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  • Analysis and exploration of infertility policies in Iran: a study protocol
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Bahar Morshed-Behbahani; Minoor Lamyian; Hassan Joulaei; Ali Montazeri

    Infertility is a complex and neglected reproductive health issue of global proportions, with varying effects on couples and their relationships. Therefore, international organisations and several countries have been compelled to consider infertility policies. In recent years, a shift in population policy trends toward increasing birth rates in Iran have set infertility policies in the health sector’s agenda. Since infertility and its associated problems are multifactorial, all health systems, including that of Iran, need to have a comprehensive policy package that covers all of its dimensions. Policy analysis is necessary to formulate such policies. This project will therefore analyse the infertility policies in Iran’s health sector and clarify the multilateral effects of their different components. This multidisciplinary study outlines the conceptual framework of infertility policies and consists of three stages. Stage I will involve the review of infertility policies in selected countries and Iran for the operational model of infertility programmes, rules and policies. Stage II will consist of a documentary infertility policy analysis of Iran. At this stage, Iran’s infertility policies will be analysed using the Walt and Gilson framework in four areas, namely content, context, process and actors. Stage III will involve the analysis of infertility policies in Iran. At this stage, a qualitative study will be conducted to understand and provide in-depth explanations of the existing policies. Finally, the concepts and outcomes obtained from the first stage will be combined with the content of the qualitative analysis of the second and third stages for exploration of Iran’s infertility policies, and a package including a framework for infertility policies will be proposed. The findings of this study can be used by the Ministry of Health and public health policy-makers to determine which policies, in view of socio-cultural and economic contexts and actors’ roles in each country, can be used to reach the goals defined by international organisations, on the prevention of infertility and reproductive health.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Integrating evidence from research into decision-making for controlling endemic tropical diseases in South East Nigeria: perceptions of producers and users of evidence on barriers and solutions
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Uchenna Ezenwaka; Chinyere Mbachu; Enyi Etiaba; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Obinna Onwujekwe

    Endemic tropical diseases (ETDs) constitute a significant health burden in resource-poor countries. Weak integration of research evidence into policy and practice poses a major challenge to the control of ETDs. This study was undertaken to explore barriers to the use of research evidence in decision-making for controlling ETDs. It also highlights potential strategies for addressing these barriers, including the gaps in research generation and utilisation in the context of endemic disease control. Information on barriers and solutions to integrating research evidence into decision-making for controlling ETDs in Anambra State, Nigeria, was collected from 68 participants (producers and users of evidence) during structured discussions in a workshop. Participants were purposively selected and allocated to groups based on their current involvement in endemic disease control and expertise. Discussions were facilitated with a topic guide and detailed notes were taken by an appointed recorder. Outputs from the discussions were synthesised and analysed manually. Cross-cutting barriers include a weak research linkage between producers and users of evidence and weak capacity to undertake health policy and systems research (HPSR). Producers of evidence were purported to conceptualise and frame their research questions based on their academic interests and funders’ focus without recourse to the decision-makers. Conversely, poor demand for research evidence was reported among users of evidence. Another user barrier identified was moribund research units of the Department of Planning Research and Statistics within the State Ministry of Health. Potential solutions for addressing these barriers include creation of knowledge networks and partnerships between producers and users of evidence, institutionalisation of sustainable capacity-building of both parties in HPSR and revival of State research units. Evidence-informed decision-making for controlling ETDs is limited by constraints in the interactions of some factors between the users (supply side) and producers (demand side) of evidence. These constraints could be solved through stronger research collaborations, institutionalisation of HPSR, and frameworks for getting research into policy and practice.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The impact of differing frames on early stages of intersectoral collaboration: the case of the First 1000 Days Initiative in the Western Cape Province
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ida Okeyo; Uta Lehmann; Helen Schneider

    While intersectoral collaboration is considered valuable and important for achieving health outcomes, there are few examples of successes. The literature on intersectoral collaboration suggests that success relies on a shared understanding of what can be achieved collectively and whether stakeholders can agree on mutual goals or acceptable trade-offs. When health systems are faced with negotiating intersectoral responses to complex issues, achieving consensus across sectors can be a challenging and uncertain process. Stakeholders may present divergent framings of the problem based on their disciplinary background, interests and institutional mandates. This raises an important question about how different frames of problems and solutions affect the potential to work across sectors during the initiating phases of the policy process. In this paper, this question was addressed through an analysis of the case of the First 1000 Days (FTD) Initiative, an intersectoral approach targeting early childhood in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. We conducted a documentary analysis of 34 policy and other documents on FTD (spanning global, national and subnational spheres) using Schmidt’s conceptualisation of policy ideas in order to elicit framings of the policy problem and solutions. We identified three main frames, associated with different sectoral positionings — a biomedical frame, a nurturing care frame and a socioeconomic frame. Anchored in these different frames, ideas of the problem (definition) and appropriate policy solutions engaged with FTD and the task of intersectoral collaboration at different levels, with a variety of (sometimes cross) purposes. The paper concludes on the importance of principled engagement processes at the beginning of collaborative processes to ensure that different framings are revealed, reflected upon and negotiated in order to arrive at a joint determination of common goals.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A review of Kenya’s cancer policies to improve access to cancer testing and treatment in the country
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Louise Kathini Makau-Barasa; Sandra Greene; N. A. Othieno-Abinya; Stephanie B. Wheeler; Asheley Skinner; Antonia V. Bennett

    Cancer is the third-leading cause of mortality in Kenya, resulting in unique challenges to the country’s health system. An increase in the number of cancer cases in Kenya over the past decade resulted in legislative actions and policies to guide delivery of cancer services. Kenya’s new national cancer control strategy and past policy efforts provide an opportunity to synergise information and enhance understanding to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment in the country. The objectives of this study are to (1) document policy-modifiable factors based on a review of policy documents and results of a key informant survey and (2) develop recommendations to improve policies affecting cancer testing and treatment services in Kenya. This study builds upon our previous study Improving Access to Cancer Testing and Treatment in Kenya (Makau Barasa et al. J Global Oncol 2(216), 2017). The study applied an in-depth systematic review of Kenya’s cancer policies and guidelines, a qualitative analysis of results from a section of a semi-structured key informant survey focused on the opinions of clinicians delivering cancer services as well as cancer support groups and advocacy leaders, and a stakeholder analysis identifying key policy-makers and implementers. Details of the complete key informant survey were published in our previous study. Kenya’s cancer policies have guided progress made in providing the legal and implementation frameworks for the development and delivery of cancer services at the national and county levels. Some policy implementation gaps are noted. These include inadequate financing for cancer services, limited research and data to support policy formulation, and the concentration of cancer services in urban areas. The key informant survey identified policy-modifiable actions that can address some of the gaps and improve the delivery of and access to cancer testing and treatment services in the country. Some of these include addressing the financial barriers affecting cancer testing and treatment services; increasing stakeholder engagement in training health personnel to deliver cancer testing and treatment services; decentralising cancer services and improving cancer surveillance and research; and increasing education and awareness about cancer symptoms, screening procedures and treatment options. A set of priority policy actions were selected from the study findings and used to develop recommendations for Kenya’s policy-makers and stakeholders. Revisions to Kenya’s cancer policies are seeking to address gaps noted in past policies and to improve access to cancer testing and treatment in Kenya. However, based on study findings, additional actions can be taken to strengthen policy implementation. Considering the policy formulation and implementation process and costs, this study recommends focusing on three priority policy actions that can have significant impact on improving access to cancer testing and treatment services. These include addressing financing, insurance and human resources gaps; increasing stakeholder engagement; and decentralising health services for better surveillance and data to inform policies.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Intervention Scalability Assessment Tool: A decision support tool for health policy makers and implementers
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Andrew Milat; Karen Lee; Kathleen Conte; Anne Grunseit; Luke Wolfenden; Femke van Nassau; Neil Orr; Padmaja Sreeram; Adrian Bauman

    Promising health interventions tested in pilot studies will only achieve population-wide impact if they are implemented at scale across communities and health systems. Scaling up effective health interventions is vital as not doing so denies the community the most effective services and programmes. However, there remains a paucity of practical tools to assess the suitability of health interventions for scale-up. The Intervention Scalability Assessment Tool (ISAT) was developed to support policy-makers and practitioners to make systematic assessments of the suitability of health interventions for scale-up. The ISAT was developed over three stages; the first stage involved a literature review to identify similar tools and frameworks that could be used to guide scalability assessments, and expert input to develop draft ISAT content. In the second stage, the draft ISAT tool was tested with end users. The third stage involved revising and re-testing the ISAT with end users to further refine the language and structure of the final ISAT. A variety of information and sources of evidence should be used to complete the ISAT. The ISAT consists of three parts. Part A: ‘setting the scene’ requires consideration of the context in which the intervention is being considered for scale-up and consists of five domains, as follows: (1) the problem; (2) the intervention; (3) strategic/political context; (4) evidence of effectiveness; and (5) intervention costs and benefits. Part B asks users to assess the potential implementation and scale-up requirements within five domains, namely (1) fidelity and adaptation; (2) reach and acceptability; (3) delivery setting and workforce; (4) implementation infrastructure; and (5) sustainability. Part C generates a graphical representation of the strengths and weaknesses of the readiness of the proposed intervention for scale-up. Users are also prompted for a recommendation as to whether the intervention (1) is recommended for scale-up, (2) is promising but needs further information before scaling up, or (3) does not yet merit scale-up. The ISAT fills an important gap in applied scalability assessment and can become a critical decision support tool for policy-makers and practitioners when selecting health interventions for scale-up. Although the ISAT is designed to be a health policy and practitioner tool, it can also be used by researchers in the design of research to fill important evidence gaps.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Promoting the creation of R&D intentions in primary healthcare measured by a validated instrument
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Helena Morténius; Amir Baigi

    Primary healthcare has a long and successful patient care history in Sweden. Nevertheless, a research-oriented attitude has been more or less absent in this context. In society today, access to information has significantly influenced the nature of patients’ demand for up-to-date healthcare. A prerequisite for this new demand is health professionals who are interested in novel ways of thinking and view a change of work practices as necessary. One way to achieve this goal is by means of strategic communication, which is a relatively new interdisciplinary field. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of strategic communication in the creation of intentions in Research and Development (R&D) among primary healthcare staff as measured by a validated instrument. An intervention study on staff was performed. A 15-item questionnaire was validated and implemented. All primary healthcare staff from the southwestern Swedish province of Halland were included. In total, 846 employees (70%) agreed to participate in the measurements. After 12 years, 352 individuals who had participated in the intervention and remained in the organisation were identified and followed up. The intervention comprised established communication channels. The measurements were performed after 7 and 12 years. A questionnaire was designed for this purpose. The questions were validated by a factor analysis, and the degree of reliability was measured with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests were used as statistical tests in comparisons. Factor analysis identified five pure factors (most Cronbach’s alpha > 0.70). Strategic communication contributed to a significant improvement in the staff members’ interest in R&D and willingness to change in both the short (P < 0.05) and long (P < 0.05) term. The positive attitude was stable over time. Strategic communication seems to be a significant tool for creating a stable positive attitude towards R&D in the primary healthcare context. The creation of a positive attitude towards a scientific approach is a relevant finding that deserves special attention in a context as complex as healthcare. Using a validated instrument seems to contribute to pure results in this case.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Optimisation: defining and exploring a concept to enhance the impact of public health initiatives
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Luke Wolfenden; Katarzyna Bolsewicz; Alice Grady; Sam McCrabb; Melanie Kingsland; John Wiggers; Adrian Bauman; Rebecca Wyse; Nicole Nathan; Rachel Sutherland; Rebecca Kate Hodder; Maria Fernandez; Cara Lewis; Natalie Taylor; Heather McKay; Jeremy Grimshaw; Alix Hall; Joanna Moullin; Bianca Albers; Samantha Batchelor; John Attia; Andrew Milat; Andrew Bailey; Chris Rissel; Penny Reeves; Joanie Sims-Gould; Robyn Mildon; Chris Doran; Sze Lin Yoong

    Repeated, data-driven optimisation processes have been applied in many fields to rapidly transform the performance of products, processes and interventions. While such processes may similarly be employed to enhance the impact of public health initiatives, optimisation has not been defined in the context of public health and there has been little exploration of its key concepts. We used a modified, three-round Delphi study with an international group of researchers, public health policy-makers and practitioners to (1) generate a consensus-based definition of optimisation in the context of public health and (2i) describe key considerations for optimisation in that context. A pre-workshop literature review and elicitation of participant views regarding optimisation in public health (round 1) were followed by a daylong workshop and facilitated face-to-face group discussions to refine the definition and generate key considerations (round 2); finally, post-workshop discussions were undertaken to refine and finalise the findings (round 3). A thematic analysis was performed at each round. Study findings reflect an iterative consultation process with study participants. Thirty of 33 invited individuals (91%) participated in the study. Participants reached consensus on the following definition of optimisation in public health: “A deliberate, iterative and data-driven process to improve a health intervention and/or its implementation to meet stakeholder-defined public health impacts within resource constraints”. A range of optimisation considerations were explored. Optimisation was considered most suitable when existing public health initiatives are not sufficiently effective, meaningful improvements from an optimisation process are anticipated, quality data to assess impacts are routinely available, and there are stable and ongoing resources to support it. Participants believed optimisation could be applied to improve the impacts of an intervention, an implementation strategy or both, on outcomes valued by stakeholders or end users. While optimisation processes were thought to be facilitated by an understanding of the mechanisms of an intervention or implementation strategy, no agreement was reached regarding the best approach to inform decisions about modifications to improve impact. The study findings provide a strong basis for future research to explore the potential impact of optimisation in the field of public health.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Fostering implementation of knowledge into health practice: study protocol for the validation and redevelopment of the Knowledge Uptake and Utilization Tool
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Sneha Shankar; Kelly Skinner; Melody E. Morton Ninomiya; Jasmin Bhawra

    Measurement of what knowledge is taken-up and how that information is used to inform practice and policies can provide an understanding about the effectiveness of knowledge uptake and utilization processes. In 2007, the Knowledge Uptake and Utilization Tool (KUUT) was developed to evaluate the implementation of knowledge into practice. The KUUT has been used by numerous large health organizations despite limited validity evidence and a narrow understanding about how the tool is used in practice and interpreted by users. As such, the overall purpose of this protocol is to redevelop the KUUT and gather validity evidence to examine and support its use in various health-related organizations. This protocol paper outlines a validation and redevelopment procedure for the KUUT using the unitary view of validity. The protocol outlined in this article proceeds through four phases, starting with redeveloping the tool, then evaluating validity evidence based on: test content, response processes and internal structure. The initial phase gathers information to redevelop the tool, and evaluates item content and response format. The second phase evaluates response process validity evidence by examining how a variety of users interact with the tool. In the third phase, the tool will be pilot tested with knowledge users and, in the final phase, psychometric properties of the tool will be examined and a final scoring structure will be determined. A knowledge translation plan described herein outlines where the final tool will be housed and how the information about the tool will be disseminated. This protocol outlines a procedure to gather different sources of validity evidence for the KUUT. By addressing limitations in the original KUUT, such as complexities with scoring, a redeveloped KUUT supporting validity evidence will enhance the ability of health-related organizations to effectively use this tool for its intended purpose.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Stakeholders’ experiences with the evidence aid website to support ‘real-time’ use of research evidence to inform decision-making in crisis zones: a user testing study
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ahmad Firas Khalid; John N. Lavis; Fadi El-Jardali; Meredith Vanstone

    Humanitarian action in crisis zones is fraught with many challenges, including lack of timely and accessible research evidence to inform decision-making about humanitarian interventions. Evidence websites have the potential to address this challenge. Evidence Aid is the only evidence website designed for crisis zones that focuses on providing research evidence in the form of systematic reviews. The objective of this study is to explore stakeholders’ views of Evidence Aid, contributing further to our understanding of the use of research evidence in decision-making in crisis zones. We designed a qualitative user-testing study to collect interview data from stakeholders about their impressions of Evidence Aid. Eligible stakeholders included those with and without previous experience of Evidence Aid. All participants were either currently working or have worked within the last year in a crisis zone. Participants were asked to perform the same user experience-related tasks and answer questions about this experience and their knowledge needs. Data were analysed using a deductive framework analysis approach drawing on Morville’s seven facets of the user experience — findability, usability, usefulness, desirability, accessibility, credibility and value. A total of 31 interviews were completed with senior decision-makers (n = 8), advisors (n = 7), field managers (n = 7), analysts/researchers (n = 5) and healthcare providers (n = 4). Participant self-reported knowledge needs varied depending on their role. Overall, participants did not identify any ‘major’ problems (highest order) and identified only two ‘big’ problems (second highest order) with using the Evidence Aid website, namely the lack of a search engine on the home page and that some full-text articles linked to/from the site require a payment. Participants identified seven specific suggestions about how to improve Evidence Aid, many of which can also be applied to other evidence websites. Stakeholders in crisis zones found Evidence Aid to be useful, accessible and credible. However, they experienced some problems with the lack of a search engine on the home page and the requirement for payment for some full-text articles linked to/from the site.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Utilisation of evidence from Thailand’s National Health Examination Survey in policy development: finding the weakest link
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Sripen Tantivess; Jomkwan Yothasamut; Wilailak Saengsri

    Health surveillance and survey data are helpful in evidence-informed policy decisions. This study is part of an evaluation of the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) programme in Thailand. This paper focuses on the obstacles in the translation of survey information into policies at a national level. In-depth interviews with relevant individuals and representatives of institutes were carried out for the data collection. A total of 26 focal informants included executives and staff of NHES funders, government health agencies, civil society organisations, health experts, NHES programme managers and researchers in the survey network. Utilisation of NHES data in policy-making is limited for many reasons. Despite the potential users’ positive views on the technical integrity of experts and practitioners involved in the NHES, the strength of employing health examinations in the data collection is not well recognised. Meanwhile, alternative health surveillance platforms that offer similar information on a shorter timescale are preferable in policy monitoring and evaluation. In sum, the lack of governance of Thailand’s health surveillance system is identified as a key element hindering the translation of health surveys, including the NHES, into policies. Despite an adequate capacity to conduct population health surveys, the lack of governance structure and function has resulted in a fragmented health monitoring system. Large and small survey projects are conducted and funded by different institutes without common policy direction and alignment mechanisms for prioritising survey topics, collective planning and capacity-building programmes for survey practitioners and users. Lessons drawn from Thailand’s NHES can be helpful for policy-makers in other low- and middle-income countries, as effective governance for evidence generation and utilisation is necessary in all contexts, regardless of income level and available resources.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The relationship between government research funding and the cancer burden in South Korea: implications for prioritising health research
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ye Lim Jung; Hyoung Sun Yoo; Eun Sun Kim

    In this study, we aimed to assess health research funding allocation in South Korea by analysing the relationship between government funding and disease burden in South Korea, specifically focusing on cancers. The relationship between research funding and the cancer burden, measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), was analysed using a linear regression method over a 10-year interval. Funding information on 25 types of cancer was obtained from the National Science and Technology Information Service portal in South Korea. Measures of cancer burden were obtained from Global Burden of Disease studies. The funding predictions were derived from regression analysis and compared with actual funding allocations. In addition, we evaluated how the funding distribution reflected long-term changes in the burden and the burden specific to South Korea compared with global values. Korean funding in four periods, 2005–2007, 2008–2010, 2011–2013 and 2015–2017, were associated with the cancer burden in 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2013, respectively. For DALYs, the correlation coefficients were 0.79 and 0.82 in 2003 and 2013, respectively, which were higher than the values from other countries. However, the changes in DALYs (1990–2006) were not associated with the funding changes (from 2005 to 2007 to 2015–2017). In addition, the value differences between Korean and global DALYs were not associated with Korean government research funding. Although research funding was associated with the cancer burden in South Korea during the last decade, the distribution of research funds did not appropriately reflect the changes in burden nor the differences between the South Korean and global burden levels. The policy-makers involved in health research budgeting should consider not only the absolute burden values for singular years but also the long-term changes in burden and the country-specific burden when they prioritise public research projects.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • How and why do win–win strategies work in engaging policy-makers to implement Health in All Policies? A multiple-case study of six state- and national-level governments
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Lauri Kokkinen; Alix Freiler; Carles Muntaner; Ketan Shankardass

    Much of the research about Health in All Policies (HiAP) implementation is descriptive, and there have been calls for more evaluative evidence to explain how and why successes and failures have occurred. In this cross-case study of six state- and national-level governments (California, Ecuador, Finland, Norway, Scotland and Thailand), we tested hypotheses about win–win strategies for engaging policy-makers in HiAP implementation drawing on components identified in our previous systems framework. We used two sources of data — key informant interviews and peer-reviewed and grey literature. Using a protocol, we created context–mechanism–outcome pattern configurations to articulate mechanisms that explain how win–win strategies work and fail in different contexts. We then applied our evidence for all cases to the systems framework. We assessed the quality of evidence within and across cases in terms of triangulation of sources and strength of evidence. We also strengthened hypothesis testing using replication logic. We found robust evidence for two mechanisms about how and why win–win strategies build partnerships for HiAP implementation — the use of shared language and the value of multiple outcomes. Within our cases, the triangulation was strong, both hypotheses were supported by literal and contrast replications, and there was no support against them. For the third mechanism studied, using the public-health arguments win–win strategy, we only found evidence from Finland. Based on our systems framework, we expected that the most important system components to using win–win strategies are sectoral objectives, and we found empirical support for this prediction. We conclude that two mechanisms about how and why win–win strategies build partnerships for HiAP implementation — the use of shared language and the value of multiple outcomes — were found as relevant to the six settings. Both of these mechanisms trigger a process of developing synergies and releasing potentialities among different government sectors and these interactions between sectors often work through sectoral objectives. These mechanisms should be considered when designing future HiAP initiatives and their implementation to enhance the emergence of non-health sector policy-makers’ engagement.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Strengthening capacity to use research evidence in health sector policy-making: experience from Kenya and Malawi
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Rose N. Oronje; Violet I. Murunga; Eliya M. Zulu

    Among the many barriers to evidence use in decision-making, weak capacity for evidence use has attracted a lot of focus in the last decade. The study aims to inform and enrich ongoing and future efforts to strengthen capacity for evidence use by presenting and discussing the experiences and lessons of a project implemented in Kenya and Malawi to strengthen individual and institutional capacity for evidence use within the ministries of health (MoHs). This paper draws on the internal and external evaluations of a 3-year project funded by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, the Strengthening Capacity to Use Research Evidence in Health Policy (SECURE Health). To strengthen individual capacity, the project implemented a training and mentorship programme for 60 mid-level policy-makers in the two MoHs. To strengthen institutional capacity, the project conducted sustained advocacy with top leaders to strengthen structures that enable evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM), supported Kenya to develop research-for-health policies and priorities, supported Malawi to review the implementation of its health research agenda, developed EIDM guidelines for both MoHs, and supported bi-annual evidence dialogues to improve interactions and raise the profile of evidence. Internal evaluation included baseline and endline surveys (93 baseline and 92 endline interviews), 60 in-depth interviews, and intervention-specific evaluations (pre–post tests for training workshops, feedback forms for policy dialogues and tracking effects of advocacy efforts). The external evaluation was implemented alongside project implementation, conducting three annual evaluations. The results show that training and mentorship programmes in EIDM were effective in improving competencies of civil servants. However, such programmes need to train a critical mass to be effective in enhancing EIDM practice at the MoHs. On strengthening institutional capacity for EIDM, while the project achieved some success, it did not realise long-lasting effects because of its limited time of implementation and limited focus on sustained political economy analysis, which meant that the intervention was negatively affected by frequently changing interests within the MoHs. Although training and mentorship are effective in improving EIDM competencies, they need to be incorporated in existing pre-service and in-service training programmes for sustainability. Strengthening institutional capacity for evidence use is complex and needs sustained political commitment and long-term investments.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • A literature review of knowledge translation and partnership research training programs for health researchers
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Hannah Tait; Anna Williamson

    Researchers and policy-makers are increasingly working together with the goal of creating research that is focused on solving real-world problems; however, knowledge translation (KT) activities, and the partnerships they often require, can be challenging. The aim of this review is to determine the extent of the literature on training programs designed to improve researcher competency in KT and to describe existing training methods that may be used by those hoping to build capacity for partnership research. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched for peer review articles published between January 2000 and July 2019. Studies were eligible for inclusion in the review if they described the development of, curriculum for, or evaluation of KT and/or partnership research training programs. Data extraction included information on evaluation methods, outcomes and implications as well as the format, aims and themes of each capacity-building program. The review identified nine published articles that met inclusion criteria – four papers described training events, two papers described participant experiences of specific learning sessions within a larger training course, two papers described part time secondments for KT capacity-building and one paper described a plan for KT training embedded within an existing research training course. All programs were delivered face-to-face, all included practical skills-building opportunities, and all employed multiple learning modalities such as seminars and small group discussions. Evaluation of the training programs was primarily conducted through qualitative interviews or feedback surveys. To date, few KT training initiatives have been described in the literature and none of these have been rigorously evaluated. The present review offers insights into the planning, development and participant experiences associated with the small number of training initiatives that have been described. There is insufficient evidence available at present to identify the most effective models for training researchers in KT and partnership skills.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • The impact of National Health Insurance upon accessibility of health services and financial protection from catastrophic health expenditure: a case study of Savannakhet province, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Somdeth Bodhisane; Sathirakorn Pongpanich

    Many schemes have been implemented by the government of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic to provide equity in health service utilisation. Initially, health service utilisations were fully supported by the government and were subsequently followed by the Revolving Drug Fund. In the 2000s, four health financing schemes, namely the Social Security Organization, the State Authority for Social Security, the Health Equity Fund and Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI), were introduced with various target groups. However, as these voluntary schemes have suffered from a very low enrolment rate, the government decided to pilot the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, which offers a flat, co-payment system for health service utilisation. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the NHI in terms of its accessibility and in providing financial protection from catastrophic health expenditure. The data collection process was implemented in hospitals of two districts of Savannakhet province. A structured questionnaire was used to retrieve all required information from 342 households; the information comprised of the socioeconomics of the household, accessibility to health services and financial payment for both outpatient and inpatient department services. Binary logistic regression models were used to discover the impact of NHI in terms of accessibility and financial protection. The impact of NHI was then compared with the outcomes of the preceding, voluntary CBHI scheme, which had been the subject of earlier studies. Under the NHI, it was found that married respondents, large households and the level of income significantly increased the probability of accessibility to health service utilisation. Most importantly, NHI significantly improved accessibility for the poorest income quantile. In terms of financial protection, households with an existing chronic condition had a significantly higher chance of suffering financial catastrophe when compared to households with healthy members. As probability of catastrophic expenditure was not affected by income level, it was indicated that NHI is able to provide equity in financial protection. The models found that the NHI significantly enhances accessibility for poor income households, improving health service distribution and accessibility for the various income levels when compared to the CBHI coverage. Additionally, it was also found that NHI had enhanced financial protection since its introduction. However, the NHI policy requires a dramatically high level of government subsidy; therefore, there its long-term sustainability remains to be determined.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Palliative Care Evidence Review Service (PaCERS): a knowledge transfer partnership
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Mala Mann; Amanda Woodward; Annmarie Nelson; Anthony Byrne

    The importance of linking evidence into practice and policy is recognised as a key pillar of a prudent approach to healthcare; it is of importance to healthcare professionals and decision-makers across the world in every speciality. However, rapid access to evidence to support service redesign, or to change practice at pace, is challenging. This is particularly so in smaller specialties such as Palliative Care, where pressured multidisciplinary clinicians lack time and skill sets to locate and appraise the literature relevant to a particular area. Therefore, we have initiated the Palliative Care Evidence Review Service (PaCERS), a knowledge transfer partnership through which we have developed a clear methodology to conduct evidence reviews to support professionals and other decision-makers working in palliative care. PaCERS methodology utilises modified systematic review methods as there is no agreed definition or an accepted methodology for conducting rapid reviews. This paper describes the stages involved based on our iterative recent experiences and engagement with stakeholders, who are the potential beneficiaries of the research. Uniquely, we emphasise the process and opportunities of engagement with the clinical workforce and policy-makers throughout the review, from developing and refining the review question at the start through to the importance of demonstrating impact. We are faced with the challenge of the trade-off between the timely transfer of evidence against the risk of impacting on rigour. To address this issue, we try to ensure transparency throughout the review process. Our methodology aligns with key principles of knowledge synthesis in defining a process that is transparent, robust and improving the efficiency and timeliness of the review. Our reviews are clinically or policy driven and, although we use modified systematic review methods, one of the key differences between published review processes and our review process is in our relationship with the requester. This streamlining approach to synthesising evidence in a timely manner helps to inform decisions faced by clinicians and decision-makers in healthcare settings, supporting, at pace, knowledge transfer and mobilisation.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Analysis of the Health Product Profile Directory — a new tool to inform priority-setting in global public health
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    R. F. Terry; A. Plasència; J. C. Reeder

    The Health Product Profile Directory (HPPD) is an online database describing 8–10 key characteristics (such as target population, measures of efficacy and dosage) of product profiles for medicines, vaccines, diagnostics and other products that are intended to be accessed by populations in low- and middle-income countries. The HPPD was developed by TDR on behalf of WHO and launched on 15 May 2019. The contents of the HPPD were downloaded into an Excel™ spreadsheet via the open access interface and analysed to identify the number of health product profiles by type, disease, year of publication, status, author organization and safety information. The HPPD contains summaries of 215 health product profiles published between 2008 and May 2019, 117 (54%) of which provide a hyperlink to the detailed publication from which the summary was extracted, and the remaining 98 provide an email contact for further information. A total of 55 target disease or health conditions are covered, with 210 profiles describing a product with an infectious disease as the target. Only 5 product profiles in the HPPD describe a product for a non-communicable disease. Four diseases account for 40% of product profiles in the HPPD; these are tuberculosis (33 profiles, 15%), malaria (31 profiles, 14%), HIV (13 profiles, 6%) and Chagas (10 profiles, 5%). The HPPD provides a new tool to inform priority-setting in global health — it includes all product profiles authored by WHO (n = 51). There is a need to standardise nomenclature to more clearly distinguish between strategic publications (describing research and development (R&D) priorities or preferred characteristics) compared to target product profiles to guide a specific candidate product undergoing R&D. It is recommended that all profiles published in the HPPD define more clearly what affordability means in the context where the product is intended to be used and all profiles should include a statement of safety. Combining the analysis from HPPD to a mapping of funds available for R&D and those products in the R&D pipeline would create a better overview of global health priorities and how they are supported. Such analysis and increased transparency should take us a step closer to measuring and improving coordination of efforts in global health R&D.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • ‘All the stars were aligned’? The origins of England’s National Institute for Health Research
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Paul Atkinson; Sally Sheard; Tom Walley

    In 2006, the research and development (R&D) activity of England’s national healthcare system, the National Health Service, was reformed. A National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) was established within the Department of Health, the first body to manage this activity as an integrated system, unlocking significant increases in government funding. This article investigates how the NIHR came to be set up, and why it took the form it did. Our goal was a better understanding of ‘how we got here’. We conducted oral history interviews with 38 key witnesses, held a witness seminar, and examined published and unpublished documents. We conclude that the most important forces shaping the origin of NIHR were the growing impact of evidence-based medicine on service policies, the growth of New Public Management ways of thinking, economic policies favouring investment in health R&D and buoyant public funding for healthcare. We note the strong two-way interaction between the health research system and the healthcare system — while beneficial for the use of research, challenges for healthcare (such as stop-go funding) could also produce challenges for health research. Understanding how and why England came to have a centralised health service research system alongside a long-established funder of biomedical research (the Medical Research Council) helps us interpret the significance of the English health research experience for other countries and helps English policy-makers better understand their present options. Learning lessons from the features of the English health research system calls for an understanding of the processes which shaped it. Firstly, the publicly funded, nationally organised character of healthcare promoted government interest in evidence-based medicine, made research prioritisation simpler and helped promote the implementation of findings. Secondly, the essential role of leadership by a group who valued research for its health impact ensured that new management methods (such as metrics and competitive tendering) were harnessed to patient benefit, rather than as an end in themselves. A policy window of government willingness to invest in R&D for wider economic goals and buoyant funding of the health system were also effectively exploited.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Selecting, refining and identifying priority Cochrane Reviews in health communication and participation in partnership with consumers and other stakeholders
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Anneliese J. Synnot; Allison Tong; Peter Bragge; Dianne Lowe; Jack S. Nunn; Molly O’Sullivan; Lidia Horvat; Debra Kay; Davina Ghersi; Steve McDonald; Naomi Poole; Noni Bourke; Natasha A. Lannin; Danny Vadasz; Sandy Oliver; Karen Carey; Sophie J. Hill

    Priority-setting partnerships between researchers and stakeholders (meaning consumers, health professionals and health decision-makers) may improve research relevance and value. The Cochrane Consumers and Communication Group (CCCG) publishes systematic reviews in ‘health communication and participation’, which includes concepts such as shared decision-making, patient-centred care and health literacy. We aimed to select and refine priority topics for systematic reviews in health communication and participation, and use these to identify five priority CCCG Cochrane Reviews. Twenty-eight participants (14 consumers, 14 health professionals/decision-makers) attended a 1-day workshop in Australia. Using large-group activities and voting, participants discussed, revised and then selected 12 priority topics from a list of 21 previously identified topics. In mixed small groups, participants refined these topics, exploring underlying problems, who they affect and potential solutions. Thematic analysis identified cross-cutting themes, in addition to key populations and potential interventions for future Cochrane Reviews. We mapped these against CCCG’s existing review portfolio to identify five priority reviews. Priority topics included poor understanding and implementation of patient-centred care by health services, the fact that health information can be a low priority for health professionals, communication and coordination breakdowns in health services, and inadequate consumer involvement in health service design. The four themes underpinning the topics were culture and organisational structures, health professional attitudes and assumptions, inconsistent experiences of care, and lack of shared understanding in the sector. Key populations for future reviews were described in terms of social health characteristics (e.g. people from indigenous or culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, elderly people, and people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage) more than individual health characteristics. Potential interventions included health professional education, interventions to change health service/health professional culture and attitudes, and health service policies and standards. The resulting five priority Cochrane Reviews identified were improving end-of-life care communication, patient/family involvement in patient safety, improving future doctors’ communication skills, consumer engagement strategies, and promoting patient-centred care. Stakeholders identified priority topics for systematic reviews associated with structural and cultural challenges underlying health communication and participation, and were concerned that issues of equity be addressed. Priority-setting with stakeholders presents opportunities and challenges for review producers.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • To what extent is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder considered in policy-related documents in South Africa? A document review
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Babatope O. Adebiyi; Ferdinand C. Mukumbang; Anna-Marie Beytell

    South Africa is considered to have the highest prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) globally. Nevertheless, the extent to which the South African government has responded to the high FASD prevalence at the policy level is unclear. Herein, we aimed to identify targeted and generic clauses that could be attributed to the prevention and management of FASD in relevant South African policy documents. We conducted a search of two search engines (PubMed and Google) and the websites of South African national and provincial departments from January to April 2018. A total of 33 policy documents were included in this review. Using content analysis, we sought documents that mention the terms ‘fetal alcohol syndrome’ and ‘fetal alcohol spectrum disorder’. The Framework method was also used to thematically identify specific and generic clauses attributed to the prevention and management of FASD in South Africa. The content analysis indicated that 12 policy documents contained the searched terms. Findings from the thematic analysis showed that targeted and generic clauses for FASD exist in various policy documents. Some of the generic clauses focused on the regulation of liquor outlets, enforcement of liquor laws, and the general management of persons with mental and educational challenges. Specific clauses focused on creating platforms to improve the awareness, screening, identification and support for individuals with FASD. There is a noticeable increase in the number of policy documents that considered elements of FASD enacted in the last decade. Although this study revealed the existence of targeted and generic clauses that could be attributed to the prevention and management of FASD, the sustained high prevalence of FASD in South Africa, as reported in the literature, calls for more holistic and comprehensive approaches to tackle the FASD problem in South Africa.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • ITEMAS ontology for healthcare technology innovation
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    A. Moreno-Conde; Carlos Luis Parra-Calderón; S. Sánchez-Seda; G.A. Escobar-Rodríguez; M. López-Otero; L. Cussó; R. del-Cerro-García; M. Segura-Sánchez; L. Herrero-Urigüen; N. Martí-Ras; M. Albertí-Ibarz; M. Desco

    The Platform for Innovation in Medical and Health Technologies (ITEMAS) is a network of 66 healthcare centres focused on fostering innovation in medical and health technologies as an essential tool for increasing the sustainability of the Spanish healthcare system. The present research is focused on defining a formal representation that details the most relevant concepts associated with the creation and adoption of innovative medical technology in the Spanish healthcare system. The methodology applied is based on the methontology process, including peer-review identification and selection of concepts from the ITEMAS innovation indicators and innovation management system standards. This stage was followed by an iterative validation process. Concepts were then conceptualised, formalised and implemented in an ontology. The ontology defined describes how relationships between employees, organisations, projects and ideas can be applied to generate results that are transferrable to the market, general public and scientific forums. Overall, we identified 136 concepts, 138 object properties and 30 properties in a five-level hierarchy. The ontology was tested and validated as an appropriate framework for calculating the ITEMAS innovation indicators. The consensus concepts were expressed in the form of an ontology to be used as a single communication format between the members of the ITEMAS network. Healthcare centres can compare their innovation results and obtain a better understanding of their innovation context based on the reasoning techniques of artificial intelligence. As a result, they can benefit from advanced analytical capabilities to define the most appropriate innovation policies for each centre based on the common experience of the large number of healthcare centres involved. The results can be used to create a map of agents and knowledge to show capabilities, projects and services provided by each of the participating centres. The ontology could also be applied as an instrument to match needs with existing projects and capabilities from the community of organisations working in healthcare technology innovation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Strengthening and measuring research impact in global health: lessons from applying the FAIT framework
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Rebecca Dodd; Shanthi Ramanathan; Blake Angell; David Peiris; Rohina Joshi; Andrew Searles; Jacqui Webster

    To date, efforts to measure impact have largely focused on health research in high-income countries, reflecting where the majority of health research funding is spent. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of health and medical research being undertaken in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), supported by both development aid and established research funders. The Framework to Assess the Impact of Translational health research (FAIT) combines three approaches to measuring research impact (Payback, economic assessment and case study narrative). Its aim is to strengthen the focus on translation and impact measurement in health research. FAIT has been used by several Australian research initiatives; however, it has not been used in LMICs. Our aim was to apply FAIT in an LMIC context and evaluate its utility. We retrospectively applied all three FAIT methods to two LMIC studies using available data, supplemented with group discussion and further economic analyses. Results were presented in a scorecard format. FAIT helped clarify pathways of impact for the projects and provided new knowledge on areas of impact in several domains, including capacity-building for research, policy development and economic impact. However, there were constraints, particularly associated with calculating the return on investment in the LMIC context. The case study narrative provided a layperson’s summary of the research that helped to explain outcomes and succinctly communicate lessons learnt. Use of FAIT to assess the impact of LMIC research was both feasible and useful. We make recommendations related to prospective use, identification of metrics to support use of the Payback framework, and simplification of the economic assessment, which may facilitate further application in LMIC environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Performing collaborative research: a dramaturgical reflection on an institutional knowledge brokering service in the North East of England
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Peter van der Graaf; Janet Shucksmith; Rosemary Rushmer; Avril Rhodes; Mark Welford

    To increase the uptake of research evidence in practice, responsive research services have been developed within universities that broker access to academic expertise for practitioners and decision-makers. However, there has been little examination of the process of knowledge brokering within these services. This paper reflects on this process within the AskFuse service, which was launched in June 2013 by Fuse, the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, in North East England. The paper outlines the challenges and opportunities faced by both academics and health practitioners collaborating through the service. The authors reflected on conversations between the AskFuse Research Manager and policy and practice partners accessing the service between June 2013 and March 2017. Summary notes of these conversations, including emails and documents relating to over 240 enquiries, have been analysed using an auto-ethnographic approach. We identified five challenges to knowledge brokering in an institutional service, namely length of brokerage time required, limits to collaboration, lack of resources, brokering research in a changing system, and multiple types of knowledge. To understand and overcome some of the identified challenges, we employ Goffman’s dramaturgical perspective and argue for making better use of the distinction between front and back stages in the knowledge brokering process. We emphasise the importance of back stages for defusing destructive information that could discredit collaborative performances.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A roadmap for strengthening evidence-informed health policy-making in Iran: protocol for a research programme
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Haniye Sadat Sajadi; Reza Majdzadeh; Bahareh Yazdizadeh; Farideh Mohtasham; Mahsa Mohseni; Leila Doshmangir; John Lavis

    Many initiatives have been taken in the Islamic Republic of Iran to promote evidence-informed health policy-making (EIHP). However, these initiatives are not systematic. Since the implementation of EIHP is not consistent and the interventions in this regard are complex, a comprehensive plan could be a useful tool for employing initiatives to achieve and promote EIHP. Hence, this study aims to develop a roadmap for strengthening EIHP over a 3-year period in Iran. Nine projects will be conducted to define the roadmap for strengthening EIHP. These projects include two reviews and a stakeholder analysis to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder achieving EIHP. The next study will be a qualitative study to prioritise the challenges and outline the main causes. The following steps will be a review of reviews to extract global experiences on interventions used for strengthening EIHP and two qualitative studies to examine the adoption of these interventions and develop an operational plan for strengthening EIHP in Iran. The research will be completed through conducting two qualitative-quantitative studies to design a tool for measuring EIHP and assessing EIHP in Iran at baseline. This national EIHP roadmap will surely be able to identify the gaps and bumps that might exist in the implementation plan for establishing EIHP and eliminate them as needed in the future. This roadmap can be a step in moving towards transparency and accountability in the health system and as thus towards good governance and improvement of the health system’s performance. Although the plan can be a good model for developing countries and may promote the use of evidence in health policy-making, we should assume that there are some critical contextual factors that could potentially hinder the complete and successful implementation of EIHP. Thus, to enhance EIHP in these countries with a policy-making context that does not fully support the use of evidence, it is crucial to think about not only those interventions that directly address the EIHP barriers, but also some long-term strategies to make required changes in the context, both beyond and within the health system.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • System within systems: challenges and opportunities for the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in Pakistan
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Zaeem Haq; Babar Tasneem Shaikh; Nhan Tran; Assad Hafeez; Abdul Ghaffar

    Pakistan has one of the highest infant and child mortality rates in the world, half of these occurring due to vaccine-preventable diseases. The country started its Expanded Programme on immunisation (EPI) in 1978. However, the programme’s performance is often questioned, as the Immunisation rates have been chronically low and on-time vaccination unsatisfactory. We explored the programme’s insights about its structural and implementation arrangements within the larger governance system, and the ensuing challenges as well as opportunities. We carried out a qualitative case study comprised of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 34 purposively selected key informants from various tiers of immunisation policy and programme implementation. The interviews revolved around WHO’s six building blocks of a health system, their interactions with EPI counterparts, and with the outer ecological factors. Interviews were transcribed and content analysed for emergent themes. The EPI faces several challenges in delivering routine immunisation (RI) to children, including lack of clarity on whether to provide vaccination through fixed centres or mobile teams, scarcity of human resource at various levels, lack of accurate population data, on-ground logistic issues, lack of a separate budget line for EPI, global pressure for polio, less priority to prevention by the policy, security risks for community-based activities, and community misconceptions about vaccines. The fulcrum for most of the challenges lies where EPI service delivery interacts with components of the broader health system. The activities for polio eradication have had implications for RI. Socio-political issues from the national and global environment also impact this system. The interplay of these factors, while posing challenges to effective implementation of RI, also brings opportunities for improvement. Collective effort from local, national and global stakeholders is required for improving the immunisation status of Pakistani children, global health security and the sustainable development goals.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: The AGING Initiative experience: a call for sustained support for team science networks
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-20
    Tullika Garg; Kathryn Anzuoni; Valentina Landyn; Alexandra Hajduk; Stephen Waring; Leah R. Hanson; Heather E. Whitson

    After publication of the original article [1], it came to the authors’ attention that a funding source was omitted. This Correction article shows the updated Funding section.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The intersections of industry with the health research enterprise
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Elie A. Akl; Assem M. Khamis

    There is increased awareness of the negative impact of large multinational corporations – the ‘industry’ – on public health. These corporations have established different types of relationships with a number of actors in the field of health research. This Commentary explores the different types of relationships between the industry and the actors of health research, how they intersect with the different research steps, and how these relationships allow the industry to exert influence. The types of relationships discussed consist of funding of research, direct relationships with the actors of research (namely advocacy groups, funding agencies, experts, professional organisations, regulatory agencies and health practitioners), and the influencing research standards. The potentially influenced research steps either precede the research (i.e. the prioritisation of research question), relate to it directly (i.e. its planning, conduct, reporting, dissemination and evaluation), or build on it (i.e. regulatory approval, integration into guidelines and adoption into practice). In conclusion, the industry has successfully fostered relationships with almost every actor of the health research enterprise and is using these relationships to influence the different steps of health research. The degree of influence the industry is having on health research calls for more work on managing the relationships discussed herein.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Using research priority-setting to guide bridging the implementation gap in countries – a case study of the Uganda newborn research priorities in the SDG era
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Peter Waiswa; Monica Okuga; Lydia Kabwijamu; Joseph Akuze; Hanifah Sengendo; Patrick Aliganyira; Patricia Pirio; Claudia Hanson; Frank Kaharuza

    One of the greatest challenges that countries face regarding the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for child health regard the actions required to improve neonatal health; these interventions have to be informed by evidence. In view of the persisting high numbers of newborn deaths in Uganda, we aimed to define a locally contextualised national research agenda for newborn health to guide national investments towards SDG targets. We adopted a systematic approach for priority-setting adapted from the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. We identified and listed local newborn researchers and experts in Uganda by reviewing the PubMed database, through a snowballing technique, and engaged the Ministry of Health. Participants were requested to generate at least three research questions. The collated questions were sent to the same expert group to be rated using five criteria, including answerability, scalability, impact, generalisability and speed. Of the 300 researchers and stakeholders contacted, 104 responded (36%) and generated 304 questions. These questions were collated and duplicates removed giving a condensed list of 41 research questions. These questions were then rated by 82 experts. Of the top 15 research questions, 86.7% (13/15) were in the service delivery and 6.7% (1/15) in the development domain, while only 6.7% (1/15) was in the group ‘other’. None of the leading 15 questions was in the discovery domain. Strategies to improve quality of intrapartum care featured high in the responses, while research around care for premature babies was not a perceived focus of research. The focus of improved evidence to guide and innovate service delivery, foremost intrapartum care, reflects the importance of this area as accelerated improvement is likely to yield fast and sustained survival gains in the neonatal period and beyond in Uganda. We recommend that other countries adapt a similar approach in defining priority reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health areas for investment in order to accelerate progress towards achieving the SDGs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Statistics in Dutch policy debates on health and healthcare
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Reinie G. Gerrits; Michael J. van den Berg; Niek S. Klazinga; Dionne S. Kringos

    The notion of ‘fact-free politics’ is debated in Europe and the United States of America and has particular relevance for the use of evidence to underpin health and healthcare policies. To better understand how evidence on health and healthcare is used in the national policy-making process in the Netherlands, we explore how different statistics are used in various policy debates on health and healthcare in the Dutch government and parliament. We chose eight ongoing policy debates as case studies representing the subject categories of morbidity, lifestyle, healthcare expenditure and healthcare outcomes, including (1) breast cancer screening rates, prevalence and incidence, (2) dementia prevalence and incidence, (3) prevalence of alcohol use by pregnant women, (4) mobility and school sports participation in children, (5) costs of smoking, (6) Dutch national healthcare expenditure, (7) hospital mortality rates, and (8) bedsore prevalence. Using selected keywords for each policy debate case, we performed a document search to identify documentation of the debates (2014–2016) on the websites of the Dutch government and parliament. We retrieved 163 documents and examined the policy debate cases through a content analyses approach. Sources of the statistics used in policy debates were primarily government funded. We identified two distinct functions, i.e. rhetorical and managerial use of statistics. The function of the debate is rhetorical when the specific statistic is used for agenda-setting or to convince the reader of the importance of a topic. The function of the debate is managerial when statistics determine planning, monitoring or evaluation of policy. When evaluating a specific policy, applied statistics were mostly the result of routine or standardised data collection. When policy-makers use statistics for a managerial function, the policy debate mirrors terms derived from scientific debates. While statistics used for rhetorical functions do not seem to invite critical reflection, when the function of the debate is managerial, i.e. to plan, monitor or evaluate healthcare, their construction does receive attention. Considering the current role of statistics in rhetorical and managerial debates, there is a need to be cautious of too much leniency towards the technocratic process in exchange for the democratic debate.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A South African experience in applying the Adopt–Contextualise–Adapt framework to stroke rehabilitation clinical practice guidelines
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Karen Grimmer; Quinette Louw; Janine M. Dizon; Sjan-Mari Brown; Dawn Ernstzen; Charles S. Wiysonge

    Clinical practice guideline (CPG) activity has escalated internationally in the last 20 years, leading to increasingly sophisticated methods for CPG developers and implementers. Despite this, there remains a lack of practical support for end-users in terms of effectively and efficiently implementing CPG recommendations into local practice. This paper describes South African experiences in implementing international CPG recommendations for best practice stroke rehabilitation into local contexts, using a purpose-build approach. Composite recommendations were synthesised from 16 international CPGs to address end-user questions about best practice rehabilitation for South African stroke survivors. End-user representatives on the project team included methodologists, policy-makers, clinicians, managers, educators, researchers and stroke survivors. The Adopt–Contextualise–Adapt model was applied as a decision-guide to streamline discussions on endorsement and development of implementation strategies. Where recommendations required contextualisation to address local barriers before they could be effectively implemented, prompts were provided to identify barriers and possible solutions. Where recommendations could not be implemented without additional local evidence (adaptation), options were identified to establish new evidence. The structured implementation process was efficient in terms of time, effort, resources and problem solving. The process empowered the project team to make practical decisions about local uptake of international recommendations, develop local implementation strategies, and determine who was responsible, for what and when. Different implementation strategies for the same recommendation were identified for different settings, to address different barriers. The South African evidence translation experience could be useful for evidence implementers in other countries, when translating CPG recommendations developed elsewhere, into local practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Decision-making in district health planning in Uganda: does use of district-specific evidence matter?
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Dorcus Kiwanuka Henriksson; Stefan Swartling Peterson; Peter Waiswa; Mio Fredriksson

    In a decentralised health system, district health managers are tasked with planning for health service delivery, which should be evidence based. However, planning in low-income countries such as Uganda has been described as ad hoc. A systematic approach to the planning process using district-specific evidence was introduced to district health managers in Uganda. However, little is known about how the use of district-specific evidence informs the planning process. In this study, we investigate how the use of this evidence affects decision-making in the planning process and how stakeholders in the planning process perceived the use of evidence. A convergent parallel mixed-methods study design was used, where quantitative data was collected from district health annual work plans for the financial years 2012/2013, 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 as well as from bottleneck analysis reports for 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with key informants from the two study districts. District managers reported that they were able to produce more robust district annual work plans when they used the systematic approach of using district-specific evidence. Approximately half of the prioritised activities in the annual work plans were evidence based. Procurement and logistics, training, and support supervision activities were the most prioritised activities. Between 4% and 5.5% of the total planned expenditure was for child survival, of which 47% to 94% was from donor and other partner contributions. District-specific evidence and a structured process for its use to prioritise activities and make decisions in the planning process at the district level helped systematise the planning process. However, the reported limited decision and fiscal space, inadequate funding and high dependency on donor funding did not always allow for the use of district-specific evidence in the planning process.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Study protocol: a mixed-methods study of women’s healthcare in the safety net after Affordable Care Act implementation – EVERYWOMAN
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Erika Cottrell; Blair G. Darney; Miguel Marino; Anna Rose Templeton; Lorie Jacob; Megan Hoopes; Maria Rodriguez; Brigit Hatch

    Evidence-based reproductive care reduces morbidity and mortality for women and their children, decreases health disparities and saves money. Community health centres (CHCs) are a key point of access to reproductive and primary care services for women who are publicly insured, uninsured or unable to pay for care. Women of reproductive age (15–44 years) comprise just of a quarter (26%) of the total CHC patient population, with higher than average proportions of women of colour, women with lower income and educational status and social challenges (e.g. housing). Such factors are associated with poorer reproductive health outcomes across contraceptive, preventive and pregnancy-related services. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) prioritised reproductive health as an essential component of women’s preventive services to counter these barriers and increase women’s access to care. In 2012, the United States Supreme Court ruled ACA implementation through Medicaid expansion as optional, creating a natural experiment to measure the ACA’s impact on women’s reproductive care delivery and health outcomes. This paper describes a 5-year, mixed-methods study comparing women’s contraceptive, preventive, prenatal and postpartum care before and after ACA implementation and between Medicaid expansion and non-expansion states. Quantitative assessment will leverage electronic health record data from the ADVANCE Clinical Research Network, a network of over 130 CHCs in 24 states, to describe care and identify patient, practice and state-level factors associated with provision of recommended evidence-based care. Qualitative assessment will include patient, provider and practice level interviews to understand perceptions and utilisation of reproductive healthcare in CHC settings. To our knowledge, this will be the first study using patient level electronic health record data from multiple states to assess the impact of ACA implementation in conjunction with other practice and policy level factors such as Title X funding or 1115 Medicaid waivers. Findings will be relevant to policy and practice, informing efforts to enhance the provision of timely, evidence-based reproductive care, improve health outcomes and reduce disparities among women. Patient, provider and practice-level interviews will serve to contextualise our findings and develop subsequent studies and interventions to support women’s healthcare provision in CHC settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • “Like a nurse but not a nurse”: Clinical Research Practitioners and the evolution of the clinical research delivery workforce in the NHS
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Rachel Faulkner-Gurstein; Helen C. Jones; Christopher McKevitt

    Clinical research is increasing across the United Kingdom. Within the context of a shortage of nurses, trusts have struggled to maintain research capacity. In order to meet staffing demands, trusts have increasingly turned to Clinical Research Practitioners (CRPs) to assist in the delivery of clinical research. Initially an ad hoc workforce, the CRP role is being formalised and professionalised. This study is a close examination of the clinical research delivery workforce at one research-intensive acute trust in the United Kingdom, with a focus on the emerging CRP staff group. The study was conducted in a large inner-city teaching hospital (acute trust) in London, United Kingdom. Data were collected between September and December 2017. Twenty-five staff were interviewed across 11 different directorates. Interviews were semi-structured with an overall focus on research staff backgrounds and roles, as well as their perceptions and experiences of careers in research. The data were managed using NVivo 11 software and analysed thematically. CRPs are drawn from a wider pool of educational and employment backgrounds than their nurse colleagues, and actively seek out work in health research. CRPs receive on-the-job training to acquire the competencies that are necessary for them to carry out their work. The CRP role, which began in an ad hoc manner, has become regularised, yet remains to be well defined, which can be a source of frustration for CRPs and those who work with them. The professionalisation of the CRP workforce represents an opportunity for the health research system to employ research workers who possess a range of in-demand skills and to shore up research capacity in the context of the shortage of nurses.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework to understand knowledge broker decisions in selecting evidence for knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Theresa C. Norton; Daniela C. Rodriguez; Sara Willems

    Health-related organisations disseminate an abundance of clinical and implementation evidence that has potential to improve health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but little is known about what influences a user decision to select particular evidence for action. Knowledge brokers (KBs) play a part as intermediaries supporting evidence-informed health policy and practice by selecting and synthesising evidence for research users, and therefore understanding the basis for KB decisions, can help inform knowledge translation strategies. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), a synthesis of psychological theories, was selected as a promising analysis approach because of its widespread use in identifying influences on decisions to act on evidence-based healthcare guidelines. This study explored its application in the context of KB decisions regarding evidence for use in LMICs. The study analysed data collected from participants of a 2015 global maternal and newborn health conference in Mexico. A total of 324 conference participants from 56 countries completed an online survey and 20 from 15 countries were interviewed about evidence use and sharing after the conference. TDF domains and constructs were retrospectively applied and adapted during coding of qualitative data to enhance understanding of the KB decision process in selecting evidence for action. Application of the TDF involved challenges related to overlapping constructs, retrospective use, and complexities of global health settings and relevant knowledge. Codes needed to be added or adapted to account for how KBs’ internal reflections on external factors influenced their actions in selecting evidence to share and use, and the decisions they made during the process. Four themes of the rationale for changing the TDF were identified during analysis, namely Influences from Beyond the Organisation, Knowledge Selection as a Process, Access and Packaging of Knowledge, and Fit for Use. Theories of individual behaviour, such as those in the TDF, can enhance understanding of the decisions made by actors such as KBs along dissemination and knowledge translation pathways. Understanding how KBs reflect on evidence and interact with their environment has the potential for improving global dissemination efforts and LMIC-to-LMIC exchange of implementation evidence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impact of using a broad-based multi-institutional approach to build capacity for non-communicable disease research in Thailand
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Kathleen Potempa; Benjaporn Rajataramya; Debra L. Barton; Naruemol Singha-Dong; Rob Stephenson; Ellen M. L. Smith; Matthew Davis; Ivo Dinov; Benjamin M. Hampstead; James E. Aikens; Laura Saslow; Philip Furspan; Atiya Sarakshetrin; Srijan Pupjain

    Thailand’s transition to high middle-income country status has been accompanied by demographic changes and associated shifts in the nation’s public health challenges. These changes have necessitated a significant shift in public health focus from the treatment of infectious diseases to the more expensive and protracted management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in older adults. In 2010, in response to this shift in focus, the University of Michigan and colleagues at the Praboromarajchanok Institute for Health Workforce Development in Thailand began work on a broad-based multi-institutional programme for NCD research capacity-building in Thailand. To begin to build a base of intervention research we paired our programme’s funded Thai postdoctoral fellows with United States mentors who have strong programmes of intervention research. One direct impact of the programme was the development of research ‘hubs’ focused upon similar areas of investigative focus such as self-management of cancer symptoms, self-management of HIV/AIDS and health technology information applications for use in community settings. Within these hubs, interventions with proven efficacy in the United States were used as a foundation for culturally relevant interventions in Thailand. The programme also aimed to develop the research support structures necessary within departments and colleges for grant writing and management, dissemination of new knowledge, and ethical conduct of human subject research. In an effort to capitalise on large national health datasets and big data now available in Thailand, several of the programme’s postdoctoral fellows began projects that use data science methods to mine this asset. The investigators involved in these ground-breaking projects form the core of a network of research hubs that will be able to capitalise on the availability of lifespan health data from across Thailand and provide a robust working foundation for expansion of research using data science approaches. Going forward, it is vitally important to leverage this groundwork in order to continue fostering rapid growth in NCD research and training as well as to capitalise upon these early gains to create a sustaining influence for Thailand to lead in NCD research, improve the health of its citizens, and provide ongoing leadership in Southeast Asia.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A description of a tailored knowledge translation intervention delivered by knowledge brokers within public health departments in Canada
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Maureen Dobbins; Lori Greco; Jennifer Yost; Robyn Traynor; Kara Decorby-Watson; Reza Yousefi-Nooraie

    While there is an expectation to demonstrate evidence-informed public health there is an ongoing need for capacity development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of a tailored knowledge translation intervention implemented by knowledge brokers (KBs), and reflections on the factors that facilitated or hindered its implementation. The 22-month knowledge translation intervention, implemented by two KBs, sought to facilitate evidence-informed public health decision-making. Data on outcomes were collected using a knowledge, skills and behavioural assessment survey. In addition, the KBs maintained reflective journals noting which activities appeared successful or not, as well as factors related to the individual or the organisation that facilitated or hindered evidence-informed decision-making. Tailoring of the knowledge translation intervention to address the needs, preferences and structure of each organisation resulted in three unique interventions being implemented. A consistent finding across organisations was that each site needed to determine where evidence-informed decision-making ‘fit’ within pre-existing organisational processes. Components of the intervention consistent across the three organisations included one-to-one mentoring of teams through rapid evidence reviews, large group workshops and regular meetings with senior management. Components that varied included the frequency of the KB being physically onsite, the amount of time staff spent with the KB and proportion of time spent one-to-one with a KB versus in workshops. Key facilitating factors for implementation included strong leadership, influential power of champions, supportive infrastructure, committed resources and staff enthusiasm. The results of this study illustrate the importance of working collaboratively with organisations to tailor knowledge translation interventions to best meet unique needs, preferences, organisational structures and contexts. Organisational factors such as leadership, champions and supportive infrastructure play a key role in determining the impact of the knowledge translation interventions. Future studies should explore how these factors can be fostered and/or developed within organisations. While KBs implemented the knowledge translation intervention in this study, more research is needed to understand the impact of all change agent roles including KBs, as well as how these roles can be maintained in the long-term if proven effective.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Creating a locally driven research agenda for the ethnic minorities of Eastern Myanmar
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    Eva Purkey; Saw Nay Htoo; Rachel Whelan; Naw Pue Pue Mhote; Colleen M. Davison

    Research funding and production is inequitably distributed internationally, with emphasis placed on the priorities of funders and international partners. Research capacity development, along with agenda-setting for research priorities can create agency and self-sufficiency and should be inclusive of all relevant stakeholders. Myanmar is a fragile state, where decades of conflict have created a weakened healthcare system and health research sector. The population of Eastern Myanmar have long had their healthcare needs met by community-based organisations and ethnic health organisations operating within Eastern Myanmar and the adjoining Thai–Myanmar border. Despite a transition to civilian rule, the current context does not allow for a truly participatory health research capacity development and agenda-setting exercise between the health leaders of Eastern Myanmar and the government in Yangon. In this context, and with a desire to enhance the capacity, legitimacy and agency of their organisations, the health leaders of Eastern Myanmar are seeking to develop their own health research capacity and to take control of their own research agenda. Approximately 60 participants from 15 organisations attended a 3-day forum with the goals of (1) developing research capacity and interest through a research conference and methods workshop; (2) using a nominal group technique (NGT) to develop a locally driven research agenda; and (3) supporting the development of local research projects through ongoing funding and mentorship. Participants were actively engaged in the workshops and NGT. Participants identified a broad range of health issues as priorities and were able to develop consensus around a list of 15 top priorities for the populations they serve. Despite availability of ongoing support, participants did not pursue the opportunity to engage in their own research projects emerging from this forum. The NGT was an effective way to achieve engagement and consensus around research priorities between a group of healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers from a variety of ethnic groups. More active involvement of senior leadership must happen before the energy harnessed at such a forum can be implemented in ongoing research capacity development.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Obstacles and opportunities to using research evidence in local public health decision-making in England
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Dylan Kneale; Antonio Rojas-García; James Thomas

    Local public health service delivery and policy-setting in England was overhauled in 2013, with local government now responsible for the complex tasks involved in protecting and improving population health and addressing health inequalities. Since 2013, public health funding per person has declined, adding to the challenge of public health decision-making. In a climate of austerity, research evidence could help to guide the more effective use of resources, although there are concerns that the reorganisation of public health decision-making structures has disrupted traditional evidence use patterns. This study aimed to explore local public health evidence use and needs in this new decision-making climate. Semi-structured interviews with Public Health Practitioners across three Local Authorities were conducted, with sites purposefully selected to represent urban, suburban and county Local Authorities, and to reflect a range of public health issues that might be encountered. A topic guide was developed that allowed participants to reflect on their experience and involvement in providing evidence for, or making a decision around, commissioning a public health service. Data were transcribed and template analysis was employed to understand the findings, which involved developing a coding template based on an initial transcript and applying this to subsequent transcripts. Increased political involvement in local public health decision-making, while welcomed by some participants as a form of democratising public health, has influenced evidence preferences in a number of ways. Political and individual ideologies of locally elected officials meant that certain forms of evidence could be overlooked in favour of evidence that corresponded to decision-makers’ preferences. Political involvement at the local level has increased the appetite for local knowledge and evidence. Research evidence needs to demonstrate its local salience if it is to contribute to decision-making alongside competing sources, particularly anecdotal information. To better meet decision-making needs of politicians and practitioners, a shift in the scope of public health evidence is required. At a systematic review level, this could involve moving away from producing evidence that reflects broad global generalisations about narrow and simple questions, and instead towards producing forms of evidence that have local applicability and can support complex policy-focussed decisions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The impact of governance in primary health care delivery: a systems thinking approach with a European panel
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Ana Belén Espinosa-González; Brendan C. Delaney; Joachim Marti; Ara Darzi

    Enhancing primary health care (PHC) is considered a policy priority for health systems strengthening due to PHC’s ability to provide accessible and continuous care and manage multimorbidity. Research in PHC often focuses on the effects of specific interventions (e.g. physicians’ contracts) in health care outcomes. This informs narrowly designed policies that disregard the interactions between the health functions (e.g. financing and regulation) and actors involved (i.e. public, professional, private), and their impact in care delivery and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to analyse the interactions between PHC functions and their impact in PHC delivery, particularly in providers’ behaviour and practice organisation. Following a systems thinking approach with data obtained through a three-round European Delphi process, we developed a framework that captures (1) the interactions between PHC functions by analysing correlations between PHC characteristics of participating countries, (2) how actors involved shaped these interactions by identifying the actor and level of devolution (or fragmentation) in the analysis, and (3) their potential effect on care delivery by exploring panellists’ opinions. A total of 59 panellists from 24 countries participated in the first round and 76% of the initial panellists (22 countries) completed the last round. Findings show correlations between governance, financing and regulation based on their degree of decentralisation. This is supported by panellists, who agreed that the actors involved in health system governance determine the type of PHC financing (e.g. ownership or payment mechanisms) and regulation (e.g. competences or gatekeeping), and this may impact care delivery and outcomes. Governance in our framework is an overarching function whose impact in PHC delivery is mediated through the degree of decentralisation (both delegation and devolution) of PHC financing and regulation. The application of this approach in policy implementation assessment intends to uncover limitations due to poor accountability and commitment to shared objectives. Its application in the design of health strategies helps foresee (and prevent) undesired or unexpected effects of narrow interventions. This approach will assist in the development of the realistic and long-term policies required for health systems strengthening.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A biostatistical support system in health sciences: is this sustainable in a resource-restricted environment?
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Elena Libhaber; Tobias Chirwa; Beverley Kramer

    Training in biostatistics is important for strengthening capacity in health research. This is particularly true for Africa, where research output in the health sciences has been low. Training initiatives for the continent are therefore essential. The aim of the present study was to analyse the quality and financial sustainability of the expanded biostatistical support system at a South African health sciences institution between 2013 and 2017. A cross-sectional investigation of the initiatives created between the years 2013 and 2017 in the University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences Research Office was undertaken. An assessment of the one-on-one consultations carried out by postgraduate students and staff, financial costs of the support system and the number of postgraduate student graduations were analysed. The number of statistical consultations increased over the period examined. The consultations were highly recommended by the postgraduate students and staff (consulters). A clear rise in the number of Masters and PhD student graduates and an increase in research units were observed from 2013 to 2017, although these cannot be solely associated with the biostatistical support system. The finances for maintaining the support system are cost effective as the number of graduates increases. The total cost to the Research Office is US$ 225 per graduate per annum. The expansion of the biostatistical support system has indirectly contributed to an increased number of graduates and research publication units in the institution. While the current finances support the system, any increases in enrolments or growth in diversification of biostatistical requirements may place a strain on the financial sustainability. This service is of value to developed and developing countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • An inductive exploration of the implementation knowledge of research funders
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Anders Brantnell; Enrico Baraldi; Theo van Achterberg

    Healthcare research funders may undertake various roles to facilitate implementation of research findings. Their ability to enact such roles depends on several factors, knowledge of implementation being one essential requirement. However, previous studies do not assess the type or level of knowledge about implementation that research funders possess. This paper therefore presents findings from a qualitative, inductive study of the implementation knowledge of research funders. Three aspects of this knowledge are explored, namely how research funders define implementation, their level of self-assessed implementation knowledge and the factors influencing their self-assessment of implementation knowledge. Research funders (n = 18) were purposefully selected from a sample of research funding organisations in Sweden (n = 10). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive method using a systematic coding procedure was employed to derive the findings. The research funders defined implementation as either an outcome or a process, with the majority believing that implementation of healthcare research results demands a process, although its complexity varied in the research funders’ view. They perceived their own level of implementation knowledge as either limited or substantial, with a majority regarding it as limited. Clinical research experience, clinical experience and task relevance were singled out as the clearest factors affecting the self-assessment of their own implementation knowledge. This study, the first to focus on implementation knowledge of research funders, demonstrates that they are a category of policy-makers who may possess knowledge, based on their previous professional experience, that is comparable to some important findings from implementation research. Consequently, the findings not only pinpoint the relevance of professional experience, but also reveal a lack of awareness and knowledge of the results of implementation research among research funders in charge of healthcare research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • How can we improve priority-setting for investments in health research? A case study of tuberculosis
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Mishal S. Khan; Afifah Rahman-Shepherd; Hannah Painter; Helen Fletcher

    Although enhanced priority-setting for investments in health research for development is essential to tackling inequalities in global health, there is a lack of consensus on an optimal priority-setting process. In light of the current surge in tuberculosis (TB) research investment, we use TB as a case study. We investigated two critical aspects of a research prioritisation process, namely the criteria that should be used to rank alternative research options and which stakeholders should be involved in priority-setting. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 key informants purposively selected from four distinct groups – academia, funding bodies, international policy or technical agencies, and national disease control programmes. Interview transcripts were analysed verbatim using a framework approach. We also performed a systematic analysis of seven diverse TB research prioritisation processes. There was consensus that well-defined and transparent criteria for assessing research options need to be agreed at the outset of any prioritisation process. It was recommended that criteria should select for research that is likely to have the greatest public health impact in affected countries rather than research that mainly fills scientific knowledge gaps. Some interviewees expressed strong views about the need – and reluctance – to make politically challenging decisions that place some research areas at a lower priority for funding. The importance of taking input from stakeholders from countries with high disease burden was emphasised; such stakeholders were notably absent from the majority of prioritisation processes we analysed. This study indicated two critical areas for improvement of research prioritisation processes such that inequalities in health are better addressed – the need to deprioritise some research areas to generate a specific and meaningful list for investment, and greater involvement of experts working in high disease-burden countries.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Comprehensive analysis of the HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Rahim Khodayari-Zarnaq; Ali Mohammad Mosaddeghrad; Haidar Nadrian; Neda Kabiri; Hamid Ravaghi

    A huge number of people living with HIV/AIDS lives in developing countries. Thus, strengthening health systems in these countries is a prerequisite for improving disease prevention and care. After three decades of HIV/AIDS policy-making in Iran, conducting a comprehensive analysis on the policy process seems to be essential. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran from 1986 to 2016. This was a theory-based, multi-method and retrospective study. Interviewing of key informants and review of policy documents were concurrently conducted to identify and include further key informants (39 participants) and documents in the study. Framework analysis was used to analyse data. The mean age of participants working in HIV/AIDS policy-making was of 48 years and participants had a mean of 14 years of working experience. Findings were categorized as contextual factors, content of HIV/AIDS policies, actors involved in the policy process, and evidence use in the policy process. Contextual effective factors on the HIV/AIDS policy-making process were categorized into five major themes, namely situational factors, structural-managerial factors, socioeconomic factors, political and legal factors, and international factors. The HIV/AIDS phenomenon in Iran was identified to be deeply rooted in the culture and traditions of society. The HIV/AIDS policy content has, recently, been crystallized in the national strategic plans and harm reduction policies of the country. The policy process has been conducted with a solely governmental top-down approach and is now suffering from poor evidence and lack of sufficient consideration of contextual factors. There is a great need for change in the approach of government towards the issue and to increase the participation of non-governmental sectors and civil society in the policy process.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Using developmental evaluation to support knowledge translation: reflections from a large-scale quality improvement project in Indigenous primary healthcare
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Alison Laycock; Jodie Bailie; Veronica Matthews; Ross Bailie

    Developmental evaluation is a growing area of evaluation practice, advocated for informing the adaptive development of change initiatives in complex social environments. The utilisation focus, complexity perspective and systems thinking of developmental evaluation suggest suitability for evaluating knowledge translation initiatives in primary healthcare. However, there are few examples in the literature to guide its use in these contexts and in Indigenous settings. In this paper, we reflect on our experience of using developmental evaluation to implement a large-scale knowledge translation research project in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare. Drawing on principles of knowledge translation and key features of developmental evaluation, we debate the key benefits and challenges of applying this approach to engage diverse stakeholders in using aggregated quality improvement data to identify and address persistent gaps in care delivery. The developmental evaluation enabled the team to respond to stakeholder feedback and apply learning in real-time to successfully refine theory-informed research and engagement processes, tailor the presentation of findings to stakeholders and context, and support the project’s dissemination and knowledge co-production aim. It thereby contributed to the production of robust, useable research findings for informing policy and system change. The use of developmental evaluation appeared to positively influence stakeholders’ use of the project reports and their responses to the findings. Challenges included managing a high volume of evaluation data and multiple evaluation purposes, balancing facilitative sense-making processes and change with task-focused project management, and lack of experience in using this evaluation approach. Use of an embedded evaluator with facilitation skills and background knowledge of the project helped to overcome these challenges, as did similarities observed between features of developmental evaluation and continuous quality improvement. Our experience of developmental evaluation confirmed our expectations of the potential value of this approach for strengthening improvement interventions and implementation research, and particularly for adapting healthcare innovations in Indigenous settings. In our project, developmental evaluation successfully encompassed evaluation, project adaptation, capacity development and knowledge translation. Further work is warranted to apply this approach more widely to improve primary healthcare initiatives and outcomes, and to evaluate implementation research.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Re-orienting health systems through a commissioning approach: finding solutions for improved consumer engagement
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Karen Gardner; Helen Dickinson; Katie Moon

    As many developed health systems grapple with the reorientation of their systems to those that are commissioning led, consumer engagement has emerged as an important theme. Despite many governments asserting the importance of consumer engagement in commissioning, an evidence base is yet to be developed to support this approach. This paper identifies the challenges and gaps in the literature relating to consumer engagement and commissioning, before setting out five potential solutions to these challenges. Ultimately, consumer engagement needs clarity of purpose and any approach should be tailored to context. Effective client involvement needs time and investment. To embark on such a process without this effort can be counterproductive.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Hospital staff perspectives towards health technology assessment: data from a multidisciplinary survey
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Orna Tal; Meirav Booch; Sara Bar-Yehuda

    Technology adoption in hospitals is usually based on cost-effectiveness analysis, feasibility and potential success. Different countries have embraced a range of principles to accomplish an effective comprehensive process of health technology assessment (HTA). The aim of the study was to analyse the viewpoints and relative weight of technology-oriented hospital staff members toward the clinical, social, technological and economic aspects of HTA. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was conducted among different professionals in an 850-bed hospital. We revealed a range of viewpoints among hospital staff members according to their personal characteristics and professional standpoints. The clinical aspects of HTA were considered ‘highly important’ (HI) by most participants, especially the ‘lifesaving’ parameter. Similarly, the ‘lack of effective alternative technology’ was ranked HI by a high percentage of participants, independent of their profession. Economic aspects were ranked HI only by half of the participants, while social and technological aspects were ranked HI only by a relatively low percentage. Nurses added ‘improving quality of life’, ‘increasing teamwork efficiency’ and ‘improving medical standards’. Allied health professionals focused on ‘lack of effective alternative technologies’ as a main argument for adoption of HTA, alongside increasing efficiency, budget savings and contribution to hospital reputation. Engineers emphasised the requirement of significant investment in infrastructure and increasing efficiency. Administrators ranked patient experience as HI. Interestingly, the high ranking of social aspects correlated with older responders, while junior staff ranked safety significantly higher. A multi-perspective multidisciplinary approach would be beneficial for policy-makers at hospitals and even on a national scale in Israel.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evidence of commitment to research partnerships? Results of two web reviews
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Danielle de Moissac; Sarah Bowen; Ingrid Botting; Ian D. Graham; Martha MacLeod; Karen Harlos; Charity Maritim Songok; Monique Bohémier

    Partnerships between academic researchers and health system leadership are often promoted by health research funding agencies as an important strategy in helping ensure that funded research is relevant and the results used. While potential benefits of such partnerships have been identified, there is limited guidance in the scientific literature for either healthcare organisations or researchers on how to select, build and manage effective research partnerships. Our main research objective was to explore the health system perspective on partnerships with researchers with a focus on issues related to the design and organisation of the health system and services. Two structured web reviews were conducted as one component of this larger study. Two separate structured web reviews were conducted using structured data extraction tools. The first review focused on sites of health research bodies and those providing information on health system management and knowledge translation (n = 38) to identify what guidance to support partnerships might be available on websites commonly accessed by health leaders and researchers. The second reviewed sites from all health ‘regions’ in Canada (n = 64) to determine what criteria and standards were currently used in guiding decisions to engage in research partnerships; phone follow-up ensured all relevant information was collected. Absence of guidance on partnerships between research institutions and health system leaders was found. In the first review, absence of guidance on research partnerships and knowledge coproduction was striking and in contrast with coverage of other forms of collaboration such as patient/community engagement. In the second review, little evidence of criteria and standards regarding research partnerships was found. Difficulties in finding appropriate contact information for those responsible for research and obtaining a response were commonly experienced. Guidance related to health system partnerships with academic researchers is lacking on websites that should promote and support such collaborations. Health region websites provide little evidence of partnership criteria and often do not make contact information to research leaders within health systems readily available; this may hinder partnership development between health systems and academia.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Experiences of capacity strengthening in sanitation and hygiene research in Africa and Asia: the SHARE Research Consortium
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Belen Torondel; Emily Balls; Caroline Cleopatra Chisenga; Save Kumwenda; Elialilia Okello; Sheillah Simiyu; Tracy Morse; Kyla Smith; Jane Mumma; Joseph Banzi; Erik Harvey; Kondwani Chidziwisano; Jenala Chipungu; Heiner Grosskurth; Amani Beda; Saidi Kapiga; Joanna EstevesMills; Oliver Cumming; Sandy Cairncross; Roma Chilengi

    The Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity (SHARE) Research Programme consortium is a programme funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) that aims to contribute to achieving universal access to effective, sustainable, and equitable sanitation and hygiene worldwide. The capacity development component is an important pillar for this programme and different strategies were designed and implemented during the various phases of SHARE. This paper describes and reflects on the capacity-building strategies of this large multi-country research consortium, identifying lessons learnt and proposing recommendations for future global health research programmes. In the first phase, the strategy focused on increasing the capacity of individuals and institutions from low- and middle-income countries in conducting their own research. SHARE supported six PhD students and 25 MSc students, and organised a wide range of training events for different stakeholders. SHARE peer-reviewed all proposals that researchers submitted through several rounds of funding and offered external peer-review for all the reports produced under the partner’s research platforms. In the second phase, the aim was to support capacity development of a smaller number of African research institutions to move towards their independent sustainability, with a stronger focus on early and mid-career scientists within these institutions. In each institution, a Research Fellow was supported and a specific capacity development plan was jointly developed. Strategies that yielded success were learning by doing (supporting institutions and postgraduate students on sanitation and hygiene research), providing fellowships to appoint mid-career scientists to support personal and institutional development, and supporting tailored capacity-building plans. The key lessons learnt were that research capacity-building programmes need to be driven by local initiatives tailored with support from partners. We recommend that future programmes seeking to strengthen research capacity should consider targeted strategies for individuals at early, middle and later career stages and should be sensitive to other institutional operations to support both the research and management capacities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Qualitative Evidence Synthesis (QES) for Guidelines: Paper 3 – Using qualitative evidence syntheses to develop implementation considerations and inform implementation processes
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Claire Glenton; Simon Lewin; Theresa A. Lawrie; María Barreix; Soo Downe; Kenneth W. Finlayson; Tigest Tamrat; Sarah Rosenbaum; Özge Tunçalp

    This is the third in a series of three papers describing the use of qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) to inform the development of clinical and health systems guidelines. WHO has recognised the need to improve its guideline methodology to ensure that decision-making processes are transparent and evidence based, and that the resulting recommendations are relevant and applicable to end users. In addition to the standard data on effectiveness, WHO guidelines increasingly use evidence derived from QES to provide information on acceptability and feasibility and to develop important implementation considerations. WHO convened a group drawn from the technical teams involved in formulating recent (2010–2018) guidelines employing QES. Using a pragmatic and iterative approach that included feedback from WHO staff and other stakeholders, the group reflected on, discussed and identified key methods and research implications from designing QES and using the resulting findings in guideline development. As members of WHO guideline technical teams, our aim in this paper is to explore how we have used findings from QES to develop implementation considerations for these guidelines. For each guideline, in addition to using systematic reviews of effectiveness, the technical teams used QES to gather evidence of the acceptability and feasibility of interventions and, in some cases, equity issues and the value people place on different outcomes. This evidence was synthesised using standardised processes. The teams then used the QES to identify implementation considerations combined with other sources of information and input from experts. QES were useful sources of information for implementation considerations. However, several issues for further development remain, including whether researchers should use existing health systems frameworks when developing implementation considerations; whether researchers should take confidence in the evidence into account when developing implementation considerations; whether qualitative evidence that reveals implementation challenges should lead guideline panels to make conditional recommendations or only point to implementation considerations; and whether guideline users find it helpful to have challenges pointed out to them or whether they also need solutions. Finally, we need to explore how QES findings can be incorporated into derivative products to aid implementation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Qualitative Evidence Synthesis (QES) for Guidelines: Paper 2 – Using qualitative evidence synthesis findings to inform evidence-to-decision frameworks and recommendations
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Simon Lewin; Claire Glenton; Theresa A. Lawrie; Soo Downe; Kenneth W. Finlayson; Sarah Rosenbaum; María Barreix; Özge Tunçalp

    WHO has recognised the need to improve its guideline methodology to ensure that guideline decision-making processes are transparent and evidence based, and that the resulting recommendations are relevant and applicable. To help achieve this, WHO guidelines now typically enhance intervention effectiveness data with evidence on a wider range of decision-making criteria, including how stakeholders value different outcomes, equity, gender and human rights impacts, and the acceptability and feasibility of interventions. Qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly used to provide evidence on this wider range of issues. In this paper, we describe and discuss how to use the findings from QES to populate decision-making criteria in evidence-to-decision (EtD) frameworks. This is the second in a series of three papers that examines the use of QES in developing clinical and health system guidelines. WHO convened a writing group drawn from the technical teams involved in its recent (2010–2018) guidelines employing QES. Using a pragmatic and iterative approach that included feedback from WHO staff and other stakeholders, the group reflected on, discussed and identified key methods and research implications from designing QES and using the resulting findings in guideline development. We describe a step-wise approach to populating EtD frameworks with QES findings. This involves allocating findings to the different EtD criteria (how stakeholders value different outcomes, equity, acceptability and feasibility, etc.), weaving the findings into a short narrative relevant to each criterion, and inserting this summary narrative into the corresponding ‘research evidence’ sections of the EtD. We also identify areas for further methodological research, including how best to summarise and present qualitative data to groups developing guidelines, how these groups draw on different types of evidence in their decisions, and the extent to which our experiences are relevant to decision-making processes in fields other than health. This paper shows the value of incorporating QES within a guideline development process, and the roles that qualitative evidence can play in integrating the views and experiences of relevant stakeholders, including groups who may not be otherwise represented in the decision-making process.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Qualitative Evidence Synthesis (QES) for Guidelines: Paper 1 – Using qualitative evidence synthesis to inform guideline scope and develop qualitative findings statements
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Soo Downe; Kenneth W. Finlayson; Theresa A. Lawrie; Simon A. Lewin; Claire Glenton; Sarah Rosenbaum; María Barreix; Özge Tunçalp

    WHO has recognised the need to ensure that guideline processes are transparent and evidence based, and that the resulting recommendations are relevant and applicable. Along with decision-making criteria that require findings from effectiveness reviews, WHO is increasingly using evidence derived from qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) to inform the values, acceptability, equity and feasibility implications of its recommendations. This is the first in a series of three papers examining the use of QES in developing clinical and health systems guidelines. WHO convened a group of methodologists involved in developing recent (2010–2018) guidelines that were informed by QES. Using a pragmatic and iterative approach that included feedback from WHO staff and other stakeholders, the group reflected on, discussed and identified key methods and research implications from designing QES and using the resulting findings in guideline development. Our aim in this paper is to (1) describe and discuss how the findings of QES can inform the scope of a guideline and (2) develop findings for key guideline decision-making criteria. QES resulted in the addition of new outcomes that are directly relevant to service users, a stronger evidence base for decisions about how much effective interventions and related outcomes are valued by stakeholders in a range of contexts, and a more complete database of summary evidence for guideline panels to consider, linked to decisions about values, acceptability, feasibility and equity. Rigorously conducted QES can be a powerful means of improving the relevance of guidelines, and of ensuring that the concerns of stakeholders, at all levels of the healthcare system and from a wide range of settings, are taken into account at all stages of the process.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Convergence model for effectual prevention and control of zoonotic diseases: a health system study on ‘One Health’ approach in Ahmedabad, India
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Sandul Yasobant; Walter Bruchhausen; Deepak Saxena; Timo Falkenberg

    It was highlighted that the original article [1] contained an error in the Methods section, specifically in Study Section. The number urban health centres should be 72 instead of 6. This Correction article shows the incorrect and correct statement in the Methods section.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A framework for value-creating learning health systems
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Matthew Menear; Marc-André Blanchette; Olivier Demers-Payette; Denis Roy

    Interest in value-based healthcare, generally defined as providing better care at lower cost, has grown worldwide, and learning health systems (LHSs) have been proposed as a key strategy for improving value in healthcare. LHSs are emerging around the world and aim to leverage advancements in science, technology and practice to improve health system performance at lower cost. However, there remains much uncertainty around the implementation of LHSs and the distinctive features of these systems. This paper presents a conceptual framework that has been developed in Canada to support the implementation of value-creating LHSs. The framework was developed by an interdisciplinary team at the Institut national d’excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS). It was informed by a scoping review of the scientific and grey literature on LHSs, regular team discussions over a 14-month period, and consultations with Canadian and international experts. The framework describes four elements that characterise LHSs, namely (1) core values, (2) pillars and accelerators, (3) processes and (4) outcomes. LHSs embody certain core values, including an emphasis on participatory leadership, inclusiveness, scientific rigour and person-centredness. In addition, values such as equity and solidarity should also guide LHSs and are particularly relevant in countries like Canada. LHS pillars are the infrastructure and resources supporting the LHS, whereas accelerators are those specific structures that enable more rapid learning and improvement. For LHSs to create value, such infrastructures must not only exist within the ecosystem but also be connected and aligned with the LHSs’ strategic goals. These pillars support the execution, routinisation and acceleration of learning cycles, which are the fundamental processes of LHSs. The main outcome sought by executing learning cycles is the creation of value, which we define as the striking of a more optimal balance of impacts on patient and provider experience, population health and health system costs. Our framework illustrates how the distinctive structures, processes and outcomes of LHSs tie together with the aim of optimising health system performance and delivering greater value in health systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of an HIV-specific rapid response service for community-based organisations in Ontario, Canada
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Michelle Camilleri; David Gogolishvili; Danielle L. Giliauskas; Jason Globerman; Michael Wilson

    To support AIDS service organisations and other community-based organisations’ use of research evidence to inform HIV-related programmes, services and policies, the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) developed a Rapid Response Service. The final product of the rapid response process at the OHTN, which is more streamlined than that of traditional systematic reviews, consists of a detailed report answering questions regarding an HIV-specific issue and how the findings apply within the local context. In 2016, the OHTN conducted an evaluation to assess the effectiveness of its Rapid Response Service. This article reports on the development of this service as well as the results of the evaluation. All rapid responses published between January 1, 2009, and September 30, 2016, by the OHTN (n = 102) were analysed using univariate analyses. Frequency distributions were determined for the following variables for each rapid response: populations observed, topics covered, requestor affiliations and number of downloads from the OHTN’s website. Requestors of rapid responses were also interviewed regarding perceived helpfulness and utility of the service and final products, and suggestions for changes to the service. Six-month follow-up interviews were conducted to determine how affiliated organisations used the evidence from the rapid response they requested. The 102 rapid responses published covered 14 different populations of interest. Topics covered included the HIV prevention, engagement and care cascade, determinants of health, syndemics, and comorbidities. Requestor affiliations consisted of AIDS service organisations, government agencies and policy-makers, non-HIV-focused community-based organisations, and hospitals, universities or health centres. Requestors perceived most aspects of the Rapid Response Service as very helpful and most frequently suggested that the rapid responses should provide recommendations. Follow-up interviews regarding the impact of rapid responses show that rapid responses have been used to assist organisations in numerous activities. Organisations that have used the OHTN’s Rapid Response Service describe it as a valuable service useful for the development of programmes and policies. Improvements in capacity-building efforts may increase its utility. Describing the findings of this evaluation may serve as a reference for similar programmes to increase the use of research evidence among public health decision-makers.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A checklist for designing health insurance programmes – a proposed guidelines for Nigerian states
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Yewande Kofoworola Ogundeji; Kelechi Ohiri; Azara Agidani

    There is widespread and growing interest in designing and implementing social health insurance schemes (SHIS) across many low- and middle-income countries as a means to improve financial protection and achieve universal health coverage. SHIS recently gained traction in Nigeria, but evidence regarding optimal design features of SHIS is sparse and there is lack of a simple and standardised checklist that scheme designers, implementers and researchers could use to assess, guide and inform the design of SHIS. This paper seeks to develop a checklist based on concepts as well as theoretical and empirical evidence that can inform and guide scheme designers and implementers on design options to maximise the effectiveness of the scheme. We conducted a review of literature exploring the relevant concepts for the development of a framework and checklist to identify the key factors or variables required to inform the design of SHIS. The checklist details critical considerations/questions to address and options for design. The developed checklist was then used to examine conditions for readiness and appropriateness of SHIS design in two states in Nigeria (Kaduna and Niger). This paper describes the development of a SHIS checklist. The findings also demonstrate that the newly developed checklist, consisting of six design domains, can be used by scheme designers and policy-makers as a simple and effective tool to assess and inform SHIS design features across Nigeria to maximise the chances of the effectiveness of the schemes. In conclusion, given that the development of SHIS in the Nigerian states is still in its early stages, applying the SHIS design checklist can serve as a first step to ensuring a feasible and sustainable insurance scheme. The introduction of SHIS, if properly designed and implemented, can be a significant first step towards improving the accessibility, equity and efficiency of healthcare in Nigeria.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Understanding the supports needed for policy implementation: a comparative analysis of the placement of intermediaries across three mental health systems
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Heather L. Bullock; John N. Lavis

    Intermediaries are organisations or programmes that work between policy-makers and service providers to facilitate effective implementation of evidence-informed policies, programmes and practices. A number of intermediaries now exist in well-established mental health systems; however, research on them, and how they may be optimised to support implementation is lacking. This research seeks to understand the puzzling variation in the system placement of intermediaries supporting policy implementation in the mental health systems of Canada (Ontario), New Zealand and Scotland. Using a comparative case study approach, the analytic goal was to compare intermediaries across jurisdictions and explain differences in their placement using explanatory frameworks from political science. Data for this analysis were derived from several sources, including key informant interviews, a literature search of published and grey literature on intermediaries and on policy implementation in mental health systems, a review of relevant policy documents and websites, as well as documents and websites relating to the various intermediaries and other interest groups within each system. Through the analysis, we argue that the placement of intermediaries supporting policy implementation can be explained through an understanding of the political structures, the policy legacies leading to the current public/private mix of mental health service delivery, and the differing administrative capacities of mental health systems. This research contributes to our growing understanding of policy-related intermediaries supporting implementation at scale and how we might build appropriate infrastructure in systems to support the implementation of policy and achieve better outcomes for citizens.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Scaling up eConsult for access to specialists in primary healthcare across four Canadian provinces: study protocol of a multiple case study
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Mylaine Breton; Mélanie Ann Smithman; Clare Liddy; Erin Keely; Gerard Farrell; Alexander Singer; Catherine Lamoureux-Lamarche; Maxine Dumas Pilon; Véronique Nabelsi; Isabelle Gaboury; Marie-Pierre Gagnon; Carolyn Steele Gray; Jay Shaw; Catherine Hudon; Kris Aubrey-Bassler; Justin Gagnon; Élizabeth Côté-Boileau; Paula Louise Bush

    Canada has been referred to as the land of ‘perpetual pilot projects’. Effective innovations often remain small in scale, with limited impact on health systems. Several innovations have been developed in Canada to tackle important challenges such as poor access to services and excessive wait times – one of the most promising innovations that has been piloted is eConsult, which is a model of asynchronous communication that allows primary care providers to electronically consult with specialists regarding their patients’ medical issues. eConsult pilot projects have been shown to reduce wait times for specialist care, prevent unnecessary referrals and reduce health system costs. eConsult has been spread throughout Ontario as well as to certain regions in Manitoba, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Our aim is to understand and support the scale-up process of eConsult in Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Our specific objectives are to (1) describe the main components of eConsult relevant to the scale-up process in each province; (2) understand the eConsult scale-up process in each province and compare across provinces; (3) identify policy issues and strategies to scaling up eConsult in each province; and (4) foster cross-level and cross-jurisdictional learning on scaling up eConsult. We will conduct a qualitative multiple case study to investigate the scaling up of eConsult in four Canadian provinces using a grey literature review, key stakeholder interviews (10 interviews/province), non-participant observations, focus groups and deliberative dialogues. We will identify the main components of eConsult to be scaled up using logic models (obj. 1). Scaling up processes will be analysed using strategies adapted from process research (obj. 2). Policy issues and strategies to scale-up eConsult will be analysed thematically (obj. 3). Finally, a symposium will foster pan-Canadian learning on the process of scaling up eConsult (obj. 4). This study will likely increase learning and support evidence-based policy-making across participating provinces and may improve the capacity for a pan-Canadian scale-up of eConsult, including in provinces where eConsult has not yet been implemented. This work is essential to inform how similar innovations can reshape our health systems in the evolving information age.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The unpredictable journeys of spreading, sustaining and scaling healthcare innovations: a scoping review
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Élizabeth Côté-Boileau; Jean-Louis Denis; Bill Callery; Meghan Sabean

    Innovation has the potential to improve the quality of care and health service delivery, but maximising the reach and impact of innovation to achieve large-scale health system transformation remains understudied. Interest is growing in three processes of the innovation journey within health systems, namely the spread, sustainability and scale-up (3S) of innovation. Recent reviews examine what we know about these processes. However, there is little research on how to support and operationalise the 3S. This study aims to improve our understanding of the 3S of healthcare innovations. We focus specifically on the definitions of the 3S, the mechanisms that underpin them, and the conditions that either enable or limit their potential. We conducted a scoping review, systematically investigating six bibliographic databases to search, screen and select relevant literature on the 3S of healthcare innovations. We screened 641 papers, then completed a full-text review of 112 identified as relevant based on title and abstract. A total of 24 papers were retained for analysis. Data were extracted and synthesised through descriptive and inductive thematic analysis. From this, we develop a framework of actionable guidance for health system actors aiming to leverage the 3S of innovation across five key areas of focus, as follows: (1) focus on the why, (2) focus on perceived-value and feasibility, (3) focus on what people do, rather than what they should be doing, (4) focus on creating a dialogue between policy and delivery, and (5) focus on inclusivity and capacity building. While there is no standardised approach to foster the 3S of healthcare innovations, a variety of practical frameworks and tools exist to support stakeholders along this journey.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Embedding implementation research to enhance health policy and systems: a multi-country analysis from ten settings in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Etienne V. Langlois; Arielle Mancuso; Vanessa Elias; Ludovic Reveiz

    Progress towards universal health coverage requires health policies and systems that are informed by contextualised and actionable research. Many challenges impede the uptake of evidence to enhance health policy implementation and the coverage, quality, efficiency and equity of health systems. To address this need, we developed an innovative model of implementation research embedded in real-world policy and programme cycles and led directly by policy-makers and health systems decision-makers. The approach was tested in ten settings in Latin America and the Caribbean, supported under a common funding and capacity strengthening initiative. The present study aims to analyse ten embedded implementation research projects in order to identify barriers and facilitators to embedding research into policy and practice as well as to assess the programme, policy and systems improvements and the cross-cutting lessons in conducting research embedded in real-world policy and systems decision-making. The multi-country analysis is based on the triangulation of data collected via three methods, namely (1) document review, (2) an electronic questionnaire and (3) in-depth interviews with decision-makers. Data from the document review was charted and narratively synthesised. Data from the questionnaire was used to assess three characteristics of the decision-maker’s participation in embedded research, namely (1) level of engagement in different stages of research; (2) extent to which their capacities to conduct and use research were developed; and (3) the level of confidence in undertaking implementation research activities. Interview data was analysed using a thematic approach. The main barriers to effective delivery or scale-up of health interventions identified in the research projects were inadequate financing, fragmentation of healthcare services and information systems, limited capacity of health system stakeholders, insufficient time, cultural factors, and a lack of information. Decision-makers’ experience in embedded research showed strong engagement in protocol development, moderate engagement in data collection and low engagement in data analysis. The in-depth interviews identified 17 facilitators and 8 barriers to embedding research into policy and systems. The principal facilitating factors were actionability of findings, relevance of research and engagement of decision-makers, whereas the main barriers were time and political processes. In Argentina, the research led to the development of new monitoring indicators to improve the implementation of the perinatal health policy, while in Chile, empirical findings supported the establishment of a training programme on reproductive rights, targeted to municipal health facilities. This multi-country analysis contributes to the evidence base for the embedded research approach to support health policy and systems decisions-making. Embedding research into policy and practice stimulates the relevance and applicability of research, while promoting decision-makers’ engagement and likelihood to use research evidence in policy-making and health systems strengthening.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A systematic review of instruments for the analysis of national-level physical activity and sedentary behaviour policies
    Health Res. Policy Syst. (IF 2.218) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Bojana Klepac Pogrmilovic; Grant O’Sullivan; Karen Milton; Stuart J. H. Biddle; Zeljko Pedisic

    This systematic review aimed to identify and critically assess available instruments for the analysis of national-level physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) policies and provide recommendations for their future use. We conducted a systematic search of academic and grey literature through six bibliographic databases, Google and the websites of three international organisations for PA promotion to identify instruments that are used or that may be used for national-level PA/SB policy analysis. In order to describe and categorise the identified instruments, we used the Comprehensive Analysis of Policy on Physical Activity framework. This framework specifies the elements of a comprehensive analysis of PA/SB policies through the following categories: purpose, level, policy sector, type of policy, stages of policy cycle and scope of analysis. Out of 22,071 screened items, 26 publications describing 16 instruments met the selection criteria. All the instruments can be used for analysing PA policy, whilst only two include questions about SB policy. None of the instruments allow for the analysis of all the relevant components of national PA/SB policy. Some important elements of PA policy analysis, such as the tourism and research sectors, the agenda-setting and endorsement/legitimisation stages, and the effects of policy, are addressed by only a few instruments. Moreover, none of the instruments address unwritten formal statements, informal policies, and the termination and succession stages of the policy cycle. Designing new instruments or adapting existing ones is needed to allow for a more thorough analysis of national PA and SB policies. Given that policy analysis covering all important components of PA/SB policy may be extremely time-consuming, a way forward might be to develop a set of complementary instruments, with each tool collecting detailed information about a specific component.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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