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  • Early events following bovine leukaemia virus infection in calves with different alleles of the major histocompatibility complex DRB3 gene
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Agustina Forletti; Claudia María Lützelschwab; Rosana Cepeda; Eduardo N. Esteban; Silvina Elena Gutiérrez

    Cattle maintaining a low proviral load (LPL) status after bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection have been recognized as BLV controllers and non-transmitters to uninfected cattle in experimental and natural conditions. LPL has been associated with host genetics, mainly with the BoLA class II DRB3 gene. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of BLV and the host response in Holstein calves carrying different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Twenty BLV-free calves were inoculated with infected lymphocytes. Two calves were maintained uninfected as controls. Proviral load, total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, anti-BLVgp51 titres and BLVp24 expression levels were determined in blood samples at various times post-inoculation. The viral load peaked at 30 days post-inoculation (dpi) in all animals. The viral load decreased steadily from seroconversion (38 dpi) to the end of the study (178 dpi) in calves carrying a resistance-associated allele (*0902), while it was maintained at elevated levels in calves with *1501 or neutral alleles after seroconversion. Leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and BLVp24 expression did not significantly differ between genetic groups. Animals with < 20 proviral copies/30 ng of DNA at 178 dpi or < 200 proviral copies at 88 dpi were classified as LPL, while calves with levels above these limits were considered to have high proviral load (HPL) profiles. All six calves with the *1501 allele progressed to HPL, while LPL was attained by 6/7 (86%) and 2/6 (33%) of the calves with the *0902 and neutral alleles, respectively. One calf with both *0902 and *1501 developed LPL. This is the first report of experimental induction of the LPL profile in cattle.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Goats naturally devoid of PrPC are resistant to scrapie
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Øyvind Salvesen; Arild Espenes; Malin R. Reiten; Tram T. Vuong; Giulia Malachin; Linh Tran; Olivier Andréoletti; Ingrid Olsaker; Sylvie L. Benestad; Michael A. Tranulis; Cecilie Ersdal

    Prion diseases are progressive and fatal, neurodegenerative disorders described in humans and animals. According to the “protein-only” hypothesis, the normal host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) is converted into a pathological and infectious form (PrPSc) in these diseases. Transgenic knockout models have shown that PrPC is a prerequisite for the development of prion disease. In Norwegian dairy goats, a mutation (Ter) in the prion protein gene (PRNP) effectively blocks PrPC synthesis. We inoculated 12 goats (4 PRNP+/+, 4 PRNP+/Ter, and 4 PRNPTer/Ter) intracerebrally with goat scrapie prions. The mean incubation time until clinical signs of prion disease was 601 days post-inoculation (dpi) in PRNP+/+ goats and 773 dpi in PRNP+/Ter goats. PrPSc and vacuolation were similarly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) of both groups and observed in all brain regions and segments of the spinal cord. Generally, accumulation of PrPSc was limited in peripheral organs, but all PRNP+/+ goats and 1 of 4 PRNP+/Ter goats were positive in head lymph nodes. The four PRNPTer/Ter goats remained healthy, without clinical signs of prion disease, and were euthanized 1260 dpi. As expected, no accumulation of PrPSc was observed in the CNS or peripheral tissues of this group, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, enzyme immunoassay, and real-time quaking-induced conversion. Our study shows for the first time that animals devoid of PrPC due to a natural mutation do not propagate prions and are resistant to scrapie. Clinical onset of disease is delayed in heterozygous goats expressing about 50% of PrPC levels.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Precision cut lung slices: a novel versatile tool to examine host–pathogen interaction in the chicken lung
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Karen Jane Bryson; Damien Garrido; Marco Esposito; Gerry McLachlan; Paul Digard; Catherine Schouler; Rodrigo Guabiraba; Sascha Trapp; Lonneke Vervelde

    The avian respiratory tract is a common entry route for many pathogens and an important delivery route for vaccination in the poultry industry. Immune responses in the avian lung have mostly been studied in vivo due to the lack of robust, relevant in vitro and ex vivo models mimicking the microenvironment. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have the major advantages of maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture of the lung and includes heterogeneous cell populations. PCLS have been obtained from a number of mammalian species and from chicken embryos. However, as the embryonic lung is physiologically undifferentiated and immunologically immature, it is less suitable to examine complex host–pathogen interactions including antimicrobial responses. Here we prepared PCLS from immunologically mature chicken lungs, tested different culture conditions, and found that serum supplementation has a detrimental effect on the quality of PCLS. Viable cells in PCLS remained present for ≥ 40 days, as determined by viability assays and sustained motility of fluorescent mononuclear phagocytic cells. The PCLS were responsive to lipopolysaccharide stimulation, which induced the release of nitric oxide, IL-1β, type I interferons and IL-10. Mononuclear phagocytes within the tissue maintained phagocytic activity, with live cell imaging capturing interactions with latex beads and an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Finally, the PCLS were also shown to be permissive to infection with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Taken together, immunologically mature chicken PCLS provide a suitable model to simulate live organ responsiveness and cell dynamics, which can be readily exploited to examine host–pathogen interactions and inflammatory responses.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • A DIVA vaccine strain lacking RpoS and the secondary messenger c-di-GMP for protection against salmonellosis in pigs
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Carmen Gil; Cristina Latasa; Enrique García-Ona; Isidro Lázaro; Javier Labairu; Maite Echeverz; Saioa Burgui; Begoña García; Iñigo Lasa; Cristina Solano

    Salmonellosis is the second most common food-borne zoonosis in the European Union, with pigs being a major reservoir of this pathogen. Salmonella control in pig production requires multiple measures amongst which vaccination may be used to reduce subclinical carriage and shedding of prevalent serovars, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Live attenuated vaccine strains offer advantages in terms of enhancing cell mediated immunity and allowing inoculation by the oral route. However, main failures of these vaccines are the limited cross-protection achieved against heterologous serovars and interference with serological monitoring for infection. We have recently shown that an attenuated S. Enteritidis strain (ΔXIII) is protective against S. Typhimurium in a murine infection model. ΔXIII strain harbours 13 chromosomal deletions that make it unable to produce the sigma factor RpoS and synthesize cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). In this study, our objectives were to test the protective effects of ΔXIII strain in swine and to investigate if the use of ΔXIII permits the discrimination of vaccinated from infected pigs. Results show that oral vaccination of pre-weaned piglets with ΔXIII cross-protected against a challenge with S. Typhimurium by reducing faecal shedding and ileocaecal lymph nodes colonization, both at the time of weaning and slaughter. Vaccinated pigs showed neither faecal shedding nor tissue persistence of the vaccine strain at weaning, ensuring the absence of ΔXIII strain by the time of slaughter. Moreover, lack of the SEN4316 protein in ΔXIII strain allowed the development of a serological test that enabled the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA).

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Antiviral activity of interleukin-11 as a response to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Yuchen Li; Qingxin Wu; Yuxin Jin; Qian Yang

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, provides protection from intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known of the role of IL-11 during viral infections. In this study, IL-11 expression at mRNA and protein levels were found to be high in Vero cells and the jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, while IL-11 expression was found to be positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) was found to suppress PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 was found to inhibit viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells by activating the IL-11/STAT3 signaling pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggest that IL-11 is a newfound PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential of IL-11 to be used as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Porcine rotavirus mainly infects primary porcine enterocytes at the basolateral surface
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Tingting Cui; Sebastiaan Theuns; Jiexiong Xie; Hans J. Nauwynck

    Intestinal epithelium functions as a barrier to protect multicellular organisms from the outside world. It consists of epithelial cells closely connected by intercellular junctions, selective gates which control paracellular diffusion of solutes, ions and macromolecules across the epithelium and keep out pathogens. Rotavirus is one of the major enteric viruses causing severe diarrhea in humans and animals. It specifically infects the enterocytes on villi of small intestines. The polarity of rotavirus replication in their target enterocytes and the role of intestinal epithelial integrity were examined in the present study. Treatment with EGTA, a drug that chelates calcium and disrupts the intercellular junctions, (i) significantly enhanced the infection of rotavirus in primary enterocytes, (ii) increased the binding of rotavirus to enterocytes, but (iii) considerably blocked internalization of rotavirus. After internalization, rotavirus was resistant to EGTA treatment. To investigate the polarity of rotavirus infection, the primary enterocytes were cultured in a transwell system and infected with rotavirus at either the apical or the basolateral surface. Rotavirus preferentially infected enterocytes at the basolateral surface. Restriction of infection through apical inoculation was overcome by EGTA treatment. Overall, our findings demonstrate that integrity of the intestinal epithelium is crucial in the host’s innate defense against rotavirus infection. In addition, the intercellular receptor is located basolaterally and disruption of intercellular junctions facilitates the binding of rotavirus to their receptor at the basolateral surface.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Lsr operon is associated with AI-2 transfer and pathogenicity in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Jiakun Zuo; Huifang Yin; Jiangang Hu; Jinfeng Miao; Zhaoguo Chen; Kezong Qi; Zhihao Wang; Jiansen Gong; Vanhnaseng Phouthapane; Wei Jiang; Rongsheng Mi; Yan huang; Chen Wang; Xiangan Han

    The function of Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) which acts as the signal molecule of LuxS-mediated quorum sensing, is regulated through the lsr operon (which includes eight genes: lsrK, lsrR, lsrA, lsrC, lsrD, lsrB, lsrF, and lsrG). However, the functions of the lsr operon remain unclear in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), which causes severe respiratory and systemic diseases in poultry. In this study, the presence of the lsr operon in 60 APEC clinical strains (serotypes O1, O2, and O78) was investigated and found to be correlated with serotype and has the highest detection rate in O78. The AI-2 binding capacity of recombinant protein LsrB of APEC (APEC-LsrB) was verified and was found to bind to AI-2 in vitro. In addition, the lsr operon was mutated in an APEC strain (APEC94Δlsr(Cm)) and the mutant was found to be defective in motility and AI-2 uptake. Furthermore, deletion of the lsr operon attenuated the virulence of APEC, with the LD50 of APEC94Δlsr(Cm) decreasing 294-fold compared with wild-type strain APEC94. The bacterial load in the blood, liver, spleen, and kidneys of ducks infected with APEC94Δlsr(Cm) decreased significantly (p < 0.0001). The results of transcriptional analysis showed that 62 genes were up-regulated and 415 genes were down-regulated in APEC94Δlsr(Cm) compared with the wild-type strain and some of the down-regulated genes were associated with the virulence of APEC. In conclusion, our study suggests that lsr operon plays a role in the pathogenesis of APEC.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Functional analysis of the Frzb2 gene in Schistosoma japonicum
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Guifeng Cheng; Xiaochun Li; Fanglin Qin; Rong Xu; Yuanyuan Zhang; Jinming Liu; Shaopeng Gu; Yamei Jin

    Schistosomiasis is a globally important helminthic disease of humans and animals, and it is the second most common parasitic disease after malaria. Eggs produced by mature females are responsible for the disease’s occurrence and spread. Frzb2, a secreted frizzled-related protein, can inhibit Wnt signalling by competitive binding to the specific frizzled protein receptor. In this study, the complete gene sequence of SjFrzb2 was obtained by using 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology. SjFrzb2 transcript levels at different stages of S. japonicum maturation were evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. SjFrzb2 was expressed at all developmental stages examined and exhibited the highest transcription level in 7-day-old worms, then gradually decreased during the growth and developmental stages to reach the lowest level at 18 days post-infection. SjFrzb2 gene expression was higher in female worms than in male worms and was significantly higher in female worms from a single-sex infection than in female worms from a bisexual infection. The functions of SjFrzb2 were explored via a small interfering RNA-based gene silencing approach and the soaking method. The results showed that SjFrzb2 gene knockdown impaired the growth and development of S. japonicum in mice, affecting not only the survival and morphological structure of the worms but also their reproductive ability and the viability of the produced eggs. Collectively, these observations imply that Frzb2 may be a novel target for the development of immuno- and/or small molecule-based therapeutics to control schistosomiasis fecundity and transmission.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Molecular characterization of a Trichinella spiralis enolase and its interaction with the host’s plasminogen
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Peng Jiang; You Jiao Zao; Shu Wei Yan; Yan Yan Song; Dong Min Yang; Li Yuan Dai; Ruo Dan Liu; Xi Zhang; Zhong Quan Wang; Jing Cui

    The binding and activation of host plasminogen (PLG) by worm surface enolases has been verified to participate in parasite invasion, but the role of this processes during Trichinella spiralis infection has not been clarified. Therefore, the expression and immunolocalization of a T. spiralis enolase (TsENO) and its binding activity with PLG were evaluated in this study. Based on the three-dimensional (3D) molecular model of TsENO, the protein interaction between TsENO and human PLG was analysed by the ZDOCK server. The interacting residues were identified after analysis of the protein–protein interface by bioinformatics techniques. The key interacting residues were confirmed by a series of experiments. The qPCR analysis results demonstrated that Ts-eno was transcribed throughout the whole life cycle of T. spiralis. The immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results confirmed that TsENO was distributed on the T. spiralis surface. The binding assays showed that recombinant TsENO (rTsENO) and native TsENO were able to bind PLG. Four lysine residues (90, 289, 291 and 300) of TsENO were considered to be active residues for PLG interaction. The quadruple mutant (Lys90Ala + Lys289Ala + Lys291Ala + Lys300Ala) TsENO, in which the key lysine residues were substituted with alanine (Ala) residues, exhibited a reduction in PLG binding of nearly 50% (45.37%). These results revealed that TsENO has strong binding activity with human PLG. The four lysine residues (90, 289, 291 and 300) of TsENO play an important role in PLG binding and could accelerate PLG activation and invasion of the host’s intestinal wall by T. spiralis.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Oral vitamin A supplementation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infected gilts enhances IgA and lactogenic immune protection of nursing piglets
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Stephanie N. Langel; Francine Chimelo Paim; Moyasar A. Alhamo; Kelly M. Lager; Anastasia N. Vlasova; Linda J. Saif

    Vitamin A (VA) has pleiotropic effects on the immune system and is critical for mucosal immune function and intestinal lymphocyte trafficking. We hypothesized that oral VA supplementation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected pregnant gilts would enhance the gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA axis to boost lactogenic immunity and passive protection of nursing piglets against PEDV challenge. Gilts received daily oral retinyl acetate (30 000 IU) starting at gestation day 76 throughout lactation. At 3–4 weeks pre-partum, VA-supplemented (PEDV + VA) and non-supplemented (PEDV) gilts were PEDV or mock inoculated (mock + VA and mock, respectively). PEDV + VA gilts had decreased mean PEDV RNA shedding titers and diarrhea scores. To determine if lactogenic immunity correlated with protection, all piglets were PEDV-challenged at 3–5 days post-partum. The survival rate of PEDV + VA litters was 74.2% compared with 55.9% in PEDV litters. Mock and mock + VA litter survival rates were 5.7% and 8.3%, respectively. PEDV + VA gilts had increased PEDV IgA antibody secreting cells and PEDV IgA antibodies in serum pre-partum and IgA+β7+ (gut homing) cells in milk post piglet challenge compared with PEDV gilts. Our findings suggest that oral VA supplementation may act as an adjuvant during pregnancy, enhancing maternal IgA and lactogenic immune protection in nursing piglets.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Visualizing bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells and measuring BLV proviral loads in the milk of BLV seropositive dams
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Sonoko Watanuki; Shin-nosuke Takeshima; Liushiqi Borjigin; Hirotaka Sato; Lanlan Bai; Hironobu Murakami; Reiichiro Sato; Hiroshi Ishizaki; Yasunobu Matsumoto; Yoko Aida

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infects cattle and causes serious problems for the cattle industry, worldwide. Vertical transmission of BLV occurs via in utero infection and ingestion of infected milk and colostrum. The aim of this study was to clarify whether milk is a risk factor in BLV transmission by quantifying proviral loads in milk and visualizing the infectivity of milk. We collected blood and milk from 48 dams (46 BLV seropositive dams and 2 seronegative dams) from seven farms in Japan and detected the BLV provirus in 43 blood samples (89.6%) but only 22 milk samples (45.8%) using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2. Although the proviral loads in the milk tended to be lower, a positive correlation was firstly found between the proviral loads with blood and milk. Furthermore, the infectivity of milk cells with BLV was visualized ex vivo using a luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA) based on CC81-GREMG cells, which form syncytia expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in response to BLV Tax and Env expressions when co-cultured with BLV-infected cells. Interestingly, in addition to one BLV-infected dam with lymphoma, syncytia with EGFP fluorescence were observed in milk cells from six BLV-infected, but healthy, dams by an improved LuSIA, which was optimized for milk cells. This is the first report demonstrating the infectious capacity of cells in milk from BLV-infected dams by visualization of BLV infection ex vivo. Thus, our results suggest that milk is a potential risk factor for BLV vertical spread through cell to cell transmission.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Estimation of the within-herd transmission rates of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in extensively grazed beef cattle herds
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Jun-Hee Han; Jenny F. Weston; Cord Heuer; M. Carolyn Gates

    Many research groups have developed mathematical models to simulate the dynamics of BVDV infections in cattle herds. However, most models use estimates for within-herd BVDV transmission rates that are either based on expert opinion or adapted from other dairy herd simulation models presented in the literature. There is currently little information on the transmission rates for BVDV in extensively grazed beef herds partly due to the logistical challenges in obtaining longitudinal data of individual animal’s seroconversion, and it may not be appropriate to apply the same transmission rates from intensive dairy herds given the significant differences in herd demographics and management. To address this knowledge gap, we measured BVDV antibody levels in 15 replacement heifers in each of 75 New Zealand beef breeding farms after their first calving and again at pregnancy scanning or weaning to check for seroconversion. Among these, data from 9 farms were used to infer the within-herd BVDV transmission rate with an approximate Bayesian computation method. The most probable within-herd BVDV transmission rate was estimated as 0.11 per persistently infected (PI) animal per day with a 95% highest posterior density interval between 0.03 and 0.34. This suggests that BVDV transmission in extensively grazed beef herds is generally slower than in dairy herds where the transmission rate has been estimated at 0.50 per PI animal per day and therefore may not be sufficient to ensure that all susceptible breeding females gain adequate immunity to the virus before the risk period of early pregnancy for generating new PI calves.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Differences in immune responses to Haemonchus contortus infection in the susceptible Ile de France and the resistant Santa Ines sheep under different anthelmintic treatments regimens
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Ana Cláudia A. Albuquerque; Cesar Cristiano Bassetto; Fabiana A. Almeida; Katie A. Hildersley; Tom N. McNeilly; Collette Britton; Alessandro F. T. Amarante

    Understanding the immunological basis of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in livestock is important in order to develop novel methods of parasite control such as vaccination or genetic selection for parasite resistance. The present study aimed to investigate differences in immune response between parasite resistant Santa Ines and susceptible Ile de France sheep breeds to natural Haemonchus contortus infection. Parasitological parameters, humoral immunity, local and circulating cellular immune responses were evaluated in 19 Santa Ines and 19 Ile de France lambs undergoing different anthelmintic treatments regimens: suppressive treatments (SUP) or targeted selective treatments (TST) over a 5-month grazing period. Santa Ines lambs had significantly lower Haemonchus faecal egg count and worm burden compared to Ile de France regardless of treatment regime. In addition, circulating blood eosinophils count and parasite-specific IgG levels were significantly higher and more rapidly induced in Santa Ines lambs. Abomasal immune responses were generally greater in the resistant breed, which had significantly higher levels of parasite-specific IgA in mucus, and elevated number of globule leukocytes and CD3+ T cells within the abomasal mucosal. Furthermore, numbers of POU2F3+ epithelial cells, a tuft-cell specific transcription factor, were also elevated in the Santa Ines breed, suggesting that this breed is better able to initiate T-helper type 2 immune responses within the abomasum. In conclusion, the differential immunological responses detailed here are relevant to understanding resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in other host breeds, as well as to resistance breeding as a sustainable control approach for parasitic infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Surface-exposed loops L7 and L8 of Haemophilus (Glaesserella) parasuis OmpP2 contribute to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in porcine alveolar macrophages
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Ye Zhou; Saixiang Feng; Xinyi He; Qun Zhou; Yuanwei Wang; Hua Yue; Cheng Tang; Bin Zhang

    Outer membrane protein P2 (OmpP2) of the virulent Haemophilus (Glaesserella) parasuis has been shown to induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The OmpP2 protein is composed of eight or nine surface-exposed loops, but it is unclear which of them participates in the OmpP2-induced inflammatory response. In this study, we synthesized linear peptides corresponding to surface-exposed loops L1–L8 of OmpP2 from the virulent H. parasuis SC096 strain to stimulate porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) in vitro. We found that both L7 and L8 significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and IL-23 and the chemokines CCL-4 and CCL-5 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we constructed ompP2ΔLoop7 and ompP2ΔLoop8 mutant SC096 strains and extracted their native OmpP2 proteins to stimulate PAMs. These mutant proteins induced significantly less mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines than SC096 OmpP2. Next, the amino acid sequences of L7 and L8 from 15 serovars of H. parasuis OmpP2 were aligned. These sequences were relatively conserved among the most virulent reference strains, suggesting that L7 and L8 are the most active peptides of the OmpP2 protein. Furthermore, L7 and L8 significantly upregulated the NF-κB and AP-1 activity levels based on luciferase reporter assays in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our results demonstrated that both surface-exposed loops L7 and L8 of H. parasuis OmpP2 induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines possibly by activating the NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathways in cells infected by H. parasuis.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae evades phagocytic uptake by porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Alannah S. Deeney; Gareth A. Maglennon; Ludivine Chapat; Steve Crussard; Edmond Jolivet; Andrew N. Rycroft

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), is able to persist in the lung tissue and evade destruction by the host for several weeks. To understand the mechanism of pathogen survival, phagocytic uptake of M. hyopneumoniae by primary porcine alveolar macrophages was investigated. Intracellular location and survival of the pathogen were explored using gentamicin survival assays, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy of M. hyopneumoniae 232 labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Following 1 h and 16 h of co-incubation, few viable M. hyopneumoniae were recovered from inside macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages incubated with M. hyopneumoniae expressing GFP indicated that the mycoplasmas became associated with macrophages, but were shown to be extracellular when actin-dependent phagocytosis was blocked with cytochalasin D. Confocal microscopy detected GFP-labelled M. hyopneumoniae inside macrophages and the numbers increased modestly with time of incubation. Neither the addition of porcine serum complement or convalescent serum from EP-recovered pigs was able to enhance engulfment of M. hyopneumoniae. This investigation suggests that M. hyopneumoniae evades significant uptake by porcine alveolar macrophages and this may be a mechanism of immune escape by M. hyopneumoniae in the porcine respiratory tract.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Interleukin-1 signaling induced by Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is strain-dependent and contributes to bacterial clearance and inflammation during systemic disease in a mouse model of infection
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Agustina Lavagna; Jean-Philippe Auger; Audrey Dumesnil; David Roy; Stephen E. Girardin; Nicolas Gisch; Mariela Segura; Marcelo Gottschalk

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important porcine pathogen and zoonotic agent causing sudden death, septic shock and meningitis, with exacerbated inflammation being a hallmark of the infection. A rapid, effective and balanced innate immune response against S. suis is critical to control bacterial growth without causing excessive inflammation. Even though interleukin (IL)-1 is one of the most potent and earliest pro-inflammatory mediators produced, its role in the S. suis pathogenesis has not been studied. We demonstrated that a classical virulent European sequence type (ST) 1 strain and the highly virulent ST7 strain induce important levels of IL-1 in systemic organs. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and macrophages contribute to its production, with the ST7 strain inducing higher levels. To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved, different cellular pathways were studied. Independently of the strain, IL-1β production required MyD88 and involved recognition via TLR2 and possibly TLR7 and TLR9. This suggests that the recognized bacterial components are similar and conserved between strains. However, very high levels of the pore-forming toxin suilysin, produced only by the ST7 strain, are required for efficient maturation of pro-IL-1β via activation of different inflammasomes resulting from pore formation and ion efflux. Using IL-1R−/− mice, we demonstrated that IL-1 signaling plays a beneficial role during S. suis systemic infection by modulating the inflammation required to control and clear bacterial burden, thus promoting host survival. Beyond a certain threshold, however, S. suis-induced inflammation cannot be counterbalanced by this signaling, making it difficult to discriminate its role.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Matrine inhibits IL-1β secretion in primary porcine alveolar macrophages through the MyD88/NF-κB pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Panpan Sun; Na Sun; Wei Yin; Yaogui Sun; Kuohai Fan; Jianhua Guo; Ajab Khan; Yongming He; Hongquan Li

    Our previous studies demonstrated that matrine directly acts on the replication process of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Matrine inhibits viral replication and is also associated with the NF-κB signalling pathway. These results suggest that matrine has antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the specific anti-inflammatory mechanism of matrine is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-IL-1β mechanism of matrine, as IL-1β is a major inflammatory cytokine, in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) stimulated with 4 μg PRRSV 5′-untranslated region (UTR) RNA and 1 μg/mL LPS. After 5′UTR RNA and LPS co-stimulation of PAMs for 12 h, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α was significantly increased. The results also showed that co-stimulation induced the expression of MyD88, and activated the NF-κB signalling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, matrine treatment downregulated MyD88, NLRP3 and caspase-1 expression, inhibited ASC speck formation, suppressed IκBα phosphorylation, and interfered with the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These results suggest that matrine plays an important role in PAMs co-stimulated with PRRSV 5′UTR RNA and LPS via its effect on NF-κB and the NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings lay the foundation for the exploration of the clinical application of matrine in PRRSV disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Modulation of posterior intestinal mucosal proteome in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after Yersinia ruckeri infection
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Gokhlesh Kumar; Karin Hummel; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Mansour El-Matbouli

    Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in salmonids. In fish, the intestine represents an important site of nutrient uptake, host–pathogen interactions, and defense. The posterior intestine can be inflamed, reddened, and filled with an opaque, yellowish fluid during Y. ruckeri infection. Herein, we report an investigation on the proteome alteration in the posterior intestinal mucosa of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to Y. ruckeri. The intestinal mucosal proteins were identified and quantified by a shotgun proteomic approach by applying data-independent quantification with sequential windowed acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH). A total of 437 proteins were found to be differentially up- or downregulated in the posterior intestine. Gene ontology of upregulated proteins pointed to their involvement into exopeptidase, endopeptidase, and hydrolase activities, while the downregulated proteins were involved in lipid metabolism, actin binding, and translation processes. Additionally, upregulated proteins were predicted to be involved in lysosome, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolic pathways, while downregulated proteins were implicated in focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, protein digestion and absorption pathways. This study showed that Y. ruckeri infection can alter protein abundance involved in serine-type carboxypeptidase, cysteine and aspartic-type endopeptidases, metallopeptidases, antioxidant defense, calcium ion binding, glycolytic and carbohydrate metabolic processes in the proteome of the intestinal mucosa of rainbow trout.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Tn-sequencing of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis mutant libraries reveals non-essential genes of porcine mycoplasmas differing in pathogenicity
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Bettina S. Trueeb; Simona Gerber; Dominiek Maes; Walid H. Gharib; Peter Kuhnert

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis are two phylogenetically related species colonizing the respiratory tract of pigs but differing in pathogenicity, the basis of which is not well resolved. We hypothesize that genes belonging to the species-specific portion of the genome and being non-essential during ideal laboratory growth conditions encode possible virulent determinants and are the driver of interspecies differences. To investigate this, transposon mutant libraries were generated for both species and a transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) method for mycoplasmas was established to identify non-essential genes. Tn-seq datasets combined with bidirectional Blastp analysis revealed that 101 out of a total 678 coding sequences (CDS) are species-specific and non-essential CDS of M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C, while 96 out of a total 751 CDS are species-specific and non-essential CDS in the M. hyorhinis strain JF5820. Among these species-specific and non-essential CDS were genes involved in metabolic pathways. In particular, the myo-inositol and the sialic acid pathways were found to be non-essential and therefore could be considered important to the specific pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis, respectively. Such pathways could enable the use of an alternative energy source providing an advantage in their specific niche and might be interesting targets to knock out in order to generate attenuated live vaccines.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Intraepithelial neutrophils in mammary, urinary and gall bladder infections
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Dvir Mintz; Hagit Salamon; Michal Mintz; Ilan Rosenshine; Nahum Y. Shpigel

    Neutrophil mobilization is a crucial response to protect the host against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil recruitment and removal have to be tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled inflammation and excessive release of their toxic content causing tissue damage and subsequent organ dysfunctions. We show here the presence of live and apoptotic neutrophils in the cytoplasm of inflamed mammary, urinary and gall bladder epithelial cells following infection with E. coli and Salmonella bacteria. The entry process commenced with adherence of transmigrated neutrophils to the apical membrane of inflamed epithelial cells. Next, nuclear rearrangement and elongation associated with extensive actin polymerization enabled neutrophils to crawl and invaginate the apical membrane into cytoplasmic double membrane compartments. Scission of the invaginated cell membrane from the entry point and loss of these surrounding membranes released intracellular neutrophils into the cytoplasm where they undergone apoptotic death. The co-occurrence of this observation with bacterial invasion and formation of intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) might link entry of infected neutrophils to the formation of IBCs and chronic carriage in E. coli mastitis and cystitis and Salmonella cholecystitis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of mouse enteroids as a model for Lawsonia intracellularis infection
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Talita Pilar Resende; Ramya Lekha Medida; Yue Guo; Fabio A. Vannucci; Milena Saqui-Salces; Connie Gebhart

    Lawsonia intracellularis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is an important enteric pathogen in pig herds and horse farms worldwide. The hallmark feature of L. intracellularis infection is the proliferation of epithelial cells in intestinal crypts. A major limitation to the study of L. intracellularis infection is the lack of an in vitro model that reproduces the changes observed in proliferative enteropathy. Here we investigated the suitability of mouse enteroids as a model to study L. intracellularis infection. Mouse enteroids were microinjected with L. intracellularis, filter-sterilized L. intracellularis culture supernatant, or sterile cell culture media (DMEM). L. intracellularis antigen was detected in mouse enteroids by immunohistochemistry and was located mostly in the basal region of the epithelium. There was no differential growth of enteroids among treatment groups, and cellular proliferation was not increased in L. intracellularis-infected enteroids in relation to non-infected enteroids based on immunofluorescence staining. L. intracellularis infection did not induce changes in gene expression of Ki-67 (proliferation marker), Sox9 (marker for transit amplifying cells) and Muc2 (marker for goblet cells). These results indicate that although L. intracellularis antigen is detectable in mouse enteroids, indicating susceptibility to infection, mouse enteroids fail to replicate the cellular proliferation and gene expression changes observed in proliferative enteropathy. Nevertheless, we have successfully demonstrated that mouse enteroids can be used to model days-long intracellular pathogen infection, serving as potential models for the study of other pathogens of interest in veterinary medicine.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • From hatch to egg grading: monitoring of Salmonella shedding in free-range egg production systems
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Andrea R. McWhorter; Kapil K. Chousalkar

    Human cases of salmonellosis are frequently liked with the consumption of contaminated table eggs. Recently, there has been an increase in consumer demand for cage-free eggs precipitating the need for a greater understanding of Salmonella dynamics in free-range production systems. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the points in production where birds are most likely to be exposed to Salmonella and where the risk of egg contamination is highest. In this study, two free-range flocks were sampled from hatch to the end of production. At hatch, all chicks were Salmonella negative and remained negative during rearing. During production, the proportion of positive samples was low on both farms. Salmonella positive samples were detected intermittently for Flock A. Dust, nest box, and egg belt swabs had the highest proportion of positive samples and highest overall loads of Salmonella. The egg grading floor was swabbed at different points following the processing of eggs from Flock A. Only the suction cups that handle eggs prior to egg washing tested positive for Salmonella. Swabs collected from machinery handling eggs after washing were Salmonella negative. During production, positive samples from Flock B were observed at only single time point. Dust has been implicated as a source of Salmonella that can lead to flock to flock contamination. Bulk dust samples were collected and tested for Salmonella. The proportion of positive dust samples was low and is likely due to physical parameters which are not likely to support the survival of Salmonella in the environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) sequence of wild deer in Great Britain and mainland Europe
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Amy L. Robinson; Helen Williamson; Mariella E. Güere; Helene Tharaldsen; Karis Baker; Stephanie L. Smith; Sílvia Pérez-Espona; Jarmila Krojerová-Prokešová; Josephine M. Pemberton; Wilfred Goldmann; Fiona Houston

    Susceptibility to prion diseases is largely determined by the sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP), which encodes the prion protein (PrP). The recent emergence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Europe has highlighted the need to investigate PRNP gene diversity in European deer species, to better predict their susceptibility to CWD. Here we report a large genetic survey of six British deer species, including red (Cervus elaphus), sika (Cervus nippon), roe (Capreolus capreolus), fallow (Dama dama), muntjac (Muntiacus reevesii), and Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis), which establishes PRNP haplotype and genotype frequencies. Two smaller data sets from red deer in Norway and the Czech Republic are also included for comparison. Overall red deer show the most PRNP variation, with non-synonymous/coding polymorphisms at codons 98, 168, 226 and 247, which vary markedly in frequency between different regions. Polymorphisms P168S and I247L were only found in Scottish and Czech populations, respectively. T98A was found in all populations except Norway and the south of England. Significant regional differences in genotype frequencies were observed within both British and European red deer populations. Other deer species showed less variation, particularly roe and fallow deer, in which identical PRNP gene sequences were found in all individuals analysed. Based on comparison with PRNP sequences of North American cervids affected by CWD and limited experimental challenge data, these results suggest that a high proportion of wild deer in Great Britain may be susceptible to CWD.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Quantifying transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis among group-housed dairy calves
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Caroline S. Corbett; Mart C. M. de Jong; Karin Orsel; Jeroen De Buck; Herman W. Barkema

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), with control primarily aimed at preventing new infections among calves. The aim of the current study was to quantify calf-to-calf transmission of MAP among penmates in an experimental trial. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n = 32) were allocated into pens of 4, with 2 inoculated (IN) calves and 2 calves that were contact exposed (CE). Calves were group-housed for 3 months, with frequent collection of fecal and blood samples and tissue collection after euthanasia. The basic reproduction ratio (R0) was estimated using a final size (FS) model with a susceptible-infected model, based on INF-γ ELISA and tissue culture followed by qPCR. In addition, the transmission rate parameter (β) for new shedding events was estimated using a general linearized method (GLM) model with a susceptible-infected-susceptible model based on culture, followed by qPCR, of fecal samples collected during group housing. The R0 was derived for IN and CE calves separately, due to a difference in susceptibility, as well as differences in duration of shedding events. Based on the FS model, interferon-γ results from blood samples resulted in a R 0 IG of 0.90 (0.24, 2.59) and tissue culture resulted in a R 0 T of 1.36 (0.45, 3.94). Based on the GLM model, the R0 for CE calves to begin shedding (R 0 CE ) was 3.24 (1.14, 7.41). We concluded that transmission of MAP infection between penmates occurred and that transmission among calves may be an important cause of persistent MAP infection on dairy farms that is currently uncontrolled for in current JD control programs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Xanthohumol inhibits PRRSV proliferation and alleviates oxidative stress induced by PRRSV via the Nrf2–HMOX1 axis
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Xuewei Liu; Zhongbao Song; Juan Bai; Hans Nauwynck; Yongxiang Zhao; Ping Jiang

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a prevalent and endemic swine pathogen that causes significant economic losses in the global swine industry. Commercial vaccines provide limited protection against this virus, and no highly effective therapeutic drugs are yet available. In this study, we first screened a library of 386 natural products and found that xanthohumol (Xn), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, displayed high anti-PRRSV activity by inhibiting PRRSV adsorption onto and internalization into cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that Xn treatment stimulates genes associated with the antioxidant response in the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway. Xn causes increased expression of Nrf2, HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, and NQO1 in Marc-145 cells. The action of Xn against PRRSV proliferation depends on Nrf2 in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). This finding suggests that Xn significantly inhibits PRRSV proliferation and decreases viral-induced oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2–HMOX1 pathway. This information should be helpful for developing a novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against PRRSV infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Genomic comparisons of Streptococcus suis serotype 9 strains recovered from diseased pigs in Spain and Canada
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Han Zheng; Pengcheng Du; Xiaotong Qiu; Anusak Kerdsin; David Roy; Xuemei Bai; Jianguo Xu; Ana I. Vela; Marcelo Gottschalk

    In the original publication of this article [1], the author name ‘Pengchen Du’ in author list should be ‘Pengcheng Du’.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Assessing exhibition swine as potential disseminators of infectious disease through the detection of five respiratory pathogens at agricultural exhibitions
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Sarah E. Lauterbach; Sarah W. Nelson; Meghann E. Robinson; Josh N. Lorbach; Jacqueline M. Nolting; Andrew S. Bowman

    Widespread geographic movement and extensive comingling of exhibition swine facilitates the spread and transmission of infectious pathogens. Nasal samples were collected from 2862 pigs at 102 exhibitions and tested for five pathogens. At least one pathogen was molecularly detected in pigs at 63 (61.8%) exhibitions. Influenza A virus was most prevalent and was detected in 498 (17.4%) samples. Influenza D virus was detected in two (0.07%) samples. More than one pathogen was detected in 165 (5.8%) samples. Influenza A virus remains a top threat to animal and human health, but other pathogens may be disseminated through the exhibition swine population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The immunomodulatory functions and molecular mechanism of a new bursal heptapeptide (BP7) in immune responses and immature B cells
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Xiu Li Feng; Yang Zheng; Man Man Zong; Shan Shan Hao; Guang Fang Zhou; Rui Bing Cao; Pu Yan Chen; Tao Qing Liu

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the acknowledged central humoural immune organ unique to birds and plays a vital role in B lymphocyte development. In addition, the unique molecular immune features of bursal-derived biological peptides involved in B cell development are rarely reported. In this paper, a novel bursal heptapeptide (BP7) with the sequence GGCDGAA was isolated from the BF and was shown to enhance the monoclonal antibody production of a hybridoma. A mouse immunization experiment showed that mice immunized with an AIV antigen and BP7 produced strong antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses. Additionally, BP7 stimulated increased mRNA levels of sIgM in immature mouse WEHI-231 B cells. Gene microarray results confirmed that BP7 regulated 2465 differentially expressed genes in BP7-treated WEHI-231 cells and induced 13 signalling pathways and various immune-related functional processes. Furthermore, we found that BP7 stimulated WEHI-231 cell autophagy and AMPK-ULK1 phosphorylation and regulated Bcl-2 protein expression. Finally, chicken immunization showed that BP7 enhanced the potential antibody and cytokine responses to the AIV antigen. These results suggested that BP7 might be an active biological factor that functions as a potential immunopotentiator, which provided some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of the effects of bursal peptides on immune functions and B cell differentiation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The potential of acetylsalicylic acid and vitamin E in modulating inflammatory cascades in chickens under lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Paweł Konieczka; Marcin Barszcz; Paweł Kowalczyk; Michał Szlis; Jan Jankowski

    Distinct enzymes, including cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2), lipoxygenase (LOXs), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450), produce different stress mediators and mediate inflammation in birds. Bioactive agents such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and vitamin E (vE) may affect enzyme activities and could be used in poultry production to control the magnitude of acute phase inflammation. Here, we characterized COX, LOX, and CYP450 mRNA expression levels in chicken immune tissues in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and investigated whether ASA and vE could alter gene expression. Additionally, for the first time in chickens, we evaluated oxygen consumption by platelet mitochondria as a biomarker of mitochondria function in response to ASA- and vE. LPS challenge compromised bird growth rates, but neither dietary ASA nor vE significantly ameliorated this effect; however, gradually increasing dietary vE levels were more effective than basal levels. ASA regulated arachidonic acid metabolism, providing an eicosanoid synthesis substrate, whereas gradually increasing vE levels evoked aspirin resistance during challenge. Gene expression in immune tissues was highly variable, indicating a complex regulatory network controlling inflammatory pathways. However, unlike COX-1, COX-2 and CYP450 exhibited increased mRNA expression in some cases, suggesting an initiation of novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving signals during challenge. Measuring oxygen consumption rate, we revealed that neither the ASA nor vE levels applied here exerted toxic effects on platelet mitochondria.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Peripheral and placental immune responses in sheep after experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii at the three terms of gestation
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Pablo Castaño; Miguel Fernández; Javier Regidor-Cerrillo; Miguel Fuertes; Pilar Horcajo; Ignacio Ferre; M. Carmen Ferreras; Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora; Valentín Pérez; Julio Benavides

    Although it is known that gestation could influence the clinical course of ovine toxoplasmosis, the precise effect of the term of gestation when sheep are infected are yet mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripheral and placental immune responses developed in pregnant sheep after experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii at different times of gestation. Thirty-six pregnant sheep were allocated in different groups, orally inoculated with sporulated oocysts of T. gondii at early, mid and late gestation and culled within 30 days post-infection. The peripheral humoral and cytokine responses were evaluated, as well as the transcription of cytokines at the placenta. Serological analysis revealed that, regardless the term of gestation when infected, specific IgG against T. gondii were detected from day 8 post-infection and there was an early peripheral release of IFN-γ at the first week post-infection followed by a short peak of IL10 and TNF-α at the second week post-infection. There were no significant differences in this response between infected groups. At the placenta, a similar increase in transcription of IFN-γ, and TNF-α was found at the three terms of gestation, while IL-4 increased mainly at the first and second terms and IL-10 transcription was higher at the last term. While these findings show that both Th1 and Th2 cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of ovine toxoplasmosis and that placental and peripheral immune responses do not closely correlate, there seems to be no clear modulation of these responses along the gestation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Diverse effects of nitric oxide reductase NorV on Aeromonas hydrophila virulence-associated traits under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Jin Liu; Yuhao Dong; Nannan Wang; Shuiyan Ma; Chengping Lu; Yongjie Liu

    NorV has been known to be an anaerobic nitric oxide reductase associated with nitric oxide (NO) detoxification. Recently, we showed that the norV gene of Aeromonas hydrophila was highly upregulated after co-culturing with Tetrahymena thermophila. Here, we demonstrated that the transcription and expression levels of norV were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NO under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To investigate the roles of norV in resisting predatory protists and virulence of A. hydrophila, we constructed the norV gene-deletion mutant (ΔnorV). Compared to the wild type, the ΔnorV mutant showed no significant difference in growth at various NO concentrations under aerobic conditions but significantly stronger NO-mediated growth inhibition under anaerobic conditions. The deletion of norV exhibited markedly decreased cytotoxicity, hemolytic and protease activities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Also, the hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) in the ΔnorV mutant showed increased secretion under aerobic conditions but decreased secretion under anaerobic conditions as compared to the wild-type. Moreover, the inactivation of norV led to reduced resistance to predation by T. thermophila, decreased survival within macrophages and highly attenuated virulence in zebrafish. Our data indicate a diverse role for norV in the expression of A. hydrophila virulence-associated traits that is not completely dependent on its function as a nitric oxide reductase. This study provides insights into an unexplored area of NorV, which will contribute to our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and the development of new control strategies for A. hydrophila infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effects of challenge dose and inoculation route of the virulent Neospora caninum Nc-Spain7 isolate in pregnant cattle at mid-gestation
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Patricia Vázquez; Koldo Osoro; Miguel Fernández; Alicia Román-Trufero; Javier Regidor-Cerrillo; Laura Jiménez-Pelayo; Marta García-Sánchez; Silvia Rojo-Montejo; Julio Benavides; Pilar Horcajo; Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora

    Parameters such as pathogen dose and inoculation route are paramount in animal models when studying disease pathogenesis. Here, clinical findings, including foetal mortality, parasite transmission rates and lesion severity, and immune responses were evaluated in Asturiana pregnant heifers at day 110 of gestation challenged with a virulent (Nc-Spain7) Neospora caninum isolate. Four different doses of parasite tachyzoites were inoculated intravenously (IV1, 107 parasites, n = 6; IV2, 105, n = 6; IV3, 103, n = 6; and IV4, 102, n = 5), and the subcutaneous (SC) inoculation route was also assessed for the dose of 105 tachyzoites (SC, n = 6). In addition, a control group (n = 4 pregnant heifers) was evaluated. Foetal death was observed in all infected groups from 25 to 62 days post-infection, varying with the dose (IV1:4/6, IV2:3/6; IV4:2/5, IV3:1/6), and was three times less frequently associated with the SC route than IV inoculation (1/6 vs. 3/6). A dose-dependent effect for parasite loads in placental and foetal brain tissues was also detected. After SC challenge, a reduced number of tachyzoites were able to reach foetal brain tissues, and no lesions were observed. In calves, specific IgG responses in precolostral sera were mainly associated with high-dose groups (IV1 [100.0%] and IV2 [66.7%]), and cerebral parasite DNA detection was scarce (3/18). In dams, IFN-γ production and the dynamics of anti-N. caninum IgG antibodies varied with the dose, and the cell-mediated immune response was also found to be route-dependent. Our results confirm the influence of parasite dose and inoculation route on the outcome and dynamics of bovine neosporosis at mid-gestation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Haemophilus parasuis VtaA2 is involved in adhesion to extracellular proteins
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Mar Costa-Hurtado; Laura Garcia-Rodriguez; Sergi Lopez-Serrano; Virginia Aragon

    Haemophilus parasuis is part of the microbiota of the upper respiratory tract in swine. However, virulent strains can cause a systemic disease known as Glässer’s disease. Several virulence factors have been described in H. parasuis including the virulence-associated trimeric autotransporters (VtaAs). VtaA2 is up-regulated during infection and is only found in virulent strains. In order to determine its biological function, the vtaA2 gene was cloned with its native promotor region in pACYC184, and the transformed Escherichia coli was used to perform functional in vitro assays. VtaA2 was found to have a role in attachment to plastic, mucin, BSA, fibronectin and collagen. As other VtaAs from H. parasuis, the passenger domain of VtaA2 contains collagen domains. In order to examine the contribution of the collagen repeats to VtaA2 function, a recombinant vtaA2 without the central collagen domains was obtained and named vtaA2OL. VtaA2OL showed similar capacity than VtaA2 to adhere to plastic, mucin, BSA, fibronectin and plasma but a reduced capacity to adhere to collagen, suggesting that the collagen domains of VtaA2 are involved in collagen attachment. No function in cell adhesion and invasion to epithelial alveolar cell line A549 or unspecific binding to primary alveolar macrophages was found. Likewise VtaA2 had no role in serum or phagocytosis resistance. We propose that VtaA2 mediates adherence to the host by binding to the mucin, found in the upper respiratory tract mucus, and to the extracellular matrix proteins, present in the connective tissue of systemic sites, such as the serosa.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of molting-related proteins of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Hua Nan Ren; Ruo Dan Liu; Yan Yan Song; Tong Xu Zhuo; Kai Xia Guo; Yao Zhang; Peng Jiang; Zhong Quan Wang; Jing Cui

    Molting is a key step for body-size expansion and environmental adaptation of parasitic nematodes, and it is extremely important for Trichinella spiralis growth and development, but the molting mechanism is not fully understood. In this work, label-free LC–MS/MS was used to determine the proteome differences between T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) at the encapsulated stage and intestinal infective larvae (IIL) at the molting stage. The results showed that a total of 2885 T. spiralis proteins were identified, 323 of which were differentially expressed. These proteins were involved in cuticle structural elements, regulation of cuticle synthesis, remodeling and degradation, and hormonal regulation of molting. These differential proteins were also involved in diverse intracellular pathways, such as fatty acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, and mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis. qPCR results showed that five T. spiralis genes (cuticle collagen 14, putative DOMON domain-containing protein, glutamine synthetase, cathepsin F and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase) had significantly higher transcriptional levels in 10 h IIL than ML (P < 0.05), which were similar to their protein expression levels, suggesting that they might be T. spiralis molting-related genes. Identification and characterization of T. spiralis molting-related proteins will be helpful for developing vaccines and new drugs against the early enteral stage of T. spiralis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • In vivo passage of Salmonella Typhimurium results in minor mutations in the bacterial genome and increases in vitro invasiveness
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Andrea R. McWhorter; Rick Tearle; Talia S. Moyle; Kapil K. Chousalkar

    Eggs and raw or undercooked egg-containing food items are frequently identified as the bacterial source during epidemiolocal investigation of Salmonella outbreaks. Multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) is a widely used Salmonella typing method enabling the study of diversity within populations of the same serotype. In vivo passage, however, has been linked with changes in MLVA type and more broadly the Salmonella genome. We sought to investigate whether in vivo passage through layer hens had an effect on MLVA type as well as the bacterial genome and whether any mutations affected bacterial virulence. Layer hens were infected with either Salmonella Typhimurium DT9 (03-24-11-11-523) as part of a single infection or were co-infected with an equal amount of Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in both single and co-infected birds was variable over the course of the 16-week experiment. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Mbandaka were identified in feces of co-infected birds. Salmonella colonies isolated from fecal samples were subtyped using MLVA. A single change in SSTR-6 was observed in Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from co-infected birds. Isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium of both the parent (03-24-11-11-523) and modified (03-24-12-11-523) MLVA type were sequenced and compared with the genome of the parent strain. Sequence analysis revealed that in vivo passaging resulted in minor mutation events. Passaged isolates exhibited significantly higher invasiveness in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells than the parent strain. The microevolution observed in this study suggests that changes in MLVA may arise more commonly and may have clinical significance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Early Neospora caninum infection dynamics in cattle after inoculation at mid-gestation with high (Nc-Spain7)- or low (Nc-Spain1H)-virulence isolates
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Laura Jiménez-Pelayo; Marta García-Sánchez; Patricia Vázquez; Javier Regidor-Cerrillo; Pilar Horcajo; Esther Collantes-Fernández; Javier Blanco-Murcia; Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito; Alicia Román-Trufero; Koldo Osoro; Julio Benavides; Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora

    Early Neospora caninum infection dynamics were investigated in pregnant heifers intravenously inoculated with PBS (G-Control) or 107 tachyzoites of high (G-NcSpain7)- or low (G-NcSpain1H)-virulence isolates at 110 days of gestation. Serial culling at 10 and 20 days post-infection (dpi) was performed. Fever was detected at 1 dpi in both infected groups (P < 0.0001), and a second peak was detected at 3 dpi only in G-NcSpain7 (P < 0.0001). At 10 dpi, Nc-Spain7 was detected in placental samples from one animal related to focal necrosis, and Nc-Spain7 transmission was observed, although no foetal lesions were associated with this finding. The presence of Nc-Spain1H in the placenta or foetuses, as well as lesions, were not detected at 10 dpi. At 20 dpi, G-NcSpain7 animals showed almost 100% positive placental tissues and severe focal necrosis as well as 100% transmission. Remarkably, foetal mortality was detected in two G-NcSpain7 heifers. Only one animal from G-NcSpain1H presented positive placental samples. No foetal mortality was detected, and lesions and parasite transmission to the foetus were not observed in this group. Finally, 100% of G-NcSpain7 heifers at 20 dpi presented specific antibodies, while only 60% of G-NcSpain1H animals presented specific antibodies at 20 dpi. In addition, earlier seroconversion in G-Nc-Spain7 was observed. In conclusion, tachyzoites from Nc-Spain7 reached the placenta earlier and multiplied, leading to lesion development, transmission to the foetus and foetal mortality, whereas Nc-Spain1H showed delayed infection of the placenta and no lesional development or transmission during early infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Spatial and seasonal patterns of FMD primary outbreaks in cattle in Zimbabwe between 1931 and 2016
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Laure Guerrini; Davies Mubika Pfukenyi; Eric Etter; Jérémy Bouyer; Chenjerai Njagu; Felistas Ndhlovu; Mathieu Bourgarel; Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky; Chris Foggin; Vladimir Grosbois; Alexandre Caron

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an important livestock disease impacting mainly intensive production systems. In southern Africa, the FMD virus is maintained in wildlife and its control is therefore complicated. However, FMD control is an important task to allow countries access to lucrative foreign meat market and veterinary services implement drastic control measures on livestock populations living in the periphery of protected areas, negatively impacting local small-scale livestock producers. This study investigated FMD primary outbreak data in Zimbabwe from 1931 to 2016 to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD outbreaks and their potential drivers. The results suggest that: (i) FMD outbreaks were not randomly distributed in space across Zimbabwe but are clustered in the Southeast Lowveld (SEL); (ii) the proximity of protected areas with African buffalos was potentially responsible for primary FMD outbreaks in cattle; (iii) rainfall per se was not associated with FMD outbreaks, but seasons impacted the temporal occurrence of FMD outbreaks across regions; (iv) the frequency of FMD outbreaks increased during periods of major socio-economic and political crisis. The differences between the spatial clusters and other areas in Zimbabwe presenting similar buffalo/cattle interfaces but with fewer FMD outbreaks can be interpreted in light of the recent better understanding of wildlife/livestock interactions in these areas. The types of wildlife/livestock interfaces are hypothesized to be the key drivers of contacts between wildlife and livestock, triggering a risk of FMD inter-species spillover. The management of wildlife/livestock interfaces is therefore crucial for the control of FMD in southern Africa.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Assessing biases in phylodynamic inferences in the presence of super-spreaders
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Arata Hidano; M. Carolyn Gates

    Phylodynamic analyses using pathogen genetic data have become popular for making epidemiological inferences. However, many methods assume that the underlying host population follows homogenous mixing patterns. Nevertheless, in real disease outbreaks, a small number of individuals infect a disproportionately large number of others (super-spreaders). Our objective was to quantify the degree of bias in estimating the epidemic starting date in the presence of super-spreaders using different sample selection strategies. We simulated 100 epidemics of a hypothetical pathogen (fast evolving foot and mouth disease virus-like) over a real livestock movement network allowing the genetic mutations in pathogen sequence. Genetic sequences were sampled serially over the epidemic, which were then used to estimate the epidemic starting date using Extended Bayesian Coalescent Skyline plot (EBSP) and Birth–death skyline plot (BDSKY) models. Our results showed that the degree of bias varies over different epidemic situations, with substantial overestimations on the epidemic duration occurring in some occasions. While the accuracy and precision of BDSKY were deteriorated when a super-spreader generated a larger proportion of secondary cases, those of EBSP were deteriorated when epidemics were shorter. The accuracies of the inference were similar irrespective of whether the analysis used all sampled sequences or only a subset of them, although the former required substantially longer computational times. When phylodynamic analyses need to be performed under a time constraint to inform policy makers, we suggest multiple phylodynamics models to be used simultaneously for a subset of data to ascertain the robustness of inferences.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Lactoferrin translocates to the nucleus of bovine rectal epithelial cells in the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Joanna Rybarczyk; Dmitry Khalenkow; Evelien Kieckens; Andre G. Skirtach; Eric Cox; Daisy Vanrompay

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen which causes illness in humans. Ruminants are the main reservoirs and EHEC predominantly colonizes the epithelium of the recto-anal junction of cattle. Immunosuppression by EHEC promotes re-infection of cattle. However, bovine lactoferrin (bLF) apparently can overrule the immunosuppression by inducing EHEC-specific IgA responses at the mucosal site. The IgA responses are significantly correlated with reduced EHEC shedding and the absence of colonization at the rectal mucosa following re-infection. Therefore, to examine the interaction between bLF and bovine rectal epithelial cells, we first developed a method to establish a primary cell culture of epithelial cells of the rectum of cattle. Furthermore, we used LC–MS/MS to demonstrate the presence of secreted lactoferrin in bovine milk and the absence of a “delta” isoform which is known to translocate to the nucleus of cells. Nevertheless, lactoferrin derived from bovine milk was internalized by rectal epithelial cells and translocated to the nuclei. Moreover, nuclear translocation of bLF was significantly enhanced when the epithelial cells were inoculated with EHEC, as demonstrated by confocal fluorescence microscopy and confirmed by Raman microscopy and 3D imaging.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • HutZ is required for biofilm formation and contributes to the pathogenicity of Edwardsiella piscicida
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Yan-Jie Shi; Qing-Jian Fang; Hui-Qin Huang; Chun-Guang Gong; Yong-Hua Hu

    Edwardsiella piscicida is a severe fish pathogen. Haem utilization systems play an important role in bacterial adversity adaptation and pathogenicity. In this study, a speculative haem utilization protein, HutZEp, was characterized in E. piscicida. hutZEp is encoded with two other genes, hutW and hutX, in an operon that is similar to the haem utilization operon hutWXZ identified in V. cholerae. However, protein activity analysis showed that HutZEp is probably not related to hemin utilization. To explore the biological role of HutZEp, a markerless hutZEp in-frame mutant strain, TX01ΔhutZ, was constructed. Deletion of hutZEp did not significantly affect bacterial growth in normal medium, in iron-deficient conditions, or in the presence of haem but significantly retarded bacterial biofilm growth. The expression of known genes related to biofilm growth was not affected by hutZEp deletion, which indicated that HutZEp was probably a novel factor promoting biofilm formation in E. piscicida. Compared to the wild-type TX01, TX01ΔhutZ exhibited markedly compromised tolerance to acid stress and host serum stress. Pathogenicity analysis showed that inactivation of hutZEp significantly impaired the ability of E. piscicida to invade and reproduce in host cells and to infect host tissue. In contrast to TX01, TX01ΔhutZ was defective in blocking host macrophage activation. The expression of hutZEp was directly regulated by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. This study is the first functional characterization of HutZ in a fish pathogen, and these findings suggested that HutZEp is essential for E. piscicida biofilm formation and contributes to host infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Virus persistence in pig herds led to successive reassortment events between swine and human influenza A viruses, resulting in the emergence of a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza virus
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Amélie Chastagner; Emilie Bonin; Christelle Fablet; Stéphane Quéguiner; Edouard Hirchaud; Pierrick Lucas; Stéphane Gorin; Nicolas Barbier; Véronique Béven; Emmanuel Garin; Yannick Blanchard; Nicolas Rose; Séverine Hervé; Gaëlle Simon

    This report describes the detection of a triple reassortant swine influenza A virus of H1avN2 subtype. It evolved from an avian-like swine H1avN1 that first acquired the N2 segment from a seasonal H3N2, then the M segment from a 2009 pandemic H1N1, in two reassortments estimated to have occurred 10 years apart. This study illustrates how recurrent influenza infections increase the co-infection risk and facilitate evolutionary jumps by successive gene exchanges. It recalls the importance of appropriate biosecurity measures inside holdings to limit virus persistence and interspecies transmissions, which both contribute to the emergence of new potentially zoonotic viruses.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Recent advances in delivery of veterinary DNA vaccines against avian pathogens
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri; Chit Laa Poh

    Veterinary vaccines need to have desired characteristics, such as being effective, inexpensive, easy to administer, suitable for mass vaccination and stable under field conditions. DNA vaccines have been proposed as potential solutions for poultry diseases since they are subunit vaccines with no risk of infection or reversion to virulence. DNA vaccines can be utilized for simultaneous immunizations against multiple pathogens and are relatively easy to design and inexpensive to manufacture and store. Administration of DNA vaccines has been shown to stimulate immune responses and provide protection from challenges in different animal models. Although DNA vaccines offer advantages, setbacks including the inability to induce strong immunity, and the fact that they are not currently applicable for mass vaccination impede the use of DNA vaccines in the poultry industry. The use of either biological or physical carriers has been proposed as a solution to overcome the current delivery limitations of DNA vaccines for veterinary applications. This review presents an overview of the recent development of carriers for delivery of veterinary DNA vaccines against avian pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Bovine ephemeral fever virus triggers autophagy enhancing virus replication via upregulation of the Src/JNK/AP1 and PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathways and suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Ching-Yuan Cheng; Hsu-Hung Tseng; Hung-Chuan Chiu; Ching-Dong Chang; Brent L. Nielsen; Hung-Jen Liu

    Autophagy plays an important role in cellular response to pathogens. However, the impact of the autophagy machinery on bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) infection is not yet determined. A recent study in our laboratory demonstrated that BEFV triggers simultaneously the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and Src/JNK-AP1 pathways in the stage of virus binding to enhance virus entry. In this work, we report that BEFV induces autophagy via upregulation of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and Src/JNK/AP1 pathways in the early to middle stages of infection and suppresses the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway at the late stage of infection. To activate NF-κB, BEFV promotes degradation of IκBα and activates Akt to stimulate NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that BEFV disrupts Beclin 1 and Bcl-2 interaction by JNK-mediated Bcl-2 phosphorylation, thereby activating autophagy. Overexpression of Bcl-2 reversed the BEFV-induced increase in the LC3 II levels. Suppression of autophagy either by knockdown of autophagy-related genes with shRNAs or treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor 3-MA reduced BEFV replication, suggesting that BEFV-induced autophagy benefits virus replication. Our results revealed that the BEFV M protein is one of the viral proteins involved in inducing autophagy via suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway. Furthermore, degradation of p62 was observed by immunoblotting, suggesting that BEFV infection triggers a complete autophagic response. Disruption of autophagosome-lysosome fusion by depleting LAMP2 resulted in reduction of virus yield, suggesting that formation of autolysosome benefits virus production.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Role of neuromedin B and its receptor in the innate immune responses against influenza A virus infection in vitro and in vivo
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Guihong Yang; Huipeng Huang; Mengyao Tang; Zifeng Cai; Cuiqin Huang; Baomin Qi; Ji-Long Chen

    The peptide neuromedin B (NMB) and its receptor (NMBR) represent a system (NMB/NMBR) of neuromodulation. Here, it was demonstrated that the expression of NMBR in cells or murine lung tissues was clearly upregulated in response to H1N1/PR8 influenza A virus infection. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo activities of NMB/NMBR during PR8 infection were investigated. It was observed that A549 cells lacking endogenous NMBR were more susceptible to virus infection than control cells, as evidenced by the increased virus production in the cells. Interestingly, a significant decrease in IFN-α and increased IL-6 expression were observed in these cells. The role of this system in innate immunity against PR8 infection was probed by treating mice with NMB. The NMB-treated mice were less susceptible to virus challenge, as evidenced by increased survival, increased body weight, and decreased viral NP expression compared with the control animals. Additionally, the results showed that exogenous NMB not only enhanced IFN-α expression but also appeared to inhibit the expression of NP and IL-6 in PR8-infected cells and animals. As expected, opposing effects were observed in the NMBR antagonist-treated cells and mice, which further confirmed the effects of NMB. Together, these data suggest that NMB/NMBR may be an important component of the host defence against influenza A virus infection. Thus, these proteins may serve as promising candidates for the development of novel antiviral drugs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Effects of challenge dose and inoculation route of the virulent Neospora caninum Nc-Spain7 isolate in pregnant cattle at mid-gestation
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Patricia Vázquez; Koldo Osoro; Miguel Fernández; Alicia Román-Trufero; Javier Regidor-Cerrillo; Laura Jiménez-Pelayo; Marta García-Sánchez; Silvia Rojo-Montejo; Julio Benavides; Pilar Horcajo; Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora

    In the original publication of this article [1], there are error in the Fig. 5, the “ml” should be replaced by “mL” (Fig. 5A) and “IFNγ” should be “IFN-γ” in Fig. 5A, B. The correct figure is below:

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG and MTBVAC vaccines using a natural transmission model of tuberculosis
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Alvaro Roy; Irene Tomé; Beatriz Romero; Víctor Lorente-Leal; José A. Infantes-Lorenzo; Mercedes Domínguez; Carlos Martín; Nacho Aguiló; Eugenia Puentes; Esteban Rodríguez; Lucía de Juan; María A. Risalde; Christian Gortázar; Lucas Domínguez; Javier Bezos

    Effective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) are needed in order to prevent TB transmission in human and animal populations. Evaluation of TB vaccines may be facilitated by using reliable animal models that mimic host pathophysiology and natural transmission of the disease as closely as possible. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of two attenuated vaccines, BCG and MTBVAC, after each was given to 17 goats (2 months old) and then exposed for 9 months to goats infected with M. caprae. In general, MTBVAC-vaccinated goats showed higher interferon-gamma release than BCG vaccinated goats in response to bovine protein purified derivative and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens and the response was significantly higher than that observed in the control group until challenge. All animals showed lesions consistent with TB at the end of the study. Goats that received either vaccine showed significantly lower scores for pulmonary lymph nodes and total lesions than unvaccinated controls. Both MTBVAC and BCG vaccines proved to be immunogenic and effective in reducing severity of TB pathology caused by M. caprae. Our model system of natural TB transmission may be useful for evaluating and optimizing vaccines.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Baicalin mitigated Mycoplasma gallisepticum-induced structural damage and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis in chicken thymus through the Nrf2/HO-1 defence pathway
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Jichang Li; Zujian Qiao; Wanying Hu; Wei Zhang; Syed Waqas Ali Shah; Muhammad Ishfaq

    The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ and plays a critical role in the immune response against infectious agents. Baicalin is a naturally derived flavonoid famous for its pharmacological properties, but the preventive effects of baicalin against immune impairment remain unclear. We examined this effect in the context of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection-induced structural damage in the chicken thymus. Histopathological examination showed that the compact arrangement of cells in the thymus was lost in the MG-infected group. Inflammatory cell infiltration and nuclear debris accumulated, and the boundary between the cortex and medulla was not clearly visible. The mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis-related genes were significantly increased in the MG-infected group compared to the control group and the baicalin group. The number of positively stained nuclei in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay were increased in the MG-infected group. In addition, electron microscopic examination showed chromatin condensation, mitochondrial swelling and apoptotic vesicles in the MG-infected group. However, baicalin treatment significantly alleviated the oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by MG infection. Importantly, the abnormal morphology was partially ameliorated by baicalin treatment. Compared to the MG-infected group, the baicalin-treated group showed significantly reduced expression of apoptosis-related genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway and downstream genes were significantly upregulated by baicalin to counteract MG-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the thymocytes of chickens. In summary, these findings suggest that baicalin treatment efficiently attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis by activating the Nrf2 signalling pathway and could protect the thymus from MG infection-mediated structural and functional damage.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Rotavirus C: prevalence in suckling piglets and development of virus-like particles to assess the influence of maternal immunity on the disease development
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Juliet Chepngeno; Annika Diaz; Francine C. Paim; Linda J. Saif; Anastasia N. Vlasova

    Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Bacillus pumilus probiotic feed supplementation mitigates Lawsonia intracellularis shedding and lesions
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Tanja Opriessnig; Anbu K. Karuppannan; Dana Beckler; Tahar Ait-Ali; Ana Cubas-Atienzar; Patrick G. Halbur

    The causative agent of ileitis, Lawsonia intracellularis, is commonly associated with diarrhea and reduced weight gain in growing pigs. The effect of in-feed probiotics on L. intracellularis infection dynamics was evaluated. In brief, 70 2.5-week-old-pigs were randomly divided into six groups with 10–20 pigs each. All pigs were fed an age appropriate base ration for the duration of the study, which was supplemented with one of three Bacillus strains including B. amyloliquefaciens (T01), B. licheniformis (T02) and B. pumilus (T03). Another group was orally vaccinated with a commercial live L. intracellularis vaccine (VAC) at 3 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, T01-LAW, T02-LAW, T03-LAW, VAC-LAW and the POS-CONTROL groups were challenged with L. intracellularis while the NEG-CONTROL pigs were not challenged. All pigs were necropsied 16 days later. By the time of inoculation, all VAC-LAW pigs had seroconverted and at necropsy 10–65% of the pigs in all other challenged groups were also seropositive. The results indicate a successful L. intracellularis challenge with highest bacterial DNA levels in POS-CONTROL pigs, VAC-LAW pigs and T01-LAW pigs. There was a delay in onset of shedding in T02-LAW and T03-LAW groups, which was reflected in less severe macroscopic and microscopic lesions, reduced intralesional L. intracellularis antigen levels and a lower area under the curve for bacterial shedding. Under the study conditions, two of the probiotics tested suppressed L. intracellularis infection. The obtained findings show the potential of probiotics in achieving antibiotic-free control of L. intracellularis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Influence of pig gut microbiota on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae susceptibility
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Meera Surendran Nair; Tyson Eucker; Brian Martinson; Axel Neubauer; Joseph Victoria; Bryon Nicholson; Maria Pieters

    This study investigated the influence of gut microbiome composition in modulating susceptibility to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs. Thirty-two conventional M. hyopneumoniae free piglets were randomly selected from six different litters at 3 weeks of age and were experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae at 8 weeks of age. Lung lesion scores (LS) were recorded 4 weeks post-inoculation (12 weeks of age) from piglet lungs at necropsy. Fecal bacterial community composition of piglets at 3, 8 and 12 weeks of age were targeted by amplifying the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The LS ranged from 0.3 to 43% with an evident clustering of the scores observed in piglets within litters. There were significant differences in species richness and alpha diversity in fecal microbiomes among piglets within litters at different time points (p < 0.05). The dissimilarity matrices indicated that at 3 weeks of age, the fecal microbiota of piglets was more dissimilar compared to those from 8 to 12 weeks of age. Specific groups of bacteria in the gut that might predict the decreased severity of M. hyopneumoniae associated lesions were identified. The microbial shift at 3 weeks of age was observed to be driven by the increase in abundance of the indicator family, Ruminococcaceae in piglets with low LS (p < 0.05). The taxa, Ruminococcus_2 having the highest richness scores, correlated significantly between litters showing stronger associations with the lowest LS (r = −0.49, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that early life gut microbiota can be a potential determinant for M. hyopneumoniae susceptibility in pigs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Host-range shift of H3N8 canine influenza virus: a phylodynamic analysis of its origin and adaptation from equine to canine host
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Wanting He; Gairu Li; Ruyi Wang; Weifeng Shi; Kemang Li; Shilei Wang; Alexander Lai; Shuo Su

    Prior to the emergence of H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV) and the latest avian-origin H3N2 CIV, there was no evidence of a circulating canine-specific influenza virus. Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that H3N8 CIV emerged from H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). This host-range shift of EIV from equine to canine hosts and its subsequent establishment as an enzootic CIV is unique because this host-range shift was from one mammalian host to another. To further understand this host-range shift, we conducted a comprehensive phylodynamic analysis using all the available whole-genome sequences of H3N8 CIV. We found that (1) the emergence of H3N8 CIV from H3N8 EIV occurred in approximately 2002; (2) this interspecies transmission was by a reassortant virus of the circulating Florida-1 clade H3N8 EIV; (3) once in the canine species, H3N8 CIV spread efficiently and remained an enzootic virus; (4) H3N8 CIV evolved and diverged into multiple clades or sublineages, with intra and inter-lineage reassortment. Our results provide a framework to understand the molecular basis of host-range shifts of influenza viruses and that dogs are potential “mixing vessels” for the establishment of novel influenza viruses.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Clinical, pathological, and laboratory diagnoses of diseases of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), live stranded on the Dutch and adjacent coasts from 2003 to 2016
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Cornelis E. van Elk; Marco W. G. van de Bildt; Peter R. W. A. van Run; Paulien Bunskoek; Jolanda Meerbeek; Geoffrey Foster; Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus; Thijs Kuiken

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea live in an environment heavily impacted by humans, the consequences of which are a concern for their health. Autopsies carried out on stranded harbour porpoises provide an opportunity to assess health problems in this species. We performed 61 autopsies on live-stranded harbour porpoises, which died following admission to a rehabilitation centre between 2003 and 2016. The animals had stranded on the Dutch (n = 52) and adjacent coasts of Belgium (n = 2) and Germany (n = 7). We assigned probable causes for stranding based on clinical and pathological criteria. Cause of stranding was associated in the majority of cases with pathologies in multiple organs (n = 29) compared to animals with pathologies in a single organ (n = 18). Our results show that the three most probable causes of stranding were pneumonia (n = 35), separation of calves from their mother (n = 10), and aspergillosis (n = 9). Pneumonia as a consequence of pulmonary nematode infection occurred in 19 animals. Pneumonia was significantly associated with infection with Pseudalius inflexus, Halocercus sp., and Torynurus convolutus but not with Stenurus minor infection. Half of the bacterial pneumonias (6/12) could not be associated with nematode infection. Conclusions from this study are that aspergillosis is an important probable cause for stranding, while parasitic infection is not a necessary prerequisite for bacterial pneumonia, and approximately half of the animals (29/61) probably stranded due to multiple causes. An important implication of the observed high prevalence of aspergillosis is that these harbour porpoises suffered from reduced immunocompetence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pathobiology and innate immune responses of gallinaceous poultry to clade 2.3.4.4A H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Kateri Bertran; Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood; Miria F. Criado; Dong-Hun Lee; Charles L. Balzli; Erica Spackman; David L. Suarez; David E. Swayne

    In the 2014–2015 Eurasian lineage clade 2.3.4.4A H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the U.S., backyard flocks with minor gallinaceous poultry and large commercial poultry (chickens and turkeys) operations were affected. The pathogenesis of the first H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4A HPAI U.S. isolates was investigated in six gallinaceous species: chickens, Japanese quail, Bobwhite quail, Pearl guinea fowl, Chukar partridges, and Ring-necked pheasants. Both viruses caused 80–100% mortality in all species, except for H5N2 virus that caused 60% mortality in chickens. The surviving challenged birds remained uninfected based on lack of clinical disease and lack of seroconversion. Among the infected birds, chickens and Japanese quail in early clinical stages (asymptomatic and listless) lacked histopathologic findings. In contrast, birds of all species in later clinical stages (moribund and dead) had histopathologic lesions and systemic virus replication consistent with HPAI virus infection in gallinaceous poultry. These birds had widespread multifocal areas of necrosis, sometimes with heterophilic or lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate, and viral antigen in parenchymal cells of most tissues. In general, lesions and antigen distribution were similar regardless of virus and species. However, endotheliotropism was the most striking difference among species, with only Pearl guinea fowl showing widespread replication of both viruses in endothelial cells of most tissues. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Japanese quail, and IL-6 in chickens, were up-regulated in later clinical stages compared to asymptomatic birds.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nanoparticle-based vaccine development and evaluation against viral infections in pigs
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Santosh Dhakal; Gourapura J. Renukaradhya

    Virus infections possess persistent health challenges in swine industry leading to severe economic losses worldwide. The economic burden caused by virus infections such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Swine influenza virus, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Porcine Circovirus 2, Foot and Mouth Disease Virus and many others are associated with severe morbidity, mortality, loss of production, trade restrictions and investments in control and prevention practices. Pigs can also have a role in zoonotic transmission of some viral infections to humans. Inactivated and modified-live virus vaccines are available against porcine viral infections with variable efficacy under field conditions. Thus, improvements over existing vaccines are necessary to: (1) Increase the breadth of protection against evolving viral strains and subtypes; (2) Control of emerging and re-emerging viruses; (3) Eradicate viruses localized in different geographic areas; and (4) Differentiate infected from vaccinated animals to improve disease control programs. Nanoparticles (NPs) generated from virus-like particles, biodegradable and biocompatible polymers and liposomes offer many advantages as vaccine delivery platform due to their unique physicochemical properties. NPs help in efficient antigen internalization and processing by antigen presenting cells and activate them to elicit innate and adaptive immunity. Some of the NPs-based vaccines could be delivered through both parenteral and mucosal routes to trigger efficient mucosal and systemic immune responses and could be used to target specific immune cells such as mucosal microfold (M) cells and dendritic cells (DCs). In conclusion, NPs-based vaccines can serve as novel candidate vaccines against several porcine viral infections with the potential to enhance the broader protective efficacy under field conditions. This review highlights the recent developments in NPs-based vaccines against porcine viral pathogens and how the NPs-based vaccine delivery system induces innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in varied level of protective efficacy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Efficacy of three innovative bacterin vaccines against experimental infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Anneleen Marguerite Filip Matthijs; Gaël Auray; Filip Boyen; Alexandra Schoos; Annelies Michiels; Obdulio García-Nicolás; Güliz Tuba Barut; Christophe Barnier-Quer; Virginie Jakob; Nicolas Collin; Bert Devriendt; Artur Summerfield; Freddy Haesebrouck; Dominiek Maes

    New vaccine formulations that include novel strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and innovative adjuvants designed to induce cellular immunity could improve vaccine efficacy against this pathogen. The aim of this experimental study was to assess the efficacy of three experimental bacterin formulations based on M. hyopneumoniae field strain F7.2C which were able to induce cellular immunity. The formulations included a cationic liposome formulation with the Mincle receptor ligand trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (Lipo_DDA:TDB), a squalene-in-water emulsion with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands targeting TLR1/2, TLR7/8 and TLR9 (SWE_TLR), and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) micro-particle formulation with the same TLR ligands (PLGA_TLR). Four groups of 12 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were primo- (day (D) 0; 39 days of age) and booster vaccinated (D14) intramuscularly with either one of the three experimental bacterin formulations or PBS. The pigs were endotracheally inoculated with a highly and low virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain on D28 and D29, respectively, and euthanized on D56. The main efficacy parameters were: respiratory disease score (RDS; daily), macroscopic lung lesion score (D56) and log copies M. hyopneumoniae DNA determined with qPCR on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (D42, D56). All formulations were able to reduce clinical symptoms, lung lesions and the M. hyopneumoniae DNA load in the lung, with formulation SWE_TLR being the most effective (RDSD28–D56 −61.90%, macroscopic lung lesions −88.38%, M. hyopneumoniae DNA load in BAL fluid (D42) −67.28%). Further experiments raised under field conditions are needed to confirm these results and to assess the effect of the vaccines on performance parameters.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evolution of infectious bronchitis virus in the field after homologous vaccination introduction
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Giovanni Franzo; Matteo Legnardi; Claudia Maria Tucciarone; Michele Drigo; Marco Martini; Mattia Cecchinato

    Despite the fact that vaccine resistance has been typically considered a rare phenomenon, some episodes of vaccine failure have been reported with increasing frequency in intensively-raised livestock. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a widespread avian coronavirus, whose control relies mainly on extensive vaccine administration. Unfortunately, the continuous emergence of new vaccine-immunity escaping variants prompts the development of new vaccines. In the present work, a molecular epidemiology study was performed to evaluate the potential role of homologous vaccination in driving IBV evolution. This was undertaken by assessing IBV viral RNA sequences from the ORF encoding the S1 portion of viral surface glycoprotein (S) before and after the introduction of a new live vaccine on broiler farms in northern-Italy. The results of several biostatistics analyses consistently demonstrate the presence of a higher pressure in the post-vaccination period. Natural selection was detected essentially on sites located on the protein surface, within or nearby domains involved in viral attachment or related functions. This evidence strongly supports the action of vaccine-induced immunity in conditioning viral evolution, potentially leading to the emergence of new vaccine-escape variants. The great plasticity of rapidly-evolving RNA-viruses in response to human intervention, which extends beyond the poultry industry, is demonstrated, claiming further attention due to their relevance for animal and especially human health.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A farewell to outgoing Editor-in-Chief Michel Brémont
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Elodie Coulamy; Vincent Béringue

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    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Genotypic diversity of Streptococcus suis and the S. suis-like bacterium Streptococcus ruminantium in ruminants
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Masatoshi Okura; Fumito Maruyama; Atsushi Ota; Takeshi Tanaka; Yohei Matoba; Aya Osawa; Sayed Mushtaq Sadaat; Makoto Osaki; Atsushi Toyoda; Yoshitoshi Ogura; Tetsuya Hayashi; Daisuke Takamatsu

    Although Streptococcus suis has attracted public attention as a major swine and human pathogen, this bacterium has also been isolated from other animals, including ruminants. However, recent taxonomic studies revealed the existence of other species that were previously identified as S. suis, and some of these isolates were reclassified as the novel species Streptococcus ruminantium. In Japan, biochemically identified S. suis is frequently isolated from diseased ruminants; however, such isolates have not yet been identified accurately, and their aetiological importance in ruminants is unclear. Therefore, to understand the importance of S. suis and S. suis-like bacteria in ruminants, we reclassified S. suis isolates from ruminants according to the updated classification and investigated their genetic diversity. Although both S. suis and S. ruminantium were isolated from healthy and diseased ruminants, most of the isolates from diseased animals were S. ruminantium, implying that S. ruminantium is more likely to be associated with ruminant disease than S. suis. However, the ruminant S. suis and S. ruminantium isolates from diseased animals were classified into diverse genotypes rather than belonging to certain clonal groups. Genome sequence analysis of 20 S. ruminantium isolates provided information about the antibiotic resistance, potential virulence, and serological diversity of this species. We further developed an S. ruminantium-specific PCR assay to aid in the identification of this bacterium. The information obtained and the method established in this study will contribute to the accurate diagnosis of ruminant streptococcal infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Rev1 wbdR tagged vaccines against Brucella ovis
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Beatriz Aragón-Aranda; María Jesús de Miguel; Estrella Martínez-Gómez; Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa; Miriam Salvador-Bescós; Ignacio Moriyón; Maite Iriarte; Pilar M. Muñoz; Raquel Conde-Álvarez

    Sheep brucellosis is a worldwide extended disease caused by B. melitensis and B. ovis, two species respectively carrying smooth or rough lipopolysaccharide. Vaccine B. melitensis Rev1 is used against B. melitensis and B. ovis but induces an anti-smooth-lipopolysaccharide response interfering with B. melitensis serodiagnosis, which precludes its use against B. ovis where B. melitensis is absent. In mice, Rev1 deleted in wbkC (Brucella lipopolysaccharide formyl-transferase) and carrying wbdR (E. coli acetyl-transferase) triggered antibodies that could be differentiated from those evoked by wild-type strains, was comparatively attenuated and protected against B. ovis, suggesting its potential as a B. ovis vaccine.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • In vitro and in vivo effects of 3-bromopyruvate against Echinococcus metacestodes
    Vet. Res. (IF 3.117) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Qi Xin; Miaomiao Yuan; Huanping Li; Xiaoxia Song; Jun Lu; Tao Jing

    While searching for novel anti-echinococcosis drugs, we have been focusing on glycolysis which is relied on by Echinococcus for energy production and intermediates for other metabolic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic implication of glycolytic inhibitors on Echinococcus. Our results demonstrate that at an initial concentration of 40 μM, all inhibitors of glycolysis used in the current experiment [3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), ornidazole, clorsulon (CLS), sodium oxamate and 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-P2)] show considerable in vitro effects against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes. Among them, 3-BrPA exhibited the highest activity which was similar to that of nitazoxanide (NTZ) and more efficacious than albendazole (ABZ). The activity of 3-BrPA was dose dependent and resulted in severe ultrastructural destructions, as visualized by electron microscopy. An additional in vivo study in mice infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes indicates a reduction in parasite weight after the twice-weekly treatment of 25 mg/kg 3-BrPA for 6 weeks, compared to that of the untreated control. In particular, in contrast to ABZ, the administration of 25 mg/kg 3-BrPA did not cause toxicity to the liver and kidney in mice. Similarly, at the effective dose against Echinococcus larvae, 3-BrPA showed no significant toxicity to human hepatocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that interfering with the glycolysis of the parasite may be a novel chemotherapeutical option and 3-BrPA, which exhibited a remarkable activity against Echinococcus, may be a promising potential drug against cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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