis for validation of human biomonitoring data in environmental medicine.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2006-06-02
    Micheal Wilhelm,Christine Schulz,Micheal Schwenk

    Reference values for environmental pollutants in the German population are established continuously by the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environmental Agency. The reference values (defined as 95th percentile) are usually derived from results of the German Environmental Surveys (GerES). However, current reference values for children are lacking since GerES II conducted in 1990/92 and additionally the first German Environmental Survey on Children (GerES IV) will not be finished until the end of 2006. As an interim solution, the commission derived in 2005 reference values for children aged 6-12 years from a survey performed in south-west Germany in 2002/03 (508 children) and the pilot study for GerES IV 2001/2002 (252 children). A new reference value of 15 microg/l for children was derived for arsenic in urine. The reference values for cadmium in whole blood (0.5 microg/l) and for cadmium in urine (0.5 microg/l) were confirmed. The following reference values were lowered: for lead in blood from 60 to 50 microg/l, for mercury in whole blood from 1.5 to 1.0 microg/l and for mercury in urine from 1.4 to 0.7 microg/l.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is lead considered as a risk factor for high blood pressure during menopause period among Saudi women?
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-10-13
    Iman Al-Saleh,Neptune Shinwari,Abdulla Mashhour,Gamal El-Din Mohamed,Mohammad Abu Ghosh,Zaki Shammasi,Abdulaziz Al-Nasser

    This case-control study was designed to examine the association between blood lead levels and high blood pressure in a restricted subpopulation, Saudi women who were 45-93-year old, during or after menopausal period and not occupationally exposed to lead. Blood lead levels were assessed in 100 women with hypertension and 85 control subjects. Lead concentrations were measured in the whole blood using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Blood pressure measurements were performed according to the World Health Organization recommendations. Results revealed that the mean blood lead levels for hypertensive were 47.52+/-39.26 and 45.59+/-28.55 microg/l for controls. Participants were classified according to the median of blood lead levels in order to compute odds ratios. After controlling a number of potential confounding variables, the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that women with blood lead levels of > or = 38.6 microg/l were 5.27 times more likely to be hypertensive than those with blood lead levels of < 38.6 microg/l, but of borderline significance (p = 0.06). Although such observation might support the hypothesis that the depletion of lead from bones during menopause increases blood lead levels placing women at increased risk for high blood pressure, there is a need for further studies with larger number of subjects. A number of risk factors, which were suspected to influence blood lead levels, were also investigated. Use of Kohl, duration of its use, osteoporosis disease and intake of calcium supplements were significantly associated with blood lead levels.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Associations of pesticides, HCV, HBV, and hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-10-13
    Sameera Ezzat,Mohamed Abdel-Hamid,Soheir Abdel-Latif Eissa,Nadia Mokhtar,Nargis Albert Labib,Laila El-Ghorory,Nabiel Nasmi Mikhail,Amany Abdel-Hamid,Tamer Hifnawy,G Thomas Strickland,Christopher A Loffredo

    The rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in Egypt where the major risk factors are chronic infections with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV). A major segment of the population is employed in agriculture, raising the possibility that exposure to pesticides is an additional risk factor for HCC. The objective of this study is to investigate pesticides as environmental risk factors for HCC while taking into account viral risk factors. We conducted a case-control study of 236 subjects with confirmed HCC recruited from the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt, and 236 controls matched on sex, age group and urban-rural status recruited from orthopedic department, Cairo University Hospital, Egypt. Patients who agreed to participate signed a consent form, answered a questionnaire and gave a blood sample for hepatitis virus testing. The manuals of the Ministry of Agriculture for approved use and type of pesticides since 1965 were linked to the questionnaire data for types of crops and pests that the subject had to combat, to attribute specific pesticides that were used by each subject. Subjects also reported duration of the exposure (years). Case-control comparisons in these data were stratified by sex, age group, and urban vs. rural residence. Data were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, HCV RNA, and current hepatitis B infection. Among rural males, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for organophosphorus compounds was 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.3) and for carbamates it was 2.9 (95% CI = 1.4-5.8). No statistically significant associations between HCC and pesticides were observed for urban males or for females. As expected, the strongest risk factors for HCC in this study were HCV RNA (OR = 16-17) and current HBV infection (OR = 27-28). This study therefore suggests that exposures to organophophorus and carbamate pesticides are additive risk factors to current HCV and HBV infection among rural males. Future investigation should address the possible hepatocarcinogenicity of pesticides using biomarkers of exposure and other techniques to better estimate dose-response relationships.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hemolysin chrysolysin from Penicillium chrysogenum promotes inflammatory response.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-08-05
    Maura Donohue,Yongjoo Chung,Matthew L Magnuson,Marsha Ward,Mary Jane Selgrade,Stephen Vesper

    Some strains of Penicillium chrysogenum produce a proteinaceous hemolysin, chrysolysinTM, when incubated on sheep's blood agar at 37 degrees C but not at 23 degrees C. However, 92% (11/12) of the indoor air isolates produced hemolysis but only 43% (3/7) of the non-indoor air isolates did so. Chrysolysin is an aggregating protein composed of approximately 2kDa monomers, contains one cysteine amino acid, and has an isoelectric point of 4.85. Treatment of murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with purified chrysolysin caused statistically significant (T-test, p < 0.05) increased production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in a dose dependent manner after 6 h treatment. This suggests that chrysolysin might act to promote the host's inflammatory response after P. chrysogenum exposures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Occupational physician perceptions of bioterrorism.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-05-11
    David A Sterling,Bruce Clements,Terri Rebmann,Brooke N Shadel,Laveta M Stewart,Robert Thomas,R Gregory Evans

    The rationale for most preparedness training of healthcare professionals is based on the assumption that most persons infected following a biological incident will present first to emergency departments of acute care facilities or to ambulatory settings such as private physician offices, and such incidences would be recognized, appropriately treated, and reported to the local health departments. However, an alternative first point of contact is industry, a location where workers gather and disperse on a regular and documented basis, and require healthcare. In industry there are health professionals responsible for the health, safety and on-site well-being of the workforce and surrounding community; these professionals are in a position for early recognition, surveillance, and isolation. Targeted education must be provided to these health professionals. To address perceptions of risk and preferred educational delivery methods for bioterrorism and emerging infections-related materials, a survey of occupational physicians was performed during the spring of 2001. Within the 2 months following the September 11 terrorist attack and subsequent anthrax bioterrorism event, and before release of any results from the first survey, a follow-up mail survey was initiated in November 2001. Response rate to the pre- and post-September 11 survey were 58% (n = 56) and 33% (n = 33), respectively. No significant demographic differences were observed between the respondents of the pre- and post-surveys. Perceptions of likelihood of another bioterrorism event increased between surveys, as would be expected; however, a tendency to believe that it would not happen locally persisted. Even though over 90% of the physicians had received immediate training following September 11, additional training/education needs were demonstrated. Although training and education modules can be designed without information based on the population that can be on the receiving end, it rarely accomplishes its goal. Results from this survey can serve as a base for designing various levels of targeted training and educational material specific to the perceived need, method of obtaining information and the format considered to be most conducive for learning. Potential consequences from lack of bioterrorism preparedness due to low perception of need and threat awareness need to be addressed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-05-11
    Barbara A Anderson,Steve M Dearwent,James T Durant,Jill J Dyken,Jennifer A Freed,Susan McAfee Moore,John S Wheeler

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erythropoietic changes in rats after 2.45 GJz nonthermal irradiation.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2005-02-26
    Ivana Busljeta,Ivancica Trosic,Sanja Milkovic-Kraus

    The purpose of this study was to observe the erythropoietic changes in rats subchronically exposed to radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) irradiation at nonthermal level. Adult male Wistar rats (N=40) were exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous RF/MW fields for 2 hours daily, 7 days a week, at 5-10 mW/cm2. Exposed animals were divided into four subgroups (n=10 animals in each subgroup) in order to be irradiated for 2, 8, 15 and 30 days. Animals were sacrified on the final irradiation day of each treated subgroup. Unexposed rats were used as control (N=24). Six animals were included into the each control subgroup. Bone marrow smears were examined to determine absolute counts of anuclear cells and erythropoietic precursor cells. The absolute erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit values were observed in the peripheral blood by an automatic cell counter. The bone marrow cytogenetic analysis was accomplished by micronucleus (MN) tests. In the exposed animals erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and haematocrit were increased in peripheral blood on irradiation days 8 and 15. Concurrently, anuclear cells and erythropoietic precursor cells were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the bone marrow on day 15, but micronucleated cells' frequency was increased. In the applied experimental condition, RF/MW radiation might cause disturbance in red cell maturation and proliferation, and induce micronucleus formation in erythropoietic cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Current internal exposure to pesticides in children and adolescents in Germany: blood plasma levels of pentachlorophenol (PCP), lindane (gamma-HCH), and dichloro(diphenyl)ethylene (DDE), a biostable metabolite of dichloro(diphenyl)trichloroethane (DDT).
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2003-11-25
    U Heudorf,J Angerer,H Drexler

    Pesticides are widely used throughout the world in agriculture to protect crops, and in public health to control diseases transmitted by animal vectors or intermediate hosts. After the prohibition of organochlorines such as DDT internal exposure of the general population to the organochlorines has been reduced markedly. Herein, current internal exposure of children and adolescents in an urban area in Germany to PCP, lindane, and DDT/E is reported. One hundred and thirty children and adolescents took part in this voluntary investigation. All of them stated they had never used pesticides in their homes or for medical reasons. Blood plasma was analysed for pentachlorophenol (PCP), lindane (gamma-HCH), and dichloro(diphenyl)ethylene (DDE), a biostable metabolite of dichloro(diphenyl)trichloroethane (DDT), using gas chromatography/electron capture detection according to well established methods approved by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Median (and 95th percentiles) in the age groups < 6, 6- < 12, and 12- < 18 years of age were (microgram/l): DDE: 0.75 (4.45), 0.95 (5.04), 0.89 (8.77); DDT: < 0.1 (0.22), < 0.1 (0.25), < 0.1 (0.30); PCP: 2.48 (17.32), 2.69 (5.85), 2.08 (8.04); lindane: < 0.1 (0.12, < 0.1 (0.08), < 0.1 (0.09). High levels of internal exposure to DDT in two girls were probably obtained during a holiday stay in India; high PCP-levels in two other girls were caused by a leather jacket impregnated with PCP, and a holiday abroad, respectively. Current background levels of internal exposure to organochlorine insecticides in children and adolescents in Germany are quantified. Exposure to these substances in the general population is thought to occur mainly via residues in food, which are low in general, today. In special cases, however, individual exposures may be dominated by other sources, i.e. impregnated leather clothes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Case studies--arsenic.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2003-09-16
    C H Selene J Chou,Christopher T De Rosa

    Arsenic is found naturally in the environment. People may be exposed to arsenic by eating food, drinking water, breathing air, or by skin contact with soil or water that contains arsenic. In the U.S., the diet is a predominant source of exposure for the general population with smaller amounts coming from drinking water and air. Children may also be exposed to arsenic because of hand to mouth contact or eating dirt. In addition to the normal levels of arsenic in air, water, soil, and food, people could by exposed to higher levels in several ways such as in areas containing unusually high natural levels of arsenic in rocks which can lead to unusually high levels of arsenic in soil or water. People living in an area like this could take in elevated amounts of arsenic in drinking water. Workers in an occupation that involves arsenic production or use (for example, copper or lead smelting, wood treatment, pesticide application) could be exposed to elevated levels of arsenic at work. People who saw or sand arsenic-treated wood could inhale/ingest some of the sawdust which contains high levels of arsenic. Similarly, when pressure-treated wood is burned, high levels of arsenic could be released in the smoke. In agricultural areas where arsenic pesticides were used on crops the soil could contain high levels of arsenic. Some hazardous waste sites contain large quantities of arsenic. Arsenic ranks #1 on the ATSDR/EPA priority list of hazardous substances. Arsenic has been found in at least 1,014 current or former NPL sites. At the hazardous waster sites evaluated by ATSDR, exposure to arsenic in soil predominated over exposure to water, and no exposure to air had been recorded. However, there is no information on morbidity or mortality from exposure to arsenic in soil at hazardous waste sites. Exposure assessment, community and tribal involvement, and evaluation and surveillance of health effects are among the ATSDR future Superfund research program priority focus areas. Examples of exposures to arsenic in drinking water, diet and pesticide are given.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An estimation of the daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and other phthalates in the general population.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2003-04-24
    Holger M Koch,Hans Drexler,Jürgen Angerer

    We analyzed 85 urine samples of the general German population for human specific metabolites of phthalates. By that we avoided contamination with the parent phthalates being omnipresent in the environment and for the first time could deduce each individual's internal exposure to phthalates without contamination. Determined were the secondary metabolites mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (5OH-MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl)phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the primary monoester metabolites of DEHP, di-noctylphthalate (DnOP), di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBzP) and diethylphthalate (DEP). Based on these internal exposure values we calculated the daily intake of the parent phthalates using urinary metabolite excretion factors. For DEHP we determined a median intake of 13.8 micrograms/kg body weight/day and an intake at the 95th percentile of 52.1 micrograms/kg body weight/day. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) value settled by the EU Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (CSTEE) is 37 micrograms/kg body weight/day. Twelve percent of the subjects (10 out of 85 samples) within our collective of the general population are exceeding this value. Thirty-one percent of the subjects (26 out of 85 samples) had values higher than the reference dose (RfD) of 20 micrograms/kg body weight/day of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For DnBP, BBzP, DEP and DnOP intake values at the 95th percentile were 16.2, 2.5, 22.1 and 0.42 micrograms/kg body weight/day respectively. Our results unequivocally prove that the general German population is exposed to DEHP to a much higher extent than previously believed. This is of greatest importance for public health since DEHP is not only the most important phthalate with respect to its production, use, occurrence and omnipresence but also the phthalate with the greatest endocrine disrupting potency. DEHP is strongly suspected to be a developmental and reproductive toxicant. We are not aware of any other environmental contaminant for which the TDI and RfD are exceeded to such an extent within the general population. The transgressions of the TDI and RfD for DEHP are accompanied by considerable ubiquitous exposures to DnBP and BbzP, two phthalates under scrutiny for similar toxicological mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ranking and frequency of somatic symptoms in residents near composting sites with odor annoyance.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2003-03-08
    Caroline E W Herr,Anja zur Nieden,Rolf H Bödeker,Uwe Gieler,Thomas F Eikmann

    The presented study reports the prevalence of somatic symptoms in three study samples living in the vicinity of composting plants. Microorganisms were measured in the air of the residential areas closest to the plants at the same time an epidemiological investigation was performed in the neighborhood near (150 to 1,500 m) to three plants and in corresponding control residential areas of the same district. Nine hundred and seventy-nine residents were questioned about the odor annoyance in their vicinity. An instrument measuring somatic complaints (SOMS 2 acc. Rief et al., 2001) was used to determine the unexplained somatic symptoms of the past two years and a gender-independent Total Complaint Index (TCI) was calculated. The percentages of study population reporting somatic symptoms were higher in all six samples in comparison with the German population (Rief et al., 2001) and in samples living near composting sites compared to the corresponding control samples. The study sample living close to site A (exposed to bioaerosols and odor annoyance) had the highest rates of complaints. A difference could be seen in comparison to the corresponding control sample (TCI: p[Anear vs. Acontrol] = 0.001; Mann-Whitney). In this group breathlessness was reported more than twice as often as in the other three samples. Out of the five most frequently reported symptoms four corresponded to the five complaints the German population reports most frequently in all groups. Nausea was the fifth most reported symptom in both samples reporting annoying residential odors (Anear and Bnear). The type of somatic symptoms reported most often was influenced little by environmental odors and medically relevant bioaerosol concentrations, except for nausea in context with annoying residential odors. As expected frequency of reporting general somatic symptoms was influenced by the perceived environment near the three composting sites. Concerning the sum of bodily complaints (TCI) though, this was only significant in the group exposed to medically relevant concentrations of residential outdoor bioaerosols, which was accompanied by high rates for breathlessness. The SOMS2 was able to mirror measurable, medically relevant environmental exposures in study groups and showed fewer changes concerning annoying or presumed environmental exposures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Platinum concentrations in sera of catalyst production workers are not predictive of platinum salt allergy.
    Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health (IF 4.379) Pub Date : 2002-08-14
    Rolf Merget,Rupprecht Kulzer,Annegret Kniffka,Friedrich Alt,Rolf Breitstadt,Thomas Bruening

    Platinum (Pt) salts are potent occupational allergens in precious metal refineries and catalyst productions. The threshold limit value of 2000 ng soluble Pt/m3 enforced in many countries has been questioned because there is still a high incidence of Pt salt allergy. The objective of the present case series is to define the predictive value of biological monitoring by relating Pt in the serum of catalyst production workers and control subjects to sensitization to Pt salts as assessed by skin prick testing. A total of 38 Pt measurements were taken from sera of six workers investigated several times during a 5-year cohort study. Three subjects showed a conversion of skin prick test (SPT) with Pt salts from negative to positive during the cohort study (all considered highly exposed to Pt), and three did not show SPT conversion. Previous therapy with Pt-containing anti-cancer drugs and metallic dental alloys were considered as confounders. Only one of the three workers sensitized to Pt salt had clearly elevated serum Pt concentrations, but this elevation was not observed in each examination. Elevated Pt concentrations were also found in two subjects with low or no exposure to Pt. Both had metallic dental alloys. One control subject without metallic dental alloys showed low Pt concentrations in the serum in four examinations, but a single unexplained high concentration in his initial examination. In this small case series, serum Pt concentrations were neither sensitive nor specific for the prediction of Pt salt sensitization. Low specificity may be explained by Pt-containing metallic dental alloys, but additional unknown confounders may be of importance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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