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  • The impact of vaccination on gender equity: conceptual framework and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine case study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Allison Portnoy; Samantha Clark; Sachiko Ozawa; Mark Jit

    Although the beneficial effects of vaccines on equity by socioeconomic status and geography are increasingly well-documented, little has been done to extend these analyses to examine the linkage between vaccination and gender equity. In this paper, evidence from the published literature is used to develop a conceptual framework demonstrating the potential impact of vaccination on measures of gender equity. This framework is then applied to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in three countries with different economic and disease burden profiles to establish a proof of concept in a variety of contexts. We conducted a literature review examining evidence on the linkage between health outcomes and dimensions of gender equity. We utilized the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to estimate cervical cancer incidence and deaths due to HPV types 16/18 by age in each country. We estimated labor force participation and fertility effects from improvements in health, and converted these into inputs consistent with those used to calculate the United Nations Gender Inequality Index to assess gender equity. In our case study, we found that HPV vaccination among girls could help narrow socioeconomic gender disparities by quantifying the main pathways by which HPV vaccination improves health, which enables improvement in gender equity indicators such as labor force participation and maternal mortality ratios. While these improvements are small when averaged over the entire population, the components measured – labor force participation and maternal mortality ratio – account for 50% of the index scores. This proof of concept model is a starting point to inform future health and economic analyses that might incorporate the impact of gender equity as an additional impact of vaccination in improving the health and well-being of the population.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • “To mean something to someone”: sport-for-development as a lever for social inclusion
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Karen Van der Veken; Emelien Lauwerier; Sara Willems

    Socially excluded groups are at higher risk of low well-being and poor health. The link between social exclusion and health inequities is complex, and not being involved in society makes it difficult to be reached by standard prevention programs. Sport-for-development (SFD) programs are low-threshold and may be promising settings for inclusive actions. We explore the underlying mechanisms through which SFD might have an impact on social inclusion and examine the necessary conditions that work as a catalyst for these underlying mechanisms. A realist evaluation approach was adopted. A non-profit SFD organization in a middle-large city in Flanders, Belgium, formed the setting for a single case study. Document analysis, participatory observations, interviews, and a focus group, were sources for identifying necessary context elements and essential mechanisms through which SFD could promote its participants’ health and wellbeing. Among the most efficient mechanisms triggered by the Foundation’s activities are learning by fun, connecting with peers (of whom some serve as role model) and engaging as a volunteer with some responsibilities. Building trust in oneself and in others is a necessary process throughout all these mechanisms. Facilitating context factors include the activities’ accessibility and unconditional approach (creating a sense of safety), the popularity of the first division football team the Foundation is associated with (leading to a sense of belonging), a steady network of social partners and a strongly positive relationship with the SFD coach(es). Our findings demonstrate that a SFD setting may be a vehicle for engaging hard-to-reach population groups. It enhances socially vulnerable persons’ sense of competence and connectedness, leading to opportunities to improve life and work skills transferrable outside SFD settings. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided that may enhance the field and help to develop feasible (policy-led) interventions designed to promote social inclusion.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A method for measuring spatial effects on socioeconomic inequalities using the concentration index
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Sung Wook Kim; Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli; Jolene Skordis-Worrall; Neha Batura; Stavros Petrou

    Although spatial effects contribute to inequalities in health care service utilisation and other health outcomes in low and middle income countries, there have been no attempts to incorporate the impact of neighbourhood effects into equity analyses based on concentration indices. This study aimed to decompose and estimate the contribution of spatial effects on inequalities in uptake of HIV tests in Malawi. We developed a new method of reflecting spatial effects within the concentration index using a spatial weight matrix. Spatial autocorrelation is presented using a spatial lag model. We use data from the Malawi Demographic Health Survey (n = 24,562) to illustrate the new methodology. Need variables such as ‘Any STI last 12 month’, ‘Genital sore/ulcer’, ‘Genital discharge’ and non need variables such as Education, Literacy, Wealth, Marriage, and education were used in the concentration index. Using our modified concentration index that incorporates spatial effects, we estimate inequalities in uptake of HIV testing amongst both women and men living in Malawi in 2015–2016, controlling for need and non-need variables. For women, inequalities due to need variables were estimated at − 0.001 and − 0.0009 (pro-poor) using the probit and new spatial probit estimators, respectively, whereas inequalities due to non-need variables were estimated at 0.01 and 0.0068 (pro-rich) using the probit and new spatial probit estimators. The results suggest that spatial effects increase estimated inequalities in HIV uptake amongst women. Horizontal inequity was almost identical (0.0103 vs 0.0102) after applying the spatial lag model. For men, inequalities due to need variables were estimated at − 0.0002 using both the probit and new spatial probit estimators; however, inequalities due to non-need variables were estimated at − 0.006 and − 0.0074 for the probit and new spatial probit models. Horizontal inequity was the same for both models (− 0.0057). Our findings suggest that men from lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to receive an HIV test after adjustment for spatial effects. This study develops a novel methodological approach that incorporates estimation of spatial effects into a common approach to equity analysis. We find that a significant component of inequalities in HIV uptake in Malawi driven by non-need factors can be explained by spatial effects. When the spatial model was applied, the inequality due to non need in Lilongwe for men and horizontal inequity in Salima for women changed the sign. This approach can be used to explore inequalities in other contexts and settings to better understand the impact of spatial effects on health service use or other health outcomes, impacting on recommendations for service delivery.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Qualitative study of psychosocial factors impacting on Aboriginal women’s management of chronic disease
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    A. Eades; M. L. Hackett; H. Liu; A. Brown; J. Coffin; A. Cass

    Aboriginal women are frequently called upon to support their families and other community members. At times, such supporting roles can be burdensome for these women. Many Aboriginal women live with chronic conditions. We explored the ways in which the women’s caring roles impacted on how they maintained their own health. The aim of this manuscript is to explore the psychosocial factors associated with the management of health and chronic disease in Aboriginal women. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for the analysis of 72 in-depth semi-structured interviews. These interviews were conducted in four community controlled Aboriginal health services, in urban, rural and remote settings, across two states and a territory in Australia. Women living with chronic disease experience multiple challenges while caring for family, such as intergenerational trauma, mental health issues relating to addiction, domestic and family violence and incarceration. When these women become ill, they also have to take care of themselves. These women provided informal and unfunded care in response to a range of complex family and community problems. This continuous caring for family affected the women’s ability to maintain their health and manage their own chronic conditions. The caring roles and responsibilities Aboriginal women have in their community impact on their health. Aboriginal women provide much needed refuge and support to family and the wider community. Underfunded and over-burdened formal support services are not meeting the needs of many Aboriginal women. Improved culturally secure resources and social services are required within communities to support Aboriginal women to successfully manage their own health.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Delay in decision and determinants for safe abortion among women at health facilities in south West Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Biru Abdissa Mizana; Tsige Woyecha; Samuel Abdu

    Delayed safe abortion is the most common cause of gynecologic admission in developing countries. The study, therefore, assessed the delay decision for safe abortion and determinant factors among women at health facilities in South West Ethiopia. Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 women who were selected from health facilities by using simple random sampling. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered into Epidata and exported to SPSS for analysis. Binary Logistic regression was used and Variables with P-value < 0.25 during bivariate analysis were included in the multivariable logistic regression model. Finally, variables with p-value ≤0.05 were judged as a statistically significant association. The magnitude of delay decision for safe abortion services was 70.8% (0.66, 075). Place of residence [AOR 2.44 (95% C.I: (1.39, 4.30)], lack of formal education [AOR: 2.41 (95% C.I:(1.08, 3.59)], level of education [AOR: 2.22 (95% C.I: (1.19, 4.11)], history of previous abortion [AOR: 3.47 (95% C.I: (1.74, 8.6.91)] and late confirmation of pregnancy [AOR: 1.64 (95% C.I: (1.01–2.65)] were the determinant factors for delay in decision for safe abortion. This study revealed that the majority of women were delayed for the decision of safe abortion services. Place of residence of the women, lack of formal education, history of previous abortion and late confirmation of pregnancy were the determinant factors for women’s decision for safe abortion. Therefore, it is better to work on awareness creation the timing of safe abortion and complication of delay abortion especially for the women from rural area.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Homeownership status and risk of food insecurity: examining the role of housing debt, housing expenditure and housing asset using a cross-sectional population-based survey of Canadian households
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain; Valerie Tarasuk

    Household food insecurity is a potent marker of material deprivation with adverse health consequences. Studies have repeatedly found a strong, independent relationship between owning a home and lower vulnerability to food insecurity in Canada and elsewhere, but the reasons for this relationship are poorly understood. We aimed to examine the influence of housing asset, housing debt and housing expenditure on the relationship between homeownership status and food insecurity in Canada. Cross-sectional data on food insecurity, housing tenure and expenditures, home value, income and sociodemographic characteristics were derived from the 2010 Survey of Household Spending, a population-based survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to estimate odds ratios of food insecurity among households of all incomes (n = 10,815) and those with lower incomes (n = 5547). Food insecurity prevalence was highest among market renters (28.5%), followed by homeowners with a mortgage (11.6%) and mortgage-free homeowners (4.3%). Homeowners with a mortgage (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.39–0.68) and those without a mortgage (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.16–0.35) had substantially lower adjusted odds of food insecurity than market renters, and accounting for the burden of housing cost had minimal impact on the association. Mortgage-free homeowners had lower adjusted odds ratios of food insecurity compared to homeowners with a mortgage, but differences in the burden of housing cost fully accounted for the association. When stratifying homeowners based on presence of mortgage and housing asset level, the adjusted odds ratios of food insecurity for market renters were not significant when compared to mortgage holders with low housing asset. Mortgage-free owners with higher housing asset were least vulnerable to food insecurity (adjusted OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.27). Substantial disparities in food insecurity exist between households with different homeownership status and housing asset level. Housing policies that support homeownership while ensuring affordable mortgages may be important to mitigate food insecurity, but policy actions are required to address renters’ high vulnerability to food insecurity.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Inequity in inpatient services utilization: a longitudinal comparative analysis of middle-aged and elderly patients with the chronic non-communicable diseases in China
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Xian-zhi Fu; Lian-ke Wang; Chang-qing Sun; Dong-dong Wang; Jun-jian He; Qi-xin Tang; Qian-yu Zhou

    Aging and the chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) challenge the Chinese government in the process of providing hospitalization services fairly and reasonably. The Chinese government has developed the basic medical insurance system to solve the problem of “expensive medical cost and difficult medical services” for vulnerable groups and alleviate the unfair phenomenon. However, few studies have confirmed its effect through longitudinal comparison. This study aimed to explore the trend in the inequity of inpatient use among middle-aged and elderly individuals with NCDs in China. This longitudinal comparative study was based on CHARLS data in 2011, 2013 and 2015. Concentration index (CI) was used to measure the variation trend of inequity of inpatient services utilization, while the decomposition method of the CI was applied to measure the factors contributing to inequity in inpatient services utilization. The effect of each factor on the change of inequity in inpatient services utilization was divided into the change of the elasticity and the change of inequality using the Oaxaca-type decomposition method. The affluent middle-aged and elderly patients with NCDs used more inpatient services than poor groups. The per capita household consumption expenditure (PCE) and Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) contributed to the decline in pro-rich inequality of inpatient use, while the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) contributed to the decline in pro-poor inequality of inpatient use. There was a certain degree of pro-rich unfairness in the probability and frequency of inpatient services utilization for middle-aged and elderly individuals with NCDs in China. The decrease of pro-wealth contribution of PCE and UEBMI offset the decrease of pro-poor contribution of NRCMS, and improved the equity of inpatient services utilization, favoring poor people.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Exploring patient experiences with and attitudes towards hypertension at a private hospital in Uganda: a qualitative study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Hayley M. Lynch; Aliza S. Green; Rose Clarke Nanyonga; Darinka D. Gadikota-Klumpers; Allison Squires; Jeremy I. Schwartz; David J. Heller

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide and is more common in sub-Saharan Africa than any other region. Work to date confirms that a lack of human and material resources for healthcare access contributes to this gap. The ways in which patients’ knowledge and attitudes toward hypertension determine their engagement with and adherence to available care, however, remains unclear. We conducted an exploratory, qualitative descriptive study to assess awareness, knowledge, and attitudes towards hypertension and its management at a large private hospital in Kampala. We interviewed 64 participants (29 with hypertension and 34 without, 1 excluded) in English. General thematic analysis using the Integrated Conceptual Health Literacy Model was used to iteratively generate themes and categories. We identified three main themes: Timing of Hypertension Diagnosis, Aiming for Health Literacy, and the Influence of Knowledge on Behavior. Most participants with hypertension learned of their condition incidentally, speaking to the lack of awareness of hypertension as an asymptomatic condition. Drove nearly all participants to desire more information. However, many struggled to translate knowledge into self-management behaviors due to incomplete information and conflicting desires of participants regarding lifestyle and treatment. Internal patient factors had a substantial impact on adherence, calling attention to the need for educational interventions. Systemic barriers such as cost still existed even for those with insurance and need to be recognized by treating providers.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Have inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific child mortality between countries declined across the world?
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Seungman Cha; Yan Jin

    Comparing the distribution of all cause or cause-specific child mortality in countries by income and its progress over time has not been rigorously monitored, and hence remains unknown. We therefore aimed to analyze child mortality disparities between countries with respect to income level and progression for the period 2000–2015, and further explored the convergence of unequal income levels across the globe. Four types of measures were used to assess the degree of inequality across countries: difference and ratio of child mortality rate, the concentration index, and the Erreygers index. To assess the longitudinal trend of unequal child mortality rate by wealth ranking, hierarchical mixed effect analysis was used to examine any significant changes in the slope of under-5 child mortality rate by GDP per capita between 2000 and 2015. All four measures reveal significant inequalities across the countries by income level. Compared with children in the least deprived socioeconomic quintile, the mortality rate for children in the most deprived socioeconomic quintile was nearly 20.7 times higher (95% Confidence Interval: 20.5–20.8) in 2000, and 12.2 times (95% CI: 12.1–12.3) higher in 2015. Globally, the relative and absolute inequality of child mortality between the first and fifth quintiles have declined over time in all diseases, but was more pronounced for infectious diseases (pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, and meningitis). In 2000, post-neonatal children in the first quintile had 105.3 times (95% CI: 100.8–110.0) and 216.3 times (95% CI: 202.5–231.2) higher risks of pneumonia- and diarrhea-specific child mortality than children in the fifth quintile. In 2015, the corresponding rate ratios had decreased to 59.3 (95% CI: 56.5–62.1) and 101.9 (95% CI: 94.3–110.0) times. However, compared with non-communicable disease, infectious diseases still show a far more severe disparity between income quintile. Mixed effect analysis demonstrates the convergence of under-5 mortality in 194 countries across income levels. Grand convergence in child mortality, particularly in post neonatal children, suggests that the global community has witnessed success to some extent in controlling infectious diseases. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess worldwide inequalities in cause-specific child mortality and its time trend by wealth.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Ethnicity recording in health and social care data collections in Ireland: where and how is it measured and what is it used for?
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Ailish Hannigan; Nazmy Villarroel; Maria Roura; Joseph LeMaster; Alphonse Basogomba; Colette Bradley; Anne MacFarlane

    In the European Union (EU), discrimination based on racial and ethnic origin is prohibited under the Racial Equality Directive. Ireland is one of only three EU countries where a legal duty of equality data collection is placed on public bodies. It provides an important context in which to study ethnic equality monitoring; however no systematic mapping of where it occurs in health information systems has been carried out. The aim of this study is to identify all existing national health and social care data collections with information on ethnicity and to explore how this data has been collected and used. An electronic search of a national catalogue of health and social care data collections (N = 97) was carried out to identify any collections which contained information on ethnicity. Data dictionaries were searched and key informants contacted. For each of the data collections that collected information on ethnicity, data was extracted on the ethnic categories used and how this data is collected; the completeness of ethnicity recording; and other measures related to ethnicity in the data collection. Relevant outputs for these data collections, related to ethnicity, were identified through key informants and electronic searches. Of the 97 data collections, 14 (14%) collected information on ethnic or cultural background. Country of birth was collected by 10 of these 14 data collections. Most used the ethnic categories in the Census and recommended that ethnicity should be self-identified and not assigned. Reported rates of identification were generally high (≥90%). Data collections which recorded ethnicity tended to be focused on potentially high-risk populations with no routine recording in primary care. There were some examples of where ethnic equality monitoring had informed targeted interventions e.g. vaccination awareness initiatives or cultural training for healthcare staff. Despite strong policy and legal imperatives, there is limited data collection of ethnicity in health and social care data collections in Ireland. While there are some examples of where differences by ethnicity have been identified and acted upon, a more coordinated and comprehensive approach to the collection, quality and utilization of ethnicity data is needed to promote health equity.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Social inequalities in the burden of care: a dyadic analysis in the caregiving partners of persons with a physical disability
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Hannah Tough; Martin W. G. Brinkhof; Johannes Siegrist; Christine Fekete

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important contextual factor in the Stress Process Model of caregiving. However, the basic assumption that low SEP is associated with greater caregiver burden has so far lacked empirical support. The objective of this study was to investigate social inequalities in the caregiver burden among caregiving partners of persons with a physical disability, i.e., spinal cord injury (SCI), applying a dyadic approach. More specifically, we investigated 1) the association of the caregivers’ SEP with caregiver burden (‘actor effect’); 2) the association of the care-receivers’ SEP with caregiver burden (‘partner effect’), and 3) potential mediators of the association between SEP and caregiver burden. Cross-sectional survey data from 118 couples of persons with SCI and their partners living in Switzerland was used. We firstly employed logistic regression to investigate the actor and partner effects of SEP on objective (hours of caregiving) and subjective caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview). We additionally used structural equation modelling to explore whether unfulfilled support needs, psychosocial resources and the care-receivers health status mediated the association between SEP and caregiver burden. SEP was operationalized by household income, education, subjective social position, financial strain and home ownership. We observed a consistent trend towards higher objective and subjective burden in lower SEP groups. Caregivers with higher subjective social positon and home ownership indicated lower subjective burden, and caregivers with higher education and absence of financial strain reported lower objective burden. Further evidence suggested a partner effect of SEP on caregiver burden, whereby objective caregiver burden was reduced in couples where the care-receiver had a higher educational level. The negative association between SEP and subjective burden was partially mediated by the unfulfilled support needs and deprived psychological resources of the caregiver, and the poor health status of the care-receiver. Similar mediation effects were not supported for objective burden. Our study, in the context of SCI, provides support for the contextual role of SEP in the Stress Process Model of caregiving. To reduce subjective caregiver burden, policy programs may target the strengthening of psychosocial resources, or the improvement of access to support services for caregivers with low SEP.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • The state of enrollment on the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana after eight years of implementation
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Anthony Kwarteng; James Akazili; Paul Welaga; Philip Ayizem Dalinjong; Kwaku Poku Asante; Doris Sarpong; Samuelina Arthur; Martin Bangha; Jane Goudge; Osman Sankoh

    In 2004, Ghana implemented a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) as a step towards achieving universal health coverage. In this paper, we assessed the level of enrollment and factors associated with NHIS membership in two predominantly rural districts of northern Ghana after eight years of implementation, with focus on the poor and vulnerable populations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 among 11,175 randomly sampled households with their heads as respondents. Information on NHIS status, category of membership and socio-demographic characteristics of household members was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to compute wealth index from household assets as estimates of socio-economic status (SES). The factors associated with NHIS enrollment were assessed using logistic regression models. The reasons behind enrollment decisions of each household member were further investigated against their SES. Approximately half of the sampled population of 39,262 were registered with a valid NHIS card; 53.2% of these were through voluntary subscriptions by payment of premium whilst the remaining (46.8%) comprising of children below the ages of 18 years, elderly 70 years and above, pregnant women and formal sector workers were exempt from premium payment. Despite an exemption policy to ameliorate the poor and vulnerable households against catastrophic health care expenditures, only 0.5% of NHIS membership representing 1.2% of total exemptions granted on accounts of poverty and other social vulnerabilities was applied for the poor. Yet, cost of premium was the main barrier to NHIS registration (92.6%) and non-renewal (78.8%), with members of the lowest SES being worst affected. Children below the ages of 18 years, females, urban residents and those with higher education and SES were significantly more likely to be enrolled with the scheme. Despite the introduction of policy exemptions as an equity measure, the poorest of the poor were rarely identified for exemption. The government must urgently resource the Department of Social Welfare to identify the poor for NHIS enrollment.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Socio-economic inequality in malnutrition among children in India: an analysis of 640 districts from National Family Health Survey (2015–16)
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Shrikant Singh; Swati Srivastava; Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

    Despite a fast-growing economy and the largest anti-malnutrition programme, India has the world’s worst level of child malnutrition. Despite India’s 50% increase in GDP since 1991, more than one third of the world’s malnourished children live in India. Among these, half of the children under age 3 years are underweight and a third of wealthiest children are over-nutrient. One of the major causes for malnutrition in India is economic inequality. Therefore, using the data from the fourth round of National Family Health Survey (2015–16), present study aims to examine the socio-economic inequality in childhood malnutrition across 640 districts of India. Concentration curve and generalized concentration index were used to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in malnutrition. However, regression-based decomposition methodology was used to decomposes the causes of inequality in childhood malnutrition. Result shows that about 38% children in India were stunted and 35% were underweight during 2015–16. Prevalence of stunting and underweight children varies considerably across Indian districts (13 to 65% and 7 to 67% respectively). Districts having the higher share of undernourished children is coming from the particular regions like central, east and west part of the country. On an average about 35% of household in a district having the access of safe drinking water and 42% of household in a district exposed to open defecation. The study found the inverse relationship between district’s economic development with childhood stunting and underweight. The concentration of stunted as well as underweight children were found in least developed districts of India. Decomposition approach found that practice of open defecation is positively influenced the inequality in stunting and underweight. Further, inequality in undernutrition is accelerated by the height and education of the mother, and availability of safe drinking water in a district. The districts that lied out in a spectrum of developmental diversity are required some specific set of information’s that covering socio-economic, demographic and health-related quality of life of people in those backward districts. More generally, policies to avail improved water and sanitation facility to public and female literacy should be continued. It is also important to see that the benefits of both infrastructure and more general economic development are spread more evenly across districts.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Experiences, perspectives and values of Indigenous peoples regarding kidney transplantation: systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Rachael C. Walker; Sally Abel; Annie Reynolds; Suetonia C. Palmer; Curtis Walker; David C. Tipene-Leach

    Kidney transplantation is considered best practice treatment for end stage kidney disease (ESKD), however Indigenous patients are substantially less likely to receive either a deceased or live donor kidney transplant than non-Indigenous patients. We describe Indigenous peoples’ experiences and perspectives including traditional values around kidney transplantation to inform international transplant programs. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies involving Indigenous adults who have experience with or perceptions of kidney transplantation. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, and CINAHL, in conjunction with analysis of Google Scholar and reference lists of related studies till July 2019. We utilised thematic synthesis to analyse data. Completeness of reporting in studies was evaluated using the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) framework. Eight studies involving 225 Indigenous participants were included. Five themes were identified: strong desire for transplantation (seeking normality and freedom from dialysis, wanting to reduce burden of disease within community); lack of partnership in shared decision-making (receiving inadequate information, ineffective communication); barriers to live kidney donation (difficulty asking, apprehension about impact on donor, avoiding additional financial burden and fear of complications); cultural considerations (influence of traditional values and beliefs, reconciling traditional values with pragmatic need); and experiencing lack of cultural competence in clinical care (struggling with prejudice and ignorance, mistrust of clinicians and health system). Indigenous participants had a strong desire for a kidney transplant and recognised the need for more readily available kidney transplants for others in their communities with ESKD. However, they faced prejudice and a lack of cultural competence by health workers as well as wider barriers to transplantation in systems that did not support effective and culturally appropriate delivery of information and care. Traditional cultural values also influenced decisions regarding kidney transplantation but such values were moderated when considering transplantation. Transplantation programs need to identify and mitigate barriers, such as the financial burden, promote cultural safety and incorporate traditional values into the promotion of transplantation in order to address inequitable transplantation rates. Not applicable.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Exploring the health-relevant poverty line: a study using the data of 663,000 individuals in Japan
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Takashi Oshio

    Income poverty is known to be associated with poor health outcomes. However, the poverty line, which is used to calculate the poverty rate, is arbitrarily set without specific reference to health. This study explored the health-relevant poverty line to understand poverty in terms of population health. Using repeated cross-sectional data from approximately 663,000 individuals obtained from 11 waves of nationwide population surveys conducted in Japan from 1986 to 2016, we used two methods to calculate a health-relevant poverty line: (1) We searched for a poverty line that maximized the proportion-weighted relative underperformance in health among individuals whose income was below the poverty line (Method I). (2) We searched for a poverty line that maximized the likelihood of the logistic regression model to explain poverty in terms of health using a binary variable for below-the-poverty-line income (Method II). For both methods, we considered five health outcomes: Poor/fair and poor self-rated health, subjective symptoms, problems with daily life activities, and psychological distress, along with covariates. Methods I and II indicated that the health-relevant poverty line should be drawn, respectively, at 72–86% and 67–69% of median income; this level is somewhat higher than the conventional 50% or 60%. The results suggest that there is a risk that the conventionally defined poverty line may underestimate poverty in terms of population health.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Connecting knowledge with action for health equity: a critical interpretive synthesis of promising practices
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Katrina M. Plamondon; C. Susana Caxaj; Ian D. Graham; Joan L. Bottorff

    Connecting knowledge with action (KWA) for health equity involves interventions that can redistribute power and resources at local, national, and global levels. Although there is ample and compelling evidence on the nature, distribution, and impact of health inequities, advancing health equity is inhibited by policy arenas shaped by colonial legacies and neoliberal ideology. Effective progress toward health equity requires attention to evidence that can promote the kind of socio-political restructuring needed to address root causes of health inequities. In this critical interpretive synthesis, results of a recent scoping review were broadened to identify evidence-informed promising practices for KWA for health equity. Following screening procedures, 10 literature reviews and 22 research studies were included in the synthesis. Analysis involved repeated readings of these 32 articles to extract descriptive data, assess clarity and quality, and identify promising practices. Four distinct kinds of promising practices for connecting KWA for health equity were identified and included: ways of structuring systems, ways of working together, and ways of doing research and ways of doing knowledge translation. Our synthesis reveals that advancing health equity requires greater awareness, dialogue, and action that aligns with the what is known about the causes of health inequities. By critically reflecting on dominant discourses and assumptions, and mobilizing political will from a more informed and transparent democratic exercise, knowledge to action for health equity can be achieved.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Exploratory study of “real world” implementation of a clinical poverty tool in diverse family medicine and pediatric care settings
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Eva Purkey; Imaan Bayoumi; Helen Coo; Allison Maier; Andrew D. Pinto; Bisola Olomola; Christina Klassen; Shannon French; Michael Flavin

    Poverty is associated with increased morbidity related to multiple child and adult health conditions and increased risk of premature death. Despite robust evidence linking income and health, and some recommendations for universal screening, poverty screening is not routinely conducted in clinical care. We conducted an exploratory study of implementing universal poverty screening and intervention in family medicine and a range of pediatric care settings (primary through tertiary). After attending a training session, health care providers (HCPs) were instructed to perform universal screening using a clinical poverty tool with the question “Do you ever have difficulty making ends meet at the end of the month?” for the three-month implementation period. HCPs tracked the number of patients screened and a convenience sample of their patients were surveyed regarding the acceptability of being screened for poverty in a healthcare setting. HCPs participated in semi-structured focus groups to explore barriers to and facilitators of universal implementation of the tool. Twenty-two HCPs (10 pediatricians, 9 family physicians, 3 nurse practitioners) participated and 150 patients completed surveys. Eighteen HCPs participated in focus groups. Despite the self-described motivation of the HCPs, screening rates were low (9% according to self-reported numbers). The majority of patients either supported (72%) or were neutral (22%) about the appropriateness of HCPs screening for and intervening on poverty. HCPs viewed poverty as relevant to clinical care but identified time constraints, physician discomfort, lack of expertise and habitual factors as barriers to implementation of universal screening. Poverty screening is important and acceptable to clinicians and patients. However, multiple barriers need to be addressed to allow for successful implementation of poverty screening and intervention in health care settings.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Wealth-based equity in maternal, neonatal, and child health services utilization: a cross-sectional study from Ethiopia
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Alem Desta Wuneh; Araya Abrha Medhanyie; Afework Mulugeta Bezabih; Lars Åke Persson; Joanna Schellenberg; Yemisrach Behailu Okwaraji

    Despite the pro-poor health policies in Ethiopia, the utilization of maternal, neonatal, and child health services remains a challenge for the country. Health equity became central in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals globally and is a priority for Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess equity in utilization of a range of maternal and child health services by applying absolute and relative equity indices. Data on maternal and child health utilization emanated from a baseline survey conducted for a large project ‘Optimizing the Health Extension Program from December 2016 to February 2017 in four regions of Ethiopia. The utilization of four or more antenatal care visits; skilled birth attendance; postnatal care within 2 days after childbirth; immunization with BCG, polio 3, pentavalent 3, measles and full immunization of children aged 12–23 months; and vitamin A supplementation for 6–23 months old children were stratified by wealth quintiles. The socioeconomic status of the household was assessed by household assets and measured by constructing a wealth index using principal component analysis. Equity was assessed by applying two absolute inequity indices (Wealth index [quintile 5- quintile 1] and slope index of inequality) and two relative inequity indices (Wealth index [quintile5: quintile1] and concentration index). The maternal health services utilization was low and inequitably distributed favoring the better-off women. About 44, 71, and 18% of women from the better-off households had four or more antenatal visits, utilized skilled birth attendance and postnatal care within two days compared to 20, 29, and 8% of women from the poorest households, respectively. Skilled birth attendance was the most inequitably distributed maternal health service. All basic immunizations: BCG, polio 3, pentavalent 3, measles, and full immunization in children aged 12–23 months and vitamin A supplementation were equitably distributed. Utilization of maternal health services was low, inequitable, and skewed against women from the poorest households. In contrast, preventive child health services were equitably distributed. Efforts to increase utilization and reinforcement of pro-poor and pro-rural strategies for maternal, newborn and immunization services in Ethiopia should be strengthened.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Pooling arrangements in health financing systems: a proposed classification
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Inke Mathauer; Priyanka Saksena; Joe Kutzin

    The function of pooling and the ways that countries organize this is critical for countries’ progress towards universal health coverage, but its potential as a policy instrument has not received much attention. We provide a simple classification of country pooling arrangements and discuss the specific ways that fragmentation manifests in each and the typical challenges with respect to universal health coverage objectives associated. This can help countries assess their pooling setup and contribute to identifying policy options to address fragmentation or mitigate its consequences. The paper is based on a review of published and grey literature in PubMed, Google and Google Scholar and our information gathered from our professional work in countries on health financing policies. We examined the nature and structure of pooling in more than 100 countries across all income groups to develop the classification. We propose eight broad types of pooling arrangements: (1.) a single pool; (2.) territorially distinct pools; (3.) territorially overlapping pools in terms of service and population coverage; (4.) different pools for different socio-economic groups with population segmentation; (5.) different pools for different population groups, with explicit coverage for all; (6.) multiple competing pools with risk adjustment across the pools; and in combination with types (1.)-(6.), (7.) fragmented systems with voluntary health insurance, duplicating publicly financed coverage; and (8.) complementary or supplementary voluntary health insurance. However, we recognize that any classification is a simplification of reality and does not substitute for a country-specific analysis of pooling arrangements. Pooling arrangements set the potential for redistributive health spending. The extent to which the potential redistributive and efficiency gains established by a particular pooling arrangement are realized in practice depends on its interaction and alignment with the other health financing functions of revenue raising and purchasing, including the links between pools and the service benefits and populations they cover.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Intersectionality-based quantitative health research and sex/gender sensitivity: a scoping review
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Emily Mena; Gabriele Bolte

    The implementation of a theoretical intersectionality framework into quantitative data analyses is gaining increasing interest in health research. The substantive foundation of intersectionality was established in the U.S., based on the claim of black feminists to broaden the scope of contemporary gender studies by considering the intersection between sex/gender and race/ethnicity more firmly. The aim of our scoping review with particular emphasis on sex/gender was to assess how intersectionality-informed studies in epidemiological research considered different social dimensions in their multivariable and multivariate analyses. Following the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), we conducted a literature review in PubMed. Three distinct health-related fields were brought into focus: diabetes representing a frequent chronic disease, smoking as a wide-spread behavioural health determinant and physical activity as a central target for health promotion. Initially, we compared which and how different social dimensions were accounted for and how inter-categorical and intersectionality-informed analyses were conducted. Further, we assessed sex/gender sensitivity by comparing operationalisation of sex/gender, how sex/gender theories were used and which central theoretical sex/gender concepts were referred to when aiming at explanation of (intersectional) sex/gender differences. Our results suggest, that intersectionality-based analyses within the three selected health-related fields are mainly conducted in the U.S. and focused on the intersection between sex/gender and race/ethnicity by using them jointly as subgrouping variables and as parts of interaction terms in regression analyses. Income and education as proxies for social class as well as age are mainly used for adjustment in quantitative analyses. Other approaches for calculating interactions (i.a. synergy-index, CART-analysis) are an exception. Even though sex/gender was considered in every included study and Gender was the most frequent theoretical sex/gender concept referred to when theoretically explaining sex/gender differences, it was exclusively operationalised as binary and solution-linked sex/gender variables were hardly considered in quantitative analyses. The systematic integration of solution-linked variables indicating modifiable aspects of sex/gender-related living conditions and disadvantages could improve sex/gender sensitivity as part of intersectionality-based quantitative data analysis in health research.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Socio-economic inequality and inequity in use of health care services in Kenya: evidence from the fourth Kenya household health expenditure and utilization survey
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Stefania Ilinca; Laura Di Giorgio; Paola Salari; Jane Chuma

    Kenya is experiencing persistently high levels of inequity in health and access to care services. In 2018, decades of sustained policy efforts to promote equitable, affordable and quality health services have culminated in the launch of a universal health coverage scheme, initially piloted in four Kenyan counties and planned for national rollout by 2022. Our study aims to contribute to monitoring and evaluation efforts alongside policy implementation, by establishing a detailed, baseline assessment of socio-economic inequality and inequity in health care utilization in Kenya shortly before the policy launch. We use concentration curves and corrected concentration indexes to measure socio-economic inequality in care use and the horizontal inequity index as a measure of inequity in care utilization for three types of care services: outpatient care, inpatient care and preventive and promotive care. Further insights into the individual and household level characteristics that determine observed inequality are derived through decomposition analysis. We find significant inequality and inequity in the use of all types of care services favouring richer population groups, with particularly pronounced levels for preventive and inpatient care services. These are driven primarily by differences in living standards and educational achievement, while the region of residence is a key driver for inequality in preventive care use only. Pro-rich inequalities are particularly pronounced for care provided in privately owned facilities, while public providers serve a much larger share of individuals from lower socio-economic groups. Through its focus on increasing affordability of care for all Kenyans, the newly launched universal health coverage scheme represents a crucial step towards reducing disparities in health care utilization. However in order to achieve equity in health and access to care such efforts must be paralleled by multi-sectoral approaches to address all key drivers of inequity: persistent poverty, disparities in living standards and educational achievement, as well as regional differences in availability and accessibility of care.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Widespread and widely widening? Examining absolute socioeconomic health inequalities in northern Sweden across twelve health indicators
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Kinza Degerlund Maldi; Miguel San Sebastian; Per E. Gustafsson; Frida Jonsson

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health is a widely studied topic. However, epidemiological research tends to focus on one or a few outcomes conditioned on one indicator, overlooking the fact that health inequalities can vary depending on the outcome studied and the indicator used. To bridge this gap, this study aims to provide a comprehensive picture of the patterns of socioeconomic health inequalities in Northern Sweden over time, across a range of health outcomes, using an ‘outcome-wide’ epidemiological approach. Cross-sectional data from three waves of the ‘Health on Equal Terms’ survey, distributed in 2006, 2010 and 2014 were used. Firstly, socioeconomic inequalities by income and education for twelve outcomes (self-rated health, self-rated dental health, overweight, hypertension, diabetes, long-term illness, stress, depression, psychological distress, smoking, risky alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity) were examined by calculating the Slope Index of Inequality. Secondly, time trends for each outcome and socioeconomic indicator were estimated. Income inequalities increased for psychological distress and physical inactivity in men as well as for self-rated health, overweight, hypertension, long-term illness, and smoking among women. Educational inequalities increased for hypertension, long-term illness, and stress (the latter favouring lower education) in women. The only instance of decreasing income inequalities was seen for long-term illness in men, while education inequalities decreased for long-term illness in men and poor self-rated health, poor self-rated dental health, and smoking in women. Patterns of absolute socioeconomic inequalities in health vary by health and socioeconomic indicator, as well as between men and women. Overall, trends appear more stagnant in men while they fluctuate in women. Income inequalities seem to be generally greater than educational inequalities when looking across several different health indicators, a message that can only be derived from this type of outcome-wide study. These disparate findings suggest that generalised and universal statements about the development of health inequalities can be too simplistic and potentially misleading. Nonetheless, despite inequalities being complex, they do exist and tend to increase. Thus, an outcome-wide approach is a valuable method which should be utilised to generate evidence for prioritisations of policy decisions.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • How is equity approached in universal health coverage? An analysis of global and country policy documents in Benin and Senegal
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Elisabeth Paul; Céline Deville; Oriane Bodson; N’koué Emmanuel Sambiéni; Ibrahima Thiam; Marc Bourgeois; Valéry Ridde; Fabienne Fecher

    Equity seems inherent to the pursuance of universal health coverage (UHC), but it is not a natural consequence of it. We explore how the multidimensional concept of equity has been approached in key global UHC policy documents, as well as in country-level UHC policies. We analysed a purposeful sample of UHC reports and policy documents both at global level and in two Western African countries (Benin and Senegal). We manually searched each document for its use and discussion of equity and related terms. The content was summarised and thematically analysed, in order to comprehend how these concepts were understood in the documents. We distinguished between the level at which inequity takes place and the origin or types of inequities. Most of the documents analysed do not define equity in the first place, and speak about “health inequities” in the broad sense, without mentioning the dimension or type of inequity considered. Some dimensions of equity are ambiguous – especially coverage and financing. Many documents assimilate equity to an overall objective or guiding principle closely associated to UHC. The concept of equity is also often linked to other concepts and values (social justice, inclusion, solidarity, human rights – but also to efficiency and sustainability). Regarding the levels of equity most often considered, access (availability, coverage, provision) is the most often quoted dimension, followed by financial protection. Regarding the types of equity considered, those most referred to are socio-economic, geographic, and gender-based disparities. In Benin and Senegal, geographic inequities are mostly pinpointed by UHC policy documents, but concrete interventions mostly target the poor. Overall, the UHC policy of both countries are quite similar in terms of their approach to equity. While equity is widely referred to in global and country-specific UHC policy documents, its multiple dimensions results in a rather rhetorical utilisation of the concept. Whereas equity covers various levels and types, many global UHC documents fail to define it properly and to comprehend the breadth of the concept. Consequently, perhaps, country-specific policy documents also use equity as a rhetoric principle, without sufficient consideration for concrete ways for implementation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Strategies to support culturally safe health and wellbeing evaluations in Indigenous settings in Australia and New Zealand: a concept mapping study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Margaret Cargo; Gill Potaka-Osborne; Lynley Cvitanovic; Lisa Warner; Sharon Clarke; Jenni Judd; Amal Chakraborty; Amohia Boulton

    In recent decades, financial investment has been made in health-related programs and services to overcome inequities and improve Indigenous people’s wellbeing in Australia and New Zealand. Despite policies aiming to ‘close the gap’, limited evaluation evidence has informed evidence-based policy and practice. Indigenous leaders have called for evaluation stakeholders to align their practices with Indigenous approaches. This study aimed to strengthen culturally safe evaluation practice in Indigenous settings by engaging evaluation stakeholders, in both countries, in a participatory concept mapping study. Concept maps for each country were generated from multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The 12-cluster Australia map identifies four cluster regions: An Evaluation Approach that Honours Community; Respect and Reciprocity; Core Heart of the Evaluation; and Cultural Integrity of the Evaluation. The 11-cluster New Zealand map identifies four cluster regions: Authentic Evaluation Practice; Building Māori Evaluation Expertise; Integrity in Māori Evaluation; and Putting Community First. Both maps highlight the importance of cultural integrity in evaluation. Differences include the distinctiveness of the ‘Respecting Language Protocols’ concept in the Australia map in contrast to language being embedded within the cluster of ‘Knowing Yourself as an Evaluator in a Māori Evaluation Context’ in the New Zealand map. Participant ratings highlight the importance of all clusters with some relatively more difficult to achieve, in practice. Notably, the ‘Funding Responsive to Community Needs and Priorities’ and ‘Translating Evaluation Findings to Benefit Community’ clusters were rated the least achievable, in Australia. The ‘Conduct of the Evaluation’ and the ‘Prioritising Māori Interests’ clusters were rated as least achievable in New Zealand. In both countries, clusters of strategies related to commissioning were deemed least achievable. The results suggest that the commissioning of evaluation is crucial as it sets the stage for whether evaluations: reflect Indigenous interests, are planned in ways that align with Indigenous ways of working and are translated to benefit Indigenous communities Identified strategies align with health promotion principles and relational accountability values of Indigenous approaches to research. These findings may be relevant to the commissioning and conduct of Indigenous health program evaluations in developed nations.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Households forgoing healthcare as a measure of financial risk protection: an application to Liberia
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Jacopo Gabani; Lorna Guinness

    Access to Liberia’s health system is reliant on out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures which may prevent people from seeking care or result in catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). CHE and impoverishment due to OOP, which are used by the World Bank and World Health Organization as the sole measures of financial risk protection, are limited: they do not consider households who, following a health shock, do not incur expenditure because they cannot access the healthcare services they need (i.e., households forgoing healthcare (HFH) services). This paper attempts to overcome this limitation and improve financial risk protection by measuring HFH incidence and comparing it with CHE standard measures using household survey data from Liberia. Data from the Liberia Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2014 were analysed. An OOP health expenditure is catastrophic when it exceeds a total or non-food household expenditure threshold. A CHE incidence curve, representing CHE incidence at different thresholds, was developed. To overcome CHE limitations, an HFH incidence measure was developed based on CHE, OOP and health shocks data: households incurring health shocks and having negligible OOP were considered to have forgone healthcare. HFH incidence was compared with standard CHE measures. CHE incidence and intensity levels depend on the threshold used. Using a 30% non-food expenditure threshold, CHE incidence is 2.1% (95% CI: 1.7–2.5%) and CHE intensity is 37.4% (95% CI: 22.7–52.0%). CHE incidence is approximately in line with other countries, while CHE intensity is higher than in other countries. CHE pushed 1.6% of households below the food poverty line in 2014. c approximately 4 times higher than CHE (8.0, 95% CI, 7.2–8.9%). Lack of financial risk protection is a significant problem in Liberia and it may be underestimated by CHE: this study confirms that HFH incidence can complement CHE measures in providing a complete picture of financial risk protection and demonstrates a simple method that includes measures of healthcare forgone as part of standard CHE analyses. This paper provides a new methodology to measure HFH incidence and highlights the need to consider healthcare forgone in analyses of financial risk protection, as well as the need for further development of these measures.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Hepatitis C drug prescriptions and Medicaid policies--four states, Indian health care system, USA 2018
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Brigg Reilley; Matt Miller; Matt Hudson; Rick Haverkate; Jessica Leston

    Medicaid, the state-level public insurance in the United States, has widely differing criteria treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) such as stage of liver fibrosis, documented sobriety, and specialist consultation. In a rural health network, facilities located in two less restrictive states prescribed HCV drugs at a significantly higher rate than two more restrictive states (rate ratio 4.7, CI 2.6–8.5). Prescription rates per population were highly associated with HCV treatment policies.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • What is the role of cultural competence in ethnic minority consumer engagement? An analysis in community healthcare
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Reema Harrison; Merrilyn Walton; Ashfaq Chauhan; Elizabeth Manias; Upma Chitkara; Monika Latanik; Desiree Leone

    Effective patient engagement has been associated with high quality health care. There is a dearth of evidence around effective engagement with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds; specifically in relation to the role of cultural competence amongst healthcare professionals in effective engagement with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds. To address this knowledge gap, we analysed the role of cultural competence in the consumer engagement approaches taken by community healthcare professionals working with consumers from ethnic minority backgrounds. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals employed across four community healthcare and affiliated services in four local government areas in Australia. Adopting patient-centric approaches (that seek to understand and be responsive to the patient as an individual) featured as an underpinning theme that transcended other emerging themes. Recognition of diversity within communities and individuals in those communities, all with their own story, was described as pivotal to effective engagement. This was encapsulated in the theme of Cultural standpoints and personal context that contained four further themes of: (1) Build foundations of trust and respect; (2) Diversify communication channels; (3) Generate system, service and community partnerships; (4) Take the time. Our findings indicate that cultural competence and effective consumer engagement are closely linked in ethnic minority populations. Embedding cultural competence as a health system, service and professional capability is therefore critical to ensure equitable healthcare quality for consumers from all ethnic backgrounds.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Horizontal equity in access to public GP services by socioeconomic group: potential bias due to a compartmentalised approach
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    M. A. Negrín; J. Pinilla; I. Abásolo

    Horizontal equity in access to public general practitioner (GP) services by socioeconomic group has been addressed econometrically by testing the statement “equal probability of using public GP services for equal health care needs, regardless of socioeconomic status”. Based on survey data, the conventional approach has been to estimate binomial econometric models in which when the respondent reports having visited a public GP, it counts as 1, otherwise it counts as 0. This is what we call a compartmentalised approach. Those respondents who did not visit a public GP but visited instead another doctor (specialist or private GP) would count as 0 (despite having used instead other modes of health care), thus conclusions of the compartmentalised approach might be biased. In such cases, a multinomial econometric model -that we called comprehensive approach- would be more appropriate to analyse horizontal equity in access to public GP services. The objective of this paper is to test for this potential bias by comparing a compartmentalised and a comprehensive approach, when analysing horizontal equity in access to public GP. Using data from the 2016/17 Spanish National Health Survey, we estimate the probability of visiting a public GP as determined by socioeconomic status, health care need and demographic characteristics. We use binomial and multinomial logit and probit models in order to highlight the potential differences in the conclusions regarding socioeconomic inequities in access to public GP services. Socioeconomic status is proxied by education level, social class and employment situation. Our results show that conclusions are sensitive to the approach selected. Particularly, the horizontal inequity favouring individuals with lower education that resulted from the compartmentalised approach disappears under a comprehensive approach and only a social class effect remains. An analysis of horizontal equity in access to a particular health care service (like public GP services) undertaken following a compartmentalised approach should be compared with a comprehensive approach in order to test that there is no bias as a consequence of considering as zeros the utilisation of other types of health care.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Inequality of health stock and the relation to national wealth
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Isma Addi Jumbri; Shinya Ikeda; Masayuki Jimichi; Chika Saka; Shunsuke Managi

    The decline in global and between-country health inequality is a major challenge to overcome. However, few studies have systematically investigated the relationship between inequality of health stock and national wealth. From an economic perspective, health can be viewed as a durable capital stock that produces an output of healthy time. Therefore, in this paper, we focused on health capital to investigate the relationship between inequalities of national health and national wealth. Based on health stock data from 1990 to 2015 for 140 countries, we estimated Gini coefficients of health stock to investigate associations with a well-known economic flow indicator, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), stock-based national wealth indicator, Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI), and firm-level net income. The estimated Gini coefficient of global health stock shows that health stock has experienced a global decline. The Gini coefficient for low-income countries (LICs) showed the fastest decline in health stock, dropping from 0.69 to 0.66 in 25 years. Next, rapid population growth and the rise in the youth share of the working-age population in LICs were most likely contributing factors to the decline in inequality. Most countries that experienced positive health stock growth also indicated a strong positive relationship with GDP and IWI. However, some countries showed a negative relationship with natural capital, which is a part of IWI. In addition, firm-level net income showed no obvious associations with health stock, GDP and IWI. We argue that a negative relationship between health stock and natural capital is a sign of unstable development because sustainable development involves maintaining not only GDP but also IWI, as it is a collective set of assets or wealth comprising human, produced and natural capital. Moreover, in our analysis of firm-level income data, we also discuss that income will be influenced by other factors, such as innovations, human resources, organization culture and strategy. Therefore, the paper concludes that health stock is a vital component in measuring health inequality and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Thus, IWI is more comprehensive in measuring national wealth and can complement GDP in measuring progress toward sustainable development.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Trends in horizontal inequity in access to public health care services by immigrant condition in Spain (2006–2017)
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Jaime Pinilla; Miguel A. Negrín; Ignacio Abásolo

    The objective of this research is to analyse trends in horizontal inequity in access to public health services by immigration condition in Spain throughout the period 2006–2017. We focus on “economic immigrants” because they are potentially the most vulnerable group amongst immigrants. Based on the National Health Surveys of 2006–07 (N = 29,478), 2011–12 (N = 20,884) and 2016–17 (N = 22,903), hierarchical logistic regressions with random effects in Spain’s autonomous communities are estimated to explain the probability of using publicly-financed health care services by immigrant condition, controlling by health care need and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. Our results indicate that there are several horizontal inequities, though they changed throughout the decade studied. Regarding primary care services, the period starts (2006–07) with no global evidence of horizontal inequity in access (although the analysis by continent shows inequity that is detrimental to Eastern Europeans and Asians), giving way to inequity favouring economic immigrants (particularly Latin Americans and Africans) in 2011–12 and 2016–17. An opposite trend happens with specialist care, as the period starts (2006–07) with evidence of inequity that is detrimental to economic immigrants (particularly those from North of Africa) but this inequity disappears with the economic crisis and after it (with the only exception of Eastern Europeans in 2011–12, whose probability to visit a specialist is lower than for natives). Regarding emergency care, our evidence indicates horizontal inequity in access that favours economic immigrants (particularly Latin Americans and North Africans) that remains throughout the period. In general, there is no inequity in hospitalisations, with the exception of 2011–12, where inequity in favour of economic immigrants (particularly those from Latin America) takes place. The results obtained here may serve, firstly, to prevent alarm about negative discrimination of economic immigrants in their access to public health services, even after the implementation of the Royal Decree RD Law 16/2012. Conversely, our results suggest that the horizontal inequity in access to specialist care that was found to be detrimental to economic immigrants in 2006–07, disappeared in global terms in 2011–12 and also by continent of origin in 2016–17.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • The effects of poverty reduction policy on health services utilization among the rural poor: a quasi-experimental study in central and western rural China
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Qi Zou; Xiaoqun He; Zhong Li; Wanchun Xu; Liang Zhang

    China poverty reduction policy (PRP) addresses two important elements: the targeted poverty reduction (TPA) project since 2015 in line with social assistance policy as national policy; and reducing inequality in health services utilization by making provision of medical financial assistance (MFA). Therefore, this study aims to assess the effects of the PRP in health services utilization (both inpatient and outpatient services) among the central and western rural poor of China. The study conducted household survey and applied propensity score matching (PSM) method to assess the effects of the PRP on health services utilization among the rural poor of Central and Western China. A sensitivity test was also performed on the PSM results to test their robustness. Key findings showed 17.6% of respondents were the beneficial of PRP. The average treatment effects on the treated (ATT) of the PRP on the inpatient visits within one year was found significantly positive (P = 0.026). There has been relationship between PRP with medical financial assistance and reduction of inequality in health services utilization by the poorer, in particular to accessing the inpatient services from the county or township hospitals of China. Policy makers should pay attention for making provision of improving responsiveness of supply, when subsidizing on the demand side.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Salutogenic health promotion program for migrant women at risk of social exclusion
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    A. Bonmatí-Tomas; M. C. Malagón-Aguilera; S. Gelabert-Vilella; C. Bosch-Farré; L. Vaandrager; M. M. García-Gil; D. Juvinyà-Canal

    Migrant women at risk of social exclusion often experience health inequities based on gender, country of origin or socioeconomic status. Traditional health promotion programs designed for this population have focused on covering their basic needs or modifying lifestyle behaviors. The salutogenic model of health could offer a new perspective enabling health promotion programs to reduce the impact of health inequities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a salutogenic health promotion program focused on the empowerment of migrant women at risk of social exclusion. A four-session salutogenic health promotion program was conducted over a period of 6 months. In a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design, an ad hoc questionnaire was administered to 26 women to collect sociodemographic data, together with 5 validated instruments: Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence (SOC-13), Duke-UNC-11 (perceived social support), Quality of Life Short Form-36 (SF-36), Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, and the Cohen et al. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression models were performed. Statistical tests were considered significant with a two-tailed p value < 0.05. Participants had a low initial SOC-13 score (60.36; SD 8.16), which did not show significant change after the health promotion program. Perceived social support (37.07; SD 6.28) and mental quality of life also remained unchanged, while physical quality of life increased from 50.84 (SD 4.60) to 53.08 (SD 5.31) (p = 0.049). Self-esteem showed an increasing trend from 30.14 (SD 4.21) to 31.92 (SD 4.38) (p = 0.120). Perceived stress decreased from 20.57 (SD 2.91) to 18.38 (SD 3.78) (p = 0.016). A greater effect was observed at the end of the program in women with lower initial scores for SOC-13 and quality of life and higher initial scores of perceived stress. The health promotion program reduced perceived stress, increased physical quality of life and showed a trend toward increased self-esteem, especially among migrant women with multiple vulnerability factors. The salutogenic model of health should be considered as a good practice to apply in health promotion programs and to be included in national policies to reduce health inequity in migrant populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • On the ethics of healthy ageing: setting impermissible trade-offs relating to the health and well-being of older adults on the path to universal health coverage
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Kebadu Mekonnen Gebremariam; Ritu Sadana

    This article aims to clarify the moral underpinning of the policy framework of Healthy Ageing. It is a policy adopted by the World Health Organization designed to operate in alignment with the United Nations (UN) framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the urgency given for the achievement of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). It particularly reflects on what, if anything, justifies protecting the most basic rights to health and well-being of older adults from possible policy trade-offs on the path to UHC. It argues that the dignity of older adults―under which are nested more specific ideas of self-respect, respect for autonomy, as well as the ethical priority for living well―underpins a categorical moral injunction against imposing the familiar utilitarian calculus as the default criterion for policy trade-offs across age groups. Respect for the dignity of older persons marks the moral threshold that every society ought to uphold even under conditions of relative resource scarcity. The moral constraint on permissible policy trade-offs relating to the health of older adults must reflect an understanding of older persons as active agents in the social structure of (their) well-being, not merely as passive vessels through which a good healthy life may or may not occur. We argue that there are three main domains where trade-offs are unacceptable from the moral point of view: it is impermissible (1) to prioritise key service(s) across different (vulnerable) age groups on the basis of actual or future contribution to society, (2) to prioritise across different age groups when co-prioritisation is warranted by the ethical theory, and (3), to always prioritise (by default) services that improve well-being over those that foster respect for dignity and autonomy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Ghana
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Jacob Novignon; Bernice Ofori; Kwasi Gyabaa Tabiri; Mohammad Habibullah Pulok

    Improving maternal and child health remains a public health priority in Ghana. Despite efforts made towards universal coverage, there are still challenges with access to and utilization of maternal health care. This study examined socioeconomic inequalities in maternal health care utilization related to pregnancy and identified factors that account for these inequalities. We used data from three rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (2003, 2008 and 2014). Two health care utilization measures were used; (i) four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits and (ii) delivery by trained attendants (DTA). We first constructed the concentration curve (CC) and estimated concentration indices (CI) to examine the trend in inequality. Secondly, the CI was decomposed to estimate the contribution of various factors to inequality in these outcomes. The CCs show that utilization of at least four ANC visits and DTA were concentrated among women from wealthier households. However, the trends show the levels of inequality decreased in 2014. The CI of at least four ANC visits was 0.30 in 2003 and 0.18 in 2014. Similarly, the CIs for DTA was 0.60 in 2003 and 0.42 in 2014. The decomposition results show that access to National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and women’s education levels were the most important contributors to the reduction in inequality in maternal health care utilization. The findings highlight the importance of the NHIS and formal education in bridging the socioeconomic gap in maternal health care utilization.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Caregiver-perceived racial discrimination is associated with diverse mental health outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 7–12 years
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Leah Cave; Matthew N. Cooper; Stephen R. Zubrick; Carrington C. J. Shepherd

    Racial discrimination is acknowledged as a central social determinant of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Aboriginal) health, although quantitative empirical literature on the impacts of racism on Aboriginal children remains sparse. We use a novel, longitudinal dataset to explore the relationship between caregiver-perceived racism exposure and a range of mental health and related behavioural and physiological outcomes in childhood. The study cohort comprised 1759 Aboriginal children aged 4–12 years from waves 2–8 (2009–2015) of the Footprints in Time: The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) dataset. We examined exposure to caregiver-perceived racism between 4 and 11 years as a predictor for mental health and related outcomes at ages 7–12 and substance use at 10–12 years. Unadjusted models and models adjusted for remoteness, community-level and family-level socio-economic status, child age and gender were used in analysis. Multilevel logistic regression was used in all analysis. In fully adjusted models, perceived exposure to racism at ages 4–11 was associated with twice the risk of negative mental health (95% CI: 1.3–3.0), sleep difficulties (95% CI: 1.4–3.0), and behaviour issues at school (95% CI: 1.2–2.9), 1.7 times the risk of obesity (95% CI: 1.1–2.5), and nearly 7 times the risk of trying cigarettes (95% CI: 1.1–43.9). Increased risks were also found for being underweight and trying alcohol though estimates did not reach statistical significance. There was no evidence that racism was associated with poorer general health. Exposure to racial discrimination in Aboriginal children increased the risk for a spectrum of interrelated psychological, behavioural and physiological factors linked to negative mental health. Our results further affirm the importance of interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of racial discrimination for the benefits of population health and health inequalities. The services and institutions which aim to support the mental health and wellbeing of Aboriginal children should also support interventions to reduce racism and implement accountable policies which prioritise this goal.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Ethics, health policy-making and the economic crisis: a qualitative interview study with European policy-makers
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Caroline Brall; Peter Schröder-Bäck; Rouven Porz; Farhang Tahzib; Helmut Brand

    The economic crisis posed various challenges to policy-makers who had to decide on which health policy measures to focus on and on which to refrain from. The aim of this research was to assess the relevance of ethics and to highlight ethical dimensions in decision-taking by policy-makers with regard to policy and priority-setting in health systems posed by the economic crisis. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with eight European policy-makers from six countries. All interviewees recalled difficult and strenuous situations where they had to prioritise between distinct areas to focus on and invest in, for example around choices between prioritising medications, health professional staffing, care specific equipment, or urgent infrastructure issues. Values could be identified which they deemed as important within the policy-making process, such as trust and responsibility. They explicitly expressed the need for ethical tools and assistance in terms of policy advice for reaching morally sustainable decisions in health policy matters. The study showed that ethical concepts and values frequently come into play in health policy-making, and that ethics is highly relevant in policy-makers’ daily decision-taking, yet that they lack ethical guidance on what to base their decisions. The study is of relevance since it can provide future decisions on austerity-related issues with an ethical underpinning and could identify areas of moral concern.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nutrition among children of migrant construction workers in Ahmedabad, India
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Divya Ravindranath; Jean-Francois Trani; Lora Iannotti

    Millions of poor households in India undertake short duration rural to urban migration along with their children to find work in the informal economy in the city. While literature has documented the precarity of such temporary jobs, typically characterized by low wages, insecure jobs, harsh recruitment regimes and economic vulnerability, little is known about its implications for children who migrate with their parents to the city. In this study, we draw attention to children of migrant construction workers and focus on their overall nutritional well-being, which remains under-studied. Our objectives were to categorize the current nutritional status of children under the age of five and determine the underlying causes of poor nutritional outcomes. The field work for this study was undertaken between May 2017 and January 2018 at five construction sites in the city of Ahmedabad. We undertook anthropometric measurements of children under the age of five [N = 131; (male: 46%, female 53%); (mean age: 31.7 months)] and categorized their nutritional status. Using the UNICEF framework on undernutrition, we examined the underlying causes of poor nutritional outcomes among this group of children with the help of qualitative methods such as interviews, focused group discussions and participant observation at the field sites. Undernutrition was highly prevalent among the children (N = 131): stunted (40.5%); wasted (22.1%); and underweight (50.4%). We found common factors across parents interviewed such as similar misperceptions of malnutrition, long hours of work and lack of childcare provision at the worksite which resulted in disrupted quality of care. While socio-cultural beliefs and lack of information influenced breastfeeding, other factors such as inability to take breaks or lack of space further impaired infant feeding practices more broadly. Lack of dietary diversity at home, poor hygiene and sanitation, and economic inability to seek healthcare further affected child nutritional status. Our study addresses a critical gap in migration literature in India by building a comprehensive narrative of migrant children’s experiences at construction sites. We find that parents’ informal work setting exposes children to a nutritionally challenging environment. Policies and programs seeking to address undernutrition, a critical challenge in India, must pay attention to the specific needs of migrant children.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evolution of catastrophic health expenditure in a high income country: incidence versus inequalities
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Carlota Quintal

    Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) is well established as an indicator of financial protection on which there is extensive literature. However, most works analyse mainly low to middle income countries and do not address the different distributional dimensions of CHE. We argue that, besides incidence, the latter are crucial to better grasp the scope and nature of financial protection problems. Our objectives are therefore to analyse the evolution of CHE in a high income country, considering both its incidence and distribution. Data are taken from the last three waves of the Portuguese Household Budget Survey conducted in 2005/2006, 2010/2011 and 2015/2016. To identify CHE, the approach adopted is capacity to pay/normative food spending, at the 40% threshold. To analyse distribution, concentration curves and indices (CI) are used and adjusted odds ratios are calculated. The incidence of CHE was 2.57, 1.79 and 0.46%, in 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively. CHE became highly concentrated among the poorest (the respective CI evolved from − 0.390 in 2005 to − 0.758 in 2015) and among families with elderly people (the absolute CI evolved from 0.520 in 2005 to 0.740 in 2015). Absolute CI in geographical context also increased over time (0.354 in 2015, 0.019 in 2005). Medicines represented by far the largest share of catastrophic payments, although, in this case concentration decreased (the median share of medicines diminished from 93 to 43% over the period analysed). Contrarily, the weight of expenses incurred with consultation fees has been growing (even for General Practitioners, despite the NHS coverage of primary care). The incidence of CHE and inequality in its distribution might progress in the same direction or not, but most importantly policy makers should pay attention to the distributional dimensions of CHE as these might provide useful insight to target households at risk. Greater concentration of CHE can actually be regarded as an opportunity for policy making, because interventions to tackle CHE become more confined. Monitoring the distribution of payments across services can also contribute to early detection of emerging (and even, unexpected) drivers of catastrophic payments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Enhancing the value of women’s reproductive rights through community based interventions in upper Egypt governorates: a randomized interventional study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Ammal M. Metwally; Rehan M. Saleh; Lobna A. El-Etreby; Somia I. Salama; Ahmed Aboulghate; Hala A. Amer; Asmaa M. Fathy; Reham Yousry; Sherif E. El-Deeb; Ghada A. Abdel-Latif; Dalia M. Elmosalami; Nihad A. Ibrahim; Osama M. Azmy; Tamer Taha; Hanaa M. Imam; Mohamed Abdel Rahman; Samia A. R. Hemeda

    In 2012, the WHO described the quality of health care as the route to equity and dignity for women and children. To provide community based support and empowerment to women in childbearing period to seek optimal prenatal, natal and postnatal healthcare. Achieving this is anticipated to decrease maternal morbidity and mortality in Egypt. An interventional study was conducted among women in childbearing period in the poorest two governorates of Upper Egypt. The study passed through three stages over three and a half years; pre-interventional assessment of awareness (n = 1000), educational interventions targeting the health providers and all women in childbearing period in their communities (n = 20,494), and post-intervention evaluation of change in awareness of their rights for prenatal, natal and postnatal care (no = 1150). The studied indicators relating to receiving care in pregnancy, labor, and puerperium have changed dramatically as a result of the study interventions. Results of the study showed that before interventions, the surveyed women had inaccurate knowledge regarding most of the items related to their rights. The percentages of women aware of their right to have pregnancy card increased and those who possessed a pregnancy card were doubled with a significant percent change of more than 25%. Some indicators showed more than 75% improvement, including; percent of surveyed women who knew that it’s their right to follow up their pregnancy and to deliver with a specialized doctor, a trained nurse or at an equipped health facility, and those who knew their right to have at least two home preparations necessary for safe delivery at home. More work is needed in order to achieve the targeted reduction of maternal mortality. This could be achieved by ensuring accessible and high quality care provided by the governmental health facilities together with increasing the awareness of women regarding their rights in receiving such care.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Social and cultural construction processes involved in HPV vaccine hesitancy among Chinese women: a qualitative study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Judy Yuen-man Siu; Timothy K. F. Fung; Leo Ho-man Leung

    HPV vaccine is a prophylactic vaccine to prevent HPV infections. Recommended by the World Health Organization, this vaccine is clinically proven to be one of the most effective preventive measures against the prevalence of cervical cancer and other HPV-associated cancers and chronic genital conditions. However, its uptake rate among women in Hong Kong is insignificant—only approximately 2.9% adolescent girls and 9.7% female university students received HPV vaccination in 2014. With the notion of Critical Medical Anthropology, we aimed to identify if different influential factors, ranging from individual, societal, and cultural, are involved in the decision-making process of whether to receive HPV vaccination. We adopted a qualitative approach and conducted in-depth individual semistructured interviews with 40 women in Hong Kong between May and August 2017. We noted that the following factors intertwined to influence the decision-making process: perceptions of HPV and HPV vaccine; perceived worthiness of HPV vaccines, which was in turn influenced by vaccine cost, marriage plans, and experiences of sexual activities; history of experiencing gynecological conditions, stigma associated with HPV vaccination, acquisition of information on HPV vaccines, distrust on HPV vaccines, and absence of preventive care in the healthcare practice. HPV vaccination is promoted in a manner that is “feminized” and “moralized” under the patriarchal value system, further imposing the burden of disease on women, and leading to health inequality of women in pursuing the vaccination as a preventive health behaviour as a result. We believe that this ultimately results in an incomplete understanding of HPV, consequently influencing the decision-making process. The “mixed-economy” medical system adopting capitalist logic also molds a weak doctor–patient relationship, leading to distrust in private practice medical system, which affects the accessibility of information regarding HPV vaccination for participants to make the decision.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Long-term trends in smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequalities in Korea, 1992–2016
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Youngs Chang; Hee-Yeon Kang; Dohee Lim; Hong-Jun Cho; Young-Ho Khang

    The aim of this study was to investigate long-term trends in smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequalities in Korea. Data were collected from 10 rounds of the Social Survey of Statistics Korea between 1992 and 2016. A total of 524,866 men and women aged 19 or over were analyzed. Age-adjusted smoking prevalence was calculated according to three major socioeconomic position indicators: education, occupational class, and income. The prevalence difference, prevalence ratio, slope index of inequality (SII), and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated to examine the magnitude of inequality in smoking. Smoking prevalence among men decreased from 71.7% in 1992 to 39.7% in 2016, while smoking prevalence among women decreased from 6.5% in 1992 to 3.3% in 2016. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence according to the three socioeconomic position indicators were found in both men and women throughout the study period. In general, absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in smoking, measured by prevalence difference and prevalence ratio for education and occupational class, widened during the study period among Korean men and women. In men, the SII for income increased from 7.6% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2016 and the RII for income also increased from 1.11 in 1999 to 1.31 in 2016. In women, the SII for income increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 2.4% in 2016 and the RII for income increased from 1.39 in 1999 to 2.25 in 2016. Pro-rich socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence were found in men and women. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking have increased in parallel with the implementation of tobacco control policies. Tobacco control policies should be developed to decrease socioeconomic inequalities in cigarette use in Korea.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effects of an empowerment program for survivors of sexual violence on attitudes and beliefs: evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    John Quattrochi; Rosalie Biaba; Ragnhild Nordås; Gudrun Østby; Susanne Alldén; Aline Cikara; Esther Namegabe; Christina Amisi

    Women’s empowerment may require women to change their beliefs and views about their rights and capabilities. Empowerment programs often target women who have survived sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), with the justification that these women may develop disempowered beliefs as a coping mechanism, or face greater barriers to, or derive greater benefits from, the adoption of empowered beliefs and preferences. We investigated an intensive, six-month residential empowerment program (“City of Joy”) for SGBV survivors in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where more than one in five women have experienced SGBV. We asked 175 participants about their beliefs and preferences pertaining to political, financial, and domestic empowerment. Interviews took place immediately before and after participation in the program, and we tested for differences in views of empowerment between entry and exit using paired t-tests and McNemar’s test. We also conducted 50 semi-structured interviews about empowerment with an additional 30 women who had completed the program up to 5 years earlier and then returned to their home community. Prior to enrolling in the program, participants had fairly empowered views regarding politics, less empowered views regarding finances, and still less empowered views regarding the domestic sphere. After completing the program, participants had significantly more empowered views in all three domains, particularly regarding domestic violence, how families should treat men and women, and women’s economic rights. Participants in their home communities reported taking a more active role in community affairs and speaking out against the mistreatment of women. This study adds to the evidence that women’s empowerment programs can change participants’ beliefs and thus increase the confidence with which they participate in their communities and support one another.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Why teach sexuality education in school? Teacher discretion in implementing comprehensive sexuality education in rural Zambia
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Joseph Mumba Zulu; Astrid Blystad; Marte E. S. Haaland; Charles Michelo; Haldis Haukanes; Karen Marie Moland

    Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. This paper explores how teachers perceive the curriculum and practice discretion when implementing the CSE in mid-level schools in Nyimba district in Zambia. Using a case study design, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 18 teachers and analyzed thematically drawing upon theories of discretion and policy implementation. Individual teachers make decisions on their own regarding what and when to teach CSE. This discretion implies holding back information from the learners, teaching abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy or cancelling sexuality education sessions altogether. Teachers’ choices about the CSE program were linked to lack of guidance on teaching of the curriculum, especially with regards to how to integrate sexuality education into existing subjects. Limited prioritization of CSE in the educational sector was observed. The incompatibility of CSE with local norms and understandings about adolescent sexuality combined with teacher-parent role dilemmas emerged as problematic in implementing the policy. Limited ownership of the new curriculum further undermined teachers’ motivation to actively include CSE in daily teaching activities. Use of discretion has resulted in arbitrary teaching thus affecting the acquisition of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health knowledge among learners. The CSE had limited legitimacy in the community and was met with resistance from teachers tasked with its’ implementation. In order to enhance ownership to the CSE program, local concerns about the contents of the curriculum and the parent-teacher role dilemma must be taken into consideration. Not addressing these challenges may undermine the policy’s intention of increasing knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and empowering adolescents to access contraceptive services and avoid unwanted pregnancies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The access paradox: abortion law, policy and practice in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Astrid Blystad; Haldis Haukanes; Getnet Tadele; Marte E. S. Haaland; Richard Sambaiga; Joseph Mumba Zulu; Karen Marie Moland

    Unsafe abortion is a major contributor to the continued high global maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Legal abortion frameworks and access to sexuality education and contraception have been pointed out as vital to reduce unsafe abortion rates. This paper explores the relationship between abortion law, policy and women’s access to safe abortion services within the different legal and political contexts of Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia. The research is inspired by recent calls for contextualized policy research. The research was based in Addis Ababa (Ethiopa), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Lusaka (Zambia) and had a qualitative exploratory research design. The project involved studying the three countries’ abortion laws and policies. It moreover targeted formal organizations as implementers of policy as well as stakeholders in support of, or in opposition to the existing abortion laws. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with study participants (79) differently situated vis-à-vis abortion, exploring their views on abortion-related legal- and policy frames and their perceived implications for access. The abortion laws have been classified as ‘liberal’ in Zambia, ‘semi-liberal’ in Ethiopia and ‘restrictive’ in Tanzania, but what we encountered in the three study contexts was a seeming paradoxical relationship between national abortion laws, abortion policy and women’s actual access to safe abortion services. The study findings moreover reveal that the texts that make up the three national abortion laws are highly ambiguous. The on-paper liberal Zambian and semi-liberal Ethiopian laws in no way ensure access, while the strict Tanzanian law is hardly sufficient to prevent young women from seeking and obtaining abortion. In line with Walt and Gilson’s call to move beyond a narrow focus on the content of policy, our study demonstrates that the connection between law, health policy and access to health services is complex and critically dependent on the socio-economic and political context of implementation. Legal frameworks are vital instruments for securing the right to health, but broad contextualized studies rather than classifications of law along a liberal-restrictive continuum are demanded in order to enhance existing knowledge on access to safe abortion services in a given context.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Health, life and rights: a discourse analysis of a hybrid abortion regime in Tanzania
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Richard Sambaiga; Haldis Haukanes; Karen Marie Moland; Astrid Blystad

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major hazard for maternal health in Sub-Saharan Africa, where abortion remains highly controversial and access to safe abortion services is unequally distributed. Although national abortion laws are central in indicating women’s potential for accessing safe abortion services, the character of an abortion law may alone say little about national discursive abortion landscapes and access scenarios. The article calls for the study and problematization of the relationship between legal abortion frameworks on the one hand, and discourses surrounding abortion on the other, in an attempt to move closer to an understanding of the complexity of factors that influence knowledge about and access to safer abortion services. With the restrictive abortion law in Tanzania as a starting point, the paper explores the ways in which the major global abortion discourses manifest themselves in the country and indicate potential implications of a hybrid abortion regime. The study combined a review of major legal and policy documents on abortion, a review of publications on abortion in Tanzanian newspapers between 2000 and 2015 (300 articles), and 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews with representatives from central institutions and organizations engaged in policy- or practical work related to reproductive health. Tanzania’s abortion law is highly restrictive, but the discursive abortion landscape is diverse and is made manifest through legal- and policy documents and legal- and policy related disputes. The discourses were characterized by diverse frames of reference based in religion, public health and in human rights-based values, and as such reflect the major global discourses. Fairclough’s concepts interdiscursivity and recontextualization were drawn upon to develop an understanding of how the concepts health, rights and life emerge across the discourses, but are employed in contrasting lines of argumentation in struggles for hegemony and legitimacy. The paper demonstrates that a hybrid discursive regime relating to abortion characterizes the legally restrictive abortion context of Tanzania. We argue that such a complex discursive landscape, which cuts across the restrictive - liberal divide, generates an environment that seems to open avenues for enhanced access to abortion related knowledge and services.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • ‘An uneasy compromise’: strategies and dilemmas in realizing a permissive abortion law in Ethiopia
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Getnet Tadele; Haldis Haukanes; Astrid Blystad; Karen Marie Moland

    At the turn of the century, when the Millennium Development Goals placed maternal mortality reduction high on the global agenda, Ethiopia relaxed its restrictive abortion law to expand grounds on which a woman could legally obtain an abortion. This radical policy shift took place within a context of predominant anti-abortion public opinion shaped by strong religious convictions. Drawing upon Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis framework, this paper explores the tension between public policy and religious dogma for the strategies chosen by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and its partners implementing the new policy, and for access to safe abortion services. The study employed a qualitative research methodology. It targeted organizations that are key stakeholders in the field of reproductive health. These included policy makers and policy implementers like ministries, UN agencies and international and national NGOs as well as religious organizations as key opinion leaders. The data collection took place in Addis Ababa between 2016 and 2018. A total of 26 interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using the principles of qualitative content analysis. Our analysis showed that the implementing organizations adopted a strategy of silence not to provoke anti-abortion sentiments and politicization of the abortion issue which was seen as a threat to the revised law and policy. This strategy has facilitated a rollout of services and has improved access to safe abortion care. Nevertheless informants were concerned that the silence strategy has prevented dissemination of knowledge about the revised law to the general public, to health workers and to the police. In turn this has caused confusion about eligibility to legal and safe abortion procedures. While silence as a strategy works to protect the law enhancing the health and survival of young women, it may at the same time prevent the law from being fully effective. As a long term strategy, silence fails to expand awareness and access to safe abortion services, and may not sufficiently serve to fulfill the potential of the law to prevent abortion related maternal deaths.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Socioeconomic disparities in access to intensive insulin regimens for adults with type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study of patient and healthcare professional perspectives
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Anne Scott; Alicia O’Cathain; Elizabeth Goyder

    Type 1 diabetes is a complex chronic condition which requires lifelong treatment with insulin. Health outcomes are dependent on ability to self-manage the condition. Socioeconomic inequalities have been demonstrated in access to treatment and health outcomes for adults with type 1 diabetes; however, there is a paucity of research exploring how these disparities occur. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic factors in gaining access to intensive insulin regimens for adults with type 1 diabetes. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study informed by a phenomenological perspective. In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 28 patients and 6 healthcare professionals involved in their care. The interviews were analysed using a thematic approach. The Candidacy theory for access to healthcare for vulnerable groups framed the analysis. Access to intensive insulin regimens was through hospital-based specialist services in this sample. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups had difficulty accessing hospital-based services if they were in low paid work and because they lacked the ability to navigate the healthcare system. Once these patients were in the specialist system, access to intensive insulin regimens was limited by non-alignment with healthcare professional goals, poor health literacy, psychosocial problems and poor quality communication. These factors could also affect access to structured diabetes education which itself improved access to intensive insulin regimens. Contact with diabetes specialist nurses and attendance at structured diabetes education courses could ameliorate these barriers. Access to intensive insulin regimens was hindered for people in lower socioeconomic groups by a complex mix of factors relating to the permeability of specialist services, ability to navigate the healthcare system and patient interactions with healthcare providers. Improving access to diabetes specialist nurses and structured diabetes education for vulnerable patients could lessen socioeconomic disparities in both access to services and health outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Towards equity: a qualitative exploration of the implementation and impact of a digital educational intervention for pharmacy professionals in England
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Asam Latif; Justin Waring; Kristian Pollock; Josie Solomon; Nargis Gulzar; Shahida Choudhary; Claire Anderson

    Patients belonging to marginalised (medically under-served) groups experience problems with medicines (i.e. non-adherence, side effects) and poorer health outcomes largely due to inequitable access to healthcare (arising from poor governance, cultural exclusion etc.). In order to promote service equity and outcomes for patients, the focus of this paper is to explore the implementation and impact of a new co-produced digital educational intervention on one National Health Service (NHS) funded community pharmacy medicines management service. Semi-structured interviews with a total of 32 participants. This included a purposive sample of 22 community pharmacy professionals, (16 pharmacists and 6 pharmacy support staff) all who offered the medicine management service. In order to obtain a fuller picture of the barriers to learning, five professionals who were unable to complete the learning were also included. Ten patients (from a marginalised group) who had received the service (as a result of the digital educational intervention) were also interviewed. Drawing on an interpretative analysis, Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a theoretical framework. Three themes are explored. The first is how the digital learning intervention was implemented and applied. Despite being well received, pharmacists found it challenging completing and cascading the learning due to organisational constraints (e.g. lack of time, workload). Using the four NPT constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring) the second theme exposes the impact of the learning and the organisational process of ‘normalisation’. Professional reflective accounts revealed instances where inequitable access to health services were evident. Those completing the intervention felt more aware, capable and better equipped to engage with the needs of patients who were from a marginalised group. Operationally there was minimal structural change in service delivery constraining translation of learning to practice. The impact on patients, explored in our final theme, revealed that they experience significant disadvantage and problems with their medicines. The medication review was welcomed and the discussion with the pharmacist was helpful in addressing their medicine-related concerns. The co-produced digital educational intervention increases pharmacy professionals’ awareness and motivation to engage with marginalised groups. However structural barriers often hindered translation into practice. Patients reported significant health and medicine challenges that were going unnoticed. They welcomed the additional support the medication review offered. Policy makers and employers should better enable and facilitate ways for pharmacy professionals to better engage with marginalised groups. The impact of the educational intervention on patients’ health and medicines management could be substantial if supported and promoted effectively.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The historical roots and seminal research on health equity: a referenced publication year spectroscopy (RPYS) analysis
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Qiang Yao; Xin Li; Fei Luo; Lianping Yang; Chaojie Liu; Ju Sun

    Health equity is a multidimensional concept that has been internationally considered as an essential element for health system development. However, our understanding about the root causes of health equity is limited. In this study, we investigated the historical roots and seminal works of research on health equity. Health equity-related publications were identified and downloaded from the Web of Science database (n = 67,739, up to 31 October 2018). Their cited references (n = 2,521,782) were analyzed through Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS), which detected the historical roots and important works on health equity and quantified their impact in terms of referencing frequency. A total of 17 pronounced peaks and 31 seminal works were identified. The first publication on health equity appeared in 1966. But the first cited reference can be traced back to 1801. Most seminal works were conducted by researchers from the US (19, 61.3%), the UK (7, 22.6%) and the Netherlands (3, 9.7%). Research on health equity experienced three important historical stages: origins (1800–1965), formative (1966–1991) and development and expansion (1991–2018). The ideology of health equity was endorsed by the international society through the World Health Organization (1946) declaration based on the foundational works of Chadwick (1842), Engels (1945), Durkheim (1897) and Du Bois (1899). The concept of health equity originated from the disciplines of public health, sociology and political economics and has been a major research area of social epidemiology since the early nineteenth century. Studies on health equity evolved from evidence gathering to the identification of cost-effective policies and governmental interventions. The development of research on health equity is shaped by multiple disciplines, which has contributed to the emergence of a new stream of social epidemiology and political epidemiology. Past studies must be interpreted in light of their historical contexts. Further studies are needed to explore the causal pathways between the social determinants of health and health inequalities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Underpinnings of entangled ethnical and gender inequalities in obesity in Cochabamba-Bolivia: an intersectional approach
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Yercin Mamani Ortiz; Per E. Gustafsson; Miguel San Sebastián Chasco; Ada Ximena Armaza Céspedes; Jenny Marcela Luizaga López; Daniel Elving Illanes Velarde; Paola A. Mosquera Méndez

    Social inequalities in obesity have been observed not only by gender but also between ethnic groups. Evidence on combined dimensions of inequality in health, and specifically including indigenous populations, is however scarce, and presents a particularly daunting challenge for successful prevention and control of obesity in Bolivia, as well as worldwide. The aims of this study were i) to examine intersectional inequalities in obesity and ii) to identify the factors underlying the observed intersectional inequalities. An intersectional approach study was employed, using the information collected in a cross-sectional community-based survey. The sample consisted of youth and adults with permanent residence in Cochabamba department (N = 5758), selected through a multistage sampling technique. An adapted version of the WHO-STEPS survey was used to collect information about Abdominal obesity and risk factors associated. Four intersectional positions were constructed from gender (woman vs. men) and ethnic group (indigenous vs. mestizo). Joint and excess intersectional disparities in obesity were estimated as absolute prevalence differences between binary groups, using binomial regression models. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was applied to estimate the contributions of explanatory factors underlying the observed intersectional disparities, using Oaxaca command in Stata software v15.1. The prevalence of abdominal obesity had a higher prevalence in mestizos (men 35.01% and women 30.71%) as compared to indigenous (men 25.38% and women 27.75%). The joint disparity was estimated at 7.26 percentage points higher prevalence in the doubly advantaged mestizo men than in the doubly disadvantaged indigenous women. The gender referent disparity showed that mestizo-women had a higher prevalence than indigenous-women. The ethnic referent disparity showed that mestizo-men had a higher prevalence than indigenous men. The behavioural risk factors were the most important to explain the observed inequalities, while differences in socioeconomic and demographic factors played a less important role. Our study illustrates that abdominal obesity is not distributed according to expected patterns of structural disadvantage in the intersectional space of ethnicity and gender in Bolivia. In the Cochabamba case, a high social advantage was related to higher rates of abdominal obesity, as well as the behavioural risk factors associated with them.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Assessing changes in costs of maternal postpartum services between 2013 and 2014 in Burkina Faso
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Danielle Yugbaré Belemsaga; Anne Goujon; Olivier Degomme; Tchichihouenichidah Nassa; Els Duysburgh; Seni Kouanda; Marleen Temmerman

    In Africa, a majority of women bring their infant to health services for immunization, but few are checked in the postpartum (PP) period. The Missed opportunities for maternal and infant health (MOMI) EU-funded project has implemented a package of interventions at community and facility levels to uptake maternal and infant postpartum care (PPC). One of these interventions is the integration of maternal PPC in child clinics and infant immunization services, which proved to be successful for improving maternal and infant PPC. Taking stock of the progress achieved in terms of PPC with the implementation of the interventions, this paper assesses the economic cost of maternal PPC services, for health services and households, before and after the project start in Kaya health district (Burkina Faso). PPC costs to health services are estimated using secondary data on personnel and infrastructure and primary data on time allocation. Data from two household surveys collected before and after one year intervention among mothers within one year PP are used to estimate the household cost of maternal PPC visits. We also compare PPC costs for households and health services with or without integration. We focus on the costs of the PPC intervention at days 6–10 that was most successful. The average unit cost of health services for days 6–10 maternal PPC decreased from 4.6 USD before the intervention in 2013 (Jan-June) to 3.5 USD after the intervention implementation in 2014. Maternal PPC utilization increased with the implementation of the interventions but so did days 6–10 household mean costs. Similarly, the household costs increased with the integration of maternal PPC to BCG immunization. In the context of growing reproductive health expenditures from many funding sources in Burkina Faso, the uptake of maternal PPC led to a cost reduction, as shown for days 6–10, at health services level. Further research should determine whether the increase in costs for households would be deterrent to the use of integrated maternal and infant PPC.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Health service utilization, perspectives, and health-seeking behavior for maternal and child health services in the Amazon of Peru, a mixed-methods study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Christopher M. Westgard; Ally Rogers; Giselle Bello; Natalia Rivadeneyra

    Various factors influence health service utilization at the community level. Research on the barriers to uptake of local health services is essential to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The Amazon region of Peru has some of the poorest health indicators in the country. The current study set out to better understand the health-seeking behavior and perspectives of mothers in Amazonian communities, exploring individual- and contextual-level barriers for seeking care at local health facilities for common maternal and child health issues. The study employed a mixed-methods design by conducting 50 structured interviews with mothers of children under the age of 4. The study took place in 5 communities in Loreto, Peru. The quantitative data was analyzed with descriptive statistics to identify participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and reported utilization of health services. The qualitative data was analyzed in three rounds: inductive codebook development, application of the codebook, and thematic synthesis to contextualize the quantitative results and better understand the perspectives of the mothers regarding maternal and child health issues and the local health services. Overall, reported health service utilization among study participants was relatively high. However, the mothers identified several individual- and contextual-level factors that may affect their experiences and the health-seeking behaviors of other mothers in their communities: (i) embarrassment, fear, and trust, (ii) insufficient number and poor attitudes of health personnel, (iii) limited supply of basic medicines and materials in the health facility, and (iv) low demand for family planning services and limited awareness of adolescent-specific services. Several findings in the current study reflect the reduced conditions of health services, while others display that many mothers maintain a positive outlook on the health services available to them and are proactive in the care of their child. The study provides valuable insight into the use of local health services and the common perspectives that are hindering further uptake at the community level in the Amazon of Peru, with important implications for health policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean countries: differences between quintiles and deciles
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Maria del Pilar Flores-Quispe; María Clara Restrepo-Méndez; Maria Fátima S. Maia; Leonardo Z. Ferreira; Fernando C. Wehrmeister

    With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is a renewed commitment of tackling the varied challenges of undernutrition, particularly stunting (SDG 2.2). Health equity is also a priority in the SDG agenda and there is an urgent need for disaggregated analyses to identify disadvantaged subgroups. We compared time trends in socioeconomic inequalities obtained through stratification by wealth quintiles and deciles for stunting prevalence. We used 37 representative Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster surveys from nine Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries conducted between 1996 and 2016. Stunting in children under-5 years was assessed according to the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards and stratified by wealth quintiles and deciles. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities were measured through concentration index (CIX) and slope index of inequality (SII). We used variance-weighted least squares regression to estimate annual changes. Eight out of nine countries showed a statistical evidence of reduction in stunting prevalence over time. Differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles in most of countries and at every point in time. However, when using summary measures of inequality, there were no differences in the estimates of SII with the use of deciles and quintiles. In absolute terms, there was a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in Peru, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Belize, Suriname and Colombia. In relative terms, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequalities in Peru, Bolivia, Haiti, Honduras and Guatemala. LAC countries have made substantial progress in terms of reducing stunting,. Nevertheless, renewed actions are needed to improve equity. Particularly in those countries were absolute and relative inequalities did not change over time such Bolivia and Guatemala. Finer breakdowns in wealth distribution are expected to elucidate more differences between subgroups; however, this approach is relevant to cast light on those subgroups that are still lagging behind within populations and inform equity-oriented health programs and practices.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Antidepressant medication use among working age first-generation migrants resident in Finland: an administrative data linkage study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Tania Bosqui; Ari Väänänen; Andre Buscariolli; Aki Koskinen; Dermot O’Reilly; Auli Airila; Anne Kouvonen

    A higher risk of common mental health disorders has been found for first-generation migrants in high income countries, but few studies have examined the use of mental health care. This study aimed to identify the level of antidepressant use amongst the largest first generation migrant groups resident in Finland. This cohort study used record-based data linkage methodology to examine the hazard of antidepressant use between migrant groups in Finland using Cox proportional hazard models. Data was derived using socio-demographic and prescription data from Statistics Finland and the Finnish Population Registry. The cohort included a random sample of 33% of the working age population in 2007 (N = 1,059,426, 49.8% women, 2.5% migrants) and dispensed antidepressant prescriptions from 2008 to 2014. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, results show higher antidepressant use for female migrants from North Africa and the Middle East compared to the Finland-born majority, a similar level of use for migrants from Western countries, and lower use for migrants from other non-Western countries. The gender and country of origin dependent use of antidepressant medication is discussed in terms of socio-political and cultural between-group differences. Recommendations are made to address inequalities in accessing services, particularly for migrants from non-Western countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The health profile of newly-arrived refugee women and girls and the role of region of origin: using a population-based dataset in California between 2013 and 2017
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    May Sudhinaraset; Nuny Cabanting; Marisa Ramos

    There has been an increasing number of refugee women globally; yet, there is little recent data describing the health profile of refugee women by region of origin in the United States. It is important to monitor the health status of women by region of origin to provide needed targeted interventions. We analyzed the Refugee Health Electronic Information System (RHEIS), a population-based dataset that included 14,060 female refugees who entered California between October 3, 2013 and February 15, 2017. We assessed differences in health status by region of origin. Almost one out of three women experienced a traumatic event. Women from Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean experienced higher levels of trauma compared to other regions, including sexual assault, physical, and weapon assault. More than half of women and girls (56.6%) reported experiences of persecution, with Southeast Asians reporting the highest levels. Among women of reproductive age, 7.0% of women were currently pregnant at the time of arrival to the US, 19.0% ever had a spontaneous abortion, and 8.6% reported ever having an abortion. One in three women from Africa reported female genital cutting. Moreover, 80.0% of women reported needing language assistance at the time of their health assessment. Refugee women and girls experience high levels of trauma and persecution, suggesting the need for trauma-informed care. Those working with refugee women, such as resettlement agencies and health providers, should be equipped with information about antenatal care, nutrition, and pregnancy to newly arrived women. Lastly, differences in health status by region of origin indicate a need for tailored interventions and linguistically appropriate health information.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Economic barriers, evidentiary gaps, and ethical conundrums: a qualitative study of physicians’ challenges recommending HPV vaccination to older gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Daniel Grace; Mark Gaspar; Ron Rosenes; Ramandip Grewal; Ann N. Burchell; Troy Grennan; Irving E. Salit

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), and GBM living with HIV in particular, are disproportionately impacted by HPV-associated cancers. The HPV vaccine, given early enough in life, may markedly reduce the likelihood of such cancers. In Canada, most provincial insurance programs only cover HPV vaccination for GBM up to the age of 26. Our objective was to understand physicians’ everyday experiences and challenges in recommending HPV vaccination to older GBM patients. As part of the HPV Screening and Vaccine Evaluation (HPV-SAVE) Study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 HIV-positive GBM patients who had received anal cancer screening and 15 service providers, including 13 physicians, who had arranged for anal cancer screening in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. In this analysis, we draw upon the 13 physician interviews, which were coded following Grounded Theory. Physicians strongly supported the HPV vaccine for all GBM and considered it to be important for the management of HIV-related care. However, the overall support for HPV vaccination among physicians did not translate into consistent recommendation practices. There were two overarching factors that limited the strength/frequency of physicians’ vaccine recommendation practices. First, cost/insurance coverage for some older patients impacted if and how the HPV vaccine was discussed. Second, physicians had diverse perspectives on both the prevention and therapeutic benefits of vaccinating older GBM and the reality that national guidelines are incongruent with publicly funded vaccine programs for vaccinating patients over 26 years old. These two interrelated factors have co-produced an apparent economic-evidentiary conundrum for many physicians regarding how and for whom to offer HPV vaccination. Economic barriers coupled with evidentiary and guideline gaps have created clinical practice challenges for physicians and has resulted in different messages being communicated to some older GBM patients about how important HPV vaccination is for their health.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Does public service motivation matter in Moroccan public hospitals? A multiple embedded case study
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Zakaria Belrhiti; Wim Van Damme; Abdelmounim Belalia; Bruno Marchal

    The motivation of health workers is a key concern of policy makers, practitioners and researchers. Public Service Motivation (PSM), defined as the altruistic desire to serve the common interest, to serve others and to help patients and their families regardless of financial or external rewards, has been shown to be key to the performance of public servants. Yet, limited attention has been paid to this kind of motivation in health care settings in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about PSM and its contextual specificity in the Moroccan health system. We set out to qualitatively explore the meaning of PSM and its expression among health workers in four public hospitals. We adopted a multiple embedded case study design to explore PSM in two well-performing and two poor-performing hospitals. We carried out 68 individual interviews, eight focus group discussions and 11 group discussions with different cadres (doctors, administrators and nurses). We carried out thematic analysis using NVivo 10. Our analysis shows that public service motivation is a notion that seems natural to the health workers we interviewed. Daily interactions with patients catalysed health providers’ affective motives (compassion and self- sacrifice), a central element of PSM. It also provided them with job satisfaction aligned with their intrinsic motivation. Managers and administrative personnel express other PSM components: attraction to public policy making and commitment to public values. A striking result is that health workers expressed strong religious beliefs about expected rewards from God when properly serving patients. This study highlights the presence of PSM as a driver of motivation among health workers in four Moroccon hospitals, and the prominence of intrinsic motivation and compassion in the motivation of frontline health workers. Religious beliefs were found to shape the expression of PSM in Morocco.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Socioeconomic inequality in dental care utilization in Iran: a decomposition approach
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Satar Rezaei; Mohammad Hajizadeh; Seyed Fahim Irandoost; Yahya Salimi

    Socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilization in Iran are rarely documented. This study aimed to provide insight into socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilization and its main contributing factors among Iranian households. A total of 37,860 households from the 2017 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) were included in the study. Data on dental care utilization, age, gender and education attainment of the head of household, socioeconomic status of households, health insurance coverage, living areas and provinces were obtained for the survey. The concentration curve and the normalized concentration index (Cn) was used to illustrate and quantify socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilization among Iranian households. The Cn was decomposed to identify the main determinants of the observed socioeconomic inequality in dental care utilization in Iran. The study indicated that the prevalence of dental care utilization among Iranian’s households was 4.67% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.46 to 4.88%). The results suggested a higher concentration of dental care utilization among socioeconomically advantaged households (Cn = 0.2522; 95% CI: 0.2258 to 0.2791) in Iran. Pro-rich inequality in dental care utilization also found in rural (Cn = 0.2659; 95%CI: 0.2221 to 0.3098) and urban (Cn = 0.0.2504; 95% CI: 0.0.2159 to 0.2841) areas. The results revealed socioeconomic status of households, age and education status of head of households and residing provinces as the main contributing factors to the concentration of dental care utilization among the wealthy households. This study revealed pro-rich inequalities in dental care utilization among households in Iran and its provinces. Thus, health policymakers should focus on designing effective evidence-based interventions to improve healthcare utilization among household with the older head of households, lower education status, and living in relatively poor provinces to reduce socioeconomic inequality in dental care utilization in Iran.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of caesarean section delivery in Ghana: a cross-sectional study using nationally representative data
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Emmanuel Dankwah; Shelley Kirychuk; Wu Zeng; Cindy Feng; Marwa Farag

    Inappropriate use of Caesarean Section (CS) delivery is partly to blame for Ghana’s high maternal mortality rate. However, previous research offered mixed findings about factors associated with CS use. The goal of this study is to examine use of CS in Ghana and the socioeconomic factors associated with it. Data from the nationally representative 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) was used after permission from the Monitoring and Evaluation to Assess and Use Results (MEASURE) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in CS use. The independent variables included maternal age, marital status, religion, ethnicity, education, place of residence, wealth quintile, and working status. Concentration index (CI) and rate-ratios were computed to ascertain the level of CS inequalities. Out of the 4294 women, 11.4% had CS delivery. However, the percentage of CS delivery ranged from 5% of women in the poorest quintile to 27.5% of women in the richest qunitle. Significant associations were detected between CS delivery and maternal age, parity, education, and wealth quintile . This study revealed that first, even though Ghana has achieved an aggregate CS rate consistent with WHO recommendations, it still suffers from inequities in the use of CS. Second, both underuse of CS among poorer women in Ghana and overuse among rich and educated women are public health concerns that need to be addressed. Third, the results show in spite of Ghana’s free maternal care services policies, wealth status of women continues to be strongly and signtificantly associated with CS delivery, indicating that there are indirect health care costs and other reasons preventing poorer women from having access to CS which should be understood better and addressed with appropriate policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reported Māori consumer experiences of health systems and programs in qualitative research: a systematic review with meta-synthesis
    Int. J. Equity Health (IF 2.473) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Suetonia C. Palmer; Harriet Gray; Tania Huria; Cameron Lacey; Lutz Beckert; Suzanne G. Pitama

    Persistent inequities in health experiences and outcomes are observed for Māori compared to non-Māori in Aotearoa New Zealand. We conceptualised factors associated with Māori consumer experiences of health programs and services and characterise how the recommendations arising from qualitative research inform strategies to address inequities. In this systematic review, electronic literature searching was conducted in February 2018. Qualitative studies reporting Māori consumer experiences of health services and programs in Aotearoa New Zealand were eligible. Māori consumer experiences of health services were mapped to the WHO Commission of Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) conceptual framework on health inequities as related to: (i) the socioeconomic and political context; (ii) socioeconomic positioning; or (iii) intermediary factors that increase exposure to health-compromising conditions. Recommendations to improve consumer experiences were mapped to the CSDH framework for tackling social determinants of health inequities as policy directions on: (i) unequal consequences of illness (individual interaction); (ii) risks of exposure to health-damaging factors (community); (iii) exposures to health-damaging factors (public policies); and (iv) mitigating effects of socioeconomic and political stratification (environment). Fifty-four studies were included. Māori consumer experiences mapped to social determinants of health inequities were most frequently related to direct interactions with health services and programs, particularly patient-clinician interactions (communication, relationships) and cultural competencies of clinicians and the system. Key recommendations by researchers mapped to potential strategies to address inequity were identified at all levels of the political, social and health system from individual interactions, community change, and broader public and system-level strategies. Recommendations were predominantly focused on actions to reduce risks of exposure to health-damaging factors including health literacy interventions, increased resources in cultural competencies and Māori capacity in health service development and workforce. Māori consumer experiences of health services and programs are an important informer of variables that impact health inequity. Strategies to tackle health inequities informed by Māori consumer experiences can be drawn from existing empirical research. Future qualitative exploration of how socioeconomic, political and public policies influence Māori consumer experiences of health services and programs could inform a broader range of structural policies to address health inequities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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