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  • Addressing the Increased Expectations of Nutrition.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Rudi Balling,Patrick J Stover

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Rudi Balling,Patrick J Stover

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Where does fetal and embryonic cholesterol originate and what does it do?
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-30
    Laura A Woollett

    The development of a single-celled fertilized egg, through the blastocyst stage of a ball of cells and the embryonic stage when almost all organ systems begin to develop, and finally to the fetal stage where growth and physiological maturation occurs, is a complex and multifaceted process. A change in metabolism during gestation, especially when organogenesis occurs, can lead to abnormal development

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dietary manipulation of histone structure and function.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-05
    Barbara Delage,Roderick H Dashwood

    Post-translational modifications of histones are the subject of intensive investigations with the aim of decoding how they regulate, alone or in combination, chromatin structure, genomic stability, and gene expression. Major epigenetic programming events take place during gametogenesis and fetal development and are thought to have long-lasting consequences on adult health. Epidemiological and experimental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Age-related changes in nutrient utilization by companion animals.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-05
    George C Fahey,Kathleen A Barry,Kelly S Swanson

    As companion animals age and pass through various life stages from in utero to the geriatric state, nutrient requirements change along with the manner in which nutrients are utilized by the various organ systems in the body. From the regulatory perspective, recognized life stages include maintenance, growth, and gestation/lactation. Other important life stages include in utero, the neonate, and the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Translating nutrition science into policy as witness and actor.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-05
    Irwin H Rosenberg

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabsorption as one of the determinants of nutritional anemia in Asia and the tropics. The thread continues

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Malonyl-CoA, a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-05
    David Saggerson

    Malonyl-CoA can be formed within the mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytosol of mammalian cells. Besides being an intermediate in the pathways of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis and fatty acid elongation, malonyl-CoA has an important signaling function through its allosteric inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, the enzyme that normally exerts flux control over mitochondrial beta-oxidation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of intestinal calcium transport.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-07-05
    Ramesh C Khanal,Ilka Nemere

    Calcium is an essential ion in all organisms and participates in a variety of structural and functional roles. Calcium (re)absorption occurs in epithelia, including the intestine, kidney, mammary glands, placenta, and gills of fish. Its transport is regulated by a complex array of processes that are mediated by hormonal, developmental, and physiological factors involving the gastrointestinal tract

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cystic fibrosis and nutrition: linking phospholipids and essential fatty acids with thiol metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-24
    Sheila M Innis,A George F Davidson

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disorder among Caucasians and results from mutation in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator. In addition to its multisystem clinical effects, the disease is characterized by increased proinflammatory mediators and oxidant stress, and systemic redox imbalance with reduced glutathione (GSH), together with alterations in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrigenomics and selenium: gene expression patterns, physiological targets, and genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-23
    John Hesketh

    Dietary selenium intake is regarded as an important factor in determining optimal health and susceptibility to disease. Therefore, it is critical to understand the interaction between selenium intake and molecular events at the genetic and cellular level. This article addresses two facets of this interaction. The first facet is how genomics is contributing to understanding the molecular mechanisms

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Eukaryotic-microbiota crosstalk: potential mechanisms for health benefits of prebiotics and probiotics.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-21
    Norman G Hord

    The ability to link dietary consumption of prebiotic food ingredients and probiotic microorganisms to health benefits rests, in part, on our ability to identify both the extent to which these factors alter human microbiome activity and/or structure and the ability to engage eukaryotic cells necessary to transduce signals originating from the microbiome. The human microbiome consists of bacterial, archaeal

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Systemic iron homeostasis and the iron-responsive element/iron-regulatory protein (IRE/IRP) regulatory network.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-21
    Martina U Muckenthaler,Bruno Galy,Matthias W Hentze

    The regulation and maintenance of systemic iron homeostasis is critical to human health. Iron overload and deficiency diseases belong to the most common nutrition-related pathologies across the globe. It is now well appreciated that the hormonal hepcidin/ferroportin system plays an important regulatory role for systemic iron metabolism. We review recent data that uncover the importance of the cellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Insulin signaling in the pancreatic beta-cell.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-17
    Ingo B Leibiger,Barbara Leibiger,Per-Olof Berggren

    The appropriate function of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells is crucial for the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and its impairment leads to diabetes mellitus, the most common metabolic disorder in man. In addition to glucose, the major nutrient factor, inputs from the nervous system, humoral components, and cell-cell communication within the islet of Langerhans act together to guarantee the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dietary protein and bone health: roles of amino acid-sensing receptors in the control of calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-05-10
    A D Conigrave,E M Brown,R Rizzoli

    In this article, we review the evidence that dietary protein has a positive influence on bone health, reduces hip fracture risk, and promotes postfracture recovery, and we consider the molecular, cellular, and endocrine bases of the interactions that link protein and calcium metabolism, including effects via IGF-1 and PTH. In addition, we consider the roles of amino acid-sensing mechanisms in coupling

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bioethical considerations for human nutrigenomics.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-29
    Manuela M Bergmann,Ulf Görman,John C Mathers

    This article gives an overview of the ethical issues in nutrigenomics research and personalized nutrition. The principles of research ethics, i.e., autonomy, beneficence, nonmalfeasance, and justice, are challenged by rapidly growing cross-border research activities utilizing existing and upcoming biobanks for studies of the interaction of genes with diet on risk of common diseases. We highlight the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Complex genetics of obesity in mouse models.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-26
    Daniel Pomp,Derrick Nehrenberg,Daria Estrada-Smith

    Traits related to energy balance and obesity are exceptionally complex, with varying contributions of genetic susceptibility and interacting environmental factors. The use of mouse models has been a powerful driving force in understanding the genetic architecture of polygenic traits such as obesity. However, the use of mouse models for analysis of complex traits is at an important crossroad. Genome-wide

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The emerging functions and mechanisms of mammalian fatty acid-binding proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-26
    Judith Storch,Betina Corsico

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are abundant intracellular proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids with high affinity. Nine separate mammalian FABPs have been identified, and their tertiary structures are highly conserved. The FABPs have unique tissue-specific distributions that have long suggested functional differences among them. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Katrina L Bogan,Charles Brenner

    Although baseline requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis can be met either with dietary tryptophan or with less than 20 mg of daily niacin, which consists of nicotinic acid and/or nicotinamide, there is growing evidence that substantially greater rates of NAD+ synthesis may be beneficial to protect against neurological degeneration, Candida glabrata infection, and possibly

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of food intake through hypothalamic signaling networks involving mTOR.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Stephen C Woods,Randy J Seeley,Daniela Cota

    To maintain normal activity, single cells must assure that their energy needs and utilization are continuously matched. Likewise, multicellular organisms must constantly coordinate energy intake and expenditure to maintain energy homeostasis. The brain, and the hypothalamus in particular, plays a critical role in integrating and coordinating several types of signals, including hormones and nutrients

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Achieving a healthy weight gain during pregnancy.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Christine M Olson

    This review uses the 1990 U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight gain recommendations to examine the question, what is a healthy pregnancy weight gain? The relationship of gestational weight gain to infant size at birth; pregnancy, labor, and delivery complications; neonatal, infant, and child outcomes; and maternal weight and health outcomes in U.S. and European populations are discussed

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The efficiency of cellular energy transduction and its implications for obesity.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-15
    Mary-Ellen Harper,Katherine Green,Martin D Brand

    We assess the existence, mechanism, and functions of less-than-maximal coupling efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and its potential as a target for future antiobesity interventions. Coupling efficiency is the proportion of oxygen consumption used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and do useful work. High coupling efficiency may lead to fat deposition; low coupling efficiency

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutritional implications of genetic taste variation: the role of PROP sensitivity and other taste phenotypes.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-15
    Beverly J Tepper

    Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of phenylthiocarbamide and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is a well-studied human trait. It has been hypothesized that this phenotype is a marker for individual differences in taste perception that influence food preferences and dietary behavior with subsequent links to body weight and chronic disease risk. Steady progress has been made over the past several decades

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrition and mutagenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-11
    Lynnette R Ferguson,Martin Philpott

    Diet-related mutagenesis plays an etiologic role in chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Many dietary mutagens are DNA reactive, leading to distinct spectra of base-pair substitution mutations and structural chromosome changes. Examples include aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, ptaquiloside, various pyrrolizidine alkaloids, heterocyclic amines including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Protein and amino acid metabolism in the human newborn.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-09
    Satish C Kalhan,Dennis M Bier

    Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, thermogenesis, and a significant change in the mobilization and use of oxidative substrates. The development

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sugar absorption in the intestine: the role of GLUT2.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-04-09
    George L Kellett,Edith Brot-Laroche,Oliver J Mace,Armelle Leturque

    Intestinal glucose absorption comprises two components. One is classical active absorption mediated by the Na+/glucose cotransporter. The other is a diffusive component, formerly attributed to paracellular flow. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the diffusive component is mediated by the transient insertion of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) into the apical membrane. This apical GLUT2 pathway

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methionine metabolism and liver disease.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2008-03-12
    José M Mato,M Luz Martínez-Chantar,Shelly C Lu

    In the early 1930s, Banting and Best, the discoverers of insulin, found that choline could prevent the development of fatty liver disease (steatosis) in pancreatectomized dogs treated with insulin. Later work indicated that in rats and mice, diets deficient in labile methyl groups (choline, methionine, betaine, folate) produced fatty liver and that long-term administration of diets deficient in choline

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of dietary proteins and amino acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-08-02
    Frédéric Tremblay,Charles Lavigne,Hélène Jacques,André Marette

    Dietary proteins and amino acids are important modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Although high intake of dietary proteins has positive effects on energy homeostasis by inducing satiety and possibly increasing energy expenditure, it has detrimental effects on glucose homeostasis by promoting insulin resistance and increasing gluconeogenesis. Varying the quality rather than the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of infant and young child feeding: implications for contemporary public health.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-08-02
    Daniel W Sellen

    Evolutionary anthropological and ethnographic studies are used to develop a general conceptual framework for understanding prehistoric, historic, and contemporary variation in human lactation and complementary feeding patterns. Comparison of similarities and differences in human and nonhuman primate lactation biology suggests humans have evolved an unusually flexible strategy for feeding young. Several

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fifty-five-year personal experience with human nutrition worldwide.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Nevin S Scrimshaw

    By 1950 the vitamins had been identified, but little was known of their functions. Beriberi, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis were disappearing, but kwashiorkor and/or marasmus were common in most developing countries. Requirements for protein were still uncertain, and those for essential amino acids or essential fatty acids were unknown. The author's contributions in the field of vitamins began in the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trace element transport in the mammary gland.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Bo Lönnerdal

    The mammary gland has a remarkable capacity to adapt to maternal deficiency or excess of iron, copper, and zinc and to homeostatically control milk concentrations of these essential nutrients. Similarly, it can regulate changes in concentrations of iron, copper, and zinc change during lactation. For iron, this regulation is achieved by transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, whereas mammary gland

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regional fat deposition as a factor in FFA metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Susanne B Votruba,Michael D Jensen

    Humans have a large variability in body fat distribution, which has tremendous implications for metabolic health. Obese individuals with an upper-body-fat distribution have increased health complications such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in comparison with lower-body-obese individuals. Additionally, females have more body fat, a greater proportion of fat in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Splanchnic regulation of glucose production.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-01
    John Wahren,Karin Ekberg

    The liver plays a key role for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis under widely changing physiological conditions. In the overnight fasted state, breakdown of hepatic glycogen and synthesis of glucose from lactate, amino acids, glycerol, and pyruvate contribute about equally to hepatic glucose production. Postprandial glucose uptake by the liver is determined by the size of the glucose load

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Epigenetic epidemiology of the developmental origins hypothesis.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-01
    Robert A Waterland,Karin B Michels

    Extensive human epidemiologic and animal model data indicate that during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal mammalian development, nutrition and other environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways and thereby induce permanent changes in metabolism and chronic disease susceptibility. The biologic mechanisms underlying this "developmental origins hypothesis" are poorly understood. This

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic regulation and function of glutathione peroxidase-1.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-01
    Xin Gen Lei,Wen-Hsing Cheng,James P McClung

    Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) represents the first identified mammalian selenoprotein, and our understanding in the metabolic regulation and function of this abundant selenoenzyme has greatly advanced during the past decade. Selenocysteine insertion sequence-associating factors, adenosine, and Abl and Arg tyrosine kinases are potent, Se-independent regulators of GPX1 gene, protein, and activity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Energy metabolism during human pregnancy.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-05-01
    Elisabet Forsum,Marie Löf

    This review summarizes information regarding how human energy metabolism is affected by pregnancy, and current estimates of energy requirements during pregnancy are presented. Such estimates can be calculated using either increases in basal metabolic rate (BMR) or increases in total energy expenditure (TEE). The two modes of calculation give similar results for a complete pregnancy but different distributions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The ketogenic diet and brain metabolism of amino acids: relationship to the anticonvulsant effect.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-21
    Marc Yudkoff,Yevgeny Daikhin,Torun Margareta Melø,Ilana Nissim,Ursula Sonnewald,Itzhak Nissim

    In many epileptic patients, anticonvulsant drugs either fail adequately to control seizures or they cause serious side effects. An important adjunct to pharmacologic therapy is the ketogenic diet, which often improves seizure control, even in patients who respond poorly to medications. The mechanisms that explain the therapeutic effect are incompletely understood. Evidence points to an effect on brain

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Taste receptor genes.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-21
    Alexander A Bachmanov,Gary K Beauchamp

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-19
    Maret G Traber

    Dietary and supplemental vitamin E is absorbed and delivered to the liver, but of the various antioxidants with vitamin E activity, only alpha-tocopherol is preferentially recognized by the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) and is transferred to plasma, while the other vitamin E forms (e.g., gamma-tocopherol or tocotrienols) are removed from the circulation. Hepatic alpha-TTP is required

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-19
    William R Leonard,J Josh Snodgrass,Marcia L Robertson

    The evolution of large human brain size has had important implications for the nutritional biology of our species. Large brains are energetically expensive, and humans expend a larger proportion of their energy budget on brain metabolism than other primates. The high costs of large human brains are supported, in part, by our energy- and nutrient-rich diets. Among primates, relative brain size is positively

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    John T Brosnan,Margaret E Brosnan

    Creatine and phosphocreatine serve not only as an intracellular buffer for adenosine triphosphate, but also as an energy shuttle for the movement of high-energy phosphates from mitochondrial sites of production to cytoplasmic sites of utilization. The spontaneous loss of creatine and of phosphocreatine to creatinine requires that creatine be continuously replaced; this occurs by a combination of diet

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The genetics of anorexia nervosa.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    Cynthia M Bulik,Margarita C T Slof-Op't Landt,Eric F van Furth,Patrick F Sullivan

    Anorexia nervosa is a perplexing illness marked by low body weight and persistent fear of weight gain. Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disease. Historically, anorexia nervosa was viewed as a disorder primarily influenced by sociocultural factors; however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Family studies have consistently demonstrated that

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The clockwork of metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey,Biliana Marcheva,Akira Kohsaka,Joseph Bass

    The observation that cycles of sleep and wakefulness occur with a periodicity fixed in time to match the rotation of the Earth on its axis provided a key to unlock the first genetic code for a neurobehavioral pathway in flies and ultimately in mice. As a remarkable outcome of this discovery, we have gained an unprecedented view of the conserved genetic program that encodes a sense of time across all

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • ChREBP, a transcriptional regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-13
    Catherine Postic,Renaud Dentin,Pierre-Damien Denechaud,Jean Girard

    Dysregulations in hepatic lipid synthesis are often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and therefore a perfect understanding of the regulation of this metabolic pathway appears essential to identify potential therapeutic targets. Recently, the transcription factor ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein) has emerged as a major mediator of glucose action on lipogenic gene expression

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conserved and tissue-specific genic and physiologic responses to caloric restriction and altered IGFI signaling in mitotic and postmitotic tissues.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-04-13
    Stephen R Spindler,Joseph M Dhahbi

    Caloric restriction (CR), the consumption of fewer calories without malnutrition, and reduced insulin and/or IGFI receptor signaling delay many age-related physiological changes and extend the lifespan of many model organisms. Here, we present and review microarray and biochemical studies indicating that the potent anticancer effects of CR and disrupted insulin/IGFI receptor signaling evolved as a

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Association of maternal obesity before conception with poor lactation performance.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-03-08
    Kathleen Maher Rasmussen

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence for a link between maternal obesity and poor lactation performance. In nonhuman species, excess maternal fatness is deleterious for lactation and also for maternal health and survival. These effects occur during pregnancy and as milk production is beginning. They may result in poor growth and survival of the young. In women, there is a negative

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of food intake repression in indispensable amino acid deficiency.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-03-03
    Dorothy W Gietzen,Shuzhen Hao,Tracy G Anthony

    Animals reject diets that lead to indispensable amino acid (IAA) depletion or deficiency. This behavior is adaptive, as continued IAA depletion is incompatible with maintenance of protein synthesis and survival. Following rejection of the diet, animals begin foraging for a better IAA source and develop conditioned aversions to cues associated with the deficient diet. These responses require a sensory

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-02-23
    Robin E Duncan,Maryam Ahmadian,Kathy Jaworski,Eszter Sarkadi-Nagy,Hei Sook Sul

    Lipolysis of white adipose tissue triacylglycerol stores results in the liberation of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids that are released into the vasculature for use by other organs as energy substrates. In response to changes in nutritional state, lipolysis rates are precisely regulated through hormonal and biochemical signals. These signals modulate the activity of lipolytic enzymes and accessory

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Protein turnover via autophagy: implications for metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2007-02-22
    Noboru Mizushima,Daniel J Klionsky

    Autophagy is a process of cellular "self-eating" in which portions of cytoplasm are sequestered within double-membrane cytosolic vesicles termed autophagosomes. The autophagosome cargo is delivered to the lysosome, broken down, and the resulting amino acids recycled after release back into the cytosol. Autophagy occurs in all eukaryotes and can be up-regulated in response to various nutrient limitations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Risks and benefits of nutritional support during critical illness.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Yves Debaveye,Greet Van den Berghe

    Critically ill patients who depend on intensive care for more than a few days reveal profound erosion of lean body mass, which is thought to contribute to high morbidity and mortality. Despite a shortfall of evidence that supplemental feeding actually alters clinical outcome of these life-threatening disease states, this observation evoked an almost universal, albeit often inappropriate, use of nutritional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Choline: critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Steven H Zeisel

    Choline is an essential nutrient needed for the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; for normal cholinergic neurotransmission; for normal muscle function; for lipid transport from liver; and it is the major source of methyl groups in the diet. Choline is critical during fetal development, when it influences stem cell proliferation and apoptosis, thereby altering brain and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of food intake and eating behavior phenotypes in humans.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Tuomo Rankinen,Claude Bouchard

    This review summarizes the research advances of the past decade regarding the role of human genetic differences in energy and nutrient intake as well as in eating behavior phenotypes and selected eating disorders. The evidence for familial aggregation and heritability based on twin and nuclear family study designs is summarized. Genome-wide linkage scans and quantitative trait loci identified to date

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Elizabeta Nemeth,Tomas Ganz

    Hepcidin, a peptide hormone made in the liver, is the principal regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin controls plasma iron concentration and tissue distribution of iron by inhibiting intestinal iron absorption, iron recycling by macrophages, and iron mobilization from hepatic stores. Hepcidin acts by inhibiting cellular iron efflux through binding to and inducing the degradation of ferroportin

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hereditary hemochromatosis.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Antonello Pietrangelo

    In recent years, the number of proteins implicated in iron homeostasis has increased dramatically, and genetic causes have apparently been identified for the major disorders associated with tissue iron overload. These dramatic steps forward have transformed the way we look at iron-related disorders, particularly hemochromatosis. This review presents a concept of this disease that is based on this new

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The clinical significance of asymmetric dimethylarginine.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Michiel P C Siroen,Tom Teerlink,Robert J Nijveldt,Hubert A Prins,Milan C Richir,Paul A M van Leeuwen

    In 1992, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) was first described as an endogenous inhibitor of the arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. From then, its role in regulating NO production has attracted increasing attention. Nowadays, ADMA is regarded as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. The role of the kidney and the liver in the metabolism of ADMA has been extensively studied and both organs have proven

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dietary proteins as environmental modifiers of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    David E Lefebvre,Karen L Powell,Alexander Strom,Fraser W Scott

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the patient's immune system destroys the insulin-secreting beta-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. A majority of cases is thought to occur as a result of gene-environment interactions. The identity of the environmental factors remains unknown mainly because of the difficulty in linking past exposures with later disease development. Overall

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cow's milk and linear growth in industrialized and developing countries.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Camilla Hoppe,Christian Mølgaard,Kim F Michaelsen

    The strongest evidence that cow's milk stimulates linear growth comes from observational and intervention studies in developing countries that show considerable effects. Additionally, many observational studies from well-nourished populations also show an association between milk intake and growth. These results suggest that milk has a growth-stimulating effect even in situations where the nutrient

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Innovative dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Jay Whelan,Cheryl Rust

    It is now established that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in health promotion and disease prevention, particularly those traditionally derived from marine sources (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). A number of organizations have made specific recommendations for the general population to increase their intakes of these nutrients. In response to and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fatty acids as modulators of the immune response.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    Kevin Fritsche

    Research describing fatty acids as modulators of inflammation and immune responses abounds. Many of these studies have focused on one particular group of fatty acids, omega-3. The data from animal studies have shown that these fatty acids can have powerful anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities in a wide array of diseases (e.g., autoimmunity, arthritis, and infection). However, the evidence

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fuel metabolism in starvation.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-07-20
    George F Cahill

    This article, which is partly biographical and partly scientific, summarizes a life in academic medicine. It relates my progress from benchside to bedside and then to academic and research administration, and concludes with the teaching of human biology to college undergraduates. My experience as an intern (anno 1953) treating a youngster in diabetic ketoacidosis underscored our ignorance of the controls

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Results of bariatric surgery.
    Annu. Rev. Nutr. (IF 8.422) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    Erik N Hansen,Alfonso Torquati,Naji N Abumrad

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly growing to epidemic proportions in the United States and globally. Since sustainable weight loss is only achieved by bariatric surgery, medicine has seen an explosion in the diversity and number of bariatric procedures performed over the past few years. Systematic studies of postoperative outcomes and investigations into the physiology and biology of weight loss provide

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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