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  • Burden and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in dairy farms in Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Alem Abrha Kalayu; Daniel Asrat Woldetsadik; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Shu-Hua Wang; Wondwossen A. Gebreyes; Tadesse Teferi

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent colonizer of human and several animal species, including dairy cows. It is the most common cause of intramammary infections in dairy cows. Its public health importance increases inline to the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains; such as Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Indeed, the recent emergence of human and veterinary adapted MRSA demands serious attention. The aim of this study was to determine the burden and drug resistance pattern of S. aureus in dairy farms in Mekelle and determine the molecular characteristics of MRSA. This study was done on 385 lactating dairy cows and 71 dairy farmers. The ages of the cows and farmworkers were between 3 and 14 and 17–63 years respectively. S. aureus was isolated from 12.5% of cows and 31% of farmworkers. Highest resistance was observed for penicillin (> 90%) followed by tetracycline (32–35%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10–27%). But no resistance was observed for vancomycin, daptomycin, and rifampin. Only one isolate was MRSA both phenotypically and harboring mecA. This isolate was from nasal of a farmworker and was MRSA SCCmec Iva, spa type t064 of CC8. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 6.2% of cow isolates and 13.6% of nasal isolates. In this study, S. aureus infected 12.5% of dairy cows and colonized 31% of farmworkers. Except for penicillin, resistance to other drugs was rare. Although no MRSA was found from dairy cows the existence of the human and animal adapted and globally spread strain, MRSA SCCmec IVa spa t064, warrants for a coordinated action to tackle AMR in both human and veterinary in the country.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • The prevalence of Dichelobacter nodosus in clinically footrot-free sheep flocks: a comparative field study on elimination strategies
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    A. F. Kraft; H. Strobel; J. Hilke; A. Steiner; P. Kuhnert

    Ovine footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus (D nodosus) is an infectious disease affecting sheep worldwide. Switzerland plans a nationwide footrot eradication program, based on PCR-testing of interdigital swab samples. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of D nodosus in clinically footrot-free sheep flocks which had been subjected to different treatment strategies, to assess whether they were feasible for the eradication process, especially focussing on antimicrobial flock treatments. Clinical scoring and PCR-results were compared. Ten farms had used hoof bathing and hoof trimming without causing bleeding, ten had used individual treatments and flock vaccines to gain the free status and ten had become free through whole-flock systemic macrolide treatment. For every farm, three risk-based collected pool samples were analysed for the occurrence of virulent and benign D nodosus by PCR detection of aprV2/aprB2. Six flocks from any treatment group tested positive for aprB2 in all pools. Clinical signs were absent at the time of sampling, but some flocks had experienced non-progressive interdigital inflammation previously. Two flocks tested aprV2-positive in the high-risk pool. One of them underwent a progressive footrot outbreak shortly after sampling. Individual retesting indicated, that virulent D nodosus most likely was reintroduced by a recently purchased ram. In the second flock, a ram was tested positive and treated before clinical signs occurred. All treatment strategies eliminated the causative agent and were found to be suitable for implementation in the PCR-based eradication process. PCR-testing proved to be more sensitive than visual scoring, as it also detected clinically healthy carriers. It will be of benefit as a diagnostic tool in elimination and surveillance programs.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Molecular alterations of the TLR4-signaling cascade in canine epilepsy
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Eva-Lotta von Rüden; Fabio Gualtieri; Katharina Schönhoff; Maria Reiber; Fabio Wolf; Wolfgang Baumgärtner; Florian Hansmann; Andrea Tipold; Heidrun Potschka

    Cumulating evidence from rodent models points to a pathophysiological role of inflammatory signaling in the epileptic brain with Toll-like receptor-4 signaling acting as one key factor. However, there is an apparent lack of information about expression alterations affecting this pathway in canine patients with epilepsy. Therefore, we have analyzed the expression pattern of Toll-like receptor 4 and its ligands in brain tissue of canine patients with structural or idiopathic epilepsy in comparison with tissue from laboratory dogs or from owner-kept dogs without neurological diseases. The analysis revealed an overexpression of Toll-like receptor-4 in the CA3 region of dogs with structural epilepsy. Further analysis provided evidence for an upregulation of Toll-like receptor-4 ligands with high mobility group box-1 exhibiting increased expression levels in the CA1 region of dogs with idiopathic and structural epilepsy, and heat shock protein 70 exhibiting increased expression levels in the piriform lobe of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. In further brain regions, receptor and ligand expression rates proved to be either in the control range or reduced below control levels. Our study reveals complex molecular alterations affecting the Toll-like receptor signaling cascade, which differ between epilepsy types and between brain regions. Taken together, the data indicate that multi-targeting approaches modulating Toll-like receptor-4 signaling might be of interest for management of canine epilepsy. Further studies are recommended to explore respective molecular alterations in more detail in dogs with different etiologies and to confirm the role of the pro-inflammatory signaling cascade as a putative target.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Morphine plasmatic concentration in a pregnant mare and its foal after long term epidural administration
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Alessandro Mirra; Jasmin Birras; Sabina Diez Bernal; Claudia Spadavecchia

    Epidural administration of morphine has been shown to be an effective analgesic strategy in horses; however, the possible occurrence of side effects limits its usage. In order to decrease their frequency, it is important to target the minimal effective plasma concentration and avoid overdosing. As to date species-specific pharmacokinetics data are not available for epidural morphine, the dosing regimen is usually established on the basis of clinical reports and personal experience. In certain physiological conditions, like gestation, the outcome of an empirical dosing scheme can be unpredictable. The aim of this case report is to describe the pharmacological profile of morphine and its metabolites after prolonged epidural administration in a pregnant mare and her foal. A 20 years old pregnant mare was presented to our hospital because of severe lameness, 2 months before delivery. Following an ineffective systemic pain treatment, an epidural catheter was inserted and morphine administered (initial dose 0.1 mg/kg every 8 h). Due to its efficacy in controlling pain, it was continued until end of gestation. Plasmatic concentration of morphine and its metabolites were assessed in the mare 6 weeks after starting the treatment, and in both the mare and foal during the first days after delivery. Plasmatic values similar to those previously reported in the literature following morphine short term administration through various routes and not accompanied by side effects were found in the mare, except during an excitatory period. Moreover, no evidence of dangerous drug accumulation or significant milk passage was noticed in the foal. Mild reduction of feces production with no signs of colic and two self-limiting episodes of excitement occurred during treatment in the mare. No side effects occurred during gestation and first phases of life in the foal. Prolonged epidural administration of morphine in a pregnant mare allowed good pain control in absence of clinically relevant side effects, in both the mare and her foal. Sudden increase in morphine plasmatic concentration can occur and side effects appear; careful treatment to the lowest effective dose and continuous monitoring of the clinical condition of the treated horse should be performed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Temporal and anatomical distribution of 18F-flutemetamol uptake in canine brain using positron emission tomography
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Taesik Yun; Wonguk Lee; Ji-Houn Kang; Mhan-Pyo Yang; Byeong-Teck Kang

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used as an imaging modality for clinical and research applications in veterinary medicine. Amyloid PET has become a useful tool for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in humans, by accurately identifying amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome in dogs shows cognitive and pathophysiologic characteristics similar to AD. Therefore, we assessed the physiologic characteristics of uptake of 18F-flutemetamol, an Aβ protein-binding PET tracer in clinical development, in normal dog brains, for distinguishing an abnormal state. Static and dynamic PET images of six adult healthy dogs were acquired after 18F-flutemetamol was administered intravenously at approximately 3.083 MBq/kg. For static images, PET data were acquired at 30, 60, and 90 min after injection. One week later, dynamic images were acquired for 120 min, from the time of tracer injection. PET data were reconstructed using an iterative technique, and corrections for attenuation and scatter were applied. Regions of interest were manually drawn over the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar cortices, cerebral white matter, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. After calculating standardized uptake values with an established formula, standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were obtained, using the cerebellar cortex as a reference region. Among the six cerebral cortical regions, the cingulate cortices and frontal lobe showed the highest SUVRs. The lowest SUVR was observed in the occipital lobe. The average values of the cortical SUVRs were 1.25, 1.26, and 1.27 at 30, 60, and 90 min post-injection, respectively. Tracer uptake on dynamic scans was rapid, peaking within 4 min post-injection. After reaching this early maximum, cerebral cortical regions showed a curve with a steep descent, whereas cerebral white matter demonstrated a curve with a slow decline, resulting in a large gap between cerebral cortical regions and white matter. This study provides normal baseline data of 18F-flutemetamol PET that can facilitate an objective diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction syndrome in dogs in future.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A pilot study on molecular diagnosis of Hapalotrema mistroides (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infection in blood samples of live loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Erica Marchiori; Giorgia Dotto; Cinzia Tessarin; Mario Santoro; Andrea Affuso; Luciano Tarricone; Ludovica Di Renzo; Daniela Freggi; Vincenzoleo Spoto; Federica Marcer

    Parasites of the family Spirorchiidae cause disease and mortality in marine and freshwater turtles; two species, Hapalotrema mistroides and Neospirorchis sp., are reported in the resident population of loggerhead turtles of the Mediterranean Sea, with the first being the most widespread. In vivo diagnosis of spirorchidiasis can represent a challenge in guaranteeing prompt control and treatment of the disease and is currently limited to copromicroscopy. The aim of this study was the development of a real time PCR assay with TaqMan probe for the detection of H. mistroides infection in the blood of live loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, hospitalized in rehabilitation centres. Its potential use for in vivo diagnosis is explored. The developed real time PCR successfully detected H. mistroides DNA from both positive controls and experimental blood samples of live loggerhead sea turtles, showing good specificity, sensitivity and good reaction efficiency. Two out of three turtles which had demonstrated positivity at copromicroscopy also tested positive to this blood assay; DNA of H. mistroides was detected within the blood of one sea turtle, which tested negative for copromicroscopy. This study describes a specific and rapid molecular assay to detect H. mistroides infection from live sea turtles and highlights for the first time the presence of DNA of this species in turtle blood samples. Since this assay is able to detect low amounts of the parasitic free DNA in blood samples, its application could be helpful for in vivo diagnosis of H. mistroides infection as well as for epidemiological purposes.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A neutralizing monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA for classical swine fever C-strain post–vaccination monitoring
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Lihua Wang; Shijiang Mi; Rachel Madera; Llilianne Ganges; Manuel V. Borca; Jingqiang Ren; Chase Cunningham; Ada G. Cino-Ozuna; Hongwei Li; Changchun Tu; Wenjie Gong; Jishu Shi

    Virus neutralization test (VNT) is widely used for serological survey of classical swine fever (CSF) and efficacy evaluation of CSF vaccines. However, VNT is a time consuming procedure that requires cell culture and live virus manipulation. C-strain CSF vaccine is the most frequently used vaccine for CSF control and prevention. In this study, we presented a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) with the emphasis on the replacement of VNT for C-strain post–vaccination monitoring. One monoclonal antibody (6B211) which has potent neutralizing activity against C-strain was generated. A novel cELISA was established and optimized based on the strategy that 6B211 can compete with C-strain induced neutralizing antibodies in pig serum to bind capture antigen C-strain E2. By testing C-strain VNT negative pig sera (n = 445) and C-strain VNT positive pig sera (n = 70), the 6B211 based cELISA showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval: 94.87 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% confidence interval: 100 to 100%). The C-strain antibody can be tested in pigs as early as 7 days post vaccination with the cELISA. By testing pig sera (n = 139) in parallel, the cELISA showed excellent agreement (Kappa = 0.957) with VNT. The inhibition rate of serum samples in the cELISA is highly correlated with their titers in VNT (r2 = 0.903, p < 0.001). In addition, intra- and inter-assays of the cELISA exhibited acceptable repeatability with low coefficient of variations (CVs). This novel cELISA demonstrated excellent agreement and high level correlation with VNT. It is a reliable tool for sero-monitoring of C-strain vaccination campaign because it is a rapid, simple, safe and cost effective assay that can be used to monitor vaccination-induced immune response at the population level.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Seroprevalences of multi-pathogen and description of farm movement in pigs in two provinces in Vietnam
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Hu Suk Lee; Vuong Nghia Bui; Huyen Xuan Nguyen; Anh Ngoc Bui; Trung Duc Hoang; Hung Nguyen-Viet; Delia Grace Randolph; Barbara Wieland

    In Vietnam, lack of animal health information is considered a major challenge for pig production. The main objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalences of five pathogens [porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and leptospirosis] and to better characterize the farm movements through a survey. A total of 600 samples were collected from 120 farms from Bac Giang and Nghe An. Among unvaccinated herds, the highest seroprevalence was found for JE with 73.81% (95% CI: 68.39–78.74) in Bac Giang and 53.51% (95% CI 47.68–59.27) in Nghe An. Seroprevalences for PCV2 and M.hyo were 49.43% (95% CI: 45.06–53.80) and 46.06% (95% CI: 41.48–50.69) among unvaccinated animals. Accumulative co-infections for JE (86.25%) showed the highest level followed by M. hyo (66.25%) and PCV2 (62.50%). Three co-infections with JE had the highest positive rate (28.75%) followed by four co-infections (25.0%). Medium farms had relatively higher herd prevalences for all pathogens, except from leptospirosis. Overall, farmers exported/imported their pigs at the most 1–2 times every 6 months. Some respondents (5% for exportation and 20% for importation) had moved pigs more than 6 times over the last 6 months. Our study provided another pool of evidence that showed that PCV2, PRRS and H. hyo are endemic in pigs in Vietnam. Given the economic impacts of these pathogens elsewhere, the findings confirm the need for studies to evaluate the association between antibody response and clinical relevance as well as to assess the economic impact of co-infections at farm level. We also found that high seroprevalences of JE and leptospirosis were detected in pigs. From a pubic health point of view, it is crucial to raise public awareness especially for high risk occupations (mainly pig farm workers).

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduces Leishmania amazonensis-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Rosalia Crupi; Enrico Gugliandolo; Rosalba Siracusa; Daniela Impellizzeri; Marika Cordaro; Rosanna Di Paola; Domenico Britti; Salvatore Cuzzocrea

    Leishmaniasis is a emergent disease characterized by different clinical manifestations in both humans and dogs. Predominant clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis are ulcerative painless skin lesions. Several data reported that pain is associated with human and dog leishmaniasis, out with areas of painless ulcerative lesions per se. Actually, current medications used for leishmaniasis management are characterized by several side effects and, in addition, some cases of the disease are refractory to the treatment. On this background it is mandatory the identification of new and safe candidates for designing less toxic and low-cost remedies. Therefore, the search for new leishmanicidal compounds is indispensable. In the present paper we investigated the effect of orally N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation at dose of 200 mg/Kg for 10 weeks, in subcutaneous Leishmania (L). amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. And evaluating the effect of NAC on inflammatory response such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β levels, and on thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. In the present paper we showed how NAC supplementation affected parameters of oxidative stress (GSH, MDA, SOD), inflammation such as cytokines levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) and mast cell activation and consequently on induced pain, during leishmaniosis in BALB\c mice. The findings of our study provided the scientific data demonstrating that L. amazonensis infection induces inflammation and pain in BALB/c mice that are reversed by administration of NAC.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Capacitive resistive electric transfer modifies gait pattern in horses exercised on a treadmill
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mireya Becero; Aritz Saitua; David Argüelles; Antonia Lucía Sánchez de Medina; Cristina Castejón-Riber; Cristina Riber; Ana Muñoz

    Capacitive resistive electric transfer (CRET), a radiofrequency at 448 kHz, resulted in increased superficial and deep temperature and hemoglobin saturation, faster elimination of metabolic and inflammatory products and enhanced sport performance in humans. This research aims to investigate whether the application of CRET affects the locomotor pattern in horses and to assess whether an accumulative effect appears when two CRET sessions are applied two consecutive days. Nine horses were subjected to two CRET sessions applied in both right and left sides of neck, shoulder, back and croup. The horses were exercised on a treadmill, at walk and at trot, before CRET application and at 2, 6 and 12 h after. A second CRET session was applied next day, and the animals were evaluated again at the same times (i.e. at 26, 30 and 36 h after the first session). Between 5 and 7 days later, the same horses were subjected to a sham procedure and they were evaluated in the same times as in the CRET experiment. During treadmill exercise, locomotor parameters were measured with a triaxial accelerometer fixed in the pectoral region and in the sacrum midline. The sham procedure did not affect any of the accelerometric variables studied. CRET applications resulted in greater total powers, which resulted in absolute increased dorsoventral, mediolateral and longitudinal powers. However, a reduction in dorsoventral power expressed as a percentage of total power was found. Stride regularity increased. The greater total power resulted in longer stride length and because the velocity was kept fixed on the treadmill, stride frequency decreased. An accumulative effect of CRET application was only found in stride length and frequency. It appears that CRET is a useful technique to enhance power and to elongate the stride at defined walk and trot velocities. The effect of these changes on performance should be studied for horses competing in different sport disciplines.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Full genomic characterization of a porcine rotavirus strain detected in an asymptomatic piglet in Accra, Ghana
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Samuel C. B. Stubbs; Osbourne Quaye; Maame Ekua Acquah; Samuel Mawuli Adadey; Iain R. L. Kean; Srishti Gupta; Barbara A. Blacklaws

    The introduction of rotavirus A vaccination across the developing world has not proved to be as efficacious as first hoped. One cause of vaccine failure may be infection by zoonotic rotaviruses that are very variable antigenically from the vaccine strain. However, there is a lack of genomic information about the circulating rotavirus A strains in farm animals in the developing world that may be a source of infection for humans. We therefore screened farms close to Accra, Ghana for animals sub-clinically infected with rotavirus A and then sequenced the virus found in one of these samples. 6.1% of clinically normal cows and pigs tested were found to be Rotavirus A virus antigen positive in the faeces. A subset of these (33.3%) were also positive for virus RNA. The most consistently positive pig sample was taken forward for metagenomic sequencing. This gave full sequence for all open reading frames except segment 5 (NSP1), which is missing a single base at the 5′ end. The virus infecting this pig had genome constellation G5-P[7]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1, a known porcine genotype constellation. Farm animals carry rotavirus A infection sub-clinically at low frequency. Although the rotavirus A genotype discovered here has a pig-like genome constellation, a number of the segments most closely resembled those isolated from humans in suspected cases of zoonotic transmission. Therefore, such viruses may be a source of variable gene segments for re-assortment with other viruses to cause vaccine breakdown. It is recommended that further human and pig strains are characterized in West Africa, to better understand this dynamic.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Clinical isolates of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in Wyoming, South Dakota and Montana, USA
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Yinzhu Jin; Aifang Du; Chaoqun Yao

    Several Tritrichomonas species have been found in mammalian hosts. Among these trichomonads T. foetus is often found in the urogenital tract of cattle and the gastrointestinal tract of the domestic cat, resulting in sexually transmitted bovine trichomonosis and fecal-orally transmitted feline trichomonosis, respectively. The aims of the current study were to molecularly characterize clinical isolates of T. foetus in cattle populations in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Montana of the United States of America and to phylogenetically analyze Tritrichomonas species of mammalian hosts. DNA sequencing of rRNA genes showed over 99% identity of the newly described isolates to other bovine isolates. Further, T. foetus isolates of various mammalian hosts originated in different geographic regions worldwide were clustered into two well-defined clades by phylogenetic analysis of rRNA and cysteine protease 2 genes. Clade I consisted of isolates originated from cattle, pig, and human whereas clade II contained isolates of cat and dog. It is concluded that all mammalian Tritrichomonas spp. apparently belong to T. foetus. Analysis of more sequences is warranted to support this conclusion.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Different effects of cortisol on pro-inflammatory gene expressions in LPS-, heat-killed E.coli-, or live E.coli-stimulated bovine endometrial epithelial cells
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Luying Cui; Yali Wang; Heng Wang; Junsheng Dong; Zixiang Li; Jun Li; Chen Qian; Jianji Li

    Bacterial infections are common in postpartum dairy cows. Cortisol level has been observed to increase in dairy cows during peripartum period, and is associated with the endometrial innate immunity against pathogens like E.coli. However, the mechanism underlying how cortisol regulates E.coli-induced inflammatory response in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (BEEC) remains elusive. Cortisol decreased the expressions of IL1β, IL6, TNF-α, IL8, and TLR4 mRNA in BEEC treated with LPS or heat-killed E.coli, but up-regulated these gene expressions in BEEC stimulated by live E.coli. Cortisol exerted the anti-inflammatory action on LPS- or heat-killed E.coli-stimulated BEEC, but the pro-inflammatory action on live E.coli-induced BEEC.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of Enterococcus species in racing pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica)
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Beata Dolka; Michał Czopowicz; Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel; Aleksandra Ledwoń; Piotr Szeleszczuk

    This study was aimed to investigate the intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons with regard to Enterococcus species distribution, virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility. Three methods (API, Multiplex sodA-PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing) were compared for Enterococcus species identification. Cloacal samples from 179 apparently healthy pigeons of 13 different flocks were tested. Multiplex sodA-PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed almost perfect agreement in Enterococcus species identification. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus columbae (34.5%), Enterococcus hirae (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (11.7%), Enterococcus faecium (11.7%), Enterococcus gallinarum (9%), Enterococcus mundtii (4.8%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus cecorum (2.1%), Enterococcus durans (2.1%). More Enterococcus species were found after the race season than before. The study showed differences between Enterococcus species in relation to 68.8% (22/32) biochemical parameters. Six out of seven virulence genes were detected: gelE (43.5%), asa1 (42.1%), efaA (30.3%), ace (30.3%), cylA (27.6%), and esp (9%). None of the isolates harboured hyl gene. Overall 15.2% of Enterococcus isolates produced gelatinase, but 66.7% gelE genes were silent. Enterococcus faecalis showed the most often efaA, ace and gelatinase activity than other enterococcal species. Nearly all isolates (93.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most frequent resistance was to enrofloxacin (80%), doxycycline with teicoplanin (73.1%), erythromycin (49.7%). The study revealed significant differences between some enterococcal species in the antibiotic susceptibility to different antibiotics. Enterococcus columbae and E. cecorum showed significantly more frequent resistance to chloramphenicol than other enterococci. The presence of VRE (19.3%), HLGR (2.8%) and no LRE were found. Overall 30.3% of isolates were positive for vancomycin resistance genes, where vanC1 (E. gallinarum), vanC2-C3 (E. hirae, E. casseliflavus), vanB (E. columbae) predominated. We conclude, that intestinal microbiota in racing pigeons is composed by 9 different Enterococcus species. Given that racing pigeons are kept in close contact with humans and backyard animals, combined with their long-distance flight abilities, they can serve as potential source of virulent and antibiotic resistant Enterococcus spp. in the environment.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Duck enteritis virus UL21 is a late gene encoding a protein that interacts with pUL16
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Linjiang Yang; Mingshu Wang; Chunhui Zeng; Yong Shi; Anchun Cheng; Mafeng Liu; Dekang Zhu; Shun Chen; Renyong Jia; Qiao Yang; Ying Wu; Shaqiu Zhang; Xinxin Zhao; Juan Huang; Yunya Liu; Xumin Ou; Sai Mao; Yanling Yu; Ling Zhang; Bin Tian; Leichang Pan; Mujeeb Ur Rehman; Xiaoyue Chen

    pUL21 is a conserved protein of Alphaherpesvirinae that performs multiple important functions. The C-terminus of pUL21 in other members of this subfamily has RNA-binding ability; this domain contributes to pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde axonal transport in vitro and in vivo and participates in newly replicated viral DNA packaging and intracellular virus transport. However, knowledge regarding duck enteritis virus (DEV) pUL21 is limited. We verified that DEV UL21 is a γ2 gene that encodes a structural protein. Moreover, we observed that pUL21 localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. DEV pUL21 interacted with pUL16 and formed a complex in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 T cells and DEV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). These results were further confirmed by CO-IP assays. The DEV UL21 gene is a late gene, and pUL21 localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm. DEV UL21 is a virion component. In addition, pUL21 can interact with pUL16. These findings provide insight into the characteristics of UL21 and the interaction between pUL21 and its binding partner pUL16. Our study enhances the understanding of DEV pUL21.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary professionals in 2017 in the Czech Republic
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Katerina Neradova; Vladislav Jakubu; Katarina Pomorska; Helena Zemlickova

    Cases of colonization or infection caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are frequently reported in people who work with animals, including veterinary personnel. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization among veterinary professionals. A total of 134 nasal swabs from healthy attendees of a veterinary conference held in the Czech Republic were tested for presence of MRSA. The stains were further genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Nine isolated MRSA strains were characterized with sequence type (ST), spa type (t) and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type. Five different genotypes were described, including ST398-t011-IV (n = 5), ST398-t2330-IV (n = 1), ST398-t034-V (n = 1), ST225-t003-II (n = 1) and ST4894-t011-IV (n = 1). The carriage of the animal MRSA strain was confirmed in 8 cases, characteristics of one strain corresponded to the possible nosocomial origin. Among animal strains were described three spa types (t011, t034, t2330) belonging into one dominating clonal complex spa-CC11. According to our results, the prevalence of nasal carriage of MRSA in veterinary personnel is 6.72%. Although we described an increase compared to the results of previous study (year 2008), the prevalence in the Czech Republic is still remaining lower than reported from neighboring countries. Our results also indicate that healthcare - associated MRSA strains are still not spread among animals.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A systematic review of surgical margins utilized for removal of cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Laura E. Selmic; Audrey Ruple

    Traditionally, wide lateral surgical margins of 3 cm and one fascial plane deep have been recommended for resection of canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT). Several studies have been published assessing surgical margins of less than this traditional recommendation. The objective of this systematic review was to determine if resection MCT with lateral surgical margins < 3 cm results in low rates of incomplete resection and local tumor recurrence. Systematic searches of digital bibliographic databases were performed with two authors (AR & LES) screening abstracts to identify relevant scientific articles. Studies regarding surgical treatment of dogs with cutaneous MCT were reviewed. Data abstraction was performed and the quality of individual studies and the strength of the body of evidence for utilization of surgical margins < 3 cm for removal of MCTs was assessed. From the initial 78 citations identified through the database searches, four articles were retained for data abstraction after both relevance screenings were performed. Two studies were retrospective observational studies, one was a prospective case series and one was a prospective clinical trial. Assessment of the quality level of the body of evidence identified using the GRADE system was low. Excision of MCT at 2 cm and 3 cm was associated with comparably low rates of incomplete excision and recurrence. Despite the low quality of the overall body of evidence, a recommendation can be made that resection of canine cutaneous MCTs (< 4 cm) of Patnaik grade I and II with 2 cm lateral margins and 1 fascial plane deep results in low rates of incomplete excision and local tumor recurrence.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) between 2015 and 2018 in Henan Province, China
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Guanmin Zheng; Qingxia Lu; Fangyu Wang; Guangxu Xing; Hua Feng; Qianyue Jin; Zhenhua Guo; Man Teng; Huifang Hao; Dongliang Li; Xin Wei; Yuhang Zhang; Ruiguang Deng; Gaiping Zhang

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the pathogen of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) and one of the main pathogens in the global pig industry, which has brought huge economic losses to the pig industry. In recent years, there has been limited research on the prevalence of PCV2 in Henan Province. This study investigated the genotype and evolution of PCV2 in this area. We collected 117 clinical samples from different regions of Henan Province from 2015 to 2018. Here, we found that the PCV2 infection rate of PCV2 was 62.4%. Thirty-seven positive clinical samples were selected to amplify the complete genome of PCV2 and were sequenced. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 ORF2 and complete genome, it was found that the 37 newly detected strains belonged to PCV2a (3 of 37), PCV2b (21 of 37) and PCV2d (13 of 37), indicating the predominant prevalence of PCV2b and PCV2d strains. In addition, we compared the amino acid sequences and found several amino acid mutation sites among different genotypes. Furthermore, the results of selective pressure analysis showed that there were 5 positive selection sites. This study indicated the genetic diversity, molecular epidemiology and evolution of PCV2 genotypes in Henan Province during 2015–2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • First report of Enterobacter hormaechei with respiratory disease in calves
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Zhicheng Wang; Lisha Duan; Fei Liu; Yun Hu; Chaoliang Leng; Yunchao Kan; Lunguang Yao; Hongfei Shi

    Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enterobacter hormaechei from foxes and piglets. Here, the Enterobacter hormaechei was first found to be associated with respiratory disease in unweaned calves in China. A 2-month-old calf was severely sick and diagnosed with respiratory infection by a rural veterinarian, and it died 5 days after treatment with penicillin G. The lung sample was then run through histopathological analysis and pathogen isolation. The sequence analysis and biochemical tests results showed the isolated bacterium strain to be Enterobacter hormaechei, and drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to all β-lactam antimicrobials and sensitivity to quinolones. Thickened alveoli septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythrocyte diapedesis around the pulmonary alveoli septum were visible in lung histopathological sections. One week later, at the same farm, another calf showed similar clinical signs, and the Enterobacter hormaechei strain was isolated from its nasal discharge; after a week of treatment with enrofloxacin, as suggested by the results of drug sensitivity tests, this calf fully recovered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of calves with respiratory disease that was associated with E. hormaechei, and multi-drug resistance was observed in isolates.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Starch sources influence lipidaemia of diabetic dogs
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Fabio Alves Teixeira; Daniela Pedrosa Machado; Juliana Toloi Jeremias; Mariana Ramos Queiroz; Cristiana Ferreira Fonseca Pontieri; Marcio Antonio Brunetto

    Hyperlipidaemia is considered a cause of other diseases that are clinically important and potentially life threatening. Combination of pea and barley as exclusive starch sources is known to interfere with glycemic control in diabetic dogs, but their effect on lipid profile of hiperlipidaemic dogs is yet to be evaluated. Twelve adult diabetic dogs were fed three dry extruded diets with different starch sources and different fat levels: peas and barley (PB), maize (Mi), and peas, barley and rice (Ba) with 15.7, 15.6 and 9.0% of their dry matter as fat, respectively. Plasmatic cholesterol and triglycerides concentration curves over 10 h were obtained after 60 days on each diet and with the same NPH insulin dose. ANOVA test or Friedman test were used to compare the dietary effects on triglycerides and cholesterol variables among the diets. Dogs presented lower mean (p = 0.05), fasting (p = 0.03), and time 8-h postprandial (p = 0.05) triglyceridemia after PB diet period than Ba diet period and time 4-h postprandial (p = 0.02) lower after PB than Mi diet. Cholesterolemia mean, minimum, maximum, area under the cholesterol curve and times points: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10-h postprandial, had lower values after PB ingestion in comparison to Mi, without difference to Ba diet. Inclusion of pea and barley, as exclusive starch sources, in therapeutic diets for diabetic dogs can minimize plasmatic triglycerides and cholesterol concentration at fasting and at different postprandial time, compared to the maize diet or diet with lesser fat content.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Favorable outcome of pheochromocytoma in a dog with atypical Cushing’s syndrome and diabetes mellitus following medical treatment: a case report
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ga-Won Lee; Cho-Rong Yoo; Dan Lee; Hee-Myung Park

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) has poor prognosis and adrenalectomy is hard to be performed, in case of caudal vena cava invasion. The long-term administration of phenoxybenzamine in PCC has not been reported in dogs. A 14-year-old castrated male Poodle dog presented with an abdominal mass. On physical examination, hypertension, increased lens opacity, calcinosis cutis, generalized alopecia, and systolic murmur were observed. Serum chemistry and urinalysis profiles revealed hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, elevated liver enzymes, and glucosuria. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a right adrenal mass with invasion of the caudal vena cava, which was cytologically diagnosed as suspected PCC. An adrenal mass (width × height × length, 28 × 26 × 48 mm3) was found on computed tomography and diagnosed as PCC with increased plasma metanephrines and normetanephrines. An adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation test showed elevated adrenal hormones (androstenedione, estradiol, progesterone, and 17-OH progesterone) with normal cortisol, compatible with atypical Cushing’s syndrome. The dog was managed with trilostane, phenoxybenzamine, and insulin therapy. Glycosylated hemoglobin and fructosamine levels gradually decreased, and hypertension resolved. In the 10-month follow-up period, the liver enzymes levels gradually decreased, and the clinical signs of the dog were well-controlled without deterioration. This case report describes long-term medical management without adrenalectomy of PCC complicated with atypical Cushing’s syndrome and DM.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effect of ovarian steroids on vascular endothelial growth factor a expression in bovine uterine endothelial cells during adenomyosis
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Martyna Lupicka; Anna Zadroga; Agata Szczepańska; Anna Justyna Korzekwa

    Adenomyosis is a uterine dysfunction defined as the presence of endometrial glands within the myometrium. There is evidence that proangiogenic factors may play a role during the development of adenomyosis; however, exact mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the action of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in uterine tissue and uterine vascular endothelial cells during adenomyosis. Uterine tissues were collected and examined for the presence and extent of adenomyosis. Gene and protein expression of VEGFA and its two receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) was evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively, in endometrium and myometrium during adenomyosis. Immunolocalization of VEGFA and its receptors within uterine tissues during adenomyosis was also determined. In an in vitro experiment, endothelial cells from non-adenomyotic bovine uteri were treated with media conditioned by non-adenomyotic or adenomyotic uterine slices treated with 17-beta-oestradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). Both gene and protein expression of VEGFR2 were elevated in endometrium in stages 3–4 of adenomyosis. Protein expression of VEGFA and VEGFR2 as well as VEGFA secretion were increased in endothelial cells treated with media conditioned by adenomyotic uterine slices after E2 treatment. Results suggest that VEGFA signalling is an important component, next to E2, that enhances VEGFA action and participates in adenomyosis development in cows.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • A survey of knowledge and use of telehealth among veterinarians
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Kylie Watson; Julia Wells; Manoj Sharma; Stanley Robertson; John Dascanio; Jason W. Johnson; Robert E. Davis; Vinayak K. Nahar

    As usage of digital information and communication technologies continues to grow, the incorporation of telehealth and telemedicine has become a topic of interest in the veterinary industry. Veterinary telemedicine presents the opportunity to expand veterinary medicine by increasing access to healthcare services for clients and patients and improving medical quality. The objective of this study was to assess veterinarians’ knowledge and utilization of telehealth and telemedicine. Seventy-six veterinarians participated in the study and both qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the data collected. Several key themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of open-ended questions, including telecommunication, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM)-patient services, and remote interaction, among others. Through coding and qualitative analysis, researchers identified a lack of knowledge of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) definitions of telehealth and telemedicine. Specifically, a notable amount of participants were unaware of the distinction between the two practices per AVMA guidelines. Quantitative analyses revealed that the largest group of respondents reported sometimes utilizing telehealth and telemedicine in practice, with no distinct difference in utilization among the different age demographics of participants. These observations indicate a need for interventions both in veterinary school and continuing education programs with the purpose of increasing both knowledge and utilization of telehealth and telemedicine among veterinarians. While these recommendations serve as a starting point, future studies are needed to further enhance the understanding of veterinary telehealth and telemedicine in practice.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • C1 inhibitor in canine intravascular hemolysis (C1INCH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Robert Goggs; Erica Behling-Kelly

    Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a common disease that affects all breeds of dogs and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intravascular hemolysis of erythrocytes in IMHA is caused by complement activation and is often fatal. No current treatments target complement activation in canine IMHA. Human C1 esterase (C1-INH) reduces canine complement-mediated hemolysis in vitro, and a recent pharmacokinetic analysis of an FDA licensed formulation of C1-INH in dogs confirmed that a 50 IU/kg dose of C1-INH is safe to administer to dogs, and effectively inhibits canine complement mediated hemolysis ex-vivo. The C1INCH randomized controlled trial will evaluate the efficacy of this drug in dogs with intravascular hemolysis. We will conduct a multicenter, placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial of C1-INH in dogs with intravascular hemolysis due to IMHA. We will randomize 18 dogs to receive three doses of intravenous C1-INH or saline in 24 h. Immunosuppressive and antithrombotic therapies will be standardized. Primary outcome measures will be changes in plasma free hemoglobin, serum concentrations of LDH, bilirubin, and haptoglobin. Using patient samples, we will evaluate complement activation in canine IMHA using a novel C5b-9 ELISA assay, flow cytometric detection of C3b on RBC, and by measurement of residual plasma complement activity. Secondary outcome measures will be survival to hospital discharge, duration of hospitalization, number and volume of red blood cell transfusions, and rescue therapy requirements. We will monitor dogs for adverse drug reactions. Sample size was estimated from pilot data on LDH and hemolysis index (HI) in dogs with IMHA. To detect 2-way differences between the upper and lower 50% of the LDH and HI values of equivalent size with 80% power at P < 0.05 will require 9 dogs in each arm. We anticipate that IV administration of C1-INH will significantly inhibit complement mediated hemolysis in dogs with intravascular IMHA, as determined by blood biomarker measurements (decreased plasma hemoglobin, LDH and bilirubin, increased haptoglobin). We expect this will translate into significant reductions in transfusion requirements and duration of hospitalization. This trial has been prospectively registered with the AVMA registry (AAHSD005025).

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Molecular evidence of Babesia in pet cats in mainland China
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Xue-Lian Zhang; Xiao-Wen Li; Wen-Jun Li; Hui-Lan Huang; Shu-Jian Huang; Jian-Wei Shao

    Babesia spp. are important emerging tick-borne protozoan hemoparasites, and pose a great impact on companion animals. Canine babesiosis has been well described worldwide, while felis babesiosis has primarily been reported from South Africa. To the best of our knowledge, Babesia spp. infections in dogs have been well elucidated in pet dog population in China, no report about Babesia spp. infection in cat population in mainland China. In this study, a total of 203 blood samples were collected from pet cats in Shenzhen city, and detected the presence of Babesia spp. with nested-PCR. Sequence comparison based on the 18S rRNA gene and ITS region revealed that three cats (1.48%) were infected with Babesia. vogeli. Notably, the sequences of ITS region obtained in this study shared the highest nucleotide identity with the sequence of B. vogeli strain isolated in cat from Taiwan. This study is the first report about babesiosis in domestic cats, and also provides molecular evidence of Babesia spp. infection in cat in mainland China. The data present in this study suggest B. vogeli may be circulating in cat population in mainland China. Further study to investigate the epidemiology of Babesia infection in cat nationwide is warranted.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of porcine diarrhea associated viruses in southern China from 2012 to 2018
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Fanfan Zhang; Suxian Luo; Jun Gu; Zhiquan Li; Kai Li; Weifeng Yuan; Yu Ye; Hao Li; Zhen Ding; Deping Song; Yuxin Tang

    In China, large-scale outbreaks of severe diarrhea caused by viruses have occurred in pigs since late 2010. To investigate the prevalence and genetic evolution of diarrhea-associated viruses responsible for the outbreaks, a total of 2987 field diarrheal samples collected from 168 pig farms in five provinces in Southern China during 2012–2018 were tested. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was most frequently detected virus with prevalence rates between 50.21 and 62.10% in samples, and 96.43% (162/168) in premises, respectively. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was the second prevalent virus with prevalence rates ranging from 19.62 to 29.19% in samples, and 70.24% (118/168) in premises, respectively. Both transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine rotavirus (PoRV) were detected at low prevalence rates of < 3% in samples and 10.12% in premises. In this study, we identified a newly emerged swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) in diarrheal samples of piglets from Fujian province in Southern China, and the prevalence rate of SADS-CoV was 10.29% (7/68). Co-infections of these diarrhea-associated viruses were common. The most frequent co-infection was PEDV with PDCoV, with an average detection rate of 12.72% (380/2987, ranging from 8.26–17.33%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PEDVs circulating in Southern China during the last 7 years were clustered with the variant strains of PEDV in genotype IIa. The most frequent mutations were present in the collagenase equivalent (COE) and epitope regions of the spike gene of the PEDVs currently circulating in the field. Genetic relationships of PDCoVs were closely related with Chinese strains, other than those present in the USA, South Korea, Thailand and Lao’s public. The findings of this study indicated that variant PEDV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV were leading etiologic agents of porcine diarrhea, and either mono-infections or co-infections of pathogenic enteric CoVs were common in pigs in Southern China during 2012–2018. Thus, significant attention should be paid in order to effectively prevent and control porcine viral diarrhea.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Molecular epidemiology and viremia of porcine astrovirus in pigs from Guangxi province of China
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Yifeng Qin; Qingli Fang; Xunjie Li; Fakai Li; Huan Liu; Zuzhang Wei; Kang Ouyang; Ying Chen; Weijian Huang

    Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) are common in pigs worldwide. There are five distinct lineages with each lineage representing a different ancestral origin. Recently, multiple reports have demonstrated the evidence of extra-intestinal infection of PAstVs, but little is known about viremia. In this study, a total of 532 fecal samples and 120 serum samples from healthy pigs were collected and tested from 2013 to 2015 in Guangxi province, China; of these 300/532 (56.4%) and 7/120 (5.8%) of fecal samples tested positive for PAstVs, respectively. Our study revealed that there was wide genetic diversity and high prevalence of the virus in the pig population. All five of the known PAstVs genotypes (1–5) prevailed in the pig population of Guangxi province and were distributed in all age groups of pigs, from suckling piglets to sows, with PAstV2 (47.7%), PAstV1 (26.2%) and PAstV5 (21.5%) seen predominantly. Phylogenetic analysis of partial ORF1b and partial capsid sequences from fecal and serum samples revealed that they were divided into the five lineages. Among these genotypes, based on partial ORF2 genes sequencing 23 strains were grouped as PAstV1, including 6 serum-derived strains, and were regarded as the causative agents of viremia in pigs. Due to the information regarding the types of PAstV in blood is limit. This is the first report for the presence of PAstV1 in blood and PAstV3 in the feces of nursery pigs of China. This study provides a reference for understanding the prevalence and genetic evolution of PAstVs in pigs in Guangxi province, China. It also provides a new perspective for understanding of the extra-intestinal infection of PAstVs in pigs.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci in fecal samples of birds from South-Eastern Poland
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jolanta Kutkowska; Anna Turska-Szewczuk; Marek Kucharczyk; Halina Kucharczyk; Joanna Zalewska; Teresa Urbanik-Sypniewska

    The incidence of human infection and colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has increased in the recent years. Environmental sources, including bird droppings, might play an important role as resistance reservoirs. Fresh fecal samples were collected from rooks and wild-living birds during the autumn-winter period of 2016/2017, and tested for the presence of bacteria associated with human diseases. Besides bacteria representing the genera Enterococcus, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Proteus, Hafnia, and Pseudomonas were also identified. The susceptibility of S. aureus and Enterococcus spp. isolates to methicillin, and vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively, was analyzed to assess the avian wildlife as a reservoir of MRSA and VRE strains. Twenty-two percent of all S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant. These strains were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using the most widely used primer sets specific for the mecA gene. Twenty percent of all Enterococcus strains were phenotypically vancomycin-resistant. The presence of van resistance genes in these strains was investigated by PCR using vanA and vanB gene-specific primers. A good correlation between mecA gene detection and disc diffusion data was observed, while some discrepancy was noted between the PCR data and the vancomycin/teicoplanin phenotypic resistance pattern. The incidence of strains resistant to methicillin and glycopeptide antibiotics in wild-living birds was twice that in rooks. The study suggests that rooks from urban areas and passerine birds from the natural habitat carry antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. and S. aureus strains, probably reflecting the presence of such isolates in the environmental food sources.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Comparative metabolome analysis of serum changes in sheep under overgrazing or light grazing conditions
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jize Zhang; Yang Gao; Huiqin Guo; Yong Ding; Weibo Ren

    Overgrazing is a primary contributor to severe reduction in forage quality and production in Inner Mongolia, leading to extensive ecosystem degradation, sheep health impairment and growth performance reduction. Further studies to identify serum biomarkers that reflect changes in sheep health and nutritional status following overgrazing would be beneficial. We hereby hypothesize that reduced sheep growth performance under overgrazing conditions would be associated with metabolic and immune response alterations. This study used an untargeted metabolomics analysis by conducting ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) of sheep serum under overgrazing and light grazing conditions to identify metabolic disruptions in response to overgrazing. The sheep body weight gains as well as serum biochemical variables associated with immune responses and nutritional metabolism (immunoglobulin G, albumin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids) were significantly decreased with overgrazing compared with light grazing condition. In contrast, other serum parameters such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and interleukin-8 were markedly higher in the overgrazing group. Principal component analysis discriminated the metabolomes of the light grazing from the overgrazing group. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed changes in the serum concentrations of 15 metabolites (9 metabolites exhibited a marked increase, whereas 6 metabolites showed a significant decrease) in the overgrazing group. Major changes of fatty acid oxidation, bile acid biosynthesis, and purine and protein metabolism were observed. These findings offer metabolic evidence for putative biomarkers for overgrazing-induced changes in serum metabolism. Target-identification of these particular metabolites may potentially increase our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of altered immune responses, nutritional metabolism, and reduced sheep growth performance under overgrazing conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Acute changes in the colonic microbiota are associated with large intestinal forms of surgical colic
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Shebl E. Salem; Thomas W. Maddox; Philipp Antczak; Julian M. Ketley; Nicola J. Williams; Debra C. Archer

    Horses that undergo surgery for treatment of primary large colon disease have been reported to be at increased risk of developing recurrent colic episodes postoperatively. The reasons for this are currently unknown. The aim of the current study was to characterise the faecal microbiota of horses with colic signs associated with primary large colon lesions treated surgically and to compare the composition of their faecal microbiota to that of a control group of horses undergoing emergency orthopaedic treatment. Faecal samples were collected from horses in both groups on admission to hospital, during hospitalisation and following discharge from hospital for a total duration of 12 weeks. Additionally, colonic content samples were collected from surgical colic patients if pelvic flexure enterotomy was performed during laparotomy. A total of 12 samples were collected per horse. DNA was extracted from samples using a commercial kit. Amplicon mixtures were created by PCR amplification of the V1 – V2 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes and submitted for sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing system. Multivariate data analysis was used to characterise the faecal microbiota and to investigate differences between groups. Reduced species richness was evident in the colonic samples of the colic group compared to concurrent sampling of the faeces. Alpha and beta diversity differed significantly between the faecal and colonic microbiota with 304 significantly differentially abundant OTUs identified. Only 46 OTUs varied significantly between the colic and control group. There were no significant differences in alpha and beta diversity of faecal microbiota between colic and control horses at admission. However, this lack of significant differences between groups should be interpreted with caution due to a small sample size. The results of the current study suggest that faecal samples collected at hospital admission in colic cases may not accurately represent changes in upper gut microbiota in horses with colic due to large colon disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-22
  • Prevalence and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in stray cats in Mashhad area, Iran
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Majid Khodaverdi; Gholamreza Razmi

    Cats as a definitive host have an important role in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii infection and isolate and identify the genotypes of T. gondii in stray cats in the Mashhad suburb. From April 2016 to August 2017, 175 fecal samples from stray cats and 31 brain samples from cats killed in driving accidents were collected. The fecal samples were examined by fecal flotation technique and T. gondii-specific PCR. The brain samples were investigated by T. gondii-specific PCR and consequently examined by mice bioassay. The DNA of T. gondii isolated was genotyped using SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB and GRA6 as PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) markers. In the present study, Toxoplasma-like oocysts were microscopically observed in 2.2% (4/175) fecal samples. The presence of Toxoplasma oocysts was confirmed in one microscopy-positive sample by PCR. In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in 4% (7/175) microscopy-negative samples using PCR. T. gondii was isolated from one brain PCR-positive sample by mice bioassay. The isolate was avirulent and many T. gondii cysts were observed in mice brain. The isolate was successfully genotyped by PCR-RLFP analysis. The isolated genotyped was type II. Besides, eight Toxoplasma-positive fecal samples contained insufficient DNA and only amplified at SAG-3 locus in PCR. These samples were also showed type II pattern at this locus. Parasitological and molecular results showed low frequency of Toxoplasma infection in the stray cats, and identified the genotype of T. gondii isolate as type II, for the first time in Mashhad area, Khorasan Razavi Province.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates: a two-year prospective study of small poultry flocks in Ontario, Canada
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Csaba Varga; Michele T. Guerin; Marina L. Brash; Durda Slavic; Patrick Boerlin; Leonardo Susta

    Although keeping small poultry flocks is increasingly popular in Ontario, information on the antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric bacteria of such flocks is lacking. The current study was conducted on small poultry flocks in Ontario between October 2015 and September 2017, and samples were submitted on a voluntary basis to Ontario’s Animal Health Laboratory. From each submission, a pooled cecal sample was obtained from all the birds of the same species from the same flock and tested for the presence of two common enteric pathogens, E. coli and Salmonella. Three different isolates from each E. coli-positive sample and one isolate from each Salmonella-positive sample were selected and tested for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials using a broth microdilution technique. A total of 433 fecal E. coli isolates (358 chicken, 27 turkey, 24 duck, and 24 game bird) and 5 Salmonella isolates (3 chicken, 1 turkey, and 1 duck) were recovered. One hundred and sixty-seven chicken, 5 turkey, 14 duck, and 15 game bird E. coli isolates were pan-susceptible. For E. coli, a moderate to high proportion of isolates were resistant to tetracycline (43% chicken, 81% turkey, 42% duck, and 38% game bird isolates), streptomycin (29% chicken, 37% turkey, and 33% game bird isolates), sulfonamides (17% chicken, 37% turkey, and 21% duck isolates), and ampicillin (16% chicken and 41% turkey isolates). Multidrug resistance was found in 37% of turkey, 20% of chicken, 13% of duck, and 8% of game bird E. coli isolates. Salmonella isolates were most frequently resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides. Resistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, macrolides, and quinolones was infrequent in both E. coli and Salmonella isolates. Cluster and correlation analyses identified streptomycin-tetracycline-sulfisoxazole-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as the most common resistance pattern in chicken E. coli isolates. Turkey E. coli isolates compared to all the other poultry species had higher odds of resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin, and a higher multidrug resistance rate. Escherichia coli isolates were frequently resistant to antimicrobials commonly used to treat poultry bacterial infections, which highlights the necessity of judicious antimicrobial use to limit the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Different expression of Defensin-B gene in the endometrium of mares of different age during the breeding season
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    M. Crociati; S. Capomaccio; M. T. Mandara; G. Stradaioli; L. Sylla; M. Monaci; K. Cappelli

    Despite being one of the major causes of infertility in mares, the mechanisms responsible for equine endometrosis are still unclear and controversial. In the last few years, many investigations focused on local immune response modulation. Since it is generally accepted that endometrial fibrosis increases with age, we hypothesize that older mares could show altered local immune modulation, initiating a pro-inflammatory and tissue remodeling cascade of events that could lead to endometrosis. The aim of this study, indeed, is to evaluate and describe the local gene expression of genes involved in acute inflammatory response and fibrosis (COL1A1, COL3A1, TNFA, MMP9, IL6, TGFB1 and TGFBR1), together with others associated to immune modulation (DEFB4B, IDO1 and FOXP3), in uterine specimens from mares of different age. Twenty-five Standardbred mares were involved in the study with age ranging from 7 to 19 years (mean 10.40 ± 4.42). They were divided by age into two groups: G1 (n = 15, less than 10 years old) and G2 (N = 10, greater than 11 years old). Specimens from the uterus’ right horn-body junction were collected and processed for histology evaluation and RT-qPCR assay.Gene expression of DEFB4B, MMP9 and TNFA was higher in younger mares, suggesting a balance in immune modulation and tissue remodeling. Interleukin-6 and COL3A1 gene expressions were greater in older animals, probably indicating inflammatory pathways activation and fibrosis increase. Although no differences in fibrosis and inflammation distribution could be found with histological examination among G1 and G2, our results suggest a possible involvement of DEF4BB in regulating the local immune response in younger mare’s uterus (G1); age may contribute to the dis-regulation of DEFB4B transcription and, indirectly, influence the extracellular matrix homeostasis. Transcription of IDO1 and FOXP3 genes, instead, does not seem to be age related, or to be involved in local immune-response and tissue remodeling functions. Further investigations are needed in order to clarify the interactions between the expression of DEFB4B, IL6, TNFA, COL3A1 and MMP9 and other local signals of immune-modulation and tissue remodeling, in mares in a prospective study design.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Detection of rabies antibodies in wild boars in north-east Romania by a rabies ELISA test
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Mihaela Anca Dascalu; Marine Wasniewski; Evelyne Picard-Meyer; Alexandre Servat; Florentina Daraban Bocaneti; Oana Irina Tanase; Elena Velescu; Florence Cliquet

    In the last few decades, Romania has been considered one of the European countries most affected by animal rabies, but a combination of oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in foxes alongside mandatory vaccination of pets has substantially decreased the number of rabies cases in recent years. The objective of this study was to detect rabies antibodies in wild boar serum and thoracic fluid samples collected during the hunting season after ORV campaigns in north-eastern Romania in order to identify if wild boars are substantial competitors to foxes for ORV baits. When the 312 wild boar samples were tested by ELISA (BioPro ELISA, Czech Republic), 42.31% (132/312) demonstrated rabies antibodies. In order to compare these wild boar results in terms of the percentage of immunisation, fox samples were also included in the study, and in this case only 28.40% (98/345) demonstrated rabies antibodies by ELISA. To check the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this ELISA, those samples with a sufficient volume from both species that had tested either negative or positive with an initial ELISA were then tested with the Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation (FAVN) assay. The overall concordance between the BioPro ELISA and FAVN test was 74.26% (75/101) in wild boar samples and 65.66% (65/99) in fox samples, 140 out of 200 samples being correlated with the two methods, although no significant statistical difference (p = 0.218) between the two species was registered. We found a good agreement by both tests for the ELISA-positive samples (91.30%), however the situation was different for the ELISA-negative samples, where a low agreement was demonstrated (41.18%). This study reports for the first time the presence of rabies antibodies in wild boar samples collected during the hunting season in Romania after ORV campaigns in rabies endemic areas. It is also the first study to demonstrate that ELISA BioPro can be used on wild boar samples with satisfactory results compared to the FAVN test for this species.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Vaccine strain Listeria monocytogenes abscess in a dog: a case report
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Margaret L. Musser; Erika P. Berger; Cameron Parsons; Sophia Kathariou; Chad M. Johannes

    Listeria monocytogenes is a promising therapeutic vaccine vector for cancer immunotherapy. Although highly attenuated, three cases of systemic listeriosis have been reported in people following treatment with Listeria-based therapeutic vaccines. This complication has thus far not been reported in canine patients. A dog previously diagnosed with osteoblastic osteosarcoma was presented for care following administration of three doses of the Canine Osteosarcoma Vaccine-Live Listeria Vector. On routine staging chest radiographs, mild sternal lymphadenopathy and a right caudoventral thoracic mass effect were noted. Further evaluation of the mass effect with computed tomography and ultrasound revealed a cavitated mass associated with the 7th right rib. Aspirates of the mass cultured positive for Listeria monocytogenes. The mass and associated ribs were surgically removed. Histopathology was consistent with metastatic osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Treatment was continued with doxorubicin chemotherapy and at the time of publication, the dog was alive over 1 year following diagnosis with no evidence of further disease progression. Genotyping of the abscess-derived L. monocytogenes was consistent with the vaccine strain. This case represents the first veterinary case to describe development of a Listeria abscess following administration of a Listeria-based therapeutic vaccine.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Diagnostic efficacy of imaging and biopsy methods for peritoneal mesothelioma in a calf
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Yasuhiro Morita; Sadamu Sugiyama; Takeshi Tsuka; Yoshiharu Okamoto; Takehito Morita; Yuji Sunden; Takashi Takeuchi

    Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare abdominal disease; that occasionally occurs congenitally in younger calves. Cytologic examination of peritoneal effusion (PE) was utilized to diagnose this disease, and was not diagnostic. Diagnostic accuracy has been elevated by recent use of ultrasonography (US), despite most diagnoses have been obtained post-mortem in slaughter houses or during clinical necropsy. In humans, ante-mortem diagnosis is highly associated with clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and laparoscopy together with imaging-assisted biopsy. The present report evaluates the diagnostic applicability of CT and laparoscopy as well as US via the practical application of these imaging modalities in an affected calf, and compares the cytologic and histologic findings among in PE, and specimens obtained from fine-needle aspiration and core-needle biopsy. In addition, the present results were reviewed in comparison with those of previous bovine and human reports. A 58-day-old male Japanese black calf presented first with scrotal swelling, followed by progressive abdominal distention. Abnormalities of the case included: 1) accumulation of anechoic PE inside the swollen scrotum and abdomen; 2) formation of multiple echogenic nodules within the peritoneal membrane based on US images; 3) presence of hyper-dense spots (suspected calcification) along the margins of the nodules; 4) anatomic connections between intra-abdominal nodular lesions and the swollen tunica vaginalis via the inguinal region based on CT images; 5) serosanguineous-colored and less-turbid characteristics of PE; and 6) formation of multiple nodules over all of the serosa of the rumen as well as the peritoneal wall based on laparoscopic views. Fine-needle aspiration and core-needle biopsy were successfully performed under US and laparoscopic observations, respectively. Histology findings of the core-needle biopsy specimen appeared more indicative (characterization of tubular structures comprised of cubical or columnar abnormal mesothelial cell linings) diagnostically of peritoneal mesothelioma than did findings of the fine-needle aspiration specimen. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of clinical applications of CT and laparoscopy to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma in a calf. Laparoscopy enhanced the diagnostic accuracy due to clear gross visualization of the intra-abdominal abnormalities and applicability to imaging-guided core-needle biopsy.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Validation of an equine serum amyloid A assay with an unusually broad working range
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Stine Jacobsen; Anne Mette Vinther; Mads Kjelgaard-Hansen; Lise Nikolic Nielsen

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major equine acute phase protein and of great value in detection and monitoring of inflammation. A new immunoturbidometric assay based on monoclonal antibodies (VET-SAA, Eiken Chemical Co., Japan) may be useful for SAA measurements in routine diagnostic laboratories. The aim of the study was to validate the VET-SAA immunoturbidometric assay and use it to measure serum SAA concentrations in a variety of clinical cases. Precision was assessed by intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of repeated measurements of serum pools (low, intermediate, high concentrations of SAA). Accuracy was estimated by linearity under dilution. Detection limit was determined by replicate determinations of ionized water. Measurements were compared to measurements performed in a previously validated SAA assay (LZSAA assay, Eiken Chemical Co., Japan). Subsequently, the VET-SAA assay was used for measuring serum SAA concentrations in horses with and without inflammation. Detection limit was 1.2 mg/L. Without modifications, the assay measured SAA concentrations with acceptable reliability in a broad concentration range (0 to > 6000 mg/L). In the 0–3000 mg/L range, the assay demonstrated good precision and accuracy, and concentrations correlated well with those obtained in the LZSAA assay, albeit with a slight systematic bias. Concentrations of SAA assessed in horses with and without inflammation followed the expected pattern, with significantly higher concentrations in horses with systemic inflammation than in healthy horses and horses with non-inflammatory disease. The assay was unique in its ability to measure SAA concentrations with acceptable reliability over an extreme concentration range. This is relevant in the equine species, where SAA concentrations may reach very high concentrations.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Melioidosis fatalities in captive slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta): combining epidemiology, pathology and whole-genome sequencing supports variable mechanisms of transmission with one health implications
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Audrey Rachlin; Cathy Shilton; Jessica R. Webb; Mark Mayo; Mirjam Kaestli; Mariana Kleinecke; Vanessa Rigas; Suresh Benedict; Ian Gurry; Bart J. Currie

    Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease which is being increasingly recognised throughout the globe. Infection occurs in humans and animals, typically through direct exposure to soil or water containing the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Case clusters of melioidosis have been described in humans following severe weather events and in exotic animals imported into melioidosis endemic zones. Direct transmission of B. pseudomallei between animals and/or humans has been documented but is considered extremely rare. Between March 2015 and October 2016 eight fatal cases of melioidosis were reported in slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) on display at a Wildlife Park in Northern Australia. To further investigate the melioidosis case cluster we sampled the meerkat enclosure and adjacent park areas and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on all culture-positive B. pseudomallei environmental and clinical isolates. WGS confirmed that the fatalities were caused by two different B. pseudomallei sequence types (STs) but that seven of the meerkat isolates were highly similar on the whole-genome level. Used concurrently with detailed pathology data, our results demonstrate that the seven cases originated from a single original source, but routes of infection varied amongst meerkats belonging to the clonal outbreak cluster. Moreover, in some instances direct transmission may have transpired through wounds inflicted while fighting. Collectively, this study supports the use of high-resolution WGS to enhance epidemiological investigations into transmission modalities and pathogenesis of melioidosis, especially in the instance of a possible clonal outbreak scenario in exotic zoological collections. Such findings from an animal outbreak have important One Health implications.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Imaging and pathological findings of intramedullary inflammatory pseudotumour in a miniature dachshund: a case report
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Masamichi Yamashita; Tomohiro Osaki; Yusuke Murahata; Yuji Sunden; Rinko Morita; Tomohiro Imagawa; Yoshiharu Okamoto

    Inflammatory pseudotumours (IPTs) are distinctive lesions consisting of myofibroblastic spindle cells and a variety of inflammatory cells. The aetiology of IPTs is unknown. Reports of IPTs in veterinary medicine have been scarse. Moreover, only one case of intradural extramedullary IPT has been previously reported. In this report, we introduce the first known case of canine IPT, which occurred in the parenchyma of the spinal cord. A 10-year-old female Miniature Dachshund presented with a 2-month-long history of progressively worsening ataxia and tetraparesis. Neurological examination was consistent with a lesion involving the cervical spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural space-occupying lesion in the region of the fourth cervical vertebra. Dorsal laminectomy and resection of the mass were performed. Histopathological examination revealed the proliferation of immature spindle cells (fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and glial cells) and a highly cellular mixture of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytic cells. The mass was located in the parenchyma of the spinal cord and was diagnosed as an IPT occurring in the parenchyma of the spinal cord. No causative pathogen was detected. The dog’s symptoms improved, during the first month after surgery. However, neurological symptoms, such as laboured breathing and dysuria, subsequently worsened and the dog died 42 days after surgery. The present study describes a canine case of IPT occurring in the parenchyma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis and determination of the site of the mass was difficult solely based on preoperative imaging in the present case. The outcome of this case was poorer than that observed in cases of canine extramedullary IPT and human intramedullary IPT, in which the patients exhibited recovery. The prognosis after surgical resection cannot be decided from the present case alone. However, patients should be monitored for potential serious complications and recurrence.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Comparative measurement of FeLV load in hemolymphatic tissues of cats with hematologic cytopenias
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Mehdi Abdollahi-Pirbazari; Shahram Jamshidi; Seyed Mahdi Nassiri; Mohamad Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a serious viral infection in cats. FeLV is found in some tissues, such as spleen, lymph nodes and epithelial tissues. However, there is controversy about the organ in which the virus can be reliably detected in infected cats. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of viral infection in hemolymphatic tissues, including blood, bone marrow and spleen by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A total of 31 cats with clinical signs of FeLV infection associated with at least a single lineage hematologic cytopenia were included in this study. Peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen samples were obtained from each cat. Complete blood counts, biochemical tests, and a rapid test to detect FeLV p27 antigen in blood samples of cats were performed. Of 31 cats, 9 had anemia alone, 4 had thrombocytopenia alone, 2 had neutropenia alone, 9 had bicytopenia of anemia and thrombocytopenia, 3 had bicytopenia of anemia and neutropenia, and 4 had pancytopenia. FeLV RNA was then detected by RT-qPCR in the whole blood, bone marrow and spleen. Viral RNA copy numbers were detected in all cats by RT-qPCR whereas 24 out of 31 cats were positive for the serum FeLV antigen. We detected a significantly greater number of viral RNA in the spleen compared with the whole blood and bone marrow. Spleen is a site where FeLV is most frequently detected in cats with hematologic cytopenias.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Continuing evolution of H6N2 influenza a virus in South African chickens and the implications for diagnosis and control
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Celia Abolnik; Christine Strydom; Dionne Linda Rauff; Daniel Barend Rudolph Wandrag; Deryn Petty

    The threat of poultry-origin H6 avian influenza viruses to human health emphasizes the importance of monitoring their evolution. South Africa’s H6N2 epidemic in chickens began in 2001 and two co-circulating antigenic sub-lineages of H6N2 could be distinguished from the outset. The true incidence and prevalence of H6N2 in the country has been difficult to determine, partly due to the continued use of an inactivated whole virus H6N2 vaccine and the inability to distinguish vaccinated from non-vaccinated birds on serology tests. In the present study, the complete genomes of 12 H6N2 viruses isolated from various farming systems between September 2015 and February 2019 in three major chicken-producing regions were analysed and a serological experiment was used to demonstrate the effects of antigenic mismatch in diagnostic tests. Genetic drift in H6N2 continued and antigenic diversity in sub-lineage I is increasing; no sub-lineage II viruses were detected. Reassortment patterns indicated epidemiological connections between provinces as well as different farming systems, but there was no reassortment with wild bird or ostrich influenza viruses. The sequence mismatch between the official antigens used for routine hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing and circulating field strains has increased steadily, and we demonstrated that H6N2 field infections are likely to be missed. More concerning, sub-lineage I H6N2 viruses acquired three of the nine HA mutations associated with human receptor-binding preference (A13S, V187D and A193N) since 2002. Most sub-lineage I viruses isolated since 2015 acquired the K702R mutation in PB2 associated with the ability to infect humans, whereas prior to 2015 most viruses in sub-lineages I and II contained the avian lysine marker. All strains had an unusual HA0 motif of PQVETRGIF or PQVGTRGIF. The H6N2 viruses in South African chickens are mutating and reassorting amongst themselves but have remained a genetically pure lineage since they emerged more than 18 years ago. Greater efforts must be made by government and industry in the continuous isolation and characterization of field strains for use as HI antigens, new vaccine seed strains and to monitor the zoonotic threat of H6N2 viruses.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Genotypic characterization and antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella isolated from chicken, pork and the environment at abattoirs and supermarkets in Chongqing, China
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Tingting Chen; Jiali Jiang; Chao Ye; Jianhua Xie; Xia Chen; Dongyi Xu; Zheng Zeng; Yuanyi Peng; Dong-Liang Hu; Rendong Fang

    Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens, causing outbreaks of human salmonellosis worldwide. Owing to large scales of consumption markets, pork and poultry that contaminated by Salmonella could pose a tremendous threat to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination of Salmonella from chicken, pork and the environment in slaughtering and retail processes in Chongqing, China. A total of 115 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1112 samples collected from pork, chicken and the environment. Compared with the isolation rate of samples from chicken (9.50%) and the environment (6.23%), samples from pork had a significant higher isolation rate (44.00%). The isolation rates in slaughterhouses (10.76%) and in supermarkets (10.07%) showed no statistical difference. Thirty different serotypes were identified among all the isolates. S. Derby (n = 26), S. London (n = 16) and S. Rissen (n = 12) were the dominant serotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 73.04% isolates were resistant to tetracycline, followed by 66.96% to ampicillin and 59.13% to doxycycline. More than half (50.43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and most of the MDR isolates were from supermarkets. Multilocus sequence typing results showed 24 out of 115 isolates were ST40, which was the most prevalent. Furthermore, isolates from supermarkets had 20 different sequence types while isolates from slaughterhouses only had 8 different sequence types. Our study highlighted that Salmonella was more frequently isolated in pork production chain than that in chicken. Compared with isolates from slaughterhouses, isolates from supermarkets had more MDR profiles and represented a wider range of serotypes and sequence types, indicating that the retail process had more diverse sources of Salmonella contamination than that of slaughtering process.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Identification of the complete coding cDNAs and expression analysis of B4GALT1, LALBA, ST3GAL5, ST6GAL1 in the colostrum and milk of the Garganica and Maltese goat breeds to reveal possible implications for oligosaccharide biosynthesis
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Alessandra Crisà; Salvatore Claps; Bianca Moioli; Cinzia Marchitelli

    Milk sialylated oligosaccharides (SOS) play crucial roles in many biological processes. The most abundant free SOS in goat’s milk are 3’sialyllactose (3′-SL), 6’sialyllactose (6′-SL) and disialyllactose (DSL). The production of these molecules is determined genetically by the expression of glycosyltransferases and by the availability of nucleotide sugar substrates, but the precise mechanisms regulating the differential patterns of milk oligosaccharides are not known. We aimed to identify the complete cDNAs of candidate genes implicated in SOS biosynthesis (B4GALT1, LALBA, ST3GAL5, ST6GAL1) and to analyse their expression during lactation in the Garganica and Maltese goat breeds. Moreover, we analysed the colostrum and milk contents of 3′-SL, 6′-SL and disialyllactose (DSL) and the possible correlations between expressed genes and SOS. We identified the complete coding cDNAs of B4GALT1 (HQ700335.1), ST3GAL5 (KF055858.2), and ST6GAL1 (HQ709167.1), the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of these genes and 2 splicing variants of the ST6GAL1 cDNA. RT-qPCR analysis showed that LALBA and ST6GAL1 were the genes with the highest and lowest expression in both breeds, respectively. The interaction effects of the breeds and sampling times were associated with higher levels of B4GALT1 and ST3GAL5 gene expression in Garganica than in Maltese goats at kidding. B4GALT1, LALBA, and ST3GAL5 gene expression changed from kidding to 60 and 120 days in Maltese goats, while in Garganica goats, a difference was observed only for the LALBA gene. Breed and lactation effects were also found for SOS contents. Positive correlations of B4GALT1, LALBA, ST3GAL5, and ST6GAL1 with 3′-SL/6′SL and DSL were found. The genetic effect on the oligosaccharide content of milk was previously highlighted in bovines, and this study is the first to investigate this effect in two goat breeds (Garganica and Maltese) during lactation. The genetic variability of candidate genes involved in SOS biosynthesis highlights their potential role in affecting gene expression and ultimately biological function. The investigation of gene regulatory regions as well as the examination of other sialyltransferase genes will be needed to identify the genetic pattern leading to a higher SOS content in the autochtonous Garganica breed and to protect it using a focused breeding strategy.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Computed tomographic development of physeal osteochondrosis in pigs
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Kristin Olstad; Bjørn Wormstrand; Jørgen Kongsro; Eli Grindflek

    Articular osteochondrosis follows a dynamic development pattern. Lesions arise, in incidence peaks compatible with failure of cartilage canal vessels during incorporation into bone, and can also resolve. Lesions that resolve before examination at a single time point will constitute false-negative diagnoses. The aim of the study was to identify physeal osteochondrosis lesions in pigs and monitor their development by computed tomography (CT), to determine if they follow a similar dynamic development pattern to articular osteochondrosis. Thirteen physes were evaluated bilaterally in up to eight biweekly CT scans from 18 male Landrace pigs age 70–180 days (total: 112 scans), generating 2912 scores. There were 1754 (60%) lesion-negative scores and 1158 (40%) lesion-positive scores. Positive scores comprised 138 lesions present at the start and 235 lesions that developed during the study, from 4 to 32 lesions per physis (median: 15 lesions). There were 1–2 peaks in the incidence curves for 12/13 examined physes, the exception being the proximal humerus. Positive scores also included 785 times that lesions persisted, from 1.3–4.8 examination intervals per lesion (median: 2.8 intervals). Negative scores included 190 times that lesions resolved, from 19 to 100% of lesions per physis (median: 65%). Lesions resolved by filling with bone from marginal sclerosis and reparative ossification centres. In the distal scapula and distal fibula, perichondrial new bone formation occurred that led to permanent enlargement of physeal regions. Angular limb deformity was not identified in any pig. Physeal osteochondrosis followed a similar dynamic development pattern to articular osteochondrosis. There were peaks in the incidence curves, compatible with failure of vessels during incorporation into bone. In some physes, osteochondrosis led to permanent enlargement, potentially relevant for decubital ulcers. The relationship between physeal osteochondrosis and angular limb deformity must be examined further in pigs over 6 months old in future.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Peste des petits ruminants pathogenesis on experimental infected goats by the Moroccan 2015 isolate
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Z. Bamouh; F. Fakri; M. Jazouli; N. Safini; K. Omari Tadlaoui; M. Elharrak

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. PPRV infection was experimentally induced in 4 six-month-old goats by intra-nasal and intravenous route of cell virus suspension and from infectious mashed tissue. The clinical signs were observed and goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by RT-PCR. Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. PPRV genome was highly detected in swabs and tissues with clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. On live animals, early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal and rectal swabs. The experimental PPRV-infection model using the cell virus suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • RNA disruption indicates CHOP therapy efficacy in canine lymphoma
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Amadeo M. Parissenti; Laura B. Pritzker; Baoqing Guo; Rashmi Narendrula; Shirly Xiaohui Wang; Lin Laura Lin; Jingchun Pei; Karolina Skowronski; Dorothee Bienzle; J. Paul Woods; Kenneth P. H. Pritzker; Brenda L. Coomber

    Assessment of the efficacy of a multi-agent chemotherapy protocol in which cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) are administered in canine lymphoma is generally performed by physical measurement of lymph node diameter. However, no consistent correlation has been made with prognostic indicators and the length or absence of clinical remission based on lymph node size. RNA disruption measured mid-therapy has been correlated with increased disease-free survival in recent studies of human cancer and was assessed in this study of canine lymphoma patients. Fine needle aspirate samples were taken before treatment and at weeks 3, 6, and 11 of CHOP therapy. RNA was isolated from these samples and assessed using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. RNA disruption assay (RDA) analysis was performed on the data from the resulting electropherograms. An increased RNA disruption index (RDI) score was significantly associated with improved progression-free survival. Predicting the risk of early relapse during chemotherapy could benefit veterinary patients by reducing ineffective treatment and could allow veterinary oncologists to switch earlier to a more effective drug regimen.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Evaluation of new generation macrolides for the treatment and metaphylaxis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in cattle experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Geoffrey Muuka; Beatrice Otina; Hezron Wesonga; Benson Bowa; Nimmo Gicheru; Kristin Stuke; E. Jane Poole; Jeremy Salt; Angie Colston

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (Mmm) is an important disease of cattle that causes serious economic losses. With the known effectiveness of new generation macrolides, tulathromycin and gamithromycin were assessed in comparison with oxytetracycline as a positive control and saline as a negative control for effectiveness in inhibiting lung lesion development, promoting resolution, preventing spread and bacteriological clearance in susceptible local cattle breeds in two separate studies in Kenya and Zambia. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, sero-conversion as well as detailed post-mortem examination for CBPP lesions. Using the Hudson and Turner score for lesion type and size, tulathromycin protected 90%, gamithromycin 80%, and oxytetracycline 88% of treated animals in Kenya. In Zambia, all animals (100%) treated with macrolides were free of lung lesions, while oxytetracycline protected 77.5%. Using the mean adapted Hudson and Turner score, which includes clinical signs, post-mortem findings and serology, tulathromycin protected 82%, gamithromycin 56% and oxytetracycline 80% of the animals in Kenya whereas in Zambia, tulathromycin protected 98%, gamithromycin 94% and oxytetracycline 80%. The saline-treated groups had 93 and 92% lesions in Kenya and Zambia respectively, with Mmm recovered from 5/14 in Kenya and 10/13 animals in Zambia. Whereas the groups treated with macrolides were free from lesions in Zambia, in Kenya 5/15 tulathromycin-treated animals and 6/15 gamithromycin-treated animals showed lesions. Oxytetracycline-treated animals showed similarities with 3/14 and 4/15 showing lesions in Zambia and Kenya respectively and Mmm recovery from one animal in Kenya and six in Zambia. In both studies, lesion scores of saline-treated groups were significantly higher than those of the antibiotic treated groups (p < 0.001). In sentinel animals, CBPP lesions were detected and Mmm recovered from one and two animals mixed with the saline-treated groups in Kenya and Zambia respectively. This study demonstrated that tulathromycin, a mycoplasmacidal, can achieve metaphylactic protection of up to 80%, while non-recovery of Mmm from sentinels suggests macrolides effectiveness in preventing spread of Mmm. It is recommended that further studies are conducted to evaluate strategies comparing vaccination alone or combining vaccination and antibiotics to control or eradicate CBPP.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Antibiotic resistance in porcine pathogenic bacteria and relation to antibiotic usage
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    I. Holmer; C. M. Salomonsen; S. E. Jorsal; L. B. Astrup; V. F. Jensen; B. Borck Høg; K. Pedersen

    Optimal treatment and prudent use of antimicrobials for pigs is imperative to secure animal health and prevent development of critical resistance. An important step in this one-health context is to monitor resistance patterns of important animal pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of five major pathogens in Danish pigs during a period from 2004 to 2017 and elucidate any developments or associations between resistance and usage of antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Escherichia coli, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Streptococcus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Staphylococcus hyicus was determined to representatives of antibiotic classes relevant for treatment or surveillance. Escherichia coli isolates were mostly sensitive to fluoroquinolones and colistin, whereas high levels of resistance were observed to ampicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline. While resistance levels to most compounds remained relatively stable during the period, resistance to florfenicol increased from 2.1% in 2004 to 18.1% in 2017, likely in response to a concurrent increase in usage. A temporal association between resistance and usage was also observed for neomycin. E. coli serovars O138 and O149 were generally more resistant than O139. For A. pleuropneumoniae, the resistance pattern was homogenous and predictable throughout the study period, displaying high MIC values only to erythromycin whereas almost all isolates were susceptible to all other compounds. Most S. suis isolates were sensitive to penicillin whereas high resistance levels to erythromycin and tetracycline were recorded, and resistance to erythromycin and trimethoprim increasing over time. For S. hyicus, sensitivity to the majority of the antimicrobials tested was observed. However, penicillin resistance was recorded in 69.4–88.9% of the isolates. All B. bronchiseptica isolates were resistant to ampicillin, whereas all but two isolates were sensitive to florfenicol. The data obtained have served as background for a recent formulation of evidence-based treatment guidelines for pigs. Antibiotic resistance varied for some pathogens over time and in response to usage. Resistance to critically important compounds was low. The results emphasize the need for continuous surveillance of resistance patterns also in pig pathogenic bacteria.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The effect of an organic rumen-protected fat supplement on performance, metabolic status, and health of dairy cows
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Diego Manriquez; Liang Chen; Pedro Melendez; Pablo Pinedo

    Negative energy balance during the transition period is a concern for both conventional and certified organic dairy systems. During early lactation, supplemental strategies are used to cope with nutrient deficiencies that are associated with impaired health, production, and reproduction. As organic certified dairies in the United States face restricted access to dietary supplements, the evaluation of products especially formulated for organic production is needed. Our objective was to assess the effect of supplementing 0.45 kg/d of an organic rumen-protected fat (RPF) on health, metabolic status, and productive and reproductive performance of organic certified Holstein cows from 1 to 150 days in milk (DIM). Two-hundred and two cows were enrolled in a randomized blocked controlled trial conducted from January to July 2017 in a certified organic dairy located in Northern Colorado (USA). Two groups were randomly assigned to be individually supplemented with organic RPF (ORG; n = 100) or control pellets (CON; n = 102) once per day, in addition to the total mixed ration (TMR). Outcomes of interest included milk yield (kg/d) and milk components, serum concentration of glucose, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), resumption of cyclicity, time-to-first artificial insemination (AI), conception at first AI, and conception within 150 DIM, disease occurrence, culling, mortality. A significant effect for the inclusion of RPF was found in daily milk yield; RPF supplemented cows had greater milk yield (1.6 kg/d) compared to CON cows up to 150 DIM (P = 0.03). During grazing, multiparous (MP) ORG cows had greater milk yield compared to MP CON cows, whereas no effect was found in primiparous (PP) cows. Health outcomes, serum metabolite concentrations, and reproductive performance were not affected by the inclusion of RPF. Body condition loss was smaller in the ORG group up to 80 DIM; however, there was no effect on body condition during the grazing season and in the overall study period. These results indicate that supplementation of RPF increased daily milk yield and prevented body condition loss during at 90 DIM. However, RPF supplementation did not affect health, serum metabolite concentration, milk components, and reproductive outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Pathogenic Leishmania spp. detected in lizards from Northwest China using molecular methods
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Jun-Rong Zhang; Xian-Guang Guo; Han Chen; Jin-Long Liu; Xiong Gong; Da-Li Chen; Jian-Ping Chen

    Leishmaniosis, a disease caused by pathogenic Leishmania parasites, remains an unresolved health problem in the New World and the Old World. It is well known that lizards can be infected by a subgenus of Leishmania parasites, i.e. Sauroleishmania, which is non-pathogenic to humans. However, evidence suggests that lizards may also harbor pathogenic Leishmania species including the undetermined Leishmania sp., discovered in our previous work. Leishmania DNA in lizard blood can be detected by using molecular methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three hundred and sixteen lizards, representing 13 species of four genera, were captured for blood samples collection in Northwest China. Two reliable molecular markers (cytochrome b and heat shock protein 70 genes) were used for detection in the lizard blood samples, to confirm a widespread presence of pathogenic Leishmania parasites and the distribution pattern of Leishmania spp. in lizards from Northwest China. The PCR data indicated positive detection rate for Leishmania in all the tested lizards with an overall prevalence of 57.91% (183/316). Apart from lizard parasites like Leishmania tarentolae and Leishmania sp., several pathogenic Leishmania including L. turanica, L. tropica and L. donovani complex were identified by using phylogenetic analysis. Co-existence of different haplotypes was observed in most Leishmania DNA-positive lizards with an overall rate of 77.6% (142/183). Even mixed infections with different Leishmania species appeared to occur in the lizards with an overall rate of 37.7% (69/183). Lizards can harbor pathogenic Leishmania spp. Co-existence of different haplotypes or even species of Leishmania indicates mixed infections in natural lizard host. Lizards may contribute to the spread of Leishmania parasites. The pathogenic Leishmania species detected in lizards from Northwest China may be of great eco-epidemiological importance.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A novel Bursin-like peptide as a potential virus inhibitor and immunity regulator in SPF chickens infected with recombinant ALV
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Yukun Zeng; Zuxin Gong; Binbin Wu; Wenchao Guan; Shenyi Yu; Yajuan An; Rongbin Lu; Jinrong Zhao; Yijian Wu; Yifan Huang; Xiaoping Wu

    Avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are important contagious suppressive factors of chicken immunity and growth performance, resulted in enormous economic loss. Although virus eradication programs are applied in breeder flocks, ALVs are still widespread globally. Therefore, other valuable adjunct to reduce the negative effect of ALVs should be considered. Bursin-like peptide (BLP) showed remarkable immunomodulatory effects, whereas their influence on ALV-infected avian groups has not been reported. Here, a designed hybrid BLP was expressed in E. coli. The purified BLP was injected subcutaneously weekly in SPF chickens congenitally infected with a natural ALV strain. Then the influences of this BLP on the growth performance, immune response and virus titer of ALV-infected chickens were determined. This BLP injection significantly improved the body weights of ALV-infected birds (P < 0.05). BLP injection significantly enhanced organ index in the BF in ALV-infected birds (P < 0.05). The weekly injection of BLP significantly lengthened the maintenance time of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) attenuated vaccine of ALV-infected birds (P < 0.05) and boosted the antibody titer against avian influenza virus (AIV) H5 inactive vaccine of mock chicken (P < 0.05). BLP injection in mock chickens enhanced the levels of serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-γ) (P < 0.05). Surprisingly, the novel BLP significantly inhibited expression of the ALV gp85 gene in the thymus (P < 0.05), kidney (P < 0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (BF) (P < 0.01) of ALV-infected chickens. Both viral RNA copy number and protein level decreased significantly with BLP (50 μg/mL) inoculation before ALV infection in DF1 cells (P < 0.05). This is the first report investigating the influence of BLP on the growth and immunity performance of chickens infected by ALV. It also is the first report about the antiviral effect of BLP in vivo and in vitro. This BLP expressed in E. coli showed potential as a vaccine adjuvant, growth regulator and antiretroviral drug in chickens to decrease the negative effects of ALV infection.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Enolase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV protein sub-unit vaccines are not protective against a lethal Streptococcus suis serotype 2 challenge in a mouse model of infection
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Audrey Dumesnil; Léa Martelet; Daniel Grenier; Jean-Philippe Auger; Josée Harel; Eric Nadeau; Marcelo Gottschalk

    Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen causing arthritis, meningitis and sudden death in post-weaning piglets and is also a zoonotic agent. S. suis comprises 35 different serotypes of which the serotype 2 is the most prevalent in both pigs and humans. In the absence of commercial vaccines, bacterins (mostly autogenous), are used in the field, with controversial results. In the past years, the focus has turned towards the development of sub-unit vaccine candidates. However, published results are sometimes contradictory regarding the protective effect of a same candidate. Moreover, the adjuvant used may significantly influence the protective capacity of a given antigen. This study focused on two protective candidates, the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and the enolase (SsEno). Both proteins are involved in S. suis pathogenesis, and while contradictory protection results have been obtained with SsEno in the past, no data on the protective capacity of DPPIV was available. Results showed that among all the field strains tested, 86 and 88% were positive for the expression of the SsEno and DPPIV proteins, respectively, suggesting that they are widely expressed by strains of different serotypes. However, no protection was obtained after two vaccine doses in a CD-1 mouse model of infection, regardless of the use of four different adjuvants. Even though no protection was obtained, significant amounts of antibodies were produced against both antigens, and this regardless of the adjuvant used. Taken together, these results demonstrate that S. suis DPPIV and SsEno are probably not good vaccine candidates, at least not in the conditions evaluated in this study. Further studies in the natural host (pig) should still be carried out. Moreover, this work highlights the importance of confirming results obtained by different research groups.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Detection of live M. bovis BCG in tissues and IFN-γ responses in European badgers (Meles meles) vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation or directly in the ileum
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Sandrine Lesellier; Maria-Laura Boschiroli; Jacques Barrat; Christoph Wanke; Francisco J. Salguero; Waldo L. Garcia-Jimenez; Alex Nunez; Ana Godinho; John Spiropoulos; Simonette Palmer; Dipesh Dave; Paul Anderson; Jean-Marc Boucher; Krystel de Cruz; Sylvie Henault; Lorraine Michelet; Sonya Gowtage; Gareth A. Williams; Allan K. Nadian; Elodie Monchâtre-Leroy; Frank Boué; Mark A. Chambers; Céline Richomme

    Oral vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) has provided protection against M. bovis to badgers both experimentally and in the field. There is also evidence suggesting that the persistence of live BCG within the host is important for maintaining protection against TB. Here we investigated the capacity of badger inductive mucosal sites to absorb and maintain live BCG. The targeted mucosae were the oropharyngeal cavity (tonsils and sublingual area) and the small intestine (ileum). We showed that significant quantities of live BCG persisted within badger in tissues of vaccinated badgers for at least 8 weeks following oral vaccination with only very mild pathological features and induced the circulation of IFNγ-producing mononuclear cells. The uptake of live BCG by tonsils and drainage to retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes was repeatable in the animal group vaccinated by oropharyngeal instillation whereas those vaccinated directly in the ileum displayed a lower frequency of BCG detection in the enteric wall or draining mesenteric lymph nodes. No faecal excretion of live BCG was observed, including when BCG was delivered directly in the ileum. The apparent local loss of BCG viability suggests an unfavorable gastro-enteric environment for BCG in badgers, which should be taken in consideration when developing an oral vaccine for use in this species.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Reverse zoonotic tuberculosis transmission from an emerging Uganda I strain between pastoralists and cattle in South-Eastern Nigeria
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan; Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye; Elizabeth Maria Streicher; Paul Van Helden; Rob Mark Warren; Simeon Idowu Cadmus

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health challenge globally with increasing risks for inter-transmission between pastoralists and cattle in Nigeria. This study was aimed at using molecular tools to establish zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis between pastoralists and their cattle in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum (n = 149) and milk (n = 144) samples from pastoralists and cattle, respectively were screened on the assumption of subclinical infections considering unguarded human-livestock interactions. Isolates obtained were analysed using deletion typing, spoligotyping and 24-Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR). Fifty-four MTC were confirmed by deletion typing and were differentiated accordingly (M. tuberculosis: pastoralists =42, cattle = 2; M. bovis: pastoralists =1; M. africanum: pastoralists =9). Spoligotyping indicated 59.2% Uganda I/SIT46 (pastoralists =28; cattle = 1), 16.3% Latin American Mediterranean/SIT61 (pastoralists =8), 2.0% T/SIT53 (pastoralists =1) strains of M. tuberculosis and new strains of M. bovis and M. africanum. The 24-MIRU-VNTR of selected predominant cluster isolates shared by cattle and pastoralists (Uganda I/SIT46: pastoralists =9; cattle = 1) showed the same number of copies at each of the repetitive loci. Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed in humans and a reverse zoonotic tuberculosis transmission from an emerging Uganda I M. tuberculosis strain between pastoralists and cattle in Nigeria evidenced by MIRU-VNTR. Using molecular tools will help mitigate disease burden through informed epidemiological insights.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from dead rabbits with respiratory disease in Fujian, China
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Jinxiang Wang; Lei Sang; Shikun Sun; Yanfeng Chen; Dongjin Chen; Xiping Xie

    Pasteurella multocida is one of the important pathogens that infect rabbits, causing major economic losses in commercial rabbit farming. In this study, 205 P. multocida isolates recovered from lungs of dead rabbits with respiratory disease were defined by capsular serogroups, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotypes, multi-locus sequence types and screened virulence factors by using PCR assays, and tested antimicrobial susceptibility. The 205 isolates were assigned into 2 capsular types, A and D, and 2 LPS genotypes, L3 and L6. When combining capsular types with LPS genotypes, 4 serotypes were detected. A:L3 (51.22%, 105/205) was the most predominant serotype, followed by A:L6 (24.88%, 51/205), D:L6 (19.02%, 39/205) and D:L3 (4.88%, 10/205). The 205 isolates were grouped into 3 sequence types, ST10, ST11 and ST12. ST12 (56.10%, 115/205) was the most prevalent sequence type, followed by ST10 (24.88%, 51/205) and ST11 (19.02%, 39/205). In the 205 isolates, virulence associated genes ptfA, fur, hgbB, ompA, ompH and oma87 were positive in the PCR screening, whereas the toxA and tbpA genes were negative. Notably, the 156 capsular serogroup A isolates carried the pmHAS gene. All the 205 isolates were susceptible to most of the used antibiotics, except for streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin and ceftriaxone, and the resistance rates of which were 27.80, 15.61, 9.27 and 2.44%, respectively. This study, for the first time, described the prevalence and characteristics of P. multocida causing respiratory disease in rabbits in Fujian Province, which might be useful for tracking the epidemic strains and development of efficient vaccines and methods to prevent and control the pathogen.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Urinary proteome of dogs with kidney injury during babesiosis
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    D. Winiarczyk; K. Michalak; L. Adaszek; M. Winiarczyk; S. Winiarczyk

    Acute kidney injury is the most frequent complication of babesiosis in dogs and may provide a natural model for identifying early and specific markers of kidney injury in this species. There are limited data on urine proteomics in dogs, and none of the effect of babesiosis on the urine proteome. This study aimed to identify urinary proteins of dogs with kidney injury during the natural course of babesiosis caused by Babesia canis, and to compare them with proteins in a control group to reveal any potential biomarkers predicting renal injury before the presence of azotemia. Urine samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds and sex with naturally occurring babesiosis, and 10 healthy dogs. Pooled urine samples from both groups were separated by 2D (two-dimensional) electrophoresis, followed by protein identification using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight) mass spectrometry. In total, 176 proteins were identified in the urine samples from healthy dogs, and 403 proteins were identified in the urine samples from dogs with babesiosis. Of the 176 proteins, 146 were assigned exclusively to healthy dogs, and 373 of the 403 proteins were assigned exclusively to dogs with babesiosis; 30 proteins were common for both groups. Characteristic analysis of 373 proteins found in dogs with babesiosis led to the isolation of 8 proteins associated with 10 metabolic pathways involved in immune and inflammatory responses. It was hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play an important role in the mechanisms underlying pathological changes in renal tissue during babesiosis, as indicated by a causal relationship network built by combining 5 of the 10 selected metabolic pathways, and 4 of the 8 proteins associated with these pathways; this network included cadherins, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptors, inflammatory responses mediated by chemokine and cytokine signalling pathways, integrins, interleukins, and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) pathways. Those pathways were linked by interleukin-13, bone morphogenetic protein 7, α2(1) collagen, and tyrosine protein kinase Fer, which are potential biomarkers of damage during babesiosis in dogs, that might indicate early renal injury.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Changes in specific serum biomarkers during the induction of prostatic hyperplasia in dogs
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Kamran Golchin-Rad; Asghar Mogheiseh; Saeed Nazifi; Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi; Nooshin Derakhshandeh; Mohammad Abbaszadeh-Hasiri

    Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is one of the most important disorders in intact dogs. In this study, we aimed to induce PH experimentally using the combination of testosterone and estrogen and evaluate important factors associated with this disease. The results showed that in the induction group, prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration increased significantly on day 21 onwards compared to those of the control group. Canine prostatic specific esterase (CPSE) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations increased significantly on day 42 onwards while the testosterone levels increased on day 63. In addition, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration did not change significantly in the control and induction groups. Biochemistry profiles and hematologic factors were measured for monitoring the function of liver and kidney, and there were no adverse effects following the induction of PH. It seems that testosterone and estrogen administration led to prostatic hyperplasia during 2 months. Investigating the size of the prostate, accompanied by prostate markers including CPSE, PSA, DHT, and testosterone, is helpful for the PH diagnosis. However, further studies should be carried out on PAP.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • High levels of unreported intraspecific diversity among RNA viruses in faeces of neonatal piglets with diarrhoea
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Martí Cortey; Ivan Díaz; Anna Vidal; Gerard Martín-Valls; Giovanni Franzo; Pedro José Gómez de Nova; Laila Darwich; Héctor Puente; Ana Carvajal; Marga Martín; Enric Mateu

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of death in neonate pigs and most of the viruses that cause it are RNA viruses. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) deeply characterize the genetic diversity among rapidly mutating virus populations at the interspecific as well as the intraspecific level. The diversity of RNA viruses present in faeces of neonatal piglets suffering from diarrhoea in 47 farms, plus 4 samples from non-diarrhoeic piglets has been evaluated by NGS. Samples were selected among the cases submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories of Infectious Diseases of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain) and Universidad de León (León, Spain). The analyses identified the presence of 12 virus species corresponding to 8 genera of RNA viruses. Most samples were co-infected by several viruses. Kobuvirus and Rotavirus were more commonly reported, with Sapovirus, Astrovirus 3, 4 and 5, Enterovirus G, Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, Pasivirus and Posavirus being less frequently detected. Most sequences showed a low identity with the sequences deposited in GenBank, allowing us to propose several new VP4 and VP7 genotypes for Rotavirus B and Rotavirus C. Among the cases analysed, Rotaviruses were the main aetiological agents of diarrhoea in neonate pigs. Besides, in a small number of cases Kobuvirus and Sapovirus may also have an aetiological role. Even most animals were co-infected in early life, the association with enteric disease among the other examined viruses was unclear. The NGS method applied successfully characterized the RNA virome present in faeces and detected a high level of unreported intraspecific diversity.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Case-control study on factors associated with a decreased milk yield and a depressed health status of dairy herds in northern Germany
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Katharina Charlotte Jensen; Cornelia Frömke; Bettina Schneider; Phuong Do Duc; Frieder Gundling; Katrin Birnstiel; Franziska Schönherr; Theresa Scheu; Anika Kaiser-Wichern; Svenja Woudstra; Christian Seyboldt; Martina Hoedemaker; Amely Campe

    In the past years, it became apparent that health status and performance differ considerably within dairy farms in Northern Germany. In order to obtain clues with respect to possible causes of these differences, a case-control study was performed. Case farms, which showed signs of health and performance problems, and control farms, which had none of these signs, were compared. Risk factors from different areas such as health management, housing, hygiene and nutrition were investigated as these are known to be highly influential. The aim of this study was to identify major factors within these areas that have the strongest association with health and performance problems of dairy herds in Northern Germany. In the final model, a lower energy density in the roughage fraction of the diet, more pens with dirty lying areas and a low ratio of cows per watering spaces were associated with a higher risk for herd health problems. Moreover, case farms were affected by infections with intestinal parasites, lungworms, liver flukes and Johne’s Disease numerically more often than control farms. Case farms more often had pens with raised cubicles compared to the deep bedded stalls or straw yards found in control farms. In general, the hygiene of the floors and beddings was worse in case farms. Concerning nutrition, the microbiological and sensory quality of the provided silages was often insufficient, even in control farms. Less roughage was provided to early lactating cows and the feed was pushed to the feeding fence less frequently in case farms than in control farms. The results show that milk yield and health status were associated with various factors from different areas stressing the importance of all aspects of management for good animal health and performance. Moreover, this study confirmed well-known risk factors for health problems and performance losses. These should better be taken heed of in herd health management.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), as diagnosed by non-contact infrared Meibography, in dogs with ocular surface disorders (OSD): a retrospective study
    BMC Vet. Res. (IF 1.792) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Marta Viñas; Federica Maggio; Nunzio D’Anna; Roberto Rabozzi; Claudio Peruccio

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the possible conditions underlying ocular surface disorders (OSD). Prevalence of MGD in dogs affected by OSD has not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MGD among OSD canine patients, which had been assessed by non-contact infrared meibography and interferometry, and to identify MGD associated factors that might guide its diagnosis. Medical records of canine patients examined for OSD between 2016 and 2019 were reviewed. The frequency of MGD was evaluated within different categories (skull conformation, gender, eye and STT-1). The putative MGD risk factors and frequency of MGD within grades of interferometry were evaluated in a regression analysis model and reported as odd ratios (ORs). One hundred fifty eyes from 81 dogs with OSD were included with median age 75 months (range 3–192) and female representation with 52%. MGD was present in 70% of the examined eyes. MGD risk was higher in males ORadj = 3.015 (95% CI: 1.395–6.514) (P = 0.005) and older patients ORadj = 1.207 (95% CI: 1.081–1.348) (P = 0.001). No significant differences were found between left and right eyes (P = 0.66) or between the two types of skull conformation (P = 0.477) and MGD presence. MGD was associated to the lowest lipid layer (LL) thickness, as assessed by interferometry (grade 0) OR = 16.00 (95% CI: 2.104–121.68) (P < 0.001). STT values were not significantly associated with the presence of MGD (P > 0.05). MGD is a common underlying pathology in OSD. Being male and higher age are risk factors for MGD. An interferometry grade 0 may guide OSD diagnosis towards MGD.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
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