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  • 1-1-8 one-step sevoflurane wash-in scheme for low-flow anesthesia: simple, rapid, and predictable induction
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Sirirat Tribuddharat; Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee; Naruemon Vattanasiriporn; Maneerat Thananun; Duangthida Nonlhaopol; Wilawan Somdee

    Sevoflurane is suitable for low-flow anesthesia (LFA). LFA needs a wash-in phase. The reported sevoflurane wash-in schemes lack simplicity, target coverage, and applicability. We proposed a one-step 1-1-8 wash-in scheme for sevoflurane LFA to be used with both N2O and Air. The objective of our study was to identify time for achieving each level of alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (FAS) from 1 to 3.5% in both contexts. We recruited 199 adults requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation and controlled ventilation—102 in group N2O and 97 in group Air. After induction and intubation, a wash-in was started using a fresh gas flow of O2:N2O or O2:Air at 1:1 L·min− 1 plus sevoflurane 8%. The ventilation was controlled to maintain end-tidal CO2 of 30–35 mmHg. The rising patterns of FAS and inspired concentration of sevoflurane (FIS) are similar, running parallel between the groups. The FAS/FIS ratio increased from 0.46 to 0.72 within 260 s in group N2O and from 0.42 to 0.69 within 286 s in group Air. The respective time to achieve an FAS of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5% was 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, and 4.5 min in group N2O and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min in group Air. The heart rate and blood pressure of both groups significantly increased initially then gradually decreased as FAS increased. The 1-1-8 wash-in scheme for sevoflurane LFA has many advantages, including simplicity, coverage, swiftness, safety, economy, and that it can be used with both N2O and Air. A respective FAS of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5% when used with N2O and Air can be expected at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, and 4.5 min and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min. This study was retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03510013) on June 8, 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • The combination of transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block reduced postoperative pain after splenectomy: a randomized trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jing-li Zhu; Xue-ting Wang; Jing Gong; Hai-bin Sun; Xiao-qing Zhao; Wei Gao

    Splenectomy performed with a curved incision results in severe postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block on postoperative pain relief and recovery. A total of 150 patients were randomized into the control (C), levobupivacaine (L) and levobupivacaine/morphine (LM) groups. The patients in the C group received only patient-controlled analgesia. The patients in the L and LM groups received transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block with levobupivacaine or levobupivacaine plus morphine. The intraoperative opioid consumption; postoperative pain score; time to first analgesic use; postoperative recovery data, including the times of first exhaust, defecation, oral intake and off-bed activity; the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and antiemetics use; and the satisfaction score were recorded. Transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block reduced intraoperative opioid consumption. The patients in the LM group showed lower postoperative pain scores, opioid consumption, postoperative nausea and vomiting incidence and antiemetic use and presented shorter recovery times and higher satisfaction scores. The combination of transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block with levobupivacaine and morphine can improve postoperative pain relief, reduce the consumption of analgesics, and partly accelerate postoperative recovery. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR 1,800,015,141, 10 March 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Volume of tidal gas movement in the nonventilated lung during one-lung ventilation and its relevant factors
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jionglin Wei; Lei Gao; Fafa Sun; Mengting Zhang; Weidong Gu

    The passive ventilation of nonventilated lung results in tidal gas movement (TGM) and thus affects lung collapse. The present study aimed to measure the volume of TGM and to analyse the relevant factors of the TGM index (TGM/body surface area). One hundred eight patients scheduled for elective thoracoscopic surgeries were enrolled. Lung isolation was achieved with a double-lumen endobronchial tube (DLT). The paediatric spirometry sensor was connected to the double-lumen connector of the nonventilated lung to measure the volume of TGM during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in the lateral position. The TGM index was calculated. The multiple linear regression was analysed using the TGM index as the dependent variables. Independent variables were also recorded: 1) age, sex, body mass index (BMI); 2) forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, minute ventilation volume (MVV); 3) dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) and peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) during dual lung ventilation; 4) the side of OLV; and 5) whether lung puncture for localization of the pulmonary nodule was performed on the day of surgery. The oxygen concentration in the nonventilated lung was measured at 5 min after OLV, and its correlation with the TGM index was analysed. The volume of TGM in the nonventilated lung during OLV was 78 [37] mL. The TGM index was 45 [20] mL/m2 and was negatively correlated with the oxygen concentration in the nonventilated lung at 5 min after OLV. The multiple linear regression model for the TGM index was deduced as follows: TGM index (mL/m2) = C + 12.770 × a − 3.987 × b-1.237 × c-2.664 × d, where C is a constant 95.621 mL/m2, a is 1 for males and 0 for females, b is 1 for right OLV and 0 for left OLV, c is BMI (kg/m2), and d is PIP (cmH2O). The TGM index is negatively correlated with the oxygen concentration of the nonventilated lung at 5 min after OLV. Sex, side of OLV, BMI and PIP are independently correlated with the TGM index. This study was registered at ChiCTR (www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR1900024220) on July 1, 2019.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Abnormal cisatracurium pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics among patients with severe aortic regurgitation during anesthetic induction
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Xiaocong Huang; Lei Chen; Yujing Cai; Jinfeng Wei; Lina Lin; Jie Sun; Xuemei Peng; Sheng Wang

    This study was designed to examine whether severe aortic regurgitation will affect the pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of cisatracurium during anesthetic induction. A total of 32 patients were divided into two groups: the AR group (n = 16) and the control group (n = 16). Arterial blood samples were drawn before and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 20 min after intravenous injection of 0.15 mg/kg cisatracurium. TOF tests were applied to determine the onset time of maximal muscle relaxation. The concentration of cisatracurium in plasma was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The onset time to maximal neuromuscular block was prolonged from 2.07 ± 0.08 min to 4.03 ± 0.14 min, which indicated that the PD responses to cisatracurium were significantly delayed in the AR group (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. A conventional two-compartment PK model showed a higher plasma concentration of cisatracurium among the AR group with markedly reduced intercompartment transfer rate (K12 = 0.19 ± 0.02 and K21 = 0.11 ± 0.01 in the AR group vs. K12=0.26 ± 0.01 and K21 = 0.19 ± 0.01 in the control group, P < 0.01) compared to the control group. Backward blood flow during diastole in severe AR impaired distribution of cisatracurium from the central compartment to the peripheral compartment, which accounted for the lagged PD responses. Findings in this study underlie the importance of muscular blockade monitoring among patients with severe aortic regurgitation during anesthetic induction. Name of the registry: Abnormal Cisatracurium Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics among Patients with Severe Aortic Regurgitation during Anesthetic Induction. Trial registration number: ChiCTR1800019654. Date of registration: November 20th 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Increased minimum alveolar concentration-awake of Sevoflurane in women of breast surgery with sleep disorders
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuanyuan Cao; Lei Zhang; Xiaohui Peng; Yun Wu; Qunlin Zhang; Erwei Gu; Ye Zhang

    Sleep disorders are commonly encountered in clinic. Evidences showed that sleep deprivation may modulate the effectiveness of general anesthetics in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been explored in humans. The study aimed to investigate whether the hypnotic potency of sevoflurane in patients with sleep disorders differ from patients with normal sleep habits. We recruited 44 patients scheduled for elective breast surgery and eventually analyzed 38 patients, including 19 subjects with normal sleep habits and 19 subjects with sleep disorders. According to the Dixon ‘up-and-down’ design, patients received sevoflurane at preselected concentrations starting at 1.0 vol%. After a steady-state period, a verbal command for testing awakening was performed. Based on the negative or positive response to the verbal command, we decreased or increased the concentration of sevoflurane by 0.2 vol% in the next patient accordingly. Plasma orexin-A was also measured before observation. The MACawake of sevoflurane was 0.80% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.683–0.926%] in the sleep disordered group vs 0.60% [95% CI, 0.493–0.689%] in the control group. The relative median potency between groups was 0.750 (95% CI, 0.236–0.969). Patients with sleep disorders had significantly higher orexin-A levels than control (72.17 ± 18.24 vs. 36.16 ± 14.18 pg/mL). A significant, positive relationship was detected between orexin-A level and probability of awakening (OR = 1.081, 95% CI is 1.020–1.146, P = 0.008). MACawake of sevoflurane is higher in mild-aged women of breast surgery with sleep disorders compared to those with normal sleep habits. The increased anesthetic requirement may be related to changes of orexin-A levels. These findings suggest that sleep may have a potential impact on clinical anesthesia, including changes of sensitivity to anesthetics or postoperative complications. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1800016022), date of registration 07 May 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Anesthetic management of a patient with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: a case report
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Shihoko Iwata; Sumire Yokokawa; Mihoshi Sato; Makoto Ozaki

    As patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) have long expected survival, the incidence of noncardiac surgery in this patient population is increasing. Here, we present the anesthetic management of a patient with a continuous-flow LVAD who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). A 37-year-old man with LVAD was scheduled to undergo VATS because of repeated spontaneous pneumothorax. Generally, patients with these devices have marginal right heart function; therefore, it is important to avoid factors that worsen pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, VATS requires one-lung ventilation (OLV) and it tends to cause increase in PVR, leading to right heart failure. In the present case, when the patient was set in a lateral decubitus position and progressive hypoxia was observed during OLV, transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a dilated right ventricle and a temporally flattened interventricular septum, and the central venous pressure increased to approximately 20 mmHg. Because we anticipated deterioration of right heart function, dobutamine and milrinone were administered and/or respirator settings were changed to decrease PVR for maintaining LVAD performance. Finally, resection of a bulla was completed, and the patient was discharged in stable condition on postoperative day 37. The anesthetic management of a patient with LVAD during VATS is challenging because the possible hemodynamic changes induced by hypoxia associated with OLV affect LVAD performance and right heart function. In our experience, VATS that requires OLV will be well tolerated in a patient with LVAD with preserved right heart function, and a multidisciplinary approach to maintain right heart function will be needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Prevalence of malignant hyperthermia diagnosis in obstetric patients in the United States, 2003 to 2014
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jean Guglielminotti; Henry Rosenberg; Guohua Li

    The cost-benefit of stocking dantrolene in maternity units for treating malignant hyperthermia (MH) has been recently questioned because of the low incidence of MH crisis in the general population and the low utilization of general anesthesia in obstetrics. However, no study has examined the prevalence of MH susceptibility in obstetrics. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of MH diagnosis and associated factors in obstetric patients. Data for this study came from the National Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2014, a 20% nationally representative sample of discharge records from community hospitals. A diagnosis of MH due to anesthesia was identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 995.86. MH prevalence was estimated according to the delivery mode and patient and hospital characteristics. During the 12-year study period, 47,178,322 delivery-related discharges [including 15,175,127 (32.2%) cesarean deliveries] were identified. Of them, 215 recorded a diagnosis of MH, yielding a prevalence of 0.46 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40 to 0.52]. The prevalence of MH diagnosis in cesarean deliveries was 0.81 per 100,000 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.97), compared with 0.29 per 100,000 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.35) in vaginal deliveries (P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that cesarean delivery was associated with a significantly increased risk of MH diagnosis [adjusted rate ratio (aOR) 2.88; 95% CI, 2.19 to 3.80]. Prevalence of MH diagnosis was lower in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic whites (aOR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.76) and higher in the South than in the Northeast census regions (aOR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.50 to 3.96). The prevalence of MH-susceptibility is about 1 in 125,000 in cesarean deliveries, similar to the prevalence reported in non-obstetrical surgery inpatients. The findings of this study suggest that stocking dantrolene in maternity units is justified.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Laryngeal mask airway reduces incidence of post-operative sore throat after thyroid surgery compared with endotracheal tube: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Yahong Gong; Xiaohan Xu; Jin Wang; Lu Che; Weijia Wang; Jie Yi

    Sore throat is a remarkable complication after thyroid surgery with endotracheal tube (ETT). Many studies revealed that laryngeal mask airway (LMA) might reduce the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat. However, little is known about the use of a flexible reinforced LMA (FLMA) in thyroid surgery. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential benefits of FLMA compared with ETT on postoperative sore throat. In this prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial, ninety-six patients aged 20–80 years, scheduled for elective radical thyroidectomy under general anesthesia were enrolled. They were randomly divided into ETT group and FLMA group. All the included patients received total intravenous anesthesia (with propofol, fentanyl and rocuronium) and controlled mechanical ventilation during the surgery. Cuff pressure of ETT and FLMA were strictly controlled. Incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, numbness and hoarseness at 1, 24, and 48 h after surgery was evaluated and compared between the two groups. Incidence and severity of buckling during extubation and the hemodynamic profile during intubation were also recorded and compared. The incidence of sore throat and hoarseness was significantly lower in FLMA group than those in ETT group at 1 h, 24 h and 48 h postoperatively, as well as the severity of sore throat. Compared to ETT group, there was a significantly lower incidence of buckling during extubation and less fluctuation of HR and BP at 1 min and 3 min after intubation in FLMA group. Patients undergoing thyroid surgery with FLMA had less postoperative laryngopharyngeal symptoms when compared with ETT. The use of FLMA also achieved less buckling during extubation and better hemodynamic profiles during intubation. The research was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IOR-15006602) on May 23th, 2015.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Neutrophil extracellular trap formation and nuclease activity in septic patients
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Linda E. Cox; Kai Walstein; Lena Völlger; Friederike Reuner; Alexandra Bick; Annika Dötsch; Andrea Engler; Jürgen Peters; Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede; Simon T. Schäfer

    There is little knowledge, whether in patients with sepsis neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and NET degrading nuclease activity are altered. Thus, we tested the hypotheses that 1) NET formation from neutrophils of septic patients is increased compared to healthy volunteers, both without stimulation and following incubation with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; positive control) and 2) that serum nuclease activities are increased as well. Following ethic committee approval, we included 18 septic patients and 27 volunteers in this prospective observational trial. Blood was withdrawn and NET formation from neutrophils was analyzed in vitro without stimulation and following incubation with mtDNA (10 μg/well) or PMA (25 nmol). Furthermore, serum nuclease activity was assessed using gel electrophoresis. In contrast to our hypothesis, in septic patients, unstimulated NET release from neutrophils was decreased by 46.3% (4.3% ± 1.8 SD vs. 8.2% ± 2.9, p ≤ 0.0001) and 48.1% (4.9% ± 2.5 vs. 9.4% ± 5.2, p = 0.002) after 2 and 4 h compared to volunteers. mtDNA further decreased NET formation in neutrophils from septic patients (4.7% ± 1.2 to 2.8% ± 0,8; p = 0.03), but did not alter NET formation in neutrophils from volunteers. Of note, using PMA, as positive control, we ensured that neutrophils were still able to form NETs, with NET formation increasing to 73.2% (±29.6) in septic patients and 91.7% (±7.1) in volunteers (p = 0.22). Additionally, we show that serum nuclease activity (range: 0–6) was decreased in septic patients by 39.6% (3 ± 2 vs 5 ± 0, median and ICR, p = 0.0001) compared to volunteers. Unstimulated NET formation and nuclease activity are decreased in septic patients. mtDNA can further reduce NET formation in sepsis. Thus, neutrophils from septic patients show decreased NET formation in vitro despite diminished nuclease activity in vivo. DRKS00007694, german clinical trials database (DRKS). Retrospectively registered 06.02.2015.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Exogenous hydrogen sulfide alleviates surgery-induced neuroinflammatory cognitive impairment in adult mice by inhibiting NO signaling
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Lijun Yin; Shunli Gao; Changkun Li

    To investigate the effect and mechanisms of exogenous hydrogen sulfide in surgery-induced neuroinflammatory cognitive dysfunction. C57BL/6 J male mice (n = 140) were used and randomly divided into seven groups: the sham group, surgery group, GYY4137 group, L-NAME group, surgery+GYY4137 group, surgery +L-NAME group, and surgery+GYY4137 + L-NAME group. After the interventions, open field tests (OFT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) test were conducted to evaluate learning and memory abilities in the mice. ELISAs, nitrate reductase assays, and Western blots (WB) were conducted to evaluate interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Furthermore, the expression level of microglial marker ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA) in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas was detected by an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay and apoptotic cells were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP end-labeling (TUNEL) staining kits. We found that surgery induced neuroinflammatory cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and cell apoptosis in the hippocampus. Moreover, following surgery, NO and iNOS levels were elevated in the hippocampus. Notably, all the effects caused by surgery were reversed by the H2S donor GYY4137 or the iNOS inhibitor N(gamma)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). However, the combined application of GYY4137 and L-NAME was not superior to treatment with either agent alone and the effect of GYY4137 was similar to that of L-NAME. The long-acting hydrogen sulfide donor GYY4137 had an ability to reversed the cognitive deficits and inflammation caused by carotid artery exposure surgery. This implies that NO signaling pathways might participate in this process. These results indicate that exogenous H2S may be a promising therapy for POCD.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A prospective, randomized comparison of ultrasonographic visualization of proximal intercostal block vs paravertebral block
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kamen Vlassakov; Avery Vafai; David Ende; Megan E. Patton; Sonia Kapoor; Atif Chowdhury; Alvaro Macias; Jose Zeballos; David R. Janfaza; Sujatha Pentakota; Kristin L. Schreiber

    Thoracic paravertebral blockade is an accepted anesthetic and analgesic technique for breast surgery. However, real-time ultrasound visualization of landmarks in the paravertebral space remains challenging. We aimed to compare ultrasound-image quality, performance times, and clinical outcomes between the traditional parasagittal ultrasound-guided paravertebral block and a modified approach, the ultrasound-guided proximal intercostal block. Women with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy (n = 20) were randomized to receive either paravertebral (n = 26) or proximal intercostal blocks (n = 32) under ultrasound-guidance with 2.5 mg/kg ropivacaine prior to surgery. Block ultrasound images before and after needle placement, and anesthetic injection videoclips were saved, and these images and vidoes independently rated by separate novice and expert reviewers for quality of visualization of bony elements, pleura, relevant ligament/membrane, needle, and injectate spread. Block performance times, postoperative pain scores, and opioid consumption were also recorded. Composite visualization scores were superior for proximal intercostal compared to paravertebral nerve block, as rated by both expert (p = 0.008) and novice (p = 0.01) reviewers. Notably, both expert and novice rated pleural visualization superior for proximal intercostal nerve block, and expert additionally rated bony landmark and injectate spread visualization as superior for proximal intercostal block. Block performance times, needle depth, opioid consumption and postoperative pain scores were similar between groups. Proximal intercostal block yielded superior visualization of key anatomical landmarks, possibly offering technical advantages over traditional paravertebral nerve block. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02911168. Registred on the 22nd of September 2016.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • The effect of gestational diabetes mellitus on sufentanil consumption after cesarean section: a prospective cohort study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Chen Yang; Wei Lian Geng; Jianying Hu; Shaoqiang Huang

    Previous studies have shown that patients with long-term diabetes require more opioids after surgery than patients without diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) normally only lasts for a brief period; nevertheless, its effect on sufentanil consumption after cesarean section is unknown. This prospective cohort study included two groups: a GDM group (n = 32) and a matched non-GDM (NGDM) group (n = 32). All patients underwent routine combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Sufentanil consumption through an intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump, the frequency of PCA requests, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores 6 and 24 h after surgery were compared between groups. Sufentanil consumption (μg) 6 h after surgery was higher in the GDM group than in the NGDM group (24.0 ± 6.6 vs 20.1 ± 5.7, P = 0.023). PCA was used more frequently 6 and 24 h after surgery by the GDM group than by the NGDM group (1[0–2] vs 0[0–1], P = 0.001; 6 [1–5] vs 3 [1, 2, 6–8], P = 0.001, respectively). The VAS score during activity 24 h after surgery was higher in the GDM group than in the NGDM group (5 [2, 3] vs 5 [1, 2], respectively, P = 0.03). Pregnant women with GDM require more opioids during the immediate postoperative period after cesarean section than those without GDM. No. ChiCTR1800016014, ChenYang, May 6th 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Mepivacaine reduces calcium transients in isolated murine ventricular cardiomyocytes
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Matias Mosqueira; Güçlü Aykut; Rainer H. A. Fink

    The potential mechanism of mepivacaine’s myocardial depressant effect observed in papillary muscle has not yet been investigated at cellular level. Therefore, we evaluated mepivacaine’s effects on Ca2+ transient in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Single ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated from wild-type C57Bl/6 mice and loaded with 10 μM fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4-AM to record intracellular Ca2+ transients upon electrical stimulation. The mepivacaine effects at half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined on calibrated cardiomyocytes’ Ca2+ transients by non-parametric statistical analyses on biophysical parameters. Combination of mepivacaine with NCX blockers ORM-10103 or NiCl2 were used to test a possible mechanism to explain mepivacaine-induced Ca2+ transients’ reduction. A significant inhibition at mepivacaine’s IC50 (50 μM) on Ca2+ transients was measured in biophysical parameters such as peak (control: 528.6 ± 73.61 nM vs mepivacaine: 130.9 ± 15.63 nM; p < 0.05), peak area (control: 401.7 ± 63.09 nM*s vs mepivacaine: 72.14 ± 10.46 nM*s; p < 0.05), slope (control: 7699 ± 1110 nM/s vs mepivacaine: 1686 ± 226.6 nM/s; p < 0.05), time to peak (control: 107.9 ± 8.967 ms vs mepivacaine: 83.61 ± 7.650 ms; p < 0.05) and D50 (control: 457.1 ± 47.16 ms vs mepivacaine: 284.5 ± 22.71 ms; p < 0.05). Combination of mepivacaine with NCX blockers ORM-10103 or NiCl2 showed a significant increase in the baseline of [Ca2+] and arrhythmic activity upon electrical stimulation. At cellular level, mepivacaine blocks Na+ channels, enhancing the reverse mode activity of NCX, leading to a significant reduction of Ca2+ transients. These results suggest a new mechanism for the mepivacaine-reduction contractility effect.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Adding dexmedetomidine to morphine-based analgesia reduces early postoperative nausea in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery: a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Huai Jin Li; Shan Liu; Zhi Yu Geng; Xue Ying Li

    Few studies have investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients underwent gynecological laparoscopic surgery. We investigated if adding dexmedetomidine to a morphine-based patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) could decrease the incidence of PONV in this high-risk patient population. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study, 122 patients underwent gynecological laparoscopic surgery were assigned into two groups. Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (Group Dex) received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg before the end of surgery, followed by morphine 0.5 mg/ml plus dexmedetomidine 1 μg/ml for postoperative i.v. PCA. Patients in the control group (Group Ctrl) received normal saline before the end of surgery, followed by morphine 0.5 mg/ml alone for postoperative i.v. PCA. PCA pump was programmed as followed: bolus dose 2 ml, lockout interval 8 min and background infusion at a rate of 1 ml/h. The primary outcome was the incidence of nausea and vomiting within the first postoperative 24 h. Although there were no significant differences in regard to the total incidence of PONV (41.0% vs 52.5%, P = 0.204), PONV score, time to first onset of PONV, or the need for rescue antiemetics within the first postoperative 24 h between the two groups, the incidence of nausea and total PONV during the first 2 h period was significantly lower in the Group Dex than in the Group Ctrl (9.8% vs 24.6%, P = 0.031 and 0.031, respectively). More patients in Group Dex were over sedated or had bradycardia during the PACU compared with Group Ctrl (P = 0.040 and 0.036, respectively). Our protocol in which dexmedetomidine was administered postoperatively – after a loading dose – to intravenous PCA morphine in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery, had only early antiemetic effects, while no clinically meaningful antiemetic effect could be evidenced within the first 24 h after surgery. Current control trial registered at Chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR1800017172. Date registered: 07/16/2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway insertion requires a lower concentration of sevoflurane than ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway insertion during target-controlled remifentanil infusion: a prospective randomised controlled study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Cristina Monteserín-Matesanz; Tatiana González; María José Anadón-Baselga; Matilde Zaballos

    ProSeal (PLMA) and Supreme (SLMA) laryngeal mask airways are effective ventilator devices with distinctive designs that may require different anaesthetics for insertion. Sevoflurane induction provides acceptable conditions for laryngeal mask insertion, and remifentanil significantly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane required for that insertion. The study aimed to evaluate the optimal end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration for successful insertion of PLMA versus SLMA in patients receiving a remifentanil infusion without a neuromuscular blocking agent. Altogether, 45 patients ASA (American Society Anaesthesiologists) physical status I–II, aged 18–60 years were scheduled for elective ambulatory surgery. Exclusion criteria were a difficult airway, recent respiratory infection, reactive airway, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, gastric aspiration’s risk factors, pregnancy, and lactation. Patients were randomly allocated to receive the SLMA or the PLMA. Sevoflurane induction with co-administration of remifentanil was performed at an effect-site concentration of 4 ng mL− 1. ET50 was calculated with a modified Dixon’s up-and-down method (starting at 2.5% in steps of 0.5%). Predetermined sevoflurane concentration was kept constant during the 10 min before LMA insertion. Patient’s response to LMA insertion was classified as “movement” or “no movement”. Sevoflurane ET50 was determined as the midpoint concentration of all the independent pairs that manifested crossover from “movement” to “no movement”. The ET50 sevoflurane concentration co-administered with remifentanil required for PLMA insertion was 1.20 ± 0.41% (95% confidence interval 0.76 to 1.63%). For SLMA insertion, it was 0.55 ± 0.38% (95% confidence interval 0.14 to 0.95%) (p = 0.019). The end-tidal sevoflurane concentration with co-administered remifentanil required to allow insertion of the SLMA was 54% lower than that needed for inserting the PLMA. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03003377. Retrospectively registered. Date of registration: December 28, 2016.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Identifying appropriate outcomes to help evaluate the impact of the Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for Non-Cancer Pain
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Michael Allen; Beth Sproule; Peter MacDougall; Andrea Furlan; Laura Murphy; Victoria Borg Debono; Norman Buckley

    The Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain (COG) was developed in response to increasing rates of opioid-related hospital visits and deaths in Canada, and uncertain benefits of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Following publication, we developed a list of evaluable outcomes to assess the impact of this guideline on practice and patient outcomes. A working group at the National Pain Centre at McMaster University used a modified Delphi process to construct a list of clinical and patient outcomes important in assessing the uptake and application of the COG. An advisory group then reviewed this list to determine the relevance and feasibility of each outcome, and identified potential data sources. This feedback was reviewed by the National Faculty for the Guideline, and a National Advisory Group that included the creators of the COG, resulting in the final list of 5 priority outcomes. Five outcomes were judged clinically important and feasible to measure: 1) Effects of opioids for CNCP on quality of life, 2) Assessment of patient’s risk of addiction before starting opioid therapy, 3) Monitoring patients on opioid therapy for aberrant drug-related behaviour, 4) Mortality rates associated with prescription opioid overdose and 5) Use of treatment agreements with patients before initiating opioid therapy for CNCP. Data sources for these outcomes included patient’s medical charts, e-Opioid Manager, prescription monitoring programs and administrative databases. Measuring the impact of best practice guidelines is infrequently done. Future research should consider capturing the five outcomes identified in this study to evaluate the impact of the COG in promoting evidence-based use of opioids for CNCP.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Intraoperative changes in whole-blood viscosity in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in the steep Trendelenburg position with pneumoperitoneum: a prospective nonrandomized observational cohort study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jung-Woo Shim; Hyun Kyung Moon; Yong Hyun Park; Misun Park; Jaesik Park; Hyung Mook Lee; Yong-Suk Kim; Young Eun Moon; Sang Hyun Hong; Min Suk Chae

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the steep Trendelenburg position (STP) with pneumoperitoneum on whole-blood viscosity (WBV) in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). The study also analyzed the associations of clinical patient-specific and time-dependent variables with WBV and recorded postoperative outcomes. Fifty-eight adult male patients (ASA physical status of I or II) undergoing elective RALP were prospectively analyzed in this study. WBV was intraoperatively measured three times: at the beginning of surgery in the supine position without pneumoperitoneum; after 30 min in the STP with pneumoperitoneum; and at the end of surgery in the supine position without pneumoperitoneum. The WBV at a high shear rate (300 s− 1) was recorded as systolic blood viscosity (SBV) and that at a low shear rate (5 s− 1) was recorded as diastolic blood viscosity (DBV). Systolic blood hyperviscosity was defined as > 13.0 cP at 300 s− 1 and diastolic blood hyperviscosity was defined as > 4.1 cP at 5 s− 1. The WBV and incidences of systolic and diastolic blood hyperviscosity significantly increased from the supine position without pneumoperitoneum to the STP with pneumoperitoneum. When RALP was performed in the STP with pneumoperitoneum, 12 patients (27.3%) who had normal SBV at the beginning of surgery and 11 patients (26.8%) who had normal DBV at the beginning of surgery developed new systolic and diastolic blood hyperviscosity, respectively. The degree of increase in WBV after positioning with the STP and pneumoperitoneum was higher in the patients with hyperviscosity than in those without hyperviscosity at the beginning of surgery. Higher preoperative body mass index (BMI) and hematocrit level were associated with the development of both systolic and diastolic blood hyperviscosity in the STP with pneumoperitoneum. All patients were postoperatively discharged without fatal complications. Changes in surgical position may influence WBV, and higher preoperative BMI and hematocrit level are independent factors associated with the risk of hyperviscosity during RALP in the STP with pneumoperitoneum. Clinical Research Information Service, Republic of Korea, approval number: KCT0003295 on October 25, 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Predictive risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after heart transplantation
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Charles Vidal; Romain Pasqualotto; Arthur James; Pauline Dureau; Julie Rasata; Guillaume Coutance; Shaida Varnous; Pascal Leprince; Julien Amour; Adrien Bouglé

    Pneumonia is a frequent complication in patients undergoing heart transplantation (HTx) that increases morbidity and mortality in this population. Nevertheless, the risk factors for postoperative pneumonia (POP) are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive risk factors for POP in HTx recipients. In this retrospective study, all patients undergoing HTx between January 2014 and December 2015 were included. All cases of POP occurring until hospital discharge were investigated. The study aimed to determine risk factors using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. Data are expressed in Odds Ratio [95% CI]. P < 0.05 was necessary to reject the null hypothesis. A total of 175 patients were included without any patients being lost to follow-up, and 89 instances of POP were diagnosed in 59 (34%) patients. Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common pathogens. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors were preoperative mechanical ventilation (OR 1.42 [1.12–1.80], P < 0.01) and perioperative blood transfusion (OR 1.42 [95% CI: 1.20–1.70], P < 0.01). POP significantly impacted mortality at 30 days (OR: 4 [1.3–12.4], P = 0.01) and 1 year (OR: 6.8 [2.5–8.4], P < 0.01) and was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, time to weaning from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and stay in an intensive care unit. Plasma exchanges and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins did not increase the risk of POP. After HTx, preoperative mechanical ventilation and blood transfusion were risk factors for POP and were associated with increased mortality. Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most common pathogens of POP.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Laryngeal mask versus facemask in the respiratory management during catheter ablation
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Takashi Koyama; Masanori Kobayashi; Tomohide Ichikawa; Yasushi Wakabayashi; Daiki Toma; Hidetoshi Abe

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if a laryngeal mask could improve respiratory condition during radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Twenty-four consecutive patients who underwent RFCA for atrial fibrillation were divided into two groups (Facemask group; n = 10, Laryngeal mask group; n = 14). All patients were completely sedated under intravenous anesthesia and fitted with artificial respirators during the RFCA. The capnography waveforms and their differential coefficients were analyzed to evaluate the changes of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values, respiratory intervals, expiratory durations, and inspiratory durations. During the RFCA, ETCO2 values of the laryngeal mask group were higher than those of the facemask group (36.0 vs. 29.2 mmHg, p = 0.005). The respiratory interval was significantly longer in the laryngeal mask group than those in the facemask group (4.28 s vs.5.25 s, p < 0.001). In both expiratory and inspiratory phases, the mean of the maximum and minimum values of CO2 was significantly higher when using a laryngeal mask than when using a facemask. The inspiratory-expiratory ratio of the laryngeal mask group was significantly larger than that of the facemask group (1.59 vs. 1.27, p < 0.001). The total procedure duration, fluoroscopic duration and the ablation energy were significantly lower in the laryngeal mask group than in the facemask group. The ETCO2 value is the most influential parameter on the fluoroscopic duration during the RFCA procedure (β = − 0.477, p = 0.029). The use of a laryngeal mask could stabilize respiration during intravenous anesthesia, which could improve the efficiency of RFCA.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The analgesic efficacy and safety of peri-articular injection versus intra-articular injection in one-stage bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bin Feng; Hui-Ming Peng; Yan-Yan Bian; Lin-Jie Zhang; Chang Han; Gui-Xing Qiu; Xisheng Weng

    As an essential component of multimodal analgesia approaches after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), local infiltration analgesia (LIA) can be classified into peri-articular injection (PAI) and intra-articular injection (IAI) according to administration techniques. Currently, there is no definite answer to the optimal choice between the two techniques. Our study aims to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of PAI versus IAI in patients receiving simultaneous bilateral TKA. This randomized controlled trial was conducted from February 2017 and finished in July 2018. Sixty patients eligible for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive PAI on one side and IAI on another. Primary outcomes included numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score at rest or during activity at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h following surgery. Secondary outcomes contained active or passive range of motion (ROM) at 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery, time to perform straight leg raise, wound drainage, operation time, and wound complications. Patients experienced lower NRS pain scores of the knee receiving PAI compared with that with PAI during the first 48 h after surgery. The largest difference of NRS pain score at rest occurred at 48 h (PAI: 0.68, 95%CI[0.37, 0.98]; IAI: 2.63, 95%CI [2.16, 3.09]; P < 0.001); and the largest difference of NRS pain score during activity also took place at 48 h (PAI: 2.46, 95%CI [2.07, 2.85]; IAI: 3.90, 95%CI [3.27, 4.52]; P = 0.001). PAI group had better results of range of motion and time to perform straight leg raise when compared with IAI group. There were no differences in operation time, wound drainage, and wound complication. PAI had the superior performance of pain relief and improvement of range of motion to IAI. Therefore, the administration technique of peri-articular injection is recommended when performing local infiltration analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. The trial was retrospectively registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR1800020420 on 29th December, 2018. Therapeutic Level I.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Intraoperative glycemic control in patients undergoing Orthotopic liver transplant: a single center prospective randomized study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Sathish S. Kumar; Shawn J. Pelletier; Amy Shanks; Aleda Thompson; Christopher J. Sonnenday; Paul Picton

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes yet evidence to guide intraoperative goals and treatment modalities during non-cardiac surgery are lacking. End-stage liver disease is associated with altered glucose homeostasis; patients undergoing liver transplantation display huge fluctuations in blood glucose (BG) and represent a population of great interest. Here, we conduct a randomized trial to compare the effects of strict versus conventional glycemic control during orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). Following approval by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Michigan Medical School and informed consent, 100 adult patients undergoing OLT were recruited. Patients were randomized to either strict (target BG 80–120 mg/dL) or conventional (target BG 180–200 mg/dL) BG control with block randomization for diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The primary outcomes measured were 1-year patient and graft survival assessed on an intention to treat basis. Graft survival is defined as death or needing re-transplant (www.unos.org). Three and 5-year patient and graft survival, infectious and biliary complications were measured as secondary outcomes. Data were examined using univariate methods and Kaplan-Meir survival analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to compare patients with a mean BG of ≤120 mg/dL and those > 120 mg/dL regardless of treatment group. There was no statistically significant difference in patient survival between conventional and strict control respectively;1 year, 88% vs 88% (p-0.99), 3 years, 86% vs 84% (p- 0.77), 5 years, 82% vs 78. % (p-0.36). Graft survival was not different between conventional and strict control groups at 1 year, 88% vs 84% (p-0.56), 3 years 82% vs 76% (p-0.46), 5 years 78% vs 70% (p-0.362). There was no difference in patient or graft survival between intraoperative strict and conventional glycemic control during OLT. Clinical trial number and registry: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00780026. This trial was retrospectively registered on 10/22/2008.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Sciatic obturator femoral technique versus spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgery for fixation of open tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. A randomised trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Hoda Shokri; Amr A. Kasem

    Peripheral nerve block is preferable for lower extremity surgery because it sufficiently blocks pain pathways at different levels providing excellent anaesthesia at the site of surgery. We designed this study to compare the efficacy and safety of SOFT block (sciatic-obturator-femoral technique) compared with spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgery for fixation of open tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. One hundred and seven patients ASA I, II scheduled for fixation of open tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either spinal anaesthesia or SOFT block. In spinal anaesthesia group, patients received spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (7. 5-10mg). In SOFT group, patients received SOFT block with bupivacaine 0.25%. Primary endpoint included the duration of analgesia. The secondary endpoints included patient satisfaction scores, visual analogue scores, incidence of adverse events as vomiting, systemic toxicity from local anaesthetic drug and time to first effect of the techniques. The duration of SOFT block and time to first analgesic dose in SOFT group was significantly longer (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the study groups regarding satisfaction scores, the incidence of cardiovascular collapse, seizures and paraesthesia. Pain scores were significantly lower in SOFT group at 3,6,12 h postoperative (p < 0.001). The time to the first effect was significantly longer in SOFT group (p < 0.001). SOFT is a feasible technique of local anaesthesia for control of postoperative pain with unremarkable adverse events compared with spinal anaesthesia, in patients undergoing fixation of tibial fractures using Ilizarov external fixator. This trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. registry number: NCT03450798 on February 20, 2018.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comparison of ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for epidural anesthesia and spinal-epidural anesthesia in labor analgesia
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yanshuang Wang; Mingjun Xu

    To compare the application and efficacy of ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for continuous epidural anesthesia (CEA) and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) in labor analgesia. Three hundred sixty pregnant women requesting labor analgesia from October 2017 to August 2018 were selected retrospectively. According to the anesthetic method, subjects were divided into CSEA group and CEA group. Ropivacaine combined with sufentanil were used in all subjects. The labor time, visual analogue scale (VAS), Apgar score of newborn, adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse drug reactions were observed. There was no significant difference in pre-analgesia (T0) VAS scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). VAS scores of first stage of labor (T1), second stage of labor (T2) and third stage of labor (T3) in CSEA group were significantly lower than CEA group (P < 0.01). The onset time, T1 and total labor time in CSEA group were significantly shorter than CEA group (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between T2 and T3 (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes and Apgar scores at 1, 5 and 10 min after birth between the two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of adverse drug outcomes in CSEA group was significantly lower than CEA group (P < 0.01). Maternal satisfaction in CSEA group was significantly higher than CEA group (P < 0.01). Considering ropivacaine combined with sufentanil for CSEA achieved a shorter onset time and labor period, significant analgesic effect, lower adverse drug reactions rates and higher subject satisfaction than CEA, it may be worthy of clinical promotion and application.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Continuous intravenous infusion of remifentanil improves the experience of parturient undergoing repeated cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, a prospective, randomized study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Wei Yan; Yun Xiong; Yu Yao; Feng-jiang Zhang; Li-na Yu; Min Yan

    Unsatisfactory analgesia would occur frequently during repeated cesarean section under epidural anesthesia. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of intravenous remifentanil on maternal comfort, maternal and neonatal safety during repeated cesarean section under epidural anesthesia. A total of 80 parturients undergoing repeated cesarean section were involved in the study. The patients were randomly divided into the intravenous remifentanil- assisted epidural group (group R) and epidural group (group E), respectively (n = 40). In group R, the remifentanil was continuously intravenously infused as an adjuvant to epidural anesthesia. In group E, 0.75% ropivacaine epidural or intravenous ketamine was administered as needed. Parturient baseline characteristics, vital signs, VAS scores, and comfort scores during surgery were recorded. Adverse effects were also recorded. A total of 80 patients were enrolled in the current study and the final analyses included 39 patients in group R and 38 patients in group E. No differences in patients’ baseline characteristics were found between the two groups (p > 0.05). Compared with group E, the comfort score was significantly higher in group R (9.1 ± 1.0 vs. 7.5 ± 1.3, p < 0.001), whereas the maximum VAS score was significantly lower in group R (1.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.1 ± 1.0, p < 0.001). Maternal and neonatal adverse effects did not differ between the two groups during surgery (p > 0.05). Continuous intravenous infusion of low-dose remifentanil can significantly improve the experience of parturients undergoing repeated cesarean section under epidural anesthesia, without noticeable maternal or neonatal adverse effects. This study was pre-registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (ChiCTR1800018423) on 17/09/2018.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Comparison of videolaryngoscope-guided versus standard digital insertion techniques of the ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway: a prospective randomized study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ulku Ozgul; Feray Akgul Erdil; Mehmet Ali Erdogan; Zekine Begec; Cemil Colak; Aytac Yucel; Mahmut Durmus

    This study were designed to investigate the usefulness of the videolaryngoscope-guided insertion technique compared with the standard digital technique for the insertion success rate and insertion conditions of the Proseal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). Prospective, one hundred and nineteen patients (ASA I–II, aged 18–65 yr) were randomly divided for PLMA insertion using the videolaryngoscope-guided technique or the standard digital technique. The PLMA was inserted according to the manufacturer’s instructions in the standard digital technique group. The videolaryngoscope-guided technique was performed a C-MAC® videolaryngoscope with D-Blade, under gentle videolaryngoscope guidance, the epiglottis was lifted, and the PLMA was advanced until the tip of the distal cuff reached the oesophagus inlet. The number of insertion attempts, insertion time, oropharyngeal leak pressure, leak volume, fiberoptic bronchoscopic view, peak inspiratory pressure, ease of gastric tube placement, hemodynamic changes, visible blood on PLMA and postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. The first-attempt success rate (the primary outcome) was higher in the videolaryngoscope-guided technique than in the standard digital technique (p = 0.029). The effect size values with 95% confidence interval were 0.19 (0.01–0.36) for the first and second attempts, 0.09 (− 0.08–0.27) for the first and third attempts, and not computed for the second and third attempts by the groups, respectively. Videolaryngoscope-guided insertion technique can be a help in case of difficult positioning of a PLMA and can improve the PLMA performance in some conditions. We suggest that the videolaryngoscope-guided technique may be a useful technique if the digital technique fails. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03852589 date of registration: February 22th 2019.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of ketamine for prevention of postanesthetic shivering: a systematic review and meta analysis
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Yang Zhou; Abdul Mannan; Yuan Han; He Liu; Hui-Lian Guan; Xing Gao; Ming-Sheng Dai; Jun-Li Cao

    Postanesthetic shivering is a common complication of anesthesia, which accounts for much discomfort in postoperative patients and may increase postoperative complications in high-risk patients. Due to the lack of high-quality evidence, it is difficult to draw a conclusion about optimal anti-shivering medication. The main purpose of this meta-analysis was to analyze and evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic use of ketamine for preventing postanesthetic shivering. We searched the following databases: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails for randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome observed was the difference of the incidence rate of postanesthetic shivering between ketamine group and placebo group. The secondary outcomes were the sedation score and incidence of the side effects caused by ketamine and any other drugs utilized in the studies. In this meta-analysis, we analyzed a total of 16 trials including 1485 patients. Ketamine reduced the incidence rate of postanesthetic shivering compared to a placebo (odds ratio [OR]: 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06 to 0.26, P<0.01). Regarding side effects, there was no evident variability of the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Usage of ketamine was associated with a lower rate of hypotension and bradycardia when compared to a placebo. Hallucinations were more frequently observed in patients who received higher doses of ketamine. No significant difference was found in the incidence of postanesthetic shivering with ketamine versus other pharmacological interventions. Ketamine can prevent postanesthetic shivering without severe side effects. However, ketamine shows no advantage over other anti-shivering drugs.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Point-of-care versus central testing of hemoglobin during large volume blood transfusion
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Justin Herman; Brian Park; Bharat Awsare; Frances West; Denine Crittendon; Lilah Evans; Mary Harach; Julie Karp; Alexis Peedin; Marianna LaNoue; Barbara Goldsmith; Eugene Warnick; Michael Baram

    Point-of-care (POC) hemoglobin testing has the potential to revolutionize massive transfusion strategies. No prior studies have compared POC and central laboratory testing of hemoglobin in patients undergoing massive transfusions. We retrospectively compared the results of our point-of-care hemoglobin test (EPOC®) to our core laboratory complete blood count (CBC) hemoglobin test (Sysmex XE-5000™) in patients undergoing massive transfusion protocols (MTP) for hemorrhage. One hundred seventy paired samples from 90 patients for whom MTP was activated were collected at a single, tertiary care hospital between 10/2011 and 10/2017. Patients had both an EPOC® and CBC hemoglobin performed within 30 min of each other during the MTP. We assessed the accuracy of EPOC® hemoglobin testing using two variables: interchangeability and clinically significant differences from the CBC. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) proficiency testing criteria defined interchangeability for measurements. Clinically significant differences between the tests were defined by an expert panel. We examined whether these relationships changed as a function of the hemoglobin measured by the EPOC® and specific patient characteristics. Fifty one percent (86 of 170) of paired samples’ hemoglobin results had an absolute difference of ≤7 and 73% (124 of 170) fell within ±1 g/dL of each other. The mean difference between EPOC® and CBC hemoglobin had a bias of − 0.268 g/dL (p = 0.002). When the EPOC® hemoglobin was < 7 g/dL, 30% of the hemoglobin values were within ±7, and 57% were within ±1 g/dL. When the measured EPOC® hemoglobin was ≥7 g/dL, 55% of the EPOC® and CBC hemoglobin values were within ±7, and 76% were within ±1 g/dL. EPOC® and CBC hemoglobin values that were within ±1 g/dL varied by patient population: 77% for cardiac surgery, 58% for general surgery, and 72% for non-surgical patients. The EPOC® device had minor negative bias, was not interchangeable with the CBC hemoglobin, and was less reliable when the EPOC® value was < 7 g/dL. Clinicians must consider speed versus accuracy, and should check a CBC within 30 min as confirmation when the EPOC® hemoglobin is < 7 g/dL until further prospective trials are performed in this population.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Anesthesiology and cognitive impairment: a narrative review of current clinical literature
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jillian C. Belrose; Ruediger R. Noppens

    The impact of general anesthesia on cognitive impairment is controversial and complex. A large body of evidence supports the association between exposure to surgery under general anesthesia and development of delayed neurocognitive recovery in a subset of patients. Existing literature continues to debate whether these short-term effects on cognition can be attributed to anesthetic agents themselves, or whether other variables are causative of the observed changes in cognition. Furthermore, there is conflicting data on the relationship between anesthesia exposure and the development of long-term neurocognitive disorders, or development of incident dementia in the patient population with normal preoperative cognitive function. Patients with pre-existing cognitive impairment present a unique set of anesthetic considerations, including potential medication interactions, challenges with cooperation during assessment and non-general anesthesia techniques, and the possibility that pre-existing cognitive impairment may impart a susceptibility to further cognitive dysfunction. This review highlights landmark and recent studies in the field, and explores potential mechanisms involved in perioperative cognitive disorders (also known as postoperative cognitive dysfunction, POCD). Specifically, we will review clinical and preclinical evidence which implicates alterations to tau protein, inflammation, calcium dysregulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. As our population ages and the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia continues to increase, we require a greater understanding of potential modifiable factors that impact perioperative cognitive impairment. Future research should aim to further characterize the associated risk factors and determine whether certain anesthetic approaches or other interventions may lower the potential risk which may be conferred by anesthesia and/or surgery in susceptible individuals.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Evaluation of peripheral perfusion index and heart rate variability as early predictors for intradialytic hypotension in critically ill patients
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Hanan Mostafa; Mohamed Shaban; Ahmed Hasanin; Hassan Mohamed; Shymaa Fathy; Hossam M. Abdelreheem; Ahmed Lotfy; Ayman Abougabal; Ahmed Mukhtar; Akram El-adawy

    Intradialytic hypotension is a serious complication during renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients. Early prediction of intradialytic hypotension could allow adequate prophylactic measures. In this study we evaluated the ability of peripheral perfusion index (PPI) and heart rate variability (HRV) to predict intradialytic hypotension. A prospective observational study included 36 critically ill patients with acute kidney injury during their first session of intermittent hemodialysis. In addition to basic vital signs, PPI was measured using Radical-7 (Masimo) device. Electrical cardiometry (ICON) device was used for measuring cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and HRV. All hemodynamic values were recorded at the following time points: 30 min before the hemodialysis session, 15 min before the start of hemodialysis session, every 5 min during the session, and 15 min after the conclusion of the session. The ability of all variables to predict intradialytic hypotension was assessed through area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve calculation. Twenty-three patients (64%) had intradialytic hypotension. Patients with pulmonary oedema showed higher risk for development of intradialytic hypotension {Odds ratio (95% CI): 13.75(1.4–136)}. Each of baseline HRV, and baseline PPI showed good predictive properties for intradialytic hypotension {AUROC (95% CI): 0.761(0.59–0.88)}, and 0.721(0.547–0.857)} respectively. Each of low PPI, low HRV, and the presence of pulmonary oedema are good predictors of intradialytic hypotension.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Influence of anesthesia methods on surgical outcomes and renal function in retrograde intrarenal stone surgery: a prospective, randomized controlled study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ohseong Kwon; Jung-Man Lee; Juhyun Park; Min Chul Cho; Hwancheol Son; Hyeon Jeong; Seung Hoon Ryang; Sung Yong Cho

    We analyzed the influence of anesthesia methods on surgical outcomes and renal function in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in a prospective, randomized controlled study. Seventy patients who underwent RIRS from September 2015 to February 2017 were randomly allocated to general anesthesia (GA) or spinal anesthesia (SA) groups. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate, and separate renal function was evaluated using nuclear medicine tests. Maneuverability and accessibility were evaluated after every surgery. All procedures were performed by a single experienced surgeon (SY Cho). Stone-free rate was higher in the GA (92.3%, 36 of 39) than the SA (71.0%, 22 of 31) (P = 0.019) group. Pain score was higher in the GA than in the SA group on the first postoperative morning (P = 0.025), but pain scores of the two groups were similar before discharge (P = 0.560). There were no differences in the changes of serum creatinine level (P = 0.792) and changes of estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.807). Differences of separate renal function between operative and contralateral site increased significantly in patients under GA than under SA at postoperative 3 months (P = 0.014). Maneuverability and accessibility were better in SA with sedation than GA (P < 0.001). RIRS under SA showed advantages in renal function change using renogram at postoperative 3 months and in lower pain score on the first postoperative morning. Performance of operator under SA was worse than that under GA and significantly improved with sedation. RIRS under SA showed advantages in lower pain score at postoperative first day. Clinicaltrials.gov ID is NCT03957109, and registration date is 17th May 2019. This study was retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Endothelial glycocalyx in acute care surgery – what anaesthesiologists need to know for clinical practice
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    David Astapenko; Jan Benes; Jiri Pouska; Christian Lehmann; Sufia Islam; Vladimir Cerny

    The endothelial glycocalyx (EG) is the thin sugar-based lining on the apical surface of endothelial cells. It has been linked to the physiological functioning of the microcirculation and has been found to be damaged in critical illness and after acute care surgery. This review aims to describe the role of EG in severely injured patients undergoing surgery, discuss specific situations (e.G. major trauma, hemorrhagic shock, trauma induced coagulopathy) as well as specific interventions commonly applied in these patients (e.g. fluid therapy, transfusion) and specific drugs related to perioperative medicine with regard to their impact on EG. EG in acute care surgery is exposed to damage due to tissue trauma, inflammation, oxidative stress and inadequate fluid therapy. Even though some interventions (transfusion of plasma, human serum albumin, hydrocortisone, sevoflurane) are described as potentially EG protective there is still no specific treatment for EG protection and recovery in clinical medicine. The most important principle to be adopted in routine clinical practice at present is to acknowledge the fragile structure of the EG and avoid further damage which is potentially related to worsened clinical outcome.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Effects of different doses of magnesium sulfate on pneumoperitoneum-related hemodynamic changes in patients undergoing gastrointestinal laparoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Wei Tan; Dong-chen Qian; Meng-meng Zheng; Xuan Lu; Yuan Han; Dun-yi Qi

    The infusion of magnesium sulfate is well known to reduce arterial pressure and attenuate hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. This study aimed to investigate whether different doses of magnesium sulfate can effectively attenuate the pneumoperitoneum-related hemodynamic changes and the release of vasopressin in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery. Sixty-nine patients undergoing laparoscopic partial gastrectomy were randomized into three groups: group L received magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg loading dose and 15 mg/kg/h continuous maintenance infusion for 1 h; group H received magnesium sulfate 50 mg/kg followed by 30 mg/kg/h for 1 h; and group S (control group) received same volume 0.9% saline infusion, immediately before the induction of pneumoperitoneum. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR), cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), serum vasopressin and magnesium concentrations were measured. The extubation time, visual analogue scale were also assessed. The primary outcome is the difference in SVR between different groups. The secondary outcome is the differences of other indicators between groups, such as CO, MAP, HR, CVP, vasopressin and postoperative pain score. Pneumoperitoneum instantly resulted in a significant reduction of cardiac output and an increase in mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, central venous pressure and heart rate in the control group (P < 0.01). The mean arterial pressure (T2 – T4), systemic vascular resistance (T2 – T3), central venous pressure(T3-T5) and the level of serum vasopressin were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and the cardiac output (T2 – T3) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group H than those in the control group. The mean arterial pressure (T4), systemic vascular resistance (T2), and central venous pressure(T3-T4) were significantly lower in group H than those in group L (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the visual analog scales at 5 min and 20 min, the level of vasopressin, and the dose of remifentanil were significantly decreased in group H compared to the control group and group L (P < 0.01). Magnesium sulfate could safely and effectively attenuate the pneumoperitoneum-related hemodynamic instability during gastrointestinal laparoscopy and improve postoperative pain at serum magnesium concentrations above 2 mmol/L. The study was retrospectively registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; the registration number is ChiCTR-IPD-17011145, principal investigator: D.Y. Q., date of registration: April 13, 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Effect of low dose naloxone on the immune system function of a patient undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of lung cancer with sufentanil controlled analgesia — a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Yun Lin; Zhuang Miao; Yue Wu; Fang-fang Ge; Qing-ping Wen

    Perioperative immune function plays an important role in the prognosis of patients. Several studies have indicated that low-dose opioid receptor blockers can improve immune function. Sixty-nine patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the lung cancer were randomly assigned to either the naloxone group (n = 35) or the non-naloxone group (n = 34) for postoperative analgesia during the first 48 h after the operation. Both groups received sufentanil and palonosetron via postoperative analgesia pump, while 0.05 μg·kg− 1·h− 1 naloxone was added in naloxone group. The primary outcomes were the level of opioid growth factor (OGF) and immune function assessed by natural killer cells and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. Second outcomes were assessed by the intensity of postoperative pain, postoperative rescue analgesia dose, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The level of OGF in the naloxone group increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001) and 48 h after the operation (P < 0.01). The natural killer cells (P < 0.05) and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio (P < 0.01) in the naloxone group increased significantly at 48 h after the operation. The rest VAS scores were better with naloxone at 12 and 24 h after operation(P < 0.05), and the coughing VAS scores were better with naloxone at 48 h after the operation(P < 0.05). The consumption of postoperative rescue analgesics in the naloxone group was lower (0.00(0.00–0.00) vs 25.00(0.00–62.50)), P < 0.05). Postoperative nausea scores at 24 h after operation decreased in naloxone group(0.00 (0.00–0.00) vs 1.00 (0.00–2.00), P < 0.01). Infusion of 0.05 μg·kg− 1·h− 1 naloxone for patients undergoing sufentanil-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain can significantly increase the level of OGF, natural killer cells, and CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio compared with non-naloxone group, and postoperative pain intensity, request for rescue analgesics, and opioid-related side effects can also be reduced. The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on January 26, 2019 (ChiCTR1900021043).

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Impact of a semi-structured briefing on the management of adverse events in anesthesiology: a randomized pilot study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Christopher Neuhaus; Johannes Schäfer; Markus A. Weigand; Christoph Lichtenstern

    Human factors research has identified mental models as a key component for the effective sharing and organization of knowledge. The challenge lies in the development and application of tools that help team members to arrive at a shared understanding of a situation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a semi-structured briefing on the management of a simulated airway emergency. 37 interprofessional teams were asked to perform a simulated rapid-sequence induction in the simulator. Teams were presented with a “cannot ventilate, cannot oxygenate” scenario that ultimately required a cricothyroidotomy. Study group (SG) teams were asked to perform a briefing prior to induction, while controls (CG) were asked to perform their usual routine. We observed no difference in the mean time until cricothyroidotomy (SG 8:31 CG 8:16, p = 0.36). There was a significant difference in groups’ choice of alternative means of oxygenation: While SG teams primarily chose supraglottic airway devices, controls initially reverted to mask ventilation (p = 0.005). SG teams spent significantly less time with this alternative airway device and were quicker to advance in the airway algorithm. Our study addresses effects on team coordination through a shared mental model as effected by a briefing prior to anesthesia induction. We found measurable improvements in airway management during those stages of the difficult airway algorithm explicitly discussed in the briefing. For those, time spent was shorter and participants were quicker to advance in the airway algorithm.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Anesthetics and long-term survival after cancer surgery—total intravenous versus volatile anesthesia: a retrospective study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Boohwi Hong; Sunyeul Lee; Yeojung Kim; Minhee Lee; Ann Misun Youn; Hyun Rhim; Seok-Hwan Hong; Yoon-Hee Kim; Seok-Hwa Yoon; Chaeseong Lim

    Intravenous anesthesia has been reported to have a favorable effect on the prognosis of cancer patients. This study was performed to analyze data regarding the relation between anesthetics and the prognosis of cancer patients in our hospital. The medical records of patients who underwent surgical resection for gastric, lung, liver, colon, and breast cancer between January 2006 and December 2009 were reviewed. Depending on the type of anesthetic, it was divided into total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) or volatile inhaled anesthesia (VIA) group. The 5-year overall survival outcomes were analyzed by log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for sensitivity. The number of patients finally included in the comparison after propensity matching came to 729 in each group. The number of surviving patients at 5 years came to 660 (90.5%) in the TIVA and 673 (92.3%) in the VIA. The type of anesthetic did not affect the 5-year survival rate according to the log-rank test (P = 0.21). Variables associated with a significant increase in the hazard of death after multivariable analysis were male sex and metastasis at surgery. There were no differences in 5-year overall survival between two groups in the cancer surgery. Trial registration: CRIS KCT0004101. Retrospectively registered 28 June 2019.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Modified technique for thermal radiofrequency ablation of Thoracic dorsal root ganglia under combined fluoroscopy and CT guidance: a randomized clinical trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Raafat M. Reyad; Hossam Z. Ghobrial; Ehab H. Shaker; Ehab M. Reyad; Mohammed H. Shaaban; Rania H. Hashem; Wael M. Darwish

    This study is comparing thermal radiofrequency ablation (TRFA) of the thoracic dorsal root ganglia (TDRG) guided by Xper CT and fluoroscopy with the standard fluoroscopy. This randomized clinical trial included 78 patients suffering from chronic refractory pain due to chest malignancies randomly allocated into one of two groups according to guidance of TRFA of TDRG. In CT guided group (n = 40) TRFA was done under integrated Xper CT-scan and fluoroscopy guidance, while it was done under fluoroscopy guidance only in standard group (n = 38). The primary outcome was pain intensity measured by visual analog scale (VAS) score, functional improvement and consumption of analgesics. The secondary outcome measures were patient global impression of changes (PGIC) and adverse effects. VAS scores decreased in the two groups compared to baseline values (p < 0.001) and were lower in CT guided group up to 12 weeks. Pregabalin and oxycodone consumption was higher in the standard group at 1, 4 and 12 weeks (p < 0.001). Functional improvement showed near significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.06 at week 1, 0.07 at week 4 respectively) while the difference was statistically significant at week 12 (P = 0.04). PGIC showed near significant difference only at week 1 (P = 0.07) while the per-patient adverse events were lower in CT guided group (p = 0.027). Integrated modality guidance with Xper CT-scan and fluoroscopy together with suprapedicular inferior transforaminal approach may improve efficacy and safety of TRFA of TDRG for the treatment of intractable chest pain in cancer patients. The study was retrospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov on 04/22/2018 (Registration No.: NCT03533413).

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Ten-year experience with standardized non-operating room anesthesia with Sevoflurane for MRI in children affected by neuropsychiatric disorders
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Silvia Mongodi; Gaia Ottonello; Raffaelealdo Viggiano; Paola Borrelli; Simona Orcesi; Anna Pichiecchio; Umberto Balottin; Francesco Mojoli; Giorgio Antonio Iotti

    Children require anesthesia for MRI to maintain immobility and reduce discomfort; clear indications about the best anesthesiologic management are lacking and each center developed its own protocol. Moreover, children with neuropsychiatric disorders more likely require sedation and are described in literature as more prone to general and respiratory complications. Aim of this study was to analyze the applicability of a sevoflurane-based approach, to describe general and respiratory complications and to identify risk factors in a pediatric neuropsychiatric population. Retrospective cohort study, university Hospital (January 2007–December 2016). All the 1469 anesthesiologic records of children addressed from Neuropsychiatric Unit to undergo MRI under general anesthesia were analyzed; 12 patients equal or older than 18-year-old were excluded. We identified post-hoc nine macro-categories: static encephalopathies, metabolic/evolutive encephalopathies, epileptic encephalopathies, neuromuscular diseases, autistic spectrum disorders, migraine, psychiatric disorders, intellectual disabilities, others. A logistic regression model for events with low frequency (Firth’s penalized likelihood approach) was carried out to identify the mutually adjusted effect among endpoints (complications) and the independent variables chosen on the basis of statistical significance (univariate analysis, p ≤ 0.05) and clinical judgment. Of 1457 anesthesiologic records (age 4.0 (IQR 2.0 to 7.0) year-old, males 891 (61.2%), weight 17.0 (IQR 12.0 to 24.9) kg), 18 were cancelled for high anesthesiologic risk, 50 were cooperative, 1389 were anesthetized. A sevoflurane-based anesthesia was feasible in 92.3%; these patients required significantly less mechanical ventilation (8.6 vs. 16.2%; p = 0.012). Complications’ rate was low (6.2%; 3.1% respiratory). The risk for general complications increases with ASA score > 1 (OR 2.22, 95 CI% 1.30 to 3.77, p = 0.003), male sex (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.81, p = 0.025), multi-drug anesthesia (OR 2.98, 95 CI% 1.26 to 7.06, p = 0.013). For respiratory complications, it increases with ASA score > 1 (OR 2.34, 95 CI% 1.19 to 4.73, p = 0.017), autumn-winter (OR 2.01, 95 CI% 1.06 to 3.78, p = 0.030), neuromuscular disorders (OR 3.18, 95 CI% 1.20 to 8.41, p = 0.020). We had no major complications compromising patients’ outcome or requiring admission to ICU. Sevoflurane anesthesia is feasible and safe for children affected by neuropsychiatric disorders undergoing MRI. Specific risk factors for general and respiratory complications should be considered.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Comparison of general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, and general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway and nerve block for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries in elderly patients: a retrospective cohort study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Yang Liu; Mang Su; Wei Li; Hao Yuan; Cheng Yang

    There is no consensus on the optimal anesthesia method for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries in elderly patients. Our study aimed to compare the hemodynamics and perioperative outcomes of general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, and general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and nerve block for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries in elderly patients. This is a retrospective study of 75 patients aged > 60 years scheduled for intertrochanteric fracture surgeries with general anesthesia with intubation (n = 25), combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (n = 25), and general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block (n = 25). The intraoperative hemodynamics were recorded, and the maximum variation rate was calculated. Postoperative analgesic effect was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE). The maximum variation rate of intraoperative heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation > combined spinal-epidural anesthesia > general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The VAS scores postoperative 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h also differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation > combined spinal-epidural anesthesia > general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The VAS scores postoperative 24 h were significantly lower in the general anesthesia with LMA/nerve block group than the general anesthesia with intubation group and the combined spinal-epidural anesthesia group. The MMSE scores postoperative 15 min and 45 min differed significantly between the three groups (general anesthesia with intubation < combined spinal-epidural anesthesia < general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block). The MMSE scores postoperative 120 min in the general anesthesia with intubation group were the lowest among the three groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of respiratory infection postoperative 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h between the three groups. Compared to general anesthesia with intubation and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia, general anesthesia with LMA and nerve block had better postoperative analgesic effect and less disturbances on intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative cognition for elderly patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgeries.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • A retrospective study of the relationship between postoperative urine output and one year transplanted kidney function
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Joungmin Kim; Taehee Pyeon; Jeong Il Choi; Jeong Hyeon Kang; Seung Won Song; Hong-Beom Bae; Seongtae Jeong

    Kidney transplantation (KT) is the most obvious method of treating a patient with end-stage renal disease. In the early stages of KT, urine production is considered a marker of successful reperfusion of the kidney after anastomosis. However, there is no clear conclusion about the relationship between initial urine output after KT and 1-year renal function. Thus, we investigated the factors that affect 1-year kidney function after KT, including urine output. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between urine output in the 3 days after KT and transplanted kidney prognosis after 1-year. In total, 291 patients (129 living-donor and 162 deceased-donor transplant recipients) were analyzed; 24-h urine volume per body weight (in kilograms) was measured for 3 days postoperatively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease algorithm, was used as an index of renal function. Patients were grouped according to eGFR at 1-year after KT: a good residual function group, eGFR ≥60, and a poor residual function group, eGFR < 60. Recipients’ factors affecting 1-year eGFR include height (P = 0.03), weight (P = 0.00), and body mass index (P = 0.00). Donor factors affecting 1-year eGFR include age (P = 0.00) and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (P = 0.00). The urine output for 3 days after KT (postoperative day 1; 2 and 3) was associated with 1-year eGFR in deceased-donor (P = 0.00; P = 0.00 and P = 0.01). And, postoperative urine output was associated with the occurrence of delayed graft function (area under curve (AUC) = 0.913; AUC = 0.984 and AUC = 0.944). Although postoperative urine output alone is not enough to predict 1-year GFR, the incidence of delayed graft function can be predicted. Also, the appropriate urine output after KT may differ depending on the type of the transplanted kidney. Clinical Research Information Service of the Korea National Institute of Health in the Republic of Korea (KCT0003571).

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Comparison of sciatic nerve block quality achieved using the anterior and posterior approaches: a randomised trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Abdulkadir Yektaş; Bedih Balkan

    The co-administration of sciatic and femoral nerve blocks can provide anaesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing lower extremity surgeries. Several approaches to achieve sciatic nerve block have been described, including anterior and posterior approaches. In total, 58 study patients were randomly assigned to receive either anterior (group A, n = 29) or posterior (group P, n = 29) sciatic nerve block. Thereafter, the following parameters were determined: sensory and motor block start and end times, time to first fentanyl requirement after blockade but before the start of the operation, time to first fentanyl requirement after the start of the operation, mean fentanyl dose administered after blockade but before the start of the operation, mean fentanyl dose after the start of the operation, time to first diclofenac sodium dose, and total dose of diclofenac sodium required. The trial was retrospectively registered on 11 July 2018. The time to initiation of sensory block was significantly shorter in group P than in group A (7.70 ± 2.05 min and 12.88 ± 4.87 min, respectively; p = 0.01). Group P also had a significantly shorter time to first fentanyl requirement after block but before the start of the operation (00.00 ± 00.00 min for group P and 4.05 ± 7.47 min for group A; p < 0.01), significantly higher mean fentanyl dose per patient after block but before the start of the operation (44.03 ± 23.78 μg for group P and 31.20 ± 27.79 μg for group A), significantly longer time to first fentanyl requirement after the start of the operation (16.24 ± 7.13 min for group P and 00.00 ± 00.00 min for group A; p = 0.01), and significantly lower mean fentanyl dose per patient after the start of the operation (11.51 ± 2.87 μg for group P and 147.75 ± 22.30 μg for group A). Patient satisfaction (p < 0.01), anaesthesia quality (p = 0.006), and surgical quality (p = 0.047) were significantly higher in group P. Anterior and posterior approaches can be used to achieve sciatic nerve block in patients undergoing surgery for malleolar fractures. However, better anaesthesia and pain control results can be obtained if analgesia is administered preoperatively in patients with a posterior approach block and after the start of the operation in patients with an anterior approach block.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Don’t stress: a case report of regional anesthesia as the primary anesthetic for gynecologic surgery in a patient with mitochondrial myopathy and possible malignant hyperthermia susceptibility
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Marci B. Pepper; Catherine Njathi-Ori; Michelle Ochs Kinney

    We aim to describe the evaluation and management of a patient with the uncommon combination of both mitochondrial myopathy and possible malignant hyperthermia susceptibility as an important source of information and as a valuable example of the role of regional anesthesia for patients with these diagnoses. A 24 year old woman with a history of possible mitochondrial myopathy and possible malignant hyperthermia susceptibility presented for gynecologic surgery. Surgery was well tolerated with combined spinal epidural anesthesia as well as sedation with midazolam, ketamine, and fentanyl. Anesthetic management of patients with mitochondrial myopathy is challenging, made even more so with concurrent malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. This case adds an example to the literature of employing regional anesthesia as a safe approach to this complex care.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Ice versus lidocaine 5% gel for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa – a randomized cross-over study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Nishma Hindocha; Filip Manhem; Emmanuel Bäckryd; Mats Bågesund

    Topical anaesthesia is important to optimize pain control during dental injection. Our aim was to describe a new simple method for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa and to compare the effectiveness of ice and lidocaine 5% gel for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa. A total of 40 patients aged 10.7–19.5 years were included. The side and method of application were both randomized. Heart rate was recorded, and discomfort and pain were evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS). A paired t-test was used to compare mean values, a chi2 test was used to compare proportions, and a Pearson correlation test was used to examine correlations between variables. When ice was used, buccal injection VAS pain was rated lower (p = 0.044), and VAS discomfort was rated higher (p = 0.001), in comparison to when lidocaine 5% gel was used. There was no significant difference in relative heart rate change between ice and lidocaine 5% gel at either needle stick or injection. Lidocaine 5% gel produced a relative heart rate reduction after palatal injection (0.99 ± 0.06) while buccal injection produced an increased relative heart rate (1.02 ± 0.08) (p = 0.010). Unpleasant taste was more frequently reported when lidocaine 5% gel was used (p = 0.025). An application time of 1 min was sufficient for both ice and lidocaine 5% gel to achieve pain reduction from needle stick in buccal mucosa. The cheap and readily available described method using ice for topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa before dental injection is an effective alternative to lidocaine 5% gel. The European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials Database EudraCT201300530531. Date of registration: February 10th, 2014.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Comparison of emergence agitation between succinylcholine and rocuronium-sugammadex in adults following closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture: a prospective randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Seok-Jin Lee; Tae-Yun Sung; Choon-Kyu Cho

    Sugammadex allows rapid recovery from rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Succinylcholine is often used for brief surgeries but is associated with myalgia, headache, histamine release, and increased lactate levels. Thus, we hypothesized that succinylcholine may affect emergence agitation (EA) and compared the effects of succinylcholine and rocuronium-sugammadex on EA in patients undergoing closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture under general anesthesia. Forty-two patients were prospectively enrolled and allocated randomly to the succinylcholine group (group SC) or the rocuronium-sugammadex group (group RS; each n = 21). Neuromuscular block and its reversal were achieved with succinylcholine and normal saline in group SC, whereas rocuronium and sugammadex were administered in group RS. After surgery, the incidence of EA as a primary outcome, the incidence of dangerous EA, and duration of EA as secondary outcomes were compared. The incidence of EA was higher in group SC than in group RS (90.5% vs. 47.6%, respectively; relative risk [RR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 15.7; P = .006). The incidence of dangerous EA increased in group SC compared to group RS (33.3% vs. 4.8%, respectively; RR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.4; P = .045). The duration of agitation was longer in group SC than in group RS [106.5 (65.1) vs. 40.4 (26.0) sec; mean difference 66.1 s; 95% CI 31.0 to 101.1; effect size 1.3; P = .001). Succinylcholine increases the incidence, severity, and duration of EA compared to rocuronium-sugammadex in patients undergoing closed reduction of a nasal bone fracture. CRiS Registration number KCT0002673. Initial registration date was 31 January 2018 (Retrospectively registered).

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Tissue oxygen saturation changes and postoperative complications in cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Sabino Scolletta; Federico Franchi; Elisa Damiani; Armando Cennamo; Roberta Domizi; Antonio Meola; Claudia Scorcella; Davide Vanoli; Christopher Münch; Erica Adrario; Luca Marchetti; Fabio Silvio Taccone; Abele Donati

    Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce microvascular dysfunction and tissue hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that the alterations in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived parameters would be associated with post-operative complications in cardiac surgery patients. Prospective observational study performed at two University Hospitals. Ninety patients undergoing cardiac surgery with ECC were enrolled. The NIRS sensor was applied on the thenar eminence. A vascular occlusion test (VOT, 3-min ischemia) was performed at baseline (t0), at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission (t1), 3 (t2) and 6 (t3) hours later. Baseline tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), oxygen extraction rate and microvascular reactivity indices were calculated. In the first hours after cardiac surgery, StO2 tended to increase (86% [80–89] at T3 versus 82% [79–86] at T0, p = ns), while both tissue oxygen extraction and microvascular reactivity tended to decrease, as indicated by increasing occlusion slope (− 8.1%/min [− 11.2 to − 7] at T3 versus − 11.2%/min [− 13.9 to − 7.9] at T0, p = ns) and decreasing recovery slope (1.9%/sec [1.1–2.9] at T3 versus 3.1%/sec [2.3–3.9] at T0, p = ns). No substantial differences were found in NIRS-derived variables and their changes over time between patients with complications and those without complications. Peripheral tissue oxygen extraction and microvascular reactivity were reduced during the first hours after cardiac surgery. NIRS-derived parameters were not able to predict complications in this population of cardiac surgery patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Conservative management of trachea-to-innominate artery transfixion with a guidewire during percutaneous tracheostomy: a case report
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Giancarlo Varelli; Roberto Cioni; Sergio Casagli; Rosa Cervelli; Claudia Brusasco; Francesco Forfori; Francesco Corradi

    Tracheostomy is a standard procedure in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation or airway protection for extended periods. The main cause of death is haemorrhage, most commonly owing to a trachea-to-innominate artery fistula, usually requiring surgical treatment. Here we report the case of an 83-yr-old woman with a subarachnoid haemorrhage, who incurred a trachea-to-innominate artery transfixion following percutaneous tracheostomy, successfully and conservatively managed by interventional radiology. The use of peri-procedural ultrasound examination of the neck can reduce the risk of complications related to vessel anatomical variants. When the tracheostomy is complicated by bleeding, the procedure should be stopped in order to diagnose the vascular iatrogenic injury and to evaluate the best therapeutic approach by a multidisciplinary team.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A randomized controlled trial on analgesic effect of repeated Quadratus Lumborum block versus continuous epidural analgesia following laparoscopic nephrectomy
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Dita Aditianingsih; Pryambodho; Naufal Anasy; Aida Rosita Tantri; Chaidir Arif Mochtar

    Epidural analgesia as the effective pain management for abdominal surgery has side effects such as paresthesia, hypotension, hematomas, and impaired motoric of lower limbs. The quadratus lumborum block (QLB) has potential as an abdominal truncal block, however, its analgesic efficacy has never been compared to epidural analgesia on laparoscopic nephrectomy. This prospective randomized controlled study compared the effectiveness of QLB with the epidural analgesia technique in relieving postoperative pain following transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy. Sixty-two patients underwent laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and were randomized to receive QLB (n = 31) or continuous epidural (n = 31). The QLB group received bilateral QLB using 0.25% bupivacaine and the epidural group received 6 ml/h of 0.25% bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia. As postoperative analgesia, the QLB group received repeated bilateral QLB with the same dose and the epidural group received 6 ml/h of 0.125% bupivacaine for 24 h after surgery completion. The primary outcome was the 24-h cumulative morphine requirement after surgery. The secondary outcome was the postoperative pain scores. Sensory block coverage, hemodynamic changes, Bromage score, postoperative nausea-vomiting (PONV), paresthesia, and duration of urinary catheter usage were recorded and analyzed. The 24-h cumulative morphine requirement and pain scores after surgery were comparable between the QLB and epidural groups. The coverage of QLB was extended from T9 to L2 and the continuous epidural block was extended from T8 to L3 dermatomes. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) measured at 24 h after surgery was lower in the epidural group (p = 0.001). Bromage score, incidence of PONV, and paresthesia were not significantly different between the two groups. Duration of urinary catheter usage was shorter (p < 0.001) in the QLB group. The repeated QLB had a similar 24-h cumulative morphine requirement, comparable postoperative pain scores and sensory blockade, higher postoperative MAP, a similar degree of motoric block, no difference in the incidence of PONV and paresthesia, and shorter urinary catheter usage, compared to the continuous epidural analgesia following transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT03520205 retrospectively registered on May 9th 2018.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The influence of dexmedetomidine and propofol on circulating cytokine levels in healthy subjects
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Minna Kallioinen; Annalotta Scheinin; Mikael Maksimow; Jaakko Långsjö; Kaike Kaisti; Riikka Takala; Tero Vahlberg; Katja Valli; Marko Salmi; Harry Scheinin; Anu Maksimow

    Surgery and diseases modify inflammatory responses and the immune system. Anesthetic agents also have effects on the human immune system but the responses they induce may be altered or masked by the surgical procedures or underlying illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess how single-drug dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia without any surgical intervention alter acute immunological biomarkers in healthy subjects. Thirty-five healthy, young male subjects were anesthetized using increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine (n = 18) or propofol (n = 17) until loss of responsiveness (LOR) was detected. The treatment allocation was randomized. Multi-parametric immunoassays for the detection of 48 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were used. Concentrations were determined at baseline and at the highest drug concentration for each subject. The changes in the concentration of eotaxin (decrease after dexmedetomidine) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, increase after propofol) were statistically significantly different between the groups. Significant changes were detected within both groups; the concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, chemokine ligand 27 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor were lower in both groups after the drug administration. Dexmedetomidine decreased the concentration of eotaxin, interleukin-18, interleukin-2Rα, stem cell factor, stem cell growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, and propofol decreased significantly the levels of hepatocyte growth factor, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 and monokine induced by IFN-γ, and increased the levels of interleukin-17, interleukin-5, interleukin-7 and PDGF. Dexmedetomidine seemed to have an immunosuppressive effect on the immune system whereas propofol seemed to induce mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system. The choice of anesthetic agent could be relevant when treating patients with compromised immunological defense mechanisms. Before subject enrollment, the study was registered in the European Clinical Trials database (EudraCT number 2013–001496-21, The Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia and Human Consciousness) and in ClinicalTrials.gov (Principal Investigator: Harry Scheinin, number NCT01889004, The Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia and Human Consciousness, Part 2, on the 23rd of June 2013).

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Investigation of the accuracy of a noninvasive continuous blood pressure device in different age groups and its ability in detecting hypertension and hypotension: an observational study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Ziwei Wang; Guizhen Chen; Kaizhi Lu; Yuan Zhu; Yan Chen

    CNAP monitor is a continuous and noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement device that can be used in intraoperative monitoring. But whether its accuracy changes with age and its detectability of hypertension and hypotension are still unclear. This study was to investigate the agreement of CNAP and invasive arterial pressure (IAP) in different age groups, and the ability of CNAP to detect hypertension and hypotension. This observational study enrolled 48 Chinese patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia, including 25 relatively old patients (age between 50 and 70) and 23 relatively young patients (age between 18 and 49). IAP was monitored at the radial artery and CNAP was applied on the opposite arm simultaneously. Paired BP data in the entire surgery were recorded, and analyzed with Bland Altman plot and Spearman correlation. The ratio of the hypertension and hypotension episodes detected by IAP and CNAP was analyzed using chi-square test. 7990 valid paired BP data were analyzed, wherein 4186 data were from 25 relatively old patients, and the other data were from 23 relatively young patients. Bias (SD) for relatively old patients was: systolic BP (SBP): − 6.5 (18.6) mm Hg; diastolic BP (DBP): 9.3 (7.8) mmHg; and mean BP (MBP): 4.2 (9.5) mm Hg. Bias (SD) for relatively young patients was: SBP: − 6.2 (12.1) mm Hg; DBP: 10.6 (6.9) mmHg; and MBP: 4.8 (7.3) mm Hg. The correlation between CNAP and IAP was higher in MBP than those in SBP and DBP, and it decreased with the increase of age. Comparing to IAP, CNAP tended to miss reporting a high SBP, low DBP and low MBP, and misinform a low SBP, high DBP and high MBP. CNAP showed acceptable agreement with IAP in MBP for all age groups, but reduced agreement with IAP in SBP and DBP, especially for relatively old patients. Ability of CNAP to detect hypertension and hypotension episodes was weaker than IAP. Therefore, CNAP monitor is suitable for young patients and hemodynamically stable surgery, but may not be recommended for old patients with arteriosclerosis and diabetes or surgeries expecting to have fluctuating blood pressure.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Emergent airway management outside of the operating room – a retrospective review of patient characteristics, complications and ICU stay
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Uzung Yoon; Jeffrey Mojica; Matthew Wiltshire; Kara Segna; Michael Block; Anthony Pantoja; Marc Torjman; Elizabeth Wolo

    Emergent airway management outside of the operating room is a high-risk procedure. Limited data exists about the indication and physiologic state of the patient at the time of intubation, the location in which it occurs, or patient outcomes afterward. We retrospectively collected data on all emergent airway management interventions performed outside of the operating room over a 6-month period. Documentation included intubation performance, and intubation related complications and mortality. Additional information including demographics, ASA-classification, comorbidities, hospital-stay, ICU-stay, and 30-day in-hospital mortality was obtained. 336 intubations were performed in 275 patients during the six-month period. The majority of intubations (n = 196, 58%) occurred in an ICU setting, and the rest 140 (42%) occurred on a normal floor or in a remote location. The mean admission ASA status was 3.6 ± 0.5, age 60 ± 16 years, and BMI 30 ± 9 kg/m2. Chest X-rays performed immediately after intubation showed main stem intubation in 3.3% (n = 9). Two immediate (within 20 min after intubation) intubation related cardiac arrest/mortality events were identified. The 30-day in-hospital mortality was 31.6% (n = 87), the overall in-hospital mortality was 37.1% (n = 102), the mean hospital stay was 22 ± 20 days, and the mean ICU-stay was 14 days (13.9 ± 0.9, CI 12.1–15.8) with a 7.3% ICU-readmission rate. Patients requiring emergent airway management are a high-risk patient population with multiple comorbidities and high ASA scores on admission. Only a small number of intubation-related complications were reported but ICU length of stay was high.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Efficacy of premedication with intranasal dexmedetomidine for removal of inhaled foreign bodies in children by flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yanmei Bi; Yushan Ma; Juan Ni; Lan Wu

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in children is a life-threatening, emergent situation. Currently, the use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for removing foreign bodies is attracting increasing attention. Oxygen desaturation, body movement, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, and breath-holding are common adverse events during foreign body removal. Dexmedetomidine, as a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist, produces sedative and analgesic effects, and does not induce respiratory depression. We hypothesized that intranasal dexmedetomidine at 1 μg kg − 1 administered 25 min before anesthesia induction can reduce the incidence of adverse events during fiberoptic bronchoscopy under inhalation general anesthesia with sevoflurane. In all, 40 preschool-aged children (6–48 months) with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I or II were randomly allocated to receive either intranasal dexmedetomidine at 1 μg·kg − 1 or normal saline at 0.01 ml kg− 1 25 min before anesthesia induction. The primary outcome was the incidence of perioperative adverse events. Heart rate, respiratory rate, parent-child separation score, tolerance of the anesthetic mask, agitation score, consumption of sevoflurane, and recovery time were also recorded. Following pre-anesthesia treatment with either intranasal dexmedetomidine or saline, the incidences of laryngospasm (15% vs. 50%), breath-holding (10% vs. 40%), and coughing (5% vs. 30%) were significantly lower in patients given dexmedetomidine than those given saline. Patients who received intranasal dexmedetomidine had a lower parent–child separation score (P = 0.017), more satisfactory tolerance of the anesthetic mask (P = 0.027), and less consumption of sevoflurane (38.18 ± 14.95 vs. 48.03 ± 14.45 ml, P = 0.041). The frequency of postoperative agitation was significantly lower in patients given intranasal dexmedetomidine (P = 0.004), and the recovery time was similar in the two groups. Intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 μg·kg− 1, with its sedative and analgesic effects, reduced the incidences of laryngospasm, breath-holding, and coughing during fiberoptic bronchoscopy for FB removal. Moreover, it reduced postoperative agitation without a prolonged recovery time. The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR1800017273) on July 20, 2018.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • A randomized controlled comparison of non-channeled king vision, McGrath MAC video laryngoscope and Macintosh direct laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation in patients with predicted difficult intubations
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Haozhen Zhu; Jinxing Liu; Lulu Suo; Chi Zhou; Yu Sun; Hong Jiang

    King Vision and McGrath MAC video laryngoscopes (VLs) are increasingly used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of nasotracheal intubation in patients with predicted difficult intubations using non-channeled King Vision VL, McGrath MAC VL or Macintosh laryngoscope by experienced intubators. Ninety nine ASA I or II adult patients, scheduled for oral maxillofacial surgeries with El-Ganzouri risk index 1–7 were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to intubate with one of three laryngoscopes (non-channeled King Vision, McGrath MAC and Macintosh). The intubators were experienced with more than 100 successful nasotracheal intubations using each device. The primary outcome was intubation time. The secondary outcomes included first success rate, time required for viewing the glottis, Cormack-Lehane grade of glottis view, the number of assist maneuvers, hemodynamic responses, the subjective evaluating of sensations of performances and associated complications. The intubation time of King Vision and McGrath group was comparable (37.6 ± 7.3 s vs. 35.4 ± 8.8 s) and both were shorter than Macintosh group (46.8 ± 10.4 s, p < 0.001). Both King Vision and McGrath groups had a 100% first attempt success rate, significantly higher than Macintosh group (85%, p < 0.05). The laryngoscopy time was comparable between King Vision and McGrath group (16.7 ± 5.5 s vs. 15.6 ± 6.3 s) and was shorter than Macintosh group (22.8 ± 7.2 s, p < 0.05) also. Compared with Macintosh laryngoscope, Glottis view was obviously improved when exposed with either non-channeled King Vision or McGrath MAC VL (p < 0.001), and assist maneuvers required were reduced (p < 0.001). The maximum fluctuations of MAP were significantly attenuated in VL groups (47.7 ± 12.5 mmHg and 45.1 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 54.9 ± 10.2 mmHg, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). Most device insertions were graded as excellent in McGrath group, followed by Macintosh and King Vision group (p = 0.0014). The tube advancements were easier in VLs compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.001). Sore throat was found more frequent in Macintosh group compared with King Vision group (p < 0.05). Non-channeled King Vision and McGrath MAC VLs were comparable and both devices facilitated nasotracheal intubation in managing predicted difficult intubations compared with Macintosh laryngoscope. ClinicalTrials registration number NCT03126344 . Registered on April 24, 2017.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Comparison of disinfection effect between benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine in nasotracheal intubation: a randomized trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Aiji Sato-Boku; Keiji Nagano; Yoshiaki Hasegawa; Yuji Kamimura; Yoshiki Sento; MinHye So; Eisuke Kako; Masahiro Okuda; Naoko Tachi; Hidekazu Ito; Yushi Adachi; Kazuya Sobue

    Nasotracheal intubation can potentially result in microbial contamination from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tracts. However, an ideal nasotracheal disinfection method is yet to be determined. Therefore, we compared the disinfection effects between benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine in nasotracheal intubation. Overall, this study enrolled 53 patients aged 20–70 years who were classified into classes 1 and 2 as per American Society of Anesthesiologists-physical status and were scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with NTI. Patients who did not give consent (n = 2) and who has an allergy for BZK or PVI were excluded from the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of the disinfection method: BZK (n = 26, one patient was discontinued intervention) and PVI (n = 25). 50 patients were assessed finally. The subjects’ nasal cavities were swabbed both before (A) and after disinfection (B), and the internal surface of the endotracheal tube was swabbed after extubation (C). The swabs were cultured on Brain heart infusion agar and Mannitol salt agar. The number of bacteria per swab was determined and the rates of change in bacterial count (B/A, C/B) were calculated. The growth inhibitory activity of the disinfectants on Staphylococcus aureus were also investigated in vitro. Although the initial disinfection effects (B/A) were inferior for benzalkonium chloride compared with those for povidone iodine, the effects were sustained for benzalkonium chloride (C/B). In the in vitro growth inhibitory assay against S. aureus, benzalkonium chloride showed higher inhibitory activity than povidone iodine. Although both disinfectants were inactivated or diffused/diluted over time, benzalkonium chloride maintained the threshold concentration and displayed antimicrobial effects longer than povidone iodine; therefore, benzalkonium chloride appeared to show a better sustained effect. Benzalkonium chloride can be used for creating a hygienic nasotracheal intubation environment with sustained sterilizing effects. UMIN-CTR (Registration No. UMIN000029645 ). Registered 21 Oct 2017.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Preoperative hypoalbuminemia was associated with acute kidney injury in high-risk patients following non-cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Nan Li; Hong Qiao; Jing-Fei Guo; Hong-Yun Yang; Xue-Ying Li; Shuang-Ling Li; Dong-Xin Wang; Li Yang

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following non-cardiac surgery with adverse short- and long- term morbidity and mortality. Evidence shows that hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased AKI risk in patients with infectious diseases and cancer and following cardiac surgery and transplant surgery. However, little evidence is available on non-cardiac surgery population. Thus, we investigated the association between preoperative hypoalbuminemia and AKI following non-cardiac surgery. We retrospectively assessed perioperative risk factors and preoperative serum albumin concentration in 729 consecutive adult patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery from July 1, 2017, to June 30, 2018. Each patient was categorized according to maximal Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria based on creatinine changes and urine output within the first week after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between preoperative hypoalbuminemia and postoperative AKI. Of 729 patients, 188 (25.8%) developed AKI. AKI incidence was higher in patients with preoperative serum albumin < 37.5 g/L than in those with preoperative serum albumin ≥37.5 g/L [35.9% (98/273) vs. 19.7% (90/456), P < 0.001]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative serum albumin < 37.5 g/L (odds ratio 1.892; 95% confidence interval 1.238–2.891; P = 0.003) was independently associated with postoperative AKI. Patients with preoperative serum albumin < 37.5 g/L tended to have a higher but not significant ratio in AKI stage 2 (2.6% vs 1.1%, P = 0.144) and much higher ratio in AKI stage 3 (4.8% vs 0.7%, P < 0.001) than those with preoperative serum albumin ≥37.5 g/L. AKI patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate [6.9% (13/188) vs. 0.2% (1/541), P < 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative survival rate decreased with increasing AKI severity (P < 0.001). Postoperative AKI was also associated with other worse outcomes, such as prolonged mechanical ventilation [53.4 (33.0, 73.8) vs 14.7 (11.1, 18.3) hours, P < 0.001], intensive care unit stay [4.0 (3.1, 4.9) vs 2.0 (1.8, 2.3) days, P < 0.001], postoperative hospital stay [17.8 (14.8, 20.9) vs 12.3 (11.3, 13.3) days, P < 0.001], and higher total cost [13,453 (8538, 20,228) vs 11,306 (6277, 16,400) dollars, P < 0.001]. Preoperative hypoalbuminemia was independently associated with AKI after non-cardiac surgery, and postoperative AKI was associated with poor outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Electrical impedance tomography in perioperative medicine: careful respiratory monitoring for tailored interventions
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Elena Spinelli; Tommaso Mauri; Alberto Fogagnolo; Gaetano Scaramuzzo; Annalisa Rundo; Domenico Luca Grieco; Giacomo Grasselli; Carlo Alberto Volta; Savino Spadaro

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the co-authors has a mistake in the author name; the middle name and surname are switched. This is the correct information.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Estimation of central arterial pressure from the radial artery in patients undergoing invasive neuroradiological procedures
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Sabino Scolletta; Antoine Herpain; Salvatore Mario Romano; Fabio Silvio Taccone; Katia Donadello; Boris Lubicz; Federico Franchi; Keitiane Michele Kaefer; Enrico Polati; Jean-Louis Vincent; Daniel De Backer

    Central arterial pressure can be derived from analysis of the peripheral artery waveform. The aim of this study was to compare central arterial pressures measured from an intra-aortic catheter with peripheral radial arterial pressures and with central arterial pressures estimated from the peripheral pressure wave using a pressure recording analytical method (PRAM). We studied 21 patients undergoing digital subtraction cerebral angiography under local or general anesthesia and equipped with a radial arterial catheter. A second catheter was placed in the ascending aorta for central pressure wave acquisition. Central (AO) and peripheral (RA) arterial waveforms were recorded simultaneously by PRAM for 90–180 s. During an off-line analysis, AO pressures were reconstructed (AOrec) from the RA trace using a mathematical model obtained by multi-linear regression analysis. The AOrec values obtained by PRAM were compared with the true central pressure value obtained from the catheter placed in the ascending aorta. Systolic, diastolic and mean pressures ranged from 79 to 180 mmHg, 47 to 102 mmHg, and 58 to 128 mmHg, respectively, for AO, and 83 to 174 mmHg, 47 to 107 mmHg, and 60 to 129 mmHg, respectively, for RA. The correlation coefficients between AO and RA were 0.86 (p < 0.01), 0.83 (p < 0.01) and 0.86 (p < 0.01) for systolic, diastolic and mean pressures, respectively, and the mean differences − 0.3 mmHg, 2.4 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg. The correlation coefficients between AO and AOrec were 0.92 (p < 0.001), 0.87 (p < 0.001) and 0.92 (p < 0.001), for systolic, diastolic and mean pressures, respectively, and the mean differences 0.01 mmHg, 1.8 mmHg and 1.2 mmHg. PRAM can provide reliable estimates of central arterial pressure.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Point-of-care measurement of activated clotting time for cardiac surgery as measured by the Hemochron signature elite and the Abbott i-STAT: agreement, concordance, and clinical reliability
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Daniel Dirkmann; Elisabeth Nagy; Martin W. Britten; Jürgen Peters

    Since inadequate heparin anticoagulation and insufficient reversal can result in complications during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, heparin anticoagulation monitoring by point-of-care (POC) activated clotting time (ACT) measurements is essential for CPB initiation, maintainance, and anticoagulant reversal. However, concerns exist regarding reproducibility of ACT assays and comparability of devices. We evaluated the agreement of ACT assays using four parallel measurements performed on two commonly used devices each (i.e., two Hemochron Signature Elite (Hemochron) and two Abbott i-STAT (i-STAT) devices, respectively). Blood samples from 30 patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB were assayed at specified steps (baseline, after heparin administration, after protamine administration) with four parallel measurements (two of each device type) using commercial Kaolin activated assays provided by the respective manufactures. Measurements were compared between identical and different device types using linear regression, Bland-Altman analyses, and calculation of Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Parallel i-STAT ACTs demonstrated a good linear correlation (r = 0.985). Bias, as determined by Bland-Altman analysis, was low (− 3.8 s; 95% limits of agreement (LOA): − 77.8 -70.2 s), and Cohen’s Kappa demonstrated good agreement (kappa = 0.809). Hemochron derived ACTs demonstrated worse linear correlation (r = 0.782), larger bias with considerably broader LOA (− 13.14 s; 95%LOA:-316.3–290 s), and lesser concordance between parallel assays (kappa = 0.554). Although demonstrating a fair linear correlation (r = 0.815), parallel measurements on different ACT-devices showed large bias (−20s; 95% LOA: − 290-250 s) and little concordance (kappa = 0.368). Overall, disconcordant results according to clinically predefined target values were more frequent with the Hemochron than i-STAT. Furthermore, while discrepancies in ACT between two parallel iSTAT assays showed little or no clinical relevance, deviations from parallel Hemochron assays and iSTAT versus Hemochron measurements revealed marked and sometimes clinically critical deviations. Currently used ACT point-of-care devices cannot be used interchangeably. Furthermore, our data question the reliability of the Hemochron in assessing adequacy of heparin anticoagulation monitoring for CPB.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Glucose-insulin-potassium improves left ventricular performances after aortic valve replacement: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Marc Licker; John Diaper; Tornike Sologashvili; Christoph Ellenberger

    Patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may suffer ischemia-reperfusion injuries at the time of cardiac surgery with impairment in left ventricular function. Using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), we evaluated the impact of glucose-insulin potassium (GIK) on LV performances in patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic stenosis. In this secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized trial, moderate-to-high risk patients were assigned to receive GIK (20 IU insulin with 10 mEq KCL in 50 ml glucose 40%) or saline over 60 min upon anesthetic induction. The primary outcomes were the early changes in 2-and 3-dimensional left ventricular ejection fraction (2D and 3D-LVEF), peak global longitudinal strain (PGLS) and transmitral flow propagation velocity (Vp). At the end of GIK infusion, LV-FAC and 2D- and 3D-LVEF were unchanged whereas Vp (mean difference [MD + 7.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2 to 12.5%; P < 0.001) increased compared with baseline values. After Placebo infusion, there was a decrease in LV-FAC (MD -2.9%, 95%CI − 4.8 to − 1.0%), 2D-LVEF (MD -2.0%, 95%CI − 2.8 to − 1.3%, 3D-LVEF (MD -3.0%, 95%CI − 4.0 to − 2.0%) and Vp (MD − 4.5 cm/s, 95%CI − 5.6 to − 3.3 cm/s). After cardiopulmonary bypass, GIK pretreatment was associated with preserved 2D and 3D-LVEF (+ 0.4%, 95% 95%CI − 0.8 to 1.7% and + 0.4%, 95%CI − 1.3 to 2.0%), and PGLS (− 0.9, 95%CI − 1.6 to − 0.2) as well as higher Vp (+ 5.1 cm/s, 95%CI 2.9 to 7.3), compared with baseline. In contrast, in the Placebo group, 2D-LVEF (− 2.2%, 95%CI − 3.4 to − 1.0), 3D-LVEF (− 6.0%, 95%CI − 7.8 to − 4.2), and Vp (− 7.6 cm/s, 95%CI − 9.4 to − 5.9), all decreased after bypass. Administration of GIK before aortic cross-clamping resulted in better preservation of systolic and diastolic ventricular function in patients with LV hypertrophy undergoing aortic valve replacement. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00788242 , registered on November 10, 2008.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effects of dexmedetomidine on porcine pulmonary artery vascular smooth muscle
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Mami Chikuda; Kenichi Sato

    The α2-receptor agonist dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to produce sedative and analgesic effects not only with systemic administration but also when administered in the extradural space and around peripheral nerves. The effects and mechanism of action of Dex on pulmonary arteries, however, have not been determined. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effect of Dex on pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle by evaluating changes in isometric contraction tension. We then attempted to determine the effects of Dex on depolarization stimulation and receptor stimulation. Endothelium-denuded porcine pulmonary arteries were sliced into 2- to 3-mm rings. We then exposed them to certain substances at various concentrations under different conditions of baseline stimulation (with KCl, adrenaline, caffeine, or histamine) and to α2-receptor stimulants or antagonists, or α1-receptor antagonists (imidazoline, yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin), and different conditions of Ca2+ depletion of the intracellular reservoir or extracellular stores. We measured the changes in isometric contraction tension with each addition or change in conditions. Dex enhanced the contraction induced by high-concentration KCl stimulation. Dex-induced enhancement of contraction induced by high-concentration KCl was completely suppressed by yohimbine and rauwolscine, which are α2-receptor antagonists, but not by prazosin. Dex, imidazoline, yohimbine, and rauwolscine reduced the increases in contraction tension induced by the receptor stimulant adrenaline. Dex suppressed the adrenaline-induced increases in contraction tension after depletion of the Ca2+ reservoir. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, Dex suppressed the adrenaline- and histamine-induced increases in contraction tension but did not affect caffeine-induced increases. Dex-enhanced, high-concentration KCl-induced contraction was mediated by α2-receptors. Adrenaline-induced contraction was suppressed by the α2-receptor stimulant Dex and α2-receptor antagonists yohimbine and rauwolscine, suggesting that the effect of Dex on adrenaline-induced contraction is attributable to its α2-receptor-blocking action. Dex inhibited receptor-activated Ca2+ channels and phosphatidylinositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release but not Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sub-hypnotic dose of propofol as antiemetic prophylaxis attenuates intrathecal morphine-induced postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pruritus in parturient undergoing cesarean section — a randomized control trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Sylvanus Kampo; Alfred Parker Afful; Shiraj Mohammed; Michael Ntim; Alexis D. B. Buunaaim; Thomas Winsum Anabah

    Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a dreadful and uncomfortable experience that significantly detracts patients’ quality of life after surgery. This study aimed to examine the antiemetic effect of a single sub-hypnotic dose of propofol as prophylaxis for PONV. In this prospective, double-blind, randomized control trial, 345 parturients presented for elective cesarean section at the Obstetric unit of Tamale Teaching Hospital were recruited. Each recruited parturient was randomly assigned to one of three groups; Propofol group (n = 115) represented those who received propofol 0.5 mg/kg, Metoclopramide group (n = 115) represented those who received metoclopramide 10 mg and, Control group (n = 115) represented those who received 0.9% saline. Spinal anesthesia with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5–10 mg, and intrathecal morphine 0.2 mg was employed for the anesthesia. The data indicate that 108 (93.9%) parturients from the control group, 10 (8.7%) from the propofol group and 8 (7.0%) from the metoclopramide group experienced some incidence of PONV. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PONV (nausea, vomiting, and none) between the propofol and the metoclopramide groups (P = 0.99; 0.31; and 0.35 respectively). Parturients who received antiemetic agents were 105 (97.2%), 1 (10.0%) and 3 (37.5%) from the control, propofol and metoclopramide groups respectively. The data indicated that 98 (85.2%) parturients from the control, 3 (2.6%) from propofol group, and 100 (87.0%) from the metoclopramide group experienced some levels of pruritus. There was a significant difference in the incidence of pruritus (mild, moderate, and no pruritus) between the metoclopramide and propofol groups (P < 0.01; P < 0.01; and P < 0.01 respectively). A sub-hypnotic dose of propofol is effective as metoclopramide in the prevention of PONV in parturient undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine. Sub-hypnotic dose of propofol significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative pruritus following intrathecal morphine use. Current control trial, registered at ISRCTN trial registry: ISRCTN15475205 . Date registered: 03/04/2019. Retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The effects of ventilation on left-to-right shunt and regional cerebral oxygen saturation: a self-controlled trial
    BMC Anesthesiol. (IF 1.619) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Peiyi Li; Jun Zeng; Wei Wei; Jing Lin

    Increase of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is an efficient method of modulating pulmonary and systemic blood flows (Qp/Qs) for patients with left-to-right (L-R) shunt, and is also closely associated with insufficient oxygen exchange for pulmonary hypoperfusion. So that it might be a preferred regime of maintaining arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) within an optimal boundary via ventilation management in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients for the inconvenient measure of the PVR and Qp/Qs. However, the appropriate range of PaCO2 and patient-specific mechanical ventilation settings remain controversial for CHD children with L-R shunt. Thirty-one pediatric patients with L-R shunt, 1–6 yr of age, were included in this observation study. Patients were ventilated with tidal volume (VT) of 10, 8 and 6 ml/kg in sequence, and 15 min stabilization period for individual VT. The velocity time integral (VTI) of L-R shunt, pulmonary artery (PA) and descending aorta (DA) were measured with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) after an initial 15 min stabilization period for each VT, with arterial blood gas analysis. Near-infrared spectroscopy sensor were positioned on the surface of the bilateral temporal artery to monitor the change in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2). PaCO2 was 31.51 ± 0.65 mmHg at VT 10 ml/kg vs. 37.15 ± 0.75 mmHg at VT 8 ml/kg (P < 0.03), with 44.24 ± 0.99 mmHg at VT 6 ml/kg significantly higher than 37.15 ± 0.75 mmHg at VT 8 ml/kg. However, PaO2 at a VT of 6 ml/kg was lower than that at a VT of 10 ml/kg (P = 0.05). Meanwhile, 72% (22/31) patients had PaCO2 in the range of 40-50 mmHg at VT 6 ml/kg. VTI of L-R shunt and PA at VT 6 ml/kg were lower than that at VT of 8 and 10 ml/kg (P < 0.05). rScO2 at a VT of 6 ml/kg was higher than that at a VT of 8 and 10 ml/kg (P < 0.05), with a significantly correlation between rScO2 and PaCO2 (r = 0.53). VTI of PA in patients with defect diameter > 10 mm was higher that that in patients with defect diameter ≤ 10 mm. Maintaining PaCO2 in the boundary of 40-50 mmHg with VT 6 ml/kg might be a feasible ventilation regime to achieve better oxygenation for patients with L-R shunt. Continue raising PaCO2 should be careful. Clinical Trial Registry of China (http://www.chictr.org.cn) identifier: ChiCTR-OOC-17011338 , prospectively registered on May 9, 2017.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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