当前期刊: Implementation Science Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Addressing low-value pharmacological prescribing in primary prevention of CVD through a structured evidence-based and theory-informed process for the design and testing of de-implementation strategies: the DE-imFAR study
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Alvaro Sanchez; Jose Ignacio Pijoan; Susana Pablo; Marta Mediavilla; Rita Sainz de Rozas; Itxasne Lekue; Susana Gonzalez-Larragan; Gaspar Lantaron; Jon Argote; Arturo García-Álvarez; Pedro Maria Latorre; Christian D. Helfrich; Gonzalo Grandes

    De-implementation or abandonment of ineffective or low-value healthcare is becoming a priority research field globally due to the growing empirical evidence of the high prevalence of such care and its impact in terms of patient safety and social inefficiency. Little is known, however, about the factors, barriers, and facilitators involved or about interventions that are effective in promoting and accelerating the de-implementation of low-value healthcare. The De-imFAR study seeks to carry out a structured, evidence-based, and theory-informed process involving the main stakeholders (clinicians, managers, patients, and researchers) for the design, deployment, and assessment of de-implementation strategies for reducing low-value pharmacological prescribing. A phase I formative study using a systematic and comprehensive framework based on theory and evidence for the design of implementation strategies—specifically, the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW)—will be conducted to design and model de-implementation strategies to favor reductions in low-value pharmacological prescribing of statins in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by main stakeholders (clinicians, managers, patients, and researchers) in a collegiate way. Subsequently, a phase II comparative hybrid trial will be conducted to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of at least one active de-implementation strategy to reduce low-value pharmacological prescribing of statins in primary prevention of CVD compared to the usual procedures for dissemination of clinical practice guidelines (“what-not-to-do” recommendations). A mixed-methods evaluation will be used: quantitative for the results of the implementation at the professional level (e.g., adoption, reach and implementation or execution of the recommended clinical practice); and qualitative to determine the feasibility and perceived impact of the de-implementation strategies from the clinicians’ perspective, and patients’ experiences related to the clinical care received. The DE-imFAR study aims to generate valid scientific knowledge about the design and development of de-implementation strategies using theory- and evidence-based methodologies suggested by implementation science. It will explore the effectiveness of these strategies and their acceptability among clinicians, policymakers, and patients. Its ultimate goal is to maximize the quality and efficiency of our health system by abandoning low-value pharmacological prescribing. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT04022850. Registered 17 July 2019

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Designing clinical practice feedback reports: three steps illustrated in Veterans Health Affairs long-term care facilities and programs
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Zach Landis-Lewis; Jennifer Kononowech; Winifred J. Scott; Robert V. Hogikyan; Joan G. Carpenter; V. S. Periyakoil; Susan C. Miller; Cari Levy; Mary Ersek; Anne Sales

    User-centered design (UCD) methods are well-established techniques for creating useful artifacts, but few studies illustrate their application to clinical feedback reports. When used as an implementation strategy, the content of feedback reports depends on a foundational audit process involving performance measures and data, but these important relationships have not been adequately described. Better guidance on UCD methods for designing feedback reports is needed. Our objective is to describe the feedback report design method for refining the content of prototype reports. We propose a three-step feedback report design method (refinement of measures, data, and display). The three steps follow dependencies such that refinement of measures can require changes to data, which in turn may require changes to the display. We believe this method can be used effectively with a broad range of UCD techniques. We illustrate the three-step method as used in implementation of goals of care conversations in long-term care settings in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration. Using iterative usability testing, feedback report content evolved over cycles of the three steps. Following the steps in the proposed method through 12 iterations with 13 participants, we improved the usability of the feedback reports. UCD methods can improve feedback report content through an iterative process. When designing feedback reports, refining measures, data, and display may enable report designers to improve the user centeredness of feedback reports.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Overcoming barriers to evidence-based patient blood management: a restricted review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Alana Delaforce; Jed Duff; Judy Munday; Janet Hardy

    Blood transfusions are associated with a range of adverse patient outcomes, including coagulopathy, immunomodulation and haemolysis, which increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Consideration of these risks and potential benefits are necessary when deciding to transfuse. Patient blood management (PBM) guidelines exist to assist in clinical decision-making, but they are underutilised. Exploration of barriers to the implementation and utilisation of the PBM guidelines is required. This study aimed to identify common barriers and implementation strategies used to implement PBM guidelines, with a comparison against current expert opinion. A restricted review approach was used to identify the barriers to PBM guideline implementation as reported by health professionals and to review which implementation strategies have been used. Searches were undertaken in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane library. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to code barriers. The Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) tool was used to code implementation strategies, and subsequently, develop recommendations based on expert opinion. We identified 14 studies suitable for inclusion. There was a cluster of barriers commonly reported: access to knowledge and information (n = 7), knowledge and beliefs about the intervention ( = 7) and tension for change (n = 6). Implementation strategies used varied widely (n = 25). Only one study reported the use of an implementation theory, model or framework. Most studies (n = 11) had at least 50% agreement with the ERIC recommendations. There are common barriers experienced by health professionals when trying to implement PBM guidelines. There is currently no conclusive evidence to suggest which implementation strategies are most effective. Further research using validated implementation approaches and improved reporting is required.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Unpacking the complexities of de-implementing inappropriate health interventions
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wynne E. Norton; David A. Chambers

    De-implementing inappropriate health interventions is essential for minimizing patient harm, maximizing efficient use of resources, and improving population health. Research on de-implementation has expanded in recent years as it cuts across types of interventions, patient populations, health conditions, and delivery settings. This commentary explores unique aspects of de-implementing inappropriate interventions that differentiate it from implementing evidence-based interventions, including multi-level factors, types of action, strategies for de-implementation, outcomes, and unintended negative consequences. We highlight opportunities to continue to advance research on the de-implementation of inappropriate interventions in health care and public health.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Computerized clinical decision support system for diabetes in primary care does not improve quality of care: a cluster-randomized controlled trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Annemie Heselmans; Nicolas Delvaux; Annouschka Laenen; Stijn Van de Velde; Dirk Ramaekers; Ilkka Kunnamo; Bert Aertgeerts

    The EBMeDS system is the computerized clinical decision support (CCDS) system of EBPNet, a national computerized point-of-care information service in Belgium. There is no clear evidence of more complex CCDS systems to manage chronic diseases in primary care practices (PCPs). The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of EBMeDS use in improving diabetes care. A cluster-randomized trial with before-and-after measurements was performed in Belgian PCPs over 1 year, from May 2017 to May 2018. We randomly assigned 51 practices to either the intervention group (IG), to receive the EBMeDS system, or to the control group (CG), to receive usual care. Primary and secondary outcomes were the 1-year pre- to post-implementation change in HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Composite patient and process scores were calculated. A process evaluation was added to the analysis. Results were analyzed at 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed models and logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used where appropriate. Of the 51 PCPs that were enrolled and randomly assigned (26 PCPs in the CG and 25 in the IG), 29 practices (3815 patients) were analyzed in the study: 2464 patients in the CG and 1351 patients in the IG. No change differences existed between groups in primary or secondary outcomes. Change difference between CG and IG after 1-year follow-up was − 0.09 (95% CI − 0.18; 0.01, p-value = 0.06) for HbA1c; 1.76 (95% CI − 0.46; 3.98, p-value = 0.12) for LDL cholesterol; and 0.13 (95% CI − 0.91; 1.16, p-value = 0.81) and 0.12 (95% CI − 1.25;1.49, p-value = 0.86) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The odds ratio of the IG versus the CG for the probability of no worsening and improvement was 1.09 (95% CI 0.73; 1.63, p-value = 0.67) for the process composite score and 0.74 (95% CI 0.49; 1.12, p-value = 0.16) for the composite patient score. All but one physician was satisfied with the EBMeDS system. The CCDS system EBMeDS did not improve diabetes care in Belgian primary care. The lack of improvement was mainly caused by imperfections in the organizational context of Belgian primary care for chronic disease management and shortcomings in the system requirements for the correct use of the EBMeDS system (e.g., complete structured records). These shortcomings probably caused low-use rates of the system. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01830569, Registered 12 April 2013.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The sustainability of public health interventions in schools: a systematic review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Lauren Herlitz; Helen MacIntyre; Tom Osborn; Chris Bonell

    The sustainability of school-based health interventions after external funds and/or other resources end has been relatively unexplored in comparison to health care. If effective interventions discontinue, new practices cannot reach wider student populations and investment in implementation is wasted. This review asked: What evidence exists about the sustainability of school-based public health interventions? Do schools sustain public health interventions once start-up funds end? What are the barriers and facilitators affecting the sustainability of public health interventions in schools in high-income countries? Seven bibliographic databases and 15 websites were searched. References and citations of included studies were searched, and experts and authors were contacted to identify relevant studies. We included reports published from 1996 onwards. References were screened on title/abstract, and those included were screened on full report. We conducted data extraction and appraisal using an existing tool. Extracted data were qualitatively synthesised for common themes, using May’s General Theory of Implementation (2013) as a conceptual framework. Of the 9677 unique references identified through database searching and other search strategies, 24 studies of 18 interventions were included in the review. No interventions were sustained in their entirety; all had some components that were sustained by some schools or staff, bar one that was completely discontinued. No discernible relationship was found between evidence of effectiveness and sustainability. Key facilitators included commitment/support from senior leaders, staff observing a positive impact on students’ engagement and wellbeing, and staff confidence in delivering health promotion and belief in its value. Important contextual barriers emerged: the norm of prioritising educational outcomes under time and resource constraints, insufficient funding/resources, staff turnover and a lack of ongoing training. Adaptation of the intervention to existing routines and changing contexts appeared to be part of the sustainability process. Existing evidence suggests that sustainability depends upon schools developing and retaining senior leaders and staff that are knowledgeable, skilled and motivated to continue delivering health promotion through ever-changing circumstances. Evidence of effectiveness did not appear to be an influential factor. However, methodologically stronger primary research, informed by theory, is needed. The review was registered on PROSPERO: CRD42017076320, Sep. 2017.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Nurses' and auxiliary nurse midwives' adherence to essential birth practices with peer coaching in Uttar Pradesh, India: a secondary analysis of the BetterBirth trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Rose L. Molina; Brandon J. Neal; Lauren Bobanski; Vinay Pratap Singh; Bridget A. Neville; Megan Marx Delaney; Stuart Lipsitz; Ami Karlage; Mrunal Shetye; Katherine E. A. Semrau

    The BetterBirth trial tested the effect of a peer coaching program around the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist for birth attendants in primary-level facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India on a composite measure of perinatal and maternal mortality and maternal morbidity. This study aimed to examine the adherence to essential birth practices between two different cadres of birth attendants—nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs)—during and after a peer coaching intervention for the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist. This is a secondary analysis of birth attendant characteristics, coaching visits, and behavior uptake during the BetterBirth trial through birth attendant surveys, coach observations, and independent observations. Descriptive statistics were calculated overall, and by staffing cadre (staff nurses and ANMs) for demographic characteristics. Logistic regression using the Pearson overdispersion correction (to account for clustering by site) was used to assess differences between staff nurses and ANMs in the intervention group during regular coaching (2-month time point) and 4 months after the coaching program ended (12-month time point). Of the 570 birth attendants who responded to the survey in intervention and control arms, 474 were staff nurses (83.2%) and 96 were ANMs (16.8%). In the intervention arm, more staff nurses (240/260, 92.3%) received coaching at all pause points compared to ANMs (40/53, 75.5%). At baseline, adherence to practices was similar between ANMs and staff nurses (~ 30%). Overall percent adherence to essential birth practices among ANMs and nurses was highest at 2 months after intervention initiation, when frequent coaching visits occurred (68.1% and 64.1%, respectively, p = 0.76). Practice adherence tapered to 49.2% among ANMs and 56.1% among staff nurses at 12 months, which was 4 months after coaching had ended (p = 0.68). Overall, ANMs and nurses responded similarly to the coaching intervention with the greatest increase in percent adherence to essential birth practices after 2 months of coaching and subsequent decrease in adherence 4 months after coaching ended. While coaching is an effective strategy to support some aspects of birth attendant competency, the structure, content, and frequency of coaching may need to be customized according to the birth attendant training and competency. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT2148952; Universal Trial Number: U1111–1131-5647.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Correction to: The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project: a methodology to promote rigorous evaluation
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Cara C. Lewis; Cameo F. Stanick; Ruben G. Martinez; Bryan J. Weiner; Mimi Kim; Melanie Barwick; Katherine A. Comtois

    Following publication of the original article [1] the authors reported an important acknowledgement was mistakenly omitted from the ‘Acknowledgements’ section. The full acknowledgement is included in this Correction article:

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Implementation strategies for infection prevention and control promotion for nurses in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Amy Elizabeth Barrera-Cancedda; Kathryn A. Riman; Julianna E. Shinnick; Alison M. Buttenheim

    Despite impressive reductions in infectious disease burden within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), half of the top ten causes of poor health or death in SSA are communicable illnesses. With emerging and re-emerging infections affecting the region, the possibility of healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) being transmitted to patients and healthcare workers, especially nurses, is a critical concern. Despite infection prevention and control (IPC) evidence-based practices (EBP) to minimize the transmission of HAIs, many healthcare systems in SSA are challenged to implement them. The purpose of this review is to synthesize and critique what is known about implementation strategies to promote IPC for nurses in SSA. The databases, PubMed, Ovid/Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and CINHAL, were searched for articles with the following criteria: English language, peer-reviewed, published between 1998 and 2018, implemented in SSA, targeted nurses, and promoted IPC EBPs. Further, 6241 search results were produced and screened for eligibility to identify implementation strategies used to promote IPC for nurses in SSA. A total of 61 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The articles were evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s (JBI) quality appraisal tools. Results were reported using PRISMA guidelines. Most studies were conducted in South Africa (n = 18, 30%), within the last 18 years (n = 41, 67%), and utilized a quasi-experimental design (n = 22, 36%). Few studies (n = 14, 23%) had sample populations comprising nurses only. The majority of studies focused on administrative precautions (n = 36, 59%). The most frequent implementation strategies reported were education (n = 59, 97%), quality management (n = 39, 64%), planning (n = 33, 54%), and restructure (n = 32, 53%). Penetration and feasibility were the most common outcomes measured for both EBPs and implementation strategies used to implement the EBPs. The most common MAStARI and MMAT scores were 5 (n = 19, 31%) and 50% (n = 3, 4.9%) respectively. As infectious diseases, especially emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, continue to challenge healthcare systems in SSA, nurses, the keystones to IPC practice, need to have a better understanding of which, in what combination, and in what context implementation strategies should be best utilized to ensure their safety and that of their patients. Based on the results of this review, it is clear that implementation of IPC EBPs in SSA requires additional research from an implementation science-specific perspective to promote IPC protocols for nurses in SSA.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • “The role as a champion is to not only monitor but to speak out and to educate”: the contradictory roles of hand hygiene champions
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Cassie Cunningham Goedken; Daniel J. Livorsi; Michael Sauder; Mark W. Vander Weg; Emily E. Chasco; Nai-Chung Chang; Eli Perencevich; Heather Schacht Reisinger

    Implementation science experts define champions as “supporting, marketing, and driving through an implementation, overcoming indifference or resistance that the intervention may provoke in an organization.” Many hospitals use designated clinical champions—often called “hand hygiene (HH) champions”—typically to improve hand hygiene compliance. We conducted an ethnographic examination of how infection control teams in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) use the term “HH champion” and how they define the role. An ethnographic study was conducted with infection control teams and frontline staff directly involved with hand hygiene across 10 geographically dispersed VHA facilities in the USA. Individual and group semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital epidemiologists, infection preventionists, multi-drug-resistant organism (MDRO) program coordinators, and quality improvement specialists and frontline staff from June 2014 to September 2017. The team coded the transcripts using thematic content analysis content based on a codebook composed of inductive and deductive themes. A total of 173 healthcare workers participated in interviews from the 10 VHA facilities. All hand hygiene programs at each facility used the term HH champion to define a core element of their hand hygiene programs. While most described the role of HH champions as providing peer-to-peer coaching, delivering formal and informal education, and promoting hand hygiene, a majority also included hand hygiene surveillance. This conflation of implementation strategies led to contradictory responsibilities for HH champions. Participants described additional barriers to the role of HH champions, including competing priorities, staffing hierarchies, and turnover in the role. Healthcare systems should consider narrowly defining the role of the HH champion as a dedicated individual whose mission is to overcome resistance and improve hand hygiene compliance—and differentiate it from the role of a “compliance auditor.” Returning to the traditional application of the implementation strategy may lead to overall improvements in hand hygiene and reduction of the transmission of healthcare-acquired infections.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Identifying relevant concepts and factors for the sustainability of evidence-based practices within acute care contexts: a systematic review and theory analysis of selected sustainability frameworks
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Letitia Nadalin Penno; Barbara Davies; Ian D. Graham; Chantal Backman; Ibo MacDonald; Julie Bain; Alekhya Mascarenhas Johnson; Julia Moore; Janet Squires

    There is growing recognition among healthcare professionals that the sustainability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) within different settings is variable and suboptimal. Understanding why a particular EBP might be sustained in one setting and not another remains unclear. Recent reviews illustrate the need to identify and analyze existing frameworks/models/theories (F/M/Ts) that focus solely on the sustainability of EBPs in specific healthcare settings, such as acute care, to illuminate key determinants and facilitate appropriate selection to guide practice and research. We conducted a systematic review to extract sustainability frameworks. This involved using two available syntheses of the literature and a systematic search of four databases from January 2015 to July 2018: CINHAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and ProQuest. We included studies published in English, and if they included sustainability F/M/Ts recommended for use in acute care or an unspecified healthcare organization/setting. F/M/Ts explicitly recommended for use in public health and or community settings were excluded. We then conducted a comparative analysis of F/M/Ts using a modified theory analysis approach, to understand the theoretical underpinnings of each F/M/T, their determinants and concepts hypothesized to influence the sustained use of EBPs within an acute care context. Of 2967 identified citations from the 2 available syntheses and the systematic review, 8 F/M/Ts met the inclusion criteria. We identified 37 core factors, of which 16 were recorded as common factors (occurring within 4 or more of the 8 included F/M/Ts). All factors grouped into 7 main themes: innovation, adopters, leadership and management, inner context, inner processes, outer context, and outcomes. This systematic review is the first to include a comprehensive analysis of healthcare sustainability F/M/Ts for the sustained use of EBPs in acute care settings. Findings reveal insights into sustainability as a “process or ongoing stage of use” following initial implementation, suggesting this construct should be added to the definition of sustainability. Results provide a resource of available F/M/Ts and hypothesized factors to consider for acute care team members who are planning or currently implementing EBPs with the goal of improving patient outcomes. It also provides a basis for future research on sustainability in acute care.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Sustainment, Sustainability, and Spread Study (SSaSSy): protocol for a study of factors that contribute to the sustainment, sustainability, and spread of practice changes introduced through an evidence-based quality-improvement intervention in Canadian nursing homes
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Whitney B. Berta; Adrian Wagg; Lisa Cranley; Malcolm B. Doupe; Liane Ginsburg; Matthias Hoben; Lauren MacEachern; Stephanie Chamberlain; Fiona Clement; Adam Easterbrook; Janice M. Keefe; Jennifer Knopp-Sihota; Tim Rappon; Colin Reid; Yuting Song; Carole A. Estabrooks

    Implementation scientists and practitioners, alike, recognize the importance of sustaining practice change, however post-implementation studies of interventions are rare. This is a protocol for the Sustainment, Sustainability and Spread Study (SSaSSy). The purpose of this study is to contribute to knowledge on the sustainment (sustained use), sustainability (sustained benefits), and spread of evidence-based practice innovations in health care. Specifically, this is a post-implementation study of an evidence-informed, Care Aide-led, facilitation-based quality-improvement intervention called SCOPE (Safer Care for Older Persons (in long-term care) Environments). SCOPE has been implemented in nursing homes in the Canadian Provinces of Manitoba (MB), Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC). Our study has three aims: (i) to determine the role that adaptation/contextualization plays in sustainment, sustainability and spread of the SCOPE intervention; (ii) to study the relative effects on sustainment, sustainability and intra-organizational spread of high-intensity and low-intensity post-implementation “boosters”, and a “no booster” condition, and (iii) to compare the relative costs and impacts of each booster condition. SSaSSy is a two-phase mixed methods study. The overarching design is convergent, with qualitative and quantitative data collected over a similar timeframe in each of the two phases, analyzed independently, then merged for analysis and interpretation. Phase 1 is a pilot involving up to 7 units in 7 MB nursing homes in which SCOPE was piloted in 2016 to 2017, in preparation for phase 2. Phase 2 will comprise a quasi-experiment with two treatment groups of low- and high-intensity post-implementation “boosters”, and an untreated control group (no booster), using pretests and post-tests of the dependent variables relating to sustained care and management practices, and resident outcomes. Phase 2 will involve 31 trial sites in BC (17 units) and AB (14 units) nursing homes, where the SCOPE trial concluded in May 2019. This project stands to advance understanding of the factors that influence the sustainment of practice changes introduced through evidence-informed practice change interventions, and their associated sustainability. Findings will inform our understanding of the nature of the relationship of fidelity and adaptation to sustainment and sustainability, and afford insights into factors that influence the intra-organizational spread of practice changes introduced through complex interventions.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Evaluating the implementation of the PACE Steps to Success Programme in long-term care facilities in seven countries according to the RE-AIM framework
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Mariska Oosterveld-Vlug; Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen; Maud ten Koppel; Hein van Hout; Tinne Smets; Lara Pivodic; Marc Tanghe; Nele Van Den Noortgate; Jo Hockley; Sheila Payne; Danni Collingridge Moore; Violetta Kijowska; Katarzyna Szczerbińska; Marika Kylänen; Suvi Leppäaho; Claudia Mercuri; Paola Rossi; Martina Mercuri; Giovanni Gambassi; Catherine Bassal; Emilie Morgan de Paula; Yvonne Engels; Luc Deliens; Lieve Van den Block; H. Roeline Pasman

    The PACE ‘Steps to Success’ programme is a complex educational and development intervention for staff to improve palliative care in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In a cluster randomized controlled trial, this programme has been implemented in 37 LTCFs in 7 European countries. Alongside an effectiveness study, a process evaluation study was conducted. This paper reports on the results of this process evaluation, of which the aim was to provide a more detailed understanding of the implementation of the PACE Programme across and within countries. The process evaluation followed the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and involved various measures and tools, including diaries for country trainers, evaluation questionnaires for care staff, attendance lists and interviews (online and face-to-face, individual and in groups) with country trainers, managers, PACE coordinators and other staff members. Based on key elements of the PACE Programme, a priori criteria for a high, medium and low level of the RE-AIM components Reach, Adoption, Implementation and intention to Maintenance were defined. Qualitative data on factors affecting each RE-AIM component gathered in the online discussion groups and interviews were analysed according to the principles of thematic analysis. The performance of the PACE Programme on the RE-AIM components was highly variable within and across countries, with a high or medium score for in total 28 (out of 37) LTCFs on Reach, for 26 LTCFs on Adoption, for 35 LTCFs on Implementation and for 34 LTCFs on intention to Maintenance. The factors affecting performance on the different RE-AIM components could be classified into three major categories: (1) the PACE Programme itself and its way of delivery, (2) people working with the PACE Programme and (3) contextual factors. Several country-specific challenges in implementing the PACE Programme were identified. The implementation of the PACE Programme was feasible but leaves room for improvement. Our analysis helps to better understand the optimal levels of training and facilitation and provides recommendations to improve implementation in the LTC setting. The results of the process evaluation will be used to further adapt and improve the PACE Programme prior to its further dissemination. The PACE study was registered at www.isrctn.com—ISRCTN14741671 (FP7-HEALTH-2013-INNOVATION-1 603111) July 30, 2015.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Adapting evidence-informed complex population health interventions for new contexts: a systematic review of guidance
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    A. Movsisyan; L. Arnold; R. Evans; B. Hallingberg; G. Moore; A. O’Cathain; L. M. Pfadenhauer; J. Segrott; E. Rehfuess

    Adapting interventions that have worked elsewhere can save resources associated with developing new interventions for each specific context. While a developing body of evidence shows benefits of adapted interventions compared with interventions transported without adaptation, there are also examples of interventions which have been extensively adapted, yet have not worked in the new context. Decisions on when, to what extent, and how to adapt interventions therefore are not straightforward, particularly when conceptualising intervention effects as contingent upon contextual interactions in complex systems. No guidance currently addresses these questions comprehensively. To inform development of an overarching guidance on adaptation of complex population health interventions, this systematic review synthesises the content of the existing guidance papers. We searched for papers published between January 2000 and October 2018 in 7 bibliographic databases. We used citation tracking and contacted authors and experts to locate further papers. We double screened all the identified records. We extracted data into the following categories: descriptive information, key concepts and definitions, rationale for adaptation, aspects of adaptation, process of adaptation, evaluating and reporting adapted interventions. Data extraction was conducted independently by two reviewers, and retrieved data were synthesised thematically within pre-specified and emergent categories. We retrieved 6694 unique records. Thirty-eight papers were included in the review representing 35 sources of guidance. Most papers were developed in the USA in the context of implementing evidence-informed interventions among different population groups within the country, such as minority populations. We found much agreement on how the papers defined key concepts, aims, and procedures of adaptation, including involvement of key stakeholders, but also identified gaps in scope, conceptualisation, and operationalisation in several categories. Our review found limitations that should be addressed in future guidance on adaptation. Specifically, future guidance needs to be reflective of adaptations in the context of transferring interventions across countries, including macro- (e.g. national-) level interventions, better theorise the role of intervention mechanisms and contextual interactions in the replicability of effects and accordingly conceptualise key concepts, such as fidelity to intervention functions, and finally, suggest evidence-informed strategies for adaptation re-evaluation and reporting. PROSPERO 2018, CRD42018112714.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • The effectiveness of guideline implementation strategies in the dental setting: a systematic review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Amy R. Villarosa; Della Maneze; Lucie M. Ramjan; Ravi Srinivas; Michelle Camilleri; Ajesh George

    Guideline implementation has been an ongoing challenge in the dental practice setting. Despite this, there are no reviews summarising the existing evidence regarding effective guideline implementation strategies in this setting. In order to address this, this systematic review examines the effectiveness of guideline implementation strategies in the dental practice setting. A systematic search was undertaken according to the PRISMA statement across nine electronic databases, targeting randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies which evaluated the effectiveness of guideline implementation strategies in improving guideline adherence in the dental setting. All records were independently examined for relevance and appraised for study quality by two authors, with consensus achieved by a third author. Data were extracted from included studies using a standardised data extraction pro forma. A total of 15 records were eligible for inclusion in this review, which focused on the effects of audit and feedback, reminders, education, patient-mediated interventions, pay for performance and multifaceted interventions. Although there were some conflicting evidence, studies within each category of implementation strategy indicated a positive effect on guideline adherence. This study has identified education, reminders and multifaceted interventions as effective implementation strategies for the dental practice setting. Although this is similar to research findings from other health sectors, there is some evidence to suggest patient-mediated interventions may be less effective and pay for performance may be more effective in the dental setting. These findings can inform policy makers, professional associations, colleges and organisations in the future adoption of clinical guidelines in the dental practice setting. This systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), registration ID CRD42018093023.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Process evaluation of a complex intervention to optimize quality of prescribing in nursing homes (COME-ON study)
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Pauline Anrys; Goedele Strauven; Sandrine Roussel; Marie Vande Ginste; Jan De Lepeleire; Veerle Foulon; Anne Spinewine

    The COME-ON study was a cluster-controlled trial of a complex intervention that consisted of a blended training program, local interdisciplinary meetings, and interdisciplinary case conferences in Belgian nursing homes. The intervention was associated with significant improvements in the appropriateness of prescribing. The aims of this study were to describe the implementation of the intervention and to explore the experiences of participants, for the purpose of identifying factors associated with implementation and perceived impact and to draw lessons for future implementation. We performed a mixed-method process evaluation. Questionnaires and reports were used to collect quantitative data on implementation and experiences from the 24 NHs and participating healthcare professionals (coordinating physicians, general practitioners, pharmacists, and nurses) in the intervention group. Multidisciplinary focus groups focusing on factors associated with implementation and perceived impact were conducted in 11 NHs. Overall, the rate of implementation and the satisfaction of participants were good, despite some variability between NHs and HCPs. Although perceived impact on nursing home residents varied, most participants perceived a positive impact for themselves. Factors associated with implementation and perceived impact were identified at different levels: intervention, healthcare professionals, organization, and external context. The interdisciplinary and face-to-face approaches were recognized as key elements for the success of the intervention, despite organizational constraints. The attitude of general practitioners was identified both as a barrier to and a facilitator for implementation and its success. The professional role and competency of the pharmacist influenced perceived impact. The pre-existing relationships between HCPs and the presence of a leader facilitated implementation and perceived impact. Remuneration was deemed necessary for the study and for future implementation. Overall, the intervention, and more specifically its interdisciplinary aspect, was well implemented and appreciated by HCPs. This probably contributed to the positive effect on the appropriateness of prescribing. Future implementation must take into account the various factors found to affect implementation and perceived impact, in order to maximize effect and sustainability. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66138978; registered 18 November 2015, retrospectively registered, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN66138978

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Harnessing the power of theorising in implementation science
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Roman Kislov; Catherine Pope; Graham P. Martin; Paul M. Wilson

    Theories occupy different positions in the scientific circle of enquiry as they vary in scope, abstraction, and complexity. Mid-range theories play a crucial bridging role between raw empirical observations and all-encompassing grand-theoretical schemes. A shift of perspective from ‘theories’ as products to ‘theorising’ as a process can enable empirical researchers to capitalise on the two-way relationships between empirical data and different levels of theory and contribute to the advancement of knowledge. This can be facilitated by embracing theoretically informative (in addition to merely theoretically informed) research, developing mechanism-based explanations, and broadening the repertoire of grand-theoretical orientations.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Does increased implementation support improve community clinics’ guideline-concordant care? Results of a mixed methods, pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Rachel Gold; Arwen Bunce; Stuart Cowburn; James V. Davis; Joan C. Nelson; Christine A. Nelson; Elisabeth Hicks; Deborah J. Cohen; Michael A. Horberg; Gerardo Melgar; James W. Dearing; Janet Seabrook; Ned Mossman; Joanna Bulkley

    Disseminating care guidelines into clinical practice remains challenging, partly due to inadequate evidence on how best to help clinics incorporate new guidelines into routine care. This is particularly true in safety net community health centers (CHCs). This pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial used a parallel mixed methods design. Twenty-nine CHC clinics were randomized to receive increasingly intensive implementation support (implementation toolkit (arm 1); toolkit + in-person training + training webinars (arm 2); toolkit + training + webinars + offered practice facilitation (arm 3)) targeting uptake of electronic health record (EHR) tools focused on guideline-concordant cardioprotective prescribing for patients with diabetes. Outcomes were compared across study arms, to test whether increased support yielded additive improvements, and with 137 non-study CHCs that share the same EHR as the study clinics. Quantitative data from the CHCs’ EHR were used to compare the magnitude of change in guideline-concordant ACE/ARB and statin prescribing, using adjusted Poisson regressions. Qualitative data collected using diverse methods (e.g., interviews, observations) identified factors influencing the quantitative outcomes. Outcomes at CHCs receiving higher-intensity support did not improve in an additive pattern. ACE/ARB prescribing did not improve in any CHC group. Statin prescribing improved overall and was significantly greater only in the arm 1 and arm 2 CHCs compared with the non-study CHCs. Factors influencing the finding of no additive impact included: aspects of the EHR tools that reduced their utility, barriers to providing the intended implementation support, and study design elements, e.g., inability to adapt the provided support. Factors influencing overall improvements in statin outcomes likely included a secular trend in awareness of statin prescribing guidelines, selection bias where motivated clinics volunteered for the study, and study participation focusing clinic staff on the targeted outcomes. Efforts to implement care guidelines should: ensure adaptability when providing implementation support and conduct formative evaluations to determine the optimal form of such support for a given clinic; consider how study data collection influences adoption; and consider barriers to clinics’ ability to use/accept implementation support as planned. More research is needed on supporting change implementation in under-resourced settings like CHCs. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02325531. Registered 15 December 2014.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The impact of basic vs. enhanced Go NAPSACC on child care centers’ healthy eating and physical activity practices: protocol for a type 3 hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster-randomized trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Amber E. Vaughn; Christina R. Studts; Byron J. Powell; Alice S. Ammerman; Justin G. Trogdon; Geoffrey M. Curran; Derek Hales; Erik Willis; Dianne S. Ward

    To prevent childhood obesity and promote healthy development, health authorities recommend that child care programs use the evidence-based practices that foster healthy eating and physical habits in children. Go NAPSACC is an intervention shown to improve use of these recommended practices, but it is known to encounter barriers that limit its impact and widespread use. This study will use a type 3 hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster-randomized trial to compare effectiveness and implementation outcomes achieved from Go NAPSACC delivered with a basic or enhanced implementation approach. Participants will include approximately 25 coaches from Child Care Aware of Kentucky (serving four geographic regions), 97 child care centers with a director and teacher from each and two cross-sectional samples of 485 3–4-year-old children (one recruitment at baseline, another at follow-up). Coaches will be randomly assigned to deliver Go NAPSACC using either the basic or enhanced implementation approach. “Basic Go NAPSACC” represents the traditional way of delivering Go NAPSACC. “Enhanced Go NAPSACC” incorporates preparatory and support activities before and during their Go NAPSACC work, which are guided by the Quality Implementation Framework and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Data will be collected primarily at baseline and post-intervention, with select measures continuing through 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. Guided largely by RE-AIM, outcomes will assess change in centers’ use of evidence-based nutrition and physical activity practices (primary, measured via observation); centers’ adoption, implementation, and maintenance of the Go NAPSACC program (assessed via website use); center directors’, teachers’, and coaches’ perceptions of contextual factors (assessed via self-report surveys); children’s eating and physical activity behaviors at child care (measured via observation and accelerometers); and cost-effectiveness (assessed via logs and expense tracking). The hypotheses anticipate that “Enhanced Go NAPSACC” will have greater effects than “Basic Go NAPSACC.” This study incorporates many lessons gleaned from the growing implementation science field, but also offers opportunities to address the field’s research priorities, including applying a systematic method to tailor implementation strategies, examining the processes and mechanisms through which implementation strategies produce their effects, and conducting an economic evaluation of implementation strategies. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03938103, Registered April 8, 2019

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • How do researchers conceptualize and plan for the sustainability of their NIH R01 implementation projects?
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Alekhya Mascarenhas Johnson; Julia E. Moore; David A. Chambers; Jennifer Rup; Camellia Dinyarian; Sharon E. Straus

    Inadequate sustainability of implementation of evidence-based interventions has led to calls for research on how sustainability can be optimized. To advance our understanding of intervention sustainability, we explored how implementation researchers conceptualized and planned for the sustainability of their implemented interventions with studies funded by the United States (US) National Institutes of Health (NIH). We used sequential, mixed methods to explore how researchers conceptualized and planned for the sustainability of the health interventions using (1) a document review of all active and completed US NIH R01 Grants and Equivalents reviewed within the Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health (DIRH) Study Section between 2004 and 2016 and (2) a qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with NIH R01 DIRH grant recipients. We found 277 R01 profiles within the DIRH study section listed on the US NIH RePORTER website including 84 that were eligible for screening. Of the 84 unique projects, 76 (90.5%) had primary implementation outcomes. Of the 76 implementation project profiles, 51 (67.1%) made references to sustainability and none referred to sustainability planning. In both profiles and interviews, researchers conceptualized sustainability primarily as the continued delivery of interventions, programs, or implementation strategies. Few researchers referenced frameworks with sustainability constructs and offered limited information on how they operationalized frameworks. Researchers described broad categories of approaches and strategies to promote sustainability and key factors that may influence researchers to plan for sustainability, such as personal beliefs, self-efficacy, perception of their role, and the challenges of the grant funding system. We explored how US NIH R01 DIRH grant recipients conceptualized and planned for the sustainability of their interventions. Our results identified the need to test, consolidate, and provide guidance on how to operationalize sustainability frameworks, and to develop strategies on how funders and researchers can advance sustainability research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation of change in health care in Sweden: a qualitative study of professionals’ change responses
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Per Nilsen; Kristina Schildmeijer; Carin Ericsson; Ida Seing; Sarah Birken

    Implementation of evidence-based practices in health care implies change. Understanding health care professionals’ change responses may be critical for facilitating implementation to achieve an evidence-based practice in the rapidly changing health care environment. The aim of this study was to investigate health care professionals’ responses to organizational and workplace changes that have affected their work. We conducted interviews with 30 health care professionals (physicians, registered nurses and assistant nurses) employed in the Swedish health care system. An inductive approach was applied, using a semi-structured interview guide developed by the authors. We used an analytical framework first published in 1999 to analyze the informants’ change responses in which change responses are perceived as a continuum ranging from a strong acceptance of change to strong resistance to change, describing seven forms of change responses along this continuum. Change response is conceptualized as a tridimensional attitude composed of three components: cognitive, affective and intentional/behavioral. Analysis of the data yielded 10 types of change responses, which could be mapped onto 5 of the 7 change response categories in the framework. Participants did not report change responses that corresponded with the two most extreme forms of responses in the framework, i.e., commitment and aggressive resistance. Most of the change responses were classified as either indifference or passive resistance to changes. Involvement in or support for changes occurred when the health care professionals initiated the changes themselves or when the changes featured their active input and when changes were seen as well founded and well communicated. We did not identify any change responses that could not be fitted into the framework. We found the framework to be useful for a nuanced understanding of how people respond to changes. This knowledge of change responses is useful for the management of changes and for efforts to achieve more successful implementation of evidence-based practices in health care.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Attributes of context relevant to healthcare professionals’ use of research evidence in clinical practice: a multi-study analysis
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Janet E. Squires; Laura D. Aloisio; Jeremy M. Grimshaw; Kainat Bashir; Kristin Dorrance; Mary Coughlin; Alison M. Hutchinson; Jill Francis; Susan Michie; Anne Sales; Jamie Brehaut; Janet Curran; Noah Ivers; John Lavis; Thomas Noseworthy; Jocelyn Vine; Michael Hillmer; Ian D. Graham

    To increase the likelihood of successful implementation of evidence-based practices, researchers, knowledge users, and healthcare professionals must consider aspects of context that promote and hinder implementation in their setting. The purpose of the current study was to identify contextual attributes and their features relevant to implementation by healthcare professionals and compare and contrast these attributes and features across different clinical settings and healthcare professional roles. We conducted a secondary analysis of 145 semi-structured interviews comprising 11 studies (10 from Canada and one from Australia) investigating healthcare professionals’ perceived barriers and enablers to their use of research evidence in clinical practice. The data was collected using semi-structured interview guides informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework across different healthcare professional roles, settings, and practices. We analyzed these data inductively, using constant comparative analysis, to identify attributes of context and their features reported in the interviews. We compared these data by (1) setting (primary care, hospital-medical/surgical, hospital-emergency room, hospital-critical care) and (2) professional role (physicians and residents, nurses and organ donor coordinators). We identified 62 unique features of context, which we categorized under 14 broader attributes of context. The 14 attributes were resource access, work structure, patient characteristics, professional role, culture, facility characteristics, system features, healthcare professional characteristics, financial, collaboration, leadership, evaluation, regulatory or legislative standards, and societal influences. We found instances of the majority (n = 12, 86%) of attributes of context across multiple (n = 6 or more) clinical behaviors. We also found little variation in the 14 attributes of context by setting (primary care and hospitals) and professional role (physicians and residents, and nurses and organ donor coordinators). There was considerable consistency in the 14 attributes identified irrespective of the clinical behavior, setting, or professional role, supporting broad utility of the attributes of context identified in this study. There was more variation in the finer-grained features of these attributes with the most substantial variation being by setting.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Using a continuum of hybrid effectiveness-implementation studies to put research-tested colorectal screening interventions into practice
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Beverly B. Green; Gloria D. Coronado; Malaika Schwartz; Jen Coury; Laura-Mae Baldwin

    Few previous studies have applied the hybrid effectiveness-implementation design framework to illustrate the way in which an intervention was progressively implemented and evaluated across multiple studies in diverse settings. We describe the design components and methodologies of three studies that sought to improve rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using mailed outreach, and apply domains put forth by Curran et al.: research aims, research questions, comparison conditions, sample, evaluation methods, measures, and potential challenges. The Hybrid 1 study (emphasis on effectiveness) was a patient-level randomized trial of a mailed fecal test and stepped phone-outreach intervention program delivered in an integrated healthcare system (21 clinics, 4673 patients). The primary outcome was effectiveness (CRC screening uptake). Implementation outcomes included cost-effectiveness and acceptability. The Hybrid 2 study (shared emphasis on effectiveness and implementation) was a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial of mailed fecal immunochemical test (FIT) outreach implemented at safety net clinics (26 clinics, 41,000 patients). The intervention used electronic health record tools (adapted from Hybrid 1) and clinic personnel to deliver the intervention. Outcomes included effectiveness (FIT completion) and implementation (FIT kits delivered, clinic barriers and facilitators, cost-effectiveness). Hybrid 3 study (emphasis on implementation) is a demonstration project being conducted by two Medicaid/Medicare insurance plans (2 states, 12,000 patients) comparing two strategies for implementing mailed FIT programs that addressed Hybrid 2 implementation barriers. Outcomes include implementation (activities delivered, barriers) and effectiveness (FIT completion). The effectiveness-implementation typology successfully identified a number of distinguishing features between the three studies. Two additional features, program design and program delivery, varied across our studies, and we propose adding them to the current typology. Program design and program delivery reflect the process by which and by whom a program is designed and delivered (e.g., research staff vs. clinic/health plan staff). We describe three studies that demonstrate the hybrid effectiveness to implementation continuum and make recommendations for expanding the hybrid typology to include new descriptive features. Additional comparisons of Hybrid 1, 2, and 3 studies may help confirm whether our hybrid typology refinements are generalizable markers of the pipeline from research to practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The influence of a blended, theoretically-informed pre-implementation strategy on school-based clinician implementation of an evidence-based trauma intervention
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Aaron R. Lyon; Clayton R. Cook; Mylien T. Duong; Semret Nicodimos; Michael D. Pullmann; Stephanie K. Brewer; Larissa M. Gaias; Shanon Cox

    Individual-level implementation determinants, such as clinician attitudes, commonly influence the successful adoption of evidence-based practices, but few explicit strategies have been tested with regard to their ability to impact these key mechanisms of change. This paper reports on an initial test of a blended, theoretically informed pre-implementation strategy designed to target malleable individual-level determinants of behavior change. Beliefs and Attitudes for Successful Implementation in Schools (BASIS) is a brief and pragmatic pre-implementation strategy that uses strategic education, social influence techniques, and group-based motivational interviewing to target implementation attitudes, perceived social norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to implement among mental health clinicians working in the education sector. As part of a pilot trial, 25 school mental health clinicians were randomized to BASIS (n = 12) or an attention control placebo (n = 13), with both conditions receiving training and consultation in an evidence-based intervention for youth experiencing trauma (the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools). Theorized mechanisms of change (attitudes, perceived social norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions) were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 4-month follow-up. Clinician participation in post-training consultation and intervention adoption were also tracked. A series of regression models and independent sample t tests indicated that BASIS had significant, medium to large effects on the majority of its proximal mechanisms from baseline to post-training. BASIS was also associated with a greater latency between initial training in the intervention and discontinuation of participation in post-training consultation, with clinicians in the BASIS condition persisting in consultation for an average of 134 days versus 32 days for controls, but this difference was not statistically significant. At 4-month follow-up, most differences in the theorized mechanisms had attenuated, and approximately the same small number of BASIS clinicians adopted the trauma intervention as controls. Findings suggest that the brief BASIS pre-implementation strategy had a significant influence on its proximal mechanisms of change, but that these changes did not persist over time or translate into adoption of the trauma intervention. Implications for theory refinement, revisions to the BASIS protocol, and next steps for research surrounding individual-level implementation strategies are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03791281 . Registered 31 December 2018—Retrospectively registered

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Improving care for elderly patients living with polypharmacy: protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized trial in community-based primary care practices in Canada
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    M. Greiver; S. Dahrouge; P. O’Brien; D. Manca; M. T. Lussier; J. Wang; F. Burge; M. Grandy; A. Singer; M. Twohig; R. Moineddin; S. Kalia; B. Aliarzadeh; N. Ivers; S. Garies; J. P. Turner; B. Farrell

    Elders living with polypharmacy may be taking medications that do not benefit them. Polypharmacy can be associated with elevated risks of poor health, reduced quality of life, high care costs, and persistently complex care needs. While many medications could be problematic, this project targets medications that should be deprescribed for most elders and for which guidelines and evidence-based deprescribing tools are available. These are termed potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) and are as follows: proton pump inhibitors, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and sulfonylureas. Implementation strategies for deprescribing PIPs in complex older patient populations are needed. This will be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices across Canada. Eligible practices provide comprehensive primary care and have at least one physician that consents to participate. Community-dwelling patients aged 65 years and older with ten or more unique medication prescriptions in the past year will be included. The objective is to assess whether the intervention reduces targeted PIPs for these patients compared with usual care. The intervention, Structured Process Informed by Data, Evidence and Research (SPIDER), is a collaboration between quality improvement (QI) and research programs. Primary care teams will form interprofessional Learning Collaboratives and work with QI coaches to review electronic medical record data provided by their regional Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs), identify areas of improvement, and develop and implement changes. The study will be tested for feasibility in three PBRNs (Toronto, Montreal, and Edmonton) using prospective single-arm mixed methods. Findings will then guide a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in five PBRNs (Calgary, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Montreal, and Halifax). Seven practices per PBRN will be recruited for each arm. The analysis will be by intention to treat. Ten percent of patients who have at least one PIP at baseline will be randomly selected to participate in the assessment of patient experience and self-reported outcomes. Qualitative methods will be used to explore patient and physician experience and evaluate SPIDER’s processes. We are testing SPIDER in a primary care population with complex care needs. This could provide a widely applicable model for care improvement. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03689049 ; registered September 28, 2018

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Variation in the operationalisation of dose in implementation of health promotion interventions: insights and recommendations from a scoping review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Samantha Rowbotham; Kathleen Conte; Penelope Hawe

    While ‘dose’ is broadly understood as the ‘amount’ of an intervention, there is considerable variation in how this concept is defined. How we conceptualise, and subsequently measure, the dose of interventions has important implications for understanding how interventions produce their effects and are subsequently resourced and scaled up. This paper aims to explore the degree to which dose is currently understood as a distinct and well-defined implementation concept outside of clinical settings. We searched four databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews and Global Health) to identify original research articles published between 2000 and 2015 on health promotion interventions that contained the word ‘dose’ or ‘dosage’ in the title, abstract or keywords. We identified 130 articles meeting inclusion criteria and extracted data on how dose/dosage was defined and operationalised, which we then synthesised to reveal key themes in the use of this concept across health promotion interventions. Dose was defined in a variety of ways, including in relation to the amount of intervention delivered and/or received, the level of participation in the intervention and, in some instances, the quality of intervention delivery. We also observed some conflation of concepts that are traditionally kept separate (such as fidelity) either as slippage or as part of composite measures (such as ‘intervention dose’). Dose is not a well-defined or consistently applied concept in evaluations of health promotion interventions. While current approaches to conceptualisation and measurement of dose are suitable for interventions in organisational settings, they are less well suited to policies delivered at a population level. Dose often accompanies a traditional monotonic linear view of causality (e.g. dose response) which may or may not fully represent the intervention’s theory of how change is brought about. Finally, we found dose and dosage to be used interchangeably. We recommend a distinction between these terms, with ‘dosage’ having the advantage of capturing change to amount ‘dispensed’ over time (in response to effects achieved). Dosage therefore acknowledges the inevitable dynamic and complexity of implementation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evidence-based intervention sustainability strategies: a systematic review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Maji Hailemariam; Tatiana Bustos; Barrett Montgomery; Rolando Barajas; Luther B. Evans; Amy Drahota

    Sustainability of evidence-based interventions (EBI) remains a challenge for public health community-based institutions. The conceptual definition of sustainment is not universally agreed upon by researchers and practitioners, and strategies utilized to facilitate sustainment of EBI are not consistently reported in published literature. Given these limitations in the field, a systematic review was conducted to summarize the existing evidence supporting discrete sustainment strategies for public health EBIs and facilitating and hindering factors of sustainment. We searched PsychINFO, Embase, ProQuest, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The initial search was run in March 2017 and an update was done in March 2019. Study eligibility criteria included (a) public health evidence-based interventions, (b) conducted in the community or community-based settings, and (c) reported outcomes related to EBI sustainment. Details characterizing the study setting, design, target population, and type of EBI sustained were extracted. A total of 26 articles published from 2004 to 2019 were eligible for data extraction. Overall, the importance of sustainability was acknowledged across all of the studies. However, only seven studies presented a conceptual definition of sustainment explicitly within the text. Six of the included studies reported specific sustainment strategies that were used to facilitate the sustainment of EBI. Only three of the studies reported their activities related to sustainment by referencing a sustainment framework. Multiple facilitators (i.e., adaptation/alignment, funding) and barriers (i.e., limited funding, limited resources) were identified as influencing EBI sustainment. The majority (n = 20) of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Studies from low-income countries were mostly naturalistic. All of the studies from low-income countries reported lack of funding as a hindrance to sustainment. Literature focused on sustainment of public health EBIs should present an explicit definition of the concept. Better reporting of the framework utilized, steps followed, and adaptations made to sustain the intervention might contribute to standardizing and developing the concept. Moreover, encouraging longitudinal dissemination and implementation (D&I) research especially in low-income countries might help strengthen D&I research capacity in public health settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The FRAME: an expanded framework for reporting adaptations and modifications to evidence-based interventions
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Shannon Wiltsey Stirman; Ana A. Baumann; Christopher J. Miller

    This paper describes the process and results of a refinement of a framework to characterize modifications to interventions. The original version did not fully capture several aspects of modification and adaptation that may be important to document and report. Additionally, the earlier framework did not include a way to differentiate cultural adaptation from adaptations made for other reasons. Reporting additional elements will allow for a more precise understanding of modifications, the process of modifying or adapting, and the relationship between different forms of modification and subsequent health and implementation outcomes. We employed a multifaceted approach to develop the updated FRAME involving coding documents identified through a literature review, rapid coding of qualitative interviews, and a refinement process informed by multiple stakeholders. The updated FRAME expands upon Stirman et al.’s original framework by adding components of modification to report: (1) when and how in the implementation process the modification was made, (2) whether the modification was planned/proactive (i.e., an adaptation) or unplanned/reactive, (3) who determined that the modification should be made, (4) what is modified, (5) at what level of delivery the modification is made, (6) type or nature of context or content-level modifications, (7) the extent to which the modification is fidelity-consistent, and (8) the reasons for the modification, including (a) the intent or goal of the modification (e.g., to reduce costs) and (b) contextual factors that influenced the decision. Methods of using the framework to assess modifications are outlined, along with their strengths and weaknesses, and considerations for research to validate these measurement strategies. The updated FRAME includes consideration of when and how modifications occurred, whether it was planned or unplanned, relationship to fidelity, and reasons and goals for modification. This tool that can be used to support research on the timing, nature, goals and reasons for, and impact of modifications to evidence-based interventions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Addressing challenges in scaling up TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa (SUTHI): a cluster randomized controlled trial protocol
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Kogieleum Naidoo; Santhanalakshmi Gengiah; Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma; Nesri Padayatchi; Pierre Barker; Andrew Nunn; Priashni Subrayen; Salim S. Abdool Karim

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in the wording of the study hypothesis. The error occurs in the Aims and Objectives sub-section of the Methods section and is highlighted in bold below.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Testing an implementation strategy bundle on adoption and sustainability of evidence to optimize physical function in community-dwelling disabled and older adults in a Medicaid waiver: a multi-site pragmatic hybrid type III protocol
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Sandra L. Spoelstra; Monica Schueller; Alla Sikorskii

    In partnership with a state Medicaid home and community-based waiver program, this study tests implementation strategies for adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based intervention to support disabled and older adults who have difficulty with physical function and daily living tasks. A multi-level implementation strategy bundle will be directed at relationship, coalition, and team building; readiness to implement, leadership, and clinician attitude toward evidence assessments; intervention and facilitation training; interdisciplinary coordination; facilitation; and audit and feedback to support practice change. Knowledge-to-Action model underpins this 2-arm, 3-year pragmatic mixed method randomized hybrid type III trial in 18 waiver program sites in Michigan. Data will be collected on sites, 775 clinicians (registered nurses, occupational therapists, social workers), and 15,000 disabled and older adults. Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guides examination of site, clinician, and beneficiary characteristics; clinician attitude and self-efficacy; leadership and readiness to implement; and intervention impact on beneficiary outcomes. Sites will be randomized to either usual waiver care with internal facilitation of the bundle of implementation strategies or usual waiver care with both internal and external facilitation of the bundle. Primary outcomes are site-level adoption and sustainability over 12 months, and intervention effects on these outcomes are hypothesized to be mediated by clinicians’ attitude and self-efficacy. At the beneficiary level, by addressing the individual’s capabilities and home environment, the intervention is hypothesized to improve secondary outcomes of activities of daily living, pain, depression, falls, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations. Baseline site readiness and leadership and stages of implementation at 6 months will be explored as potential moderators. Linear mixed effects models will be used to test intervention effects on primary outcomes, with bias-correcting analytic strategy in mediation analyses. Generalized linear mixed effects modeling will be employed for the analysis of intervention effects on secondary outcomes. Synthesizing findings within and across the sites, we will specify how leadership, readiness for change, and level of facilitation enhance capacity for adoption and sustainability of an evidence-based intervention in an under-resourced Medicaid setting that cares for disabled and older adults. ClinitalTrials.gov , NCT03634033 . Registered 16 August 2018.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • What is the impact of large-scale implementation of stroke Early Supported Discharge? A mixed methods realist evaluation study protocol
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Rebecca Fisher; Niki Chouliara; Adrian Byrne; Sarah Lewis; Peter Langhorne; Thompson Robinson; Justin Waring; Claudia Geue; Alex Hoffman; Lizz Paley; Anthony Rudd; Marion Walker

    Stroke Early Supported Discharge (ESD) is a service innovation that facilitates discharge from hospital and delivery of specialist rehabilitation in patients’ homes. There is currently widespread implementation of ESD services in many countries, driven by robust clinical trial evidence. In England, the type of ESD service patients receive on the ground is variable, and in some regions, ESD is still not offered at all. This protocol presents a study designed to investigate the mechanisms and outcomes of implementing ESD at scale in real-world conditions. This will help to establish which models of ESD are most effective and in what context. A realist evaluation approach composed of two interlinking work packages will be adopted to investigate how and why ESD works, for whom and in what circumstances. Work package 1 (WP1) will begin with a rapid evidence synthesis to formulate preliminary realist hypotheses. Quantitative analyses of historical prospective Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme (SSNAP) data will be performed to evaluate service outcomes based on the degree to which evidence-based ESD has been implemented. Work package 2 (WP2) will involve the qualitative investigation of purposively selected case study sites featuring in WP1 and covering different regions in England. The perspectives of clinicians, managers, commissioners, and service users will be explored qualitatively. Cost implications of ESD models will be examined using a cost-consequence analysis. Cross-case comparisons and triangulation of the data sources from both work packages will be performed to test, revise, and refine initial programme theories and address research aims. This study will investigate whether and how current large-scale implementation of ESD is achieving the outcomes suggested by the evidence base. The theory-driven evaluation approach will highlight key mechanisms and contextual conditions necessary to optimise outcomes and allow us to draw transferable lessons to inform the effective implementation and sustainability of ESD in clinical practice. In addition, the methodological framework will progress the theoretical understanding of implementation and evaluation of complex rehabilitation interventions in stroke care. ISRCTN: 15568163, registration date: 26 October 2018.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Improving HIV service delivery for people who inject drugs in Kazakhstan: study protocol for the Bridge stepped-wedge trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Tara McCrimmon; Louisa Gilbert; Timothy Hunt; Assel Terlikbayeva; Elwin Wu; Meruyert Darisheva; Sholpan Primbetova; Azamat Kuskulov; Alissa Davis; Anindita Dasgupta; Bruce R. Schackman; Lisa R. Metsch; Daniel J. Feaster; Baurzhan Baiserkin; Nabila El-Bassel

    People who inject drugs (PWID) in Kazakhstan face many barriers to HIV testing as well as to accessing HIV care, to retention in HIV care, and to initiating and adhering to anti-retroviral treatment (ART). Needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are an opportune setting for integrated interventions to link PWID to HIV care. This Hybrid Type II study employs a stepped-wedge design to evaluate both effectiveness and implementation outcomes of Bridge, an intervention to identify, test, and link HIV-positive PWID to HIV care. The study is conducted at 24 NSPs in three different regions of Kazakhstan, to assess outcomes on the individual, organizational, and policy levels. This trial responds to an identified need for new models of HIV service delivery for PWID through harm reduction settings. NCT02796027 on June 10, 2016.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The clinician crowdsourcing challenge: using participatory design to seed implementation strategies
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Rebecca E. Stewart; Nathaniel Williams; Y. Vivian Byeon; Alison Buttenheim; Sriram Sridharan; Kelly Zentgraf; David T. Jones; Katelin Hoskins; Molly Candon; Rinad S. Beidas

    In healthcare settings, system and organization leaders often control the selection and design of implementation strategies even though frontline workers may have the most intimate understanding of the care delivery process, and factors that optimize and constrain evidence-based practice implementation within the local system. Innovation tournaments, a structured participatory design strategy to crowdsource ideas, are a promising approach to participatory design that may increase the effectiveness of implementation strategies by involving end users (i.e., clinicians). We utilized a system-wide innovation tournament to garner ideas from clinicians about how to enhance the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) within a large public behavioral health system. Our innovation tournament occurred in three phases. First, we invited over 500 clinicians to share, through a web-based platform, their ideas regarding how their organizations could best support use of EBPs. Clinicians could rate and comment on ideas submitted by others. Second, submissions were judged by an expert panel (including behavioral scientists, system leaders, and payers) based on their rated enthusiasm for the idea. Third, we held a community-facing event during which the six clinicians who submitted winning ideas presented their strategies to 85 attendees representing a cross-section of clinicians and system and organizational leaders. We had a high rate of participation (12.3%), more than double the average rate of previous tournaments conducted in other settings (5%). A total of 65 ideas were submitted by 55 participants representing 38 organizations. The most common categories of ideas pertained to training (42%), financing and compensation (26%), clinician support and preparation tools (22%), and EBP-focused supervision (17%). The expert panel and clinicians differed on their ratings of the ideas, highlighting value of seeking input from multiple stakeholder groups when developing implementation strategies. Innovation tournaments are a useful and feasible methodology for engaging end users, system leaders, and behavioral scientists through a structured approach to developing implementation strategies. The process and resultant strategies engendered significant enthusiasm and engagement from participants at all levels of a healthcare system. Research is needed to compare the effectiveness of strategies developed through innovation tournaments to strategies developed through design approaches.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Investigating midwives’ barriers and facilitators to multiple health promotion practice behaviours: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Julie M. McLellan; Ronan E. O’Carroll; Helen Cheyne; Stephan U. Dombrowski

    In addition to their more traditional clinical role, midwives are expected to perform various health promotion practice behaviours (HePPBes) such as informing pregnant women about the benefits of physical activity during pregnancy and asking women about their alcohol consumption. There is evidence to suggest several barriers exist to performing HePPBes. The aim of the study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators midwives perceive to undertaking HePPBes. The research compromised of two studies. Study 1: midwives based in a community setting (N = 11) took part in semi-structured interviews underpinned by the theoretical domains framework (TDF). Interviews were analysed using a direct content analysis approach to identify important barriers or facilitators to undertaking HePPBes. Study 2: midwives (N = 505) completed an online questionnaire assessing views on their HePPBes including free text responses (n = 61) which were coded into TDF domains. Study 2 confirmed and supplemented the barriers and facilitators identified in study 1. Midwives’ perceived a multitude of barriers and facilitators to carrying out HePPBes. Key barriers were requirements to perform an increasing amount of HePPBes on top of existing clinical work load, midwives’ cognitive resources, the quality of relationships with pregnant women, a lack of continuity of care and difficulty accessing appropriate training. Key facilitators included midwives’ motivation to support pregnant women to address their health. Study 1 highlighted strategies that midwives use to overcome the barriers they face in carrying out their HePPBes. Despite high levels of motivation to carry out their health promotion practice, midwives perceive numerous barriers to carrying out these tasks in a timely and effective manner. Interventions that support midwives by addressing key barriers and facilitators to help pregnant women address their health behaviours are urgently needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Scaling Up Safer Birth Bundle Through Quality Improvement in Nepal (SUSTAIN)—a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in public hospitals
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Rejina Gurung; Anjani Kumar Jha; Susheel Pyakurel; Abhishek Gurung; Helena Litorp; Johan Wrammert; Bijay Kumar Jha; Prajwal Paudel; Syed Moshfiqur Rahman; Honey Malla; Srijana Sharma; Manish Gautam; Jorgen Erland Linde; Md Moinuddin; Uwe Ewald; Mats Målqvist; Anna Axelin; Ashish KC

    Each year, 2.2 million intrapartum-related deaths (intrapartum stillbirths and first day neonatal deaths) occur worldwide with 99% of them taking place in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the accelerated increase in the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities in these settings, the stillborn and neonatal mortality rates have not reduced proportionately. Poor quality of care in health facilities is attributed to two-thirds of these deaths. Improving quality of care during the intrapartum period needs investments in evidence-based interventions. We aim to evaluate the quality improvement package—Scaling Up Safer Bundle Through Quality Improvement in Nepal (SUSTAIN)—on intrapartum care and intrapartum-related mortality in public hospitals of Nepal. We will conduct a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in eight public hospitals with each having least 3000 deliveries a year. Each hospital will represent a cluster with an intervention transition period of 2 months in each. With a level of significance of 95%, the statistical power of 90% and an intra-cluster correlation of 0.00015, a study period of 19 months should detect at least a 15% change in intrapartum-related mortality. Quality improvement training, mentoring, systematic feedback, and a continuous improvement cycle will be instituted based on bottleneck analyses in each hospital. All concerned health workers will be trained on standard basic neonatal resuscitation and essential newborn care. Portable fetal heart monitors (Moyo®) and neonatal heart rate monitors (Neobeat®) will be introduced in the hospitals to identify fetal distress during labor and to improve neonatal resuscitation. Independent research teams will collect data in each hospital on intervention inputs, processes, and outcomes by reviewing records and carrying out observations and interviews. The dose-response effect will be evaluated through process evaluations. With the global momentum to improve quality of intrapartum care, better understanding of QI package within a health facility context is important. The proposed package is based on experiences from a similar previous scale-up trial carried out in Nepal. The proposed evaluation will provide evidence on QI package and technology for implementation and scale up in similar settings. ISRCTN16741720 . Registered on 2 March 2019.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Training in Implementation Practice Leadership (TRIPLE): evaluation of a novel practice change strategy in behavioral health organizations
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Enola Proctor; Alex T. Ramsey; Matthew T. Brown; Sara Malone; Cole Hooley; Virginia McKay

    Effective leadership for organizational change is critical to the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). As organizational leaders in behavioral health organizations often are promoted from within the agency for their long-standing, effective work as counselors, they may lack formal training in leadership, management, or practice change. This study assesses a novel implementation leadership training designed to promote leadership skills and successful organizational change specific to EBP implementation. We conducted a pre-post outcome evaluation of the Training in Implementation Practice Leadership (TRIPLE), delivered via three in-person, half-day training sessions, with interim coaching and technical support. Sixteen mid-level leaders (75% female, 94% Caucasian, mean age 37 years) from 8 substance abuse treatment agencies participated. Professional roles included clinical managers, quality improvement coordinators, and program directors. Participants completed surveys prior to the first and following the final session. At both time points, measures included the Implementation Leadership Scale, Implementation Climate Scale, and Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change Scale. At post-test, we added the Training Acceptability and Appropriateness Scale (TAAS), assessing participant satisfaction with the training. Qualitative interviews were conducted 6 to 8 months after the training. Most participants (86% and 79%, respectively) reported increased implementation leadership skills and implementation climate; paired samples t tests indicated these pre-post increases were statistically significant. Implementation leadership scores improved most markedly on the Proactive and Knowledgeable subscales. For implementation climate, participants reported the greatest increases in educational support and recognition for using EBP. Post-test scores on the TAAS also indicated that participants found the training program to be highly acceptable and appropriate for their needs. Qualitative results supported positive outcomes of training that resulted in both increased organizational implementation as well as leadership skills of participants. This training program represents an innovative, effective, and well-received implementation strategy for emerging behavioral healthcare leaders seeking to adopt or improve the delivery of EBPs. Reported implementation leadership skills and implementation climate improved following the training program, suggesting that TRIPLE may have helped fulfill a critical need for emerging behavioral healthcare leaders.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A repeated cross-sectional study of clinicians’ use of psychotherapy techniques during 5 years of a system-wide effort to implement evidence-based practices in Philadelphia
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Rinad S. Beidas; Nathaniel J. Williams; Emily M. Becker-Haimes; Gregory A. Aarons; Frances K. Barg; Arthur C. Evans; Kamilah Jackson; David Jones; Trevor Hadley; Kimberly Hoagwood; Steven C. Marcus; Geoffrey Neimark; Ronnie M. Rubin; Sonja K. Schoenwald; Danielle R. Adams; Lucia M. Walsh; Kelly Zentgraf; David S. Mandell

    Little work investigates the effect of behavioral health system efforts to increase use of evidence-based practices or how organizational characteristics moderate the effect of these efforts. The objective of this study was to investigate clinician practice change in a system encouraging implementation of evidence-based practices over 5 years and how organizational characteristics moderate this effect. We hypothesized that evidence-based techniques would increase over time, whereas use of non-evidence-based techniques would remain static. Using a repeated cross-sectional design, data were collected three times from 2013 to 2017 in Philadelphia’s public behavioral health system. Clinicians from 20 behavioral health outpatient clinics serving youth were surveyed three times over 5 years (n = 340; overall response rate = 60%). All organizations and clinicians were exposed to system-level support provided by the Evidence-based Practice Innovation Center from 2013 to 2017. Additionally, approximately half of the clinicians participated in city-funded evidence-based practice training initiatives. The main outcome included clinician self-reported use of cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic techniques measured by the Therapy Procedures Checklist-Family Revised. Clinicians were 80% female and averaged 37.52 years of age (SD = 11.40); there were no significant differences in clinician characteristics across waves (all ps > .05). Controlling for organizational and clinician covariates, average use of CBT techniques increased by 6% from wave 1 (M = 3.18) to wave 3 (M = 3.37, p = .021, d = .29), compared to no change in psychodynamic techniques (p = .570). Each evidence-based practice training initiative in which clinicians participated predicted a 3% increase in CBT use (p = .019) but no change in psychodynamic technique use (p = .709). In organizations with more proficient cultures at baseline, clinicians exhibited greater increases in CBT use compared to organizations with less proficient cultures (8% increase vs. 2% decrease, p = .048). System implementation of evidence-based practices is associated with modest changes in clinician practice; these effects are moderated by organizational characteristics. Findings identify preliminary targets to improve implementation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Disseminating and implementing a lifestyle-based healthy weight program for mothers in a national organization: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Rachel G. Tabak; Cynthia D. Schwarz; Allison Kemner; Kenneth B. Schechtman; Karen Steger-May; Veronda Byrth; Debra Haire-Joshu

    Excessive weight gain among young adult women age 18–45 years is an alarming and overlooked trend that must be addressed to reverse the epidemics of obesity and chronic disease. During this vulnerable period, women tend to gain disproportionally large amounts of weight compared to men and to other life periods. Healthy Eating and Active Living Taught at Home (HEALTH) is a lifestyle modification intervention developed in partnership with Parents as Teachers (PAT), a national home visiting, community-based organization with significant reach in this population. HEALTH prevented weight gain, promoted sustained weight loss, and reduced waist circumference. PAT provides parent–child education and services free of charge to nearly 170,000 families through up to 25 free home visits per year until the child enters kindergarten. This study extends effectiveness findings with a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate dissemination and implementation (D&I) of HEALTH across three levels (mother, parent educator, PAT site). The trial will evaluate the effect of HEALTH and the HEALTH training curriculum (implementation strategy) on weight among mothers with overweight and obesity across the USA (N = 252 HEALTH; N = 252 usual care). Parent educators from 28 existing PAT sites (14 HEALTH, 14 usual care) will receive the HEALTH training curriculum through PAT National Center, using PAT’s existing training infrastructure, as a continuing education opportunity. An extensive evaluation, guided by RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance), will determine implementation outcomes (acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, and adaptation) at the parent educator level. The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Research will characterize determinants that influence HEALTH D&I at three levels: mother, parent educator, and PAT site to enhance external validity (reach and maintenance). Embedding intervention content within existing delivery channels can help expand the reach of evidence-based interventions. Interventions, which have been adapted, can still be effective even if the effect is reduced and can still achieve population impact by reaching a broader set of the population. The current study will build on this to test not only the effectiveness of HEALTH in real-world PAT implementation nationwide, but also elements critical to D&I, implementation outcomes, and the context for implementation. https://ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03758638 . Registered 29 November 2018

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • To do or not to do—balancing governance and professional autonomy to abandon low-value practices: a study protocol
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Henna Hasson; Per Nilsen; Hanna Augustsson; Sara Ingvarsson; Sara Korlén; Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz

    Many interventions used in health care lack evidence of effectiveness and may be unnecessary or even cause harm, and should therefore be de-implemented. Lists of such ineffective, low-value practices are common, but these lists have little chance of leading to improvements without sufficient knowledge regarding how de-implementation can be governed and carried out. However, decisions regarding de-implementation are not only a matter of scientific evidence; the puzzle is far more complex with political, economic, and relational interests play a role. This project aims at exploring the governance of de-implementation of low-value practices from the perspectives of national and regional governments and senior management at provider organizations. Theories of complexity science and organizational alignment are used, and interviews are conducted with stakeholders involved in the governance of low-value practice de-implementation, including national and regional governments (focusing on two contrasting regions in Sweden) and senior management at provider organizations. In addition, an ongoing process for governing de-implementation in accordance with current recommendations is followed over an 18-month period to explore how governance is conducted in practice. A framework for the governance of de-implementation and policy suggestions will be developed to guide de-implementation governance. This study contributes to knowledge about the governance of de-implementation of low-value care practices. The study provides rich empirical data from multiple system levels regarding how de-implementation of low-value practices is currently governed. The study also makes a theoretical contribution by applying the theories of complexity and organizational alignment, which may provide generalizable knowledge about the interplay between stakeholders across system levels and how and why certain factors influence the governance of de-implementation. The project employs a solution-oriented perspective by developing a framework for de-implementation of low-value practices and suggesting practical strategies to improve the governance of de-implementation. The framework and strategies can thereafter be evaluated for validity and impact in future studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Guideline-based quality indicators—a systematic comparison of German and international clinical practice guidelines
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
    Monika Becker; Jessica Breuing; Monika Nothacker; Stefanie Deckert; Marie Brombach; Jochen Schmitt; Edmund Neugebauer; Dawid Pieper

    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are relevant sources for generating quality indicators (QIs). The objective of this study was to compare guideline-based QIs of German and international CPGs and their underlying methodological approaches. We conducted systematic searches in the guideline databases of G-I-N (Guidelines International Network) and NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse) between February and June 2017 to identify international CPGs matching the topics of German evidence-based CPGs (n = 35) that report QIs, which were identified in a preceding study. Additionally, we searched the websites of the particular CPG providers for separate documents with regard to QIs. We included evidence-based CPGs which report QIs. Reported QIs, the underlying guideline recommendations, and information on methods of development were extracted. The selection and extraction of CPGs were conducted by one reviewer and checked by another. For each matched pair of CPGs, we assessed whether the suggested QIs matched or were not directly comparable. Twenty-five international CPGs, originating from seven CPG providers in total, met the criteria for inclusion. They matched the topics of 18 German CPGs. This resulted in 30 CPG pairs for the comparison of QIs (some of the international CPGs matched the topic of more than one German CPG). We found 27 QI pairs with QIs “not different or slightly different”, corresponding to 13% (27 of 212) of the QIs in German CPGs and 16% (27 of 166) in international CPGs. Only two QI pairs were judged to be “different/inconsistent”. For 183 of 212 (86%) QIs from German CPGs and 137 of 166 (83%) QIs from international CPGs, no direct comparison could be made. An explicit link to one or more guideline recommendations was found for 136 of 152 (89%) QIs from German CPGs and 82 of 166 (49%) QIs from international CPGs. Some information on methods for the development of QIs existed for 12 of 18 (67%) German CPGs and 8 of 25 (32%) international CPGs. The majority of QIs in German and international CPGs were not comparable. Various reasons for this are conceivable. More transparent reporting of the underlying methods for generating guideline-based QIs is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Proceedings from the 2nd Annual UK Implementation Science Research Conference, 'Advancing the science of scaling up: Improving efficiency and effectiveness of implementation strategies in healthcare': meeting abstracts
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-10

    /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n /n

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Use of health economic evaluation in the implementation and improvement science fields—a systematic literature review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Sarah Louise Elin Roberts; Andy Healey; Nick Sevdalis

    Economic evaluation can inform whether strategies designed to improve the quality of health care delivery and the uptake of evidence-based practices represent a cost-effective use of limited resources. We report a systematic review and critical appraisal of the application of health economic methods in improvement/implementation research. A systematic literature search identified 1668 papers across the Agris, Embase, Global Health, HMIC, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, MEDLINE and EconLit databases between 2004 and 2016. Abstracts were screened in Rayyan database, and key data extracted into Microsoft Excel. Evidence was critically appraised using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) framework. Thirty studies were included—all health economic studies that included implementation or improvement as a part of the evaluation. Studies were conducted mostly in Europe (62%) or North America (23%) and were largely hospital-based (70%). The field was split between improvement (N = 16) and implementation (N = 14) studies. The most common intervention evaluated (43%) was staffing reconfiguration, specifically changing from physician-led to nurse-led care delivery. Most studies (N = 19) were ex-post economic evaluations carried out empirically—of those, 17 were cost effectiveness analyses. We found four cost utility analyses that used economic modelling rather than empirical methods. Two cost-consequence analyses were also found. Specific implementation costs considered included costs associated with staff training in new care delivery pathways, the impacts of new processes on patient and carer costs and the costs of developing new care processes/pathways. Over half (55%) of the included studies were rated ‘good’ on QHES. Study quality was boosted through inclusion of appropriate comparators and reporting of incremental analysis (where relevant); and diminished through use of post-hoc subgroup analysis, limited reporting of the handling of uncertainty and justification for choice of discount rates. The quantity of published economic evaluations applied to the field of improvement and implementation research remains modest; however, quality is overall good. Implementation and improvement scientists should work closely with health economists to consider costs associated with improvement interventions and their associated implementation strategies. We offer a set of concrete recommendations to facilitate this endeavour.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • What is full capacity protocol, and how is it implemented successfully?
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Amir Alishahi Tabriz; Sarah A. Birken; Christopher M. Shea; Bruce J. Fried; Peter Viccellio

    Full capacity protocol (FCP) is an internationally recognized intervention designed to address emergency department (ED) crowding. Despite FCP international recognition and positive effects on hospital performance measures, many hospitals, even the most crowded ones, have not implemented FCP. We conducted this study to identify the core components of FCP, explore the key barriers and facilitators associated with the FCP implementation, and provide practical recommendations on how to overcome those barriers. To identify the core components of FCP, we used a non-experimental approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (e.g., division chiefs, medical directors) involved in the implementation of FCP. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide data collection and analysis. We used a template analysis approach to determine the relevance of the CFIR constructs to implementing the FCP. We analyzed the responses to the interview questions about FCP definition and FCP key principles, compared different hospitals’ FCP official documents, and consulted with the original FCP developer. We then used an adaptation framework to categorize the core components of FCP into three main groups. Finally, we summarized practical recommendations for each barrier based on information provided by the interviewees. A total of 32 interviews were conducted. We observed that FCP has evolved from the idea of transferring boarded patients from ED hallways to inpatient hallways to a practical hospital-wide intervention with several components and multiple levels. The key determinant of successful FCP implementation was collaboration with inpatient nursing staff, as they were often reluctant to have patients boarded in inpatient hallways. Other determinants of successful FCP implementation were reaching consensus about the criteria for activation of each FCP level and actions in each FCP level, modifying the electronic health records system, restructuring the inpatient units to have adequate staffing and resources, complying with external regulations and policies such as fire marshal guidelines, and gaining hospital leaders’ support. The key determinant in implementing FCP is creating a supportive and cooperative hospital culture and encouraging key stakeholders, including inpatient nursing staff, to acknowledge that crowding is a hospital-wide problem that requires a hospital-wide response.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • In-depth comparison of two quality improvement collaboratives from different healthcare areas based on registry data—possible factors contributing to sustained improvement in outcomes beyond the project time
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Beatrix Algurén; Annika Nordin; Boel Andersson-Gäre; Anette Peterson

    Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) are widely used to improve healthcare, but there are few studies of long-term sustained improved outcomes, and inconsistent evidence about what factors contribute to success. The aim of the study was to open the black box of QICs and compare characteristics and activities in detail of two differing QICs in relation to their changed outcomes from baseline and the following 3 years. Final reports of two QICs—one on heart failure care with five teams, and one on osteoarthritis care with seven teams, including detailed descriptions of improvement projects from each QIC’s team, were analysed and coded by 18 QIC characteristics and four team characteristics. Goal variables from each team routinely collected within the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) and the Better Management of Patients with OsteoArthritis Registry (BOA) at year 2013 (baseline), 2014, 2015 and 2016 were analysed with univariate statistics. The two QICs differed greatly in design. The SwedeHF-QIC involved eight experts and ran for 12 months, whereas the BOA-QIC engaged three experts and ran for 6 months. There were about twice as many activities in the SwedeHF-QIC as in the BOA-QIC and they ranged from standardisation of team coordination to better information and structured follow-ups. The outcome results were heterogeneous within teams and across teams and QICs. Both QICs were highly appreciated by the participants and contributed to their learning, e.g. of improvement methods; however, several teams had already reached goal values when the QICs were launched in 2013. Even though many QI activities were carried out, it was difficult to see sustained improvements on outcomes. Outcomes as specific measurable aspects of care in need of improvement should be chosen carefully. Activities focusing on adherence to standard care programmes and on increased follow-up of patients seemed to lead to more long-lasting improvements. Although earlier studies showed that data follow-up and measurement skills as well as well-functioning data warehouses contribute to sustained improvements, the present registries’ functionality and QICs at this time did not support those aspects sufficiently. Further studies on QICs and their impact on improvement beyond the project time should investigate the effect of those elements in particular.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of removal and restriction of me-too medicines in a hospital drug formulary on in- and outpatient drug prescriptions: interrupted time series design with comparison group
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Raquel Vázquez-Mourelle; Eduardo Carracedo-Martínez; Adolfo Figueiras

    The study covered in- and out-of-hospital care in a region in north-western Spain. The intervention evaluated took the form of a change in the hospital drugs formulary. Before the intervention, the formulary contained four of the five low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) marketed in Spain. The intervention consisted of withdrawing two LMWHs (bemiparin and dalteparin) from the formulary and restricting the use of another (tinzaparin), leaving only enoxaparin as an unrestricted prescription LMWH. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on in- and outpatient drug prescriptions of removing and restricting the use of several LMWHs in a hospital drugs formulary. We used a natural, before-after, quasi-experimental design with a control group and monthly data from January 2011 to December 2016. Based on data drawn from official Public Health Service sources, the following dependent variables were extracted: defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID), DDD per 100 stays per day, and expenditure per DDD. The two compounds that were removed from the formulary registered an immediate decrease at both an intra- and out-of-hospital level (66.6% and 55.6% for bemiparin and 73.0% and 92.2% for dalteparin, respectively); similarly, the compound that was restricted also registered an immediate decrease (36.1% and 9.0% at the in- and outpatient levels, respectively); in contrast, the remaining LMWH (enoxaparin) registered an immediate, significant increase at both levels (44.9% and 32.6%, respectively). The intervention led to an immediate reduction of 6.8% and a change in trend in out-of-hospital cost/DDD; it also avoided an expenditure of €477,317.1 in the 21 months following the intervention. The results indicate that changes made in a hospital drugs formulary towards more efficient medications may lead to better use of pharmacotherapeutic resources in its health catchment area.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation effectiveness of health interventions for indigenous communities: a systematic review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Truely Harding; John Oetzel

    Translating research into practice is an important issue for implementing health interventions effectively for Indigenous communities. He Pikinga Waiora (HPW) is a recent implementation framework that provides a strong foundation for designing and implementing health interventions in Indigenous communities for non-communicable diseases around community engagement, culture-centred approach, systems thinking and integrated knowledge translation. This study addresses the following research question: How are the elements of the HPW Implementation Framework reflected in studies involving the implementation of a non-communicable disease health intervention in an Indigenous community? A systematic review was conducted using multiple databases. Studies were included if they involved the implementation or evaluation of a health intervention targeting non-communicable diseases for Indigenous communities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the United States of America. Published quantitative and qualitative literature from 2008 to 2018 were included. Methodological appraisal of the included articles was completed using the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information. Data on the population, topic, methods, and outcomes were detailed for each individual study. Key data extracted included the HPW elements along with study characteristics, who delivered the intervention and health outcomes. Data analysis involved a qualitative synthesis of findings as guided by a coding scheme of the HPW elements. Twenty-one studies were included. Health topics included diabetes, nutrition, weight loss, cancer and general health. The key themes were as follows: (a) two thirds of studies demonstrated high levels of community engagement; (b) from the culture-centred approach, two-thirds of studies reflected moderate to high levels of community voice/agency although only a third of the studies included structural changes and researcher reflexivity; (c) about a quarter of studies included multi-level outcomes and activities consistent with systems thinking, 40% had individual-level outcomes with some systems thinking, and 33% included individual-level outcomes and limited systems thinking; and (d) almost 40% of studies included high levels of end user (e.g., policy makers and tribal leaders) engagement reflective of integrated knowledge translation, but nearly half had limited end-user engagement. The HPW Implementation Framework is a comprehensive model for potentially understanding implementation effectiveness in Indigenous communities. The review suggests that the studies are reflective of high levels of community engagement and culture-centredness. The long-term sustainability and translation of evidence to practice may be inhibited because of lower levels of systems thinking and integrated knowledge translation. Not registered

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation Science and Implementation Science Communications: our aims, scope, and reporting expectations
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Anne E. Sales; Paul M. Wilson; Michel Wensing; Gregory A. Aarons; Rebecca Armstrong; Signe Flottorp; Alison M. Hutchinson; Justin Presseau; Anne Rogers; Nick Sevdalis; Janet Squires; Sharon Straus; Bryan J. Weiner

    In the 13 years since the inception of Implementation Science, we have witnessed a continued rise in the number of submissions, reflecting the growing global interest in methods to enhance the uptake of research findings into healthcare practice and policy. We now receive over 800 submissions annually, and there is a large gap between what is submitted and what gets published. To better serve the needs of the research community, we announce our plans to introduce a new journal, Implementation Science Communications, which we believe will support publication of types of research reports currently not often published in Implementation Science. In this editorial, we state both journals’ scope and current boundaries and set out our expectations for the scientific reporting, quality, and transparency of the manuscripts we receive.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation of simulation modelling to improve service planning in specialist orthopaedic and neurosurgical outpatient services
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Nicole Moretto; Tracy A. Comans; Angela T. Chang; Shaun P. O’Leary; Sonya Osborne; Hannah E. Carter; David Smith; Tania Cavanagh; Dean Blond; Maree Raymer

    Advanced physiotherapist-led services have been embedded in specialist orthopaedic and neurosurgical outpatient departments across Queensland, Australia, to ameliorate capacity constraints. Simulation modelling has been used to inform the optimal scale and professional mix of services required to match patient demand. The context and the value of simulation modelling in service planning remain unclear. We aimed to examine the adoption, context and costs of using simulation modelling recommendations to inform service planning. Using an implementation science approach, we undertook a prospective, qualitative evaluation to assess the use of discrete event simulation modelling recommendations for service re-design and to explore stakeholder perspectives about the role of simulation modelling in service planning. Five orthopaedic and neurosurgical services in Queensland, Australia, were selected to maximise variation in implementation effectiveness. We used the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) to guide the facilitation and analysis of the stakeholder focus group discussions. We conducted a prospective costing analysis in each service to estimate the costs associated with using simulation modelling to inform service planning. Four of the five services demonstrated adoption by inclusion of modelling recommendations into proposals for service re-design. Four CFIR constructs distinguished and two CFIR constructs did not distinguish between high versus mixed implementation effectiveness. We identified additional constructs that did not map onto CFIR. The mean cost of implementation was AU$34,553 per site (standard deviation = AU$737). To our knowledge, this is the first time the context of implementing simulation modelling recommendations in a health care setting, using a validated framework, has been examined. Our findings may provide valuable insights to increase the uptake of healthcare modelling recommendations in service planning.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Status and potential of bacterial genomics for public health practice: a scoping review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Nina Van Goethem; Tine Descamps; Brecht Devleesschauwer; Nancy H. C. Roosens; Nele A. M. Boon; Herman Van Oyen; Annie Robert

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being translated into routine public health practice, affecting the surveillance and control of many pathogens. The purpose of this scoping review is to identify and characterize the recent literature concerning the application of bacterial pathogen genomics for public health practice and to assess the added value, challenges, and needs related to its implementation from an epidemiologist’s perspective. In this scoping review, a systematic PubMed search with forward and backward snowballing was performed to identify manuscripts in English published between January 2015 and September 2018. Included studies had to describe the application of NGS on bacterial isolates within a public health setting. The studied pathogen, year of publication, country, number of isolates, sampling fraction, setting, public health application, study aim, level of implementation, time orientation of the NGS analyses, and key findings were extracted from each study. Due to a large heterogeneity of settings, applications, pathogens, and study measurements, a descriptive narrative synthesis of the eligible studies was performed. Out of the 275 included articles, 164 were outbreak investigations, 70 focused on strategy-oriented surveillance, and 41 on control-oriented surveillance. Main applications included the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data for (1) source tracing, (2) early outbreak detection, (3) unraveling transmission dynamics, (4) monitoring drug resistance, (5) detecting cross-border transmission events, (6) identifying the emergence of strains with enhanced virulence or zoonotic potential, and (7) assessing the impact of prevention and control programs. The superior resolution over conventional typing methods to infer transmission routes was reported as an added value, as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize the resistome and virulome of the studied pathogen. However, the full potential of pathogen genomics can only be reached through its integration with high-quality contextual data. For several pathogens, it is time for a shift from proof-of-concept studies to routine use of WGS during outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. However, some implementation challenges from the epidemiologist’s perspective remain, such as data integration, quality of contextual data, sampling strategies, and meaningful interpretations. Interdisciplinary, inter-sectoral, and international collaborations are key for an appropriate genomics-informed surveillance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Designing high-quality implementation research: development, application, feasibility and preliminary evaluation of the implementation science research development (ImpRes) tool and guide
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Louise Hull; Lucy Goulding; Zarnie Khadjesari; Rachel Davis; Andy Healey; Ioannis Bakolis; Nick Sevdalis

    Designing implementation research can be a complex and daunting task, especially for applied health researchers who have not received specialist training in implementation science. We developed the Implementation Science Research Development (ImpRes) tool and supplementary guide to address this challenge and provide researchers with a systematic approach to designing implementation research. A multi-method and multi-stage approach was employed. An international, multidisciplinary expert panel engaged in an iterative brainstorming and consensus-building process to generate core domains of the ImpRes tool, representing core implementation science principles and concepts that researchers should consider when designing implementation research. Simultaneously, an iterative process of reviewing the literature and expert input informed the development and content of the tool. Once consensus had been reached, specialist expert input was sought on involving and engaging patients/service users; and economic evaluation. ImpRes was then applied to 15 implementation and improvement science projects across the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) South London, a research organisation in London, UK. Researchers who applied the ImpRes tool completed an 11-item questionnaire evaluating its structure, content and usefulness. Consensus was reached on ten implementation science domains to be considered when designing implementation research. These include implementation theories, frameworks and models, determinants of implementation, implementation strategies, implementation outcomes and unintended consequences. Researchers who used the ImpRes tool found it useful for identifying project areas where implementation science is lacking (median 5/5, IQR 4–5) and for improving the quality of implementation research (median 4/5, IQR 4–5) and agreed that it contained the key components that should be considered when designing implementation research (median 4/5, IQR 4–4). Qualitative feedback from researchers who applied the ImpRes tool indicated that a supplementary guide was needed to facilitate use of the tool. We have developed a feasible and acceptable tool, and supplementary guide, to facilitate consideration and incorporation of core principles and concepts of implementation science in applied health implementation research. Future research is needed to establish whether application of the tool and guide has an effect on the quality of implementation research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Using a RE-AIM framework to identify promising practices in National Diabetes Prevention Program implementation
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Kunthea Nhim; Stephanie M. Gruss; Deborah S. Porterfield; Sara Jacobs; Wendi Elkins; Elizabeth T. Luman; Susan Van Aacken; Patricia Schumacher; Ann Albright

    The National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP) is rapidly expanding in an effort to help those at high risk of type 2 diabetes prevent or delay the disease. In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded six national organizations to scale and sustain multistate delivery of the National DPP lifestyle change intervention (LCI). This study aims to describe reach, adoption, and maintenance during the 4-year funding period and to assess associations between site-level factors and program effectiveness regarding participant attendance and participation duration. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework was used to guide the evaluation from October 2012 to September 2016. Multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between participant-level demographics and site-level strategies and number of sessions attended, attendance in months 7–12, and duration of participation. The six funded national organizations increased the number of participating sites from 68 in 2012 to 164 by 2016 across 38 states and enrolled 14,876 eligible participants. By September 2016, coverage for the National DPP LCI was secured for 42 private insurers and 7 public payers. Nearly 200 employers were recruited to offer the LCI on site to their employees. Site-level strategies significantly associated with higher overall attendance, attendance in months 7–12, and longer participation duration included using self-referral or word of mouth as a recruitment strategy, providing non-monetary incentives for participation, and using cultural adaptations to address participants’ needs. Sites receiving referrals from healthcare providers or health systems also had higher attendance in months 7–12 and longer participation duration. At the participant level, better outcomes were achieved among those aged 65+ (vs. 18–44 or 45–64), those who were overweight (vs. obesity), those who were non-Hispanic white (vs. non-Hispanic black or multiracial/other races), and those eligible based on a blood test or history of gestational diabetes mellitus (vs. screening positive on a risk test). In a time of rapid dissemination of the National DPP LCI the findings of this evaluation can be used to enhance program implementation and translate lessons learned to similar organizations and settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation interventions for musculoskeletal programs of care in the active military and barriers, facilitators, and outcomes of implementation: a scoping review
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Carol Cancelliere; Deborah Sutton; Pierre Côté; Simon D. French; Anne Taylor-Vaisey; Silvano A. Mior

    Musculoskeletal disorders are common in the active military and are associated with significant lost duty days and disability. Implementing programs of care to manage musculoskeletal disorders can be challenging in complex healthcare systems such as in the military. Understanding how programs of care for musculoskeletal disorders have been implemented in the military and how they impact outcomes may help to inform future implementation interventions in this population. We conducted a scoping review using the modified Arksey and O’Malley framework to identify literature on (1) implementation interventions of musculoskeletal programs of care in the active military, (2) barriers and facilitators of implementation, and (3) implementation outcomes. We identified studies published in English by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane) from inception to 1 June 2018 and hand searched reference lists of relevant studies. We included empirical studies. We synthesized study results according to three taxonomies: the Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) taxonomy to classify the implementation interventions; the capability, opportunity, motivation-behavior (COM-B) system to classify barriers and facilitators of implementation; and Proctor et al.’s taxonomy (Adm Policy Ment Health 38:65–76, 2011) to classify outcomes in implementation research. We identified 1785 studies and 16 were relevant. All but two of the relevant studies were conducted in the USA. Implementation interventions were primarily associated with delivery arrangements (e.g., multidisciplinary care). Most barriers or facilitators of implementation were environmental (physical or social). Service and client outcomes indicated improved efficiency of clinical care and improved function and symptomology. Studies reporting implementation outcomes indicated the programs were acceptable, appropriate, feasible, or sustainable. Identification of evidence-based approaches for the management of musculoskeletal disorders is a priority for active-duty military. Our findings can be used by military health services to inform implementation strategies for musculoskeletal programs of care. Further research is needed to better understand (1) the components of implementation interventions, (2) how to overcome barriers to implementation, and (3) how to measure implementation outcomes to improve quality of care and recovery from musculoskeletal disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Spread tools: a systematic review of components, uptake, and effectiveness of quality improvement toolkits
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Susanne Hempel; Claire O’Hanlon; Yee Wei Lim; Margie Danz; Jody Larkin; Lisa Rubenstein

    The objective was to conduct a systematic review of toolkit evaluations intended to spread interventions to improve healthcare quality. We aimed to determine the components, uptake, and effectiveness of publicly available toolkits. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and the Web of Science from 2005 to May 2018 for evaluations of publicly available toolkits, used a forward search of known toolkits, screened references, and contacted topic experts. Two independent reviewers screened publications for inclusion. One reviewer abstracted data and appraised the studies, checked by a second reviewer; reviewers resolved disagreements through discussion. Findings, summarized in comprehensive evidence tables and narrative synthesis addressed the uptake and utility, procedural and organizational outcomes, provider outcomes, and patient outcomes. In total, 77 studies evaluating 72 toolkits met inclusion criteria. Toolkits addressed a variety of quality improvement approaches and focused on clinical topics such as weight management, fall prevention, vaccination, hospital-acquired infections, pain management, and patient safety. Most toolkits included introductory and implementation material (e.g., research summaries) and healthcare provider tools (e.g., care plans), and two-thirds included material for patients (e.g., information leaflets). Pre-post studies were most common (55%); 10% were single hospital evaluations and the number of participating staff ranged from 17 to 704. Uptake data were limited and toolkit uptake was highly variable. Studies generally indicated high satisfaction with toolkits, but the perceived usefulness of individual tools varied. Across studies, 57% reported on adherence to clinical procedures and toolkit effects were positive. Provider data were reported in 40% of studies but were primarily self-reported changes. Only 29% reported patient data and, overall, results from robust study designs are missing from the evidence base. The review documents publicly available toolkits and their components. Available uptake data are limited but indicate variability. High satisfaction with toolkits can be achieved but the usefulness of individual tools may vary. The existing evidence base on the effectiveness of toolkits remains limited. While emerging evidence indicates positive effects on clinical processes, more research on toolkit value and what affects it is needed, including linking toolkits to objective provider behavior measures and patient outcomes. PROSPERO registration number: PROSPERO 2014: CRD42014013930 .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Understanding the influences on successful quality improvement in emergency general surgery: learning from the RCS Chole-QuIC project
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Timothy J. Stephens; Jonathan R. Bamber; Ian J. Beckingham; Ellie Duncan; Nial F. Quiney; John F. Abercrombie; Graham Martin

    Acute gallstone disease is the highest volume Emergency General Surgical presentation in the UK. Recent data indicate wide variations in the quality of care provided across the country, with national guidance for care delivery not implemented in most UK hospitals. Against this backdrop, the Royal College of Surgeons of England set up a 13-hospital quality improvement collaborative (Chole-QuIC) to support clinical teams to reduce time to surgery for patients with acute gallstone disease requiring emergency cholecystectomy. Prospective, mixed-methods process evaluation to answer the following: (1) how was the collaborative delivered by the faculty and received, understood and enacted by the participants; (2) what influenced teams’ ability to improve care for patients requiring emergency cholecystectomy? We collected and analysed a range of data including field notes, ethnographic observations of meetings, and project documentation. Analysis was based on the framework approach, informed by Normalisation Process Theory, and involved the creation of comparative case studies based on hospital performance during the project. Chole-QuIC was delivered as planned and was well received and understood by participants. Four hospitals were identified as highly successful, based upon a substantial increase in the number of patients having surgery in line with national guidance. Conversely, four hospitals were identified as challenged, achieving no significant improvement. The comparative analysis indicate that six inter-related influences appeared most associated with improvement: (1) achieving clarity of purpose amongst site leads and key stakeholders; (2) capacity to lead and effective project support; (3) ideas to action; (4) learning from own and others’ experience; (5) creating additional capacity to do emergency cholecystectomies; and (6) coordinating/managing the patient pathway. Collaborative-based quality improvement is a viable strategy for emergency surgery but success requires the deployment of effective clinical strategies in conjunction with improvement strategies. In particular, achieving clarity of purpose about proposed changes amongst key stakeholders was a vital precursor to improvement, enabling the creation of additional surgical capacity and new pathways to be implemented effectively. Protected time, testing ideas, and the ability to learn quickly from data and experience were associated with greater impact within this cohort.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The effect of a clinical decision support system on prompting an intervention for risky alcohol use in a primary care smoking cessation program: a cluster randomized trial
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Nadia Minian; Dolly Baliunas; Aliya Noormohamed; Laurie Zawertailo; Norman Giesbrecht; Christian S. Hendershot; Bernard Le Foll; Jürgen Rehm; Andriy V. Samokhvalov; Peter L. Selby

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) may promote practitioner adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This study examined if the addition of a CDSS influenced practitioner delivery of a brief intervention with treatment-seeking smokers who were drinking above recommended alcohol consumption guidelines, compared with practitioners who do not receive a CDSS prompt. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in primary health care clinics across Ontario, Canada, implementing the Smoking Treatment for Ontario Patients (STOP) smoking cessation program. Clinics randomized to the intervention group received a prompt when a patient reported consuming alcohol above the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) guidelines; the control group did not receive computer alerts. The primary outcome was an offer of an appropriate educational alcohol resource, an alcohol reduction workbook for patients drinking above the CCS guidelines, and an abstinence workbook to patients scoring above 20 points in the AUDIT screening tool; the secondary outcome was patient acceptance of the resource. The tertiary outcome was patient abstinence from smoking, and alcohol consumption within CCS guidelines, at 6-month follow-up. Results were analyzed using a generalized estimation approach for fitting logistic regression using a population-averaged method. Two hundred and twenty-one clinics across Ontario were randomized for this study; 110 to the intervention arm and 111 to the control arm. From the 15,222 patients that enrolled in the smoking cessation program, 15,150 (99.6% of patients) were screened for alcohol use and 5715 patients were identified as drinking above the CCS guidelines. No statistically significant difference between groups was seen in practitioner offer of an educational alcohol resource to appropriate patients (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.88–1.64, p = 0.261) or in patient abstinence from smoking and drinking within the CCS guidelines at 6-month follow-up (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.71–1.22, p = 0.594). However, a significantly greater proportion of patients in the intervention group accepted the alcohol resource offered to them by their practitioner (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.16, p = 0.045). A CDSS may not increase the likelihood of practitioners offering an educational alcohol resource, though it may have influenced patients’ acceptance of the resource. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03108144 , registered on April 11, 2017, “retrospectively registered”.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementing cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines to translate evidence-based medicine and shared decision making into general practice: theory-based intervention development, qualitative piloting and quantitative feasibility
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Carissa Bonner; Michael Anthony Fajardo; Jenny Doust; Kirsten McCaffery; Lyndal Trevena

    The use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines based on absolute risk assessment is poor around the world, including Australia. Behavioural barriers amongst GPs and patients include capability (e.g. difficulty communicating/understanding risk) and motivation (e.g. attitudes towards guidelines/medication). This paper outlines the theory-based development of a website for GP guidelines, and piloting of a new risk calculator/decision aid. Stage 1 involved identifying evidence-based solutions using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework, informed by previous research involving 400 GPs and 600 patients/consumers. Stage 2 co-developed website content with GPs. Stage 3 piloted a prototype website at a national GP conference. Stage 4 iteratively improved the website based on “think aloud” interviews with GPs and patients. Stage 5 was a feasibility study to evaluate potential efficacy (guidelines-based recommendations for each risk category), acceptability (intended use) and demand (actual use over 1 month) amongst GPs (n = 98). Stage 1 identified GPs as the target for behaviour change; the need for a new risk calculator/decision aid linked to existing audit and feedback training; and online guidelines as a delivery format. Stage 2-4 iteratively improved content and format based on qualitative feedback from GP and patient user testing over three rounds of website development. Stage 5 suggested potential efficacy with improved identification of hypothetical high risk patients (from 26 to 76%) and recommended medication (from 57 to 86%) after viewing the website (n = 42), but prescribing to low risk patients remained similar (from 19 to 22%; n = 37). Most GPs (89%) indicated they would use the website in the next month, and 72% reported using it again after one month (n = 98). Open feedback identified implementation barriers including a need for integration with medical software, low health literacy resources and pre-consultation assessment. Following a theory-based development process and user co-design, the resulting intervention was acceptable to GPs with high intentions for use, improved identification of patient risk categories and more guidelines-based prescribing intentions for high risk but not low risk patients. The effectiveness of linking the intervention to clinical practice more closely to address implementation barriers will be evaluated in future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Inclusion of a care bundle for fever, hyperglycaemia and swallow management in a National Audit for acute stroke: evidence of upscale and spread
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Tara Purvis; Sandy Middleton; Louise E. Craig; Monique F. Kilkenny; Simeon Dale; Kelvin Hill; Catherine D’Este; Dominique A. Cadilhac

    In the Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) trial undertaken in stroke units (SUs) located in New South Wales (NSW), Australia (2005–2010), facilitated implementation of a nurse-led care bundle to manage fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing (FeSS protocols) reduced death and disability for patients with stroke. We aimed to determine subsequent adherence to the bundled FeSS processes (reflective of the protocols) between 2013 and 2017 in Australian hospitals, and examine whether changes in adherence to these processes varied based on previous participation in the QASC trial or subsequent statewide scale-up (QASCIP—Quality in Acute Stroke Care Implementation Project) and presence of an SU. Cross-sectional, observational study using self-reported organisational survey and retrospective clinical audit data from the National Acute Services Stroke Audit (2013, 2015, 2017). Mixed-effects logistic regression was performed with dependent variables: (1) composite outcome measure reflecting compliance with the FeSS protocols and (2) individual FeSS processes, including the year of audit as an independent variable, adjusted for correlation of outcomes within hospital. Separate models including interaction terms between the year of audit and previous participation in QASC/QASCIP and year of audit and SU were also generated. Hospital participation included the following: 2013—124 hospitals, 3741 cases; 2015—112 hospitals, 4087 cases; and 2017—117 hospitals, 4192 cases. An 80% increase in the odds of receiving the composite outcome in 2017 compared to 2013 was found (2013, 30%; 2017, 41%; OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6, 2.0; p < 0.001). The odds of FeSS adherence from 2013 to 2017 was greater for hospitals that had participated in QASC/QASCIP relative to those that had not (participated OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7, 2.7; not participated OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4, 1.8; p = 0.03). Similar uptake in adherence was evident in hospitals with and without an SU between 2013 and 2017. The use of the FeSS protocols within Australia increased from 2013 to 2017 with the inclusion of these care processes in the National Audit. Greater uptake in hospitals previously involved in QASC/QASCIP was evident. Our implementation methods may be useful for other national initiatives for improving access to evidence-based practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Implementation of the uterine fibroids Option Grid patient decision aids across five organizational settings: a randomized stepped-wedge study protocol
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Peter Scalia; Marie-Anne Durand; Rachel C. Forcino; Danielle Schubbe; Paul J. Barr; Nancy O’Brien; A. James O’Malley; Tina Foster; Mary C. Politi; Shannon Laughlin-Tommaso; Erika Banks; Tessa Madden; Raymond M. Anchan; Johanna W. M. Aarts; Priscilla Velentgas; Joyce Balls-Berry; Carla Bacon; Monica Adams-Foster; Carrie Cahill Mulligan; Sateria Venable; Nancy E. Cochran; Glyn Elwyn

    Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous overgrowths of the smooth muscle in the uterus. As they grow, some cause problems such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, discomfort during sexual intercourse, and rarely pregnancy complications or difficulty becoming pregnant. Multiple treatment options are available. The lack of comparative evidence demonstrating superiority of any one treatment means that choosing the best option is sensitive to individual preferences. Women with fibroids wish to consider treatment trade-offs. Tools known as patient decision aids (PDAs) are effective in increasing patient engagement in the decision-making process. However, the implementation of PDAs in routine care remains challenging. Our aim is to use a multi-component implementation strategy to implement the uterine fibroids Option Grid™ PDAs at five organizational settings in the USA. We will conduct a randomized stepped-wedge implementation study where five sites will be randomized to implement the uterine fibroid Option Grid PDA in practice at different time points. Implementation will be guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and Normalization Process Theory (NPT). There will be a 6-month pre-implementation phase, a 2-month initiation phase where participating clinicians will receive training and be introduced to the Option Grid PDAs (available in text, picture, or online formats), and a 6-month active implementation phase where clinicians will be expected to use the PDAs with patients who are assigned female sex at birth, are at least 18 years of age, speak fluent English or Spanish, and have new or recurrent symptoms of uterine fibroids. We will exclude postmenopausal patients. Our primary outcome measure is the number of eligible patients who receive the Option Grid PDAs. We will use logistic and linear regression analyses to compare binary and continuous quantitative outcome measures (including survey scores and Option Grid use) between the pre- and active implementation phases while adjusting for patient and clinician characteristics. This study may help identify the factors that impact the implementation and sustained use of a PDA in clinic workflow from various stakeholder perspectives while helping patients with uterine fibroids make treatment decisions that align with their preferences. Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT03985449. Registered 13 July 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03985449

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: A repeated cross-sectional study of clinicians’ use of psychotherapy techniques during 5 years of a system-wide effort to implement evidence-based practices in Philadelphia
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Rinad S. Beidas; Nathaniel J. Williams; Emily M. Becker-Haimes; Gregory A. Aarons; Frances K. Barg; Arthur C. Evans; Kamilah Jackson; David Jones; Trevor Hadley; Kimberly Hoagwood; Steven C. Marcus; Geoffrey Neimark; Ronnie M. Rubin; Sonja K. Schoenwald; Danielle R. Adams; Lucia M. Walsh; Kelly Zentgraf; David S. Mandell

    .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Facilitating action planning within audit and feedback interventions: a mixed-methods process evaluation of an action implementation toolbox in intensive care
    Implement. Sci. (IF 4.525) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Wouter T. Gude; Marie-José Roos-Blom; Sabine N. van der Veer; Dave A. Dongelmans; Evert de Jonge; Niels Peek; Nicolette F. de Keizer

    Audit and feedback (A&F) is more effective if it facilitates action planning, but little is known about how best to do this. We developed an electronic A&F intervention with an action implementation toolbox to improve pain management in intensive care units (ICUs); the toolbox contained suggested actions for improvement. A head-to-head randomised trial demonstrated that the toolbox moderately increased the intervention’s effectiveness when compared with A&F only. To understand the mechanisms through which A&F with action implementation toolbox facilitates action planning by ICUs to increase A&F effectiveness. We extracted all individual actions from action plans developed by ICUs that received A&F with (n = 10) and without (n = 11) toolbox for 6 months and classified them using Clinical Performance Feedback Intervention Theory. We held semi-structured interviews with participants during the trial. We compared the number and type of planned and completed actions between study groups and explored barriers and facilitators to effective action planning. ICUs with toolbox planned more actions directly aimed at improving practice (p = 0.037) and targeted a wider range of practice determinants compared to ICUs without toolbox. ICUs with toolbox also completed more actions during the study period, but not significantly (p = 0.142). ICUs without toolbox reported more difficulties in identifying what actions they could take. Regardless of the toolbox, all ICUs still experienced barriers relating to the feedback (low controllability, accuracy) and organisational context (competing priorities, resources, cost). The toolbox helped health professionals to broaden their mindset about actions they could take to change clinical practice. Without the toolbox, professionals tended to focus more on feedback verification and exploring solutions without developing intentions for actual change. All feedback recipients experienced organisational barriers that inhibited eventual completion of actions. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02922101 . Registered on 26 September 2016.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
加州大学洛杉矶分校
上海纽约大学William Glover
南开大学化学院周其林
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug