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  • Correction to: Atypical presentation of hemorrhagic shock in pregnancy: a case highlighting the developing field of emergency medicine in Israel
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Baruch Berzon; Michael Gleenberg; Joseph Offenbacher; Debra West

    The original article [1] contained a misspelling in first author, Baruch Berzon’s name which has since been corrected.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A woman’s worth: an access framework for integrating emergency medicine with maternal health to reduce the burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Martina Anto-Ocrah; Jeremy Cushman; Mechelle Sanders; Timothy De Ver Dye

    Within each of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified key emergency care (EC) interventions that, if implemented effectively, could ensure that the SDG targets are met. The proposed EC intervention for reaching the maternal mortality benchmark calls for “timely access to emergency obstetric care.” This intervention, the WHO estimates, can avert up to 98% of maternal deaths across the African region. Access, however, is a complicated notion and is part of a larger framework of care delivery that constitutes the approachability of the proposed service, its acceptability by the target user, the perceived availability and accommodating nature of the service, its affordability, and its overall appropriateness. Without contextualizing each of these aspects of access to healthcare services within communities, utilization and sustainability of any EC intervention-be it ambulances or simple toll-free numbers to dial and activate EMS-will be futile. In this article, we propose an access framework that integrates the Three Delays Model in maternal health, with emergency care interventions. Within each of the three critical time points, we provide reasons why intended interventions should be contextualized to the needs of the community. We also propose measurable benchmarks in each of the phases, to evaluate the successes and failures of the proposed EC interventions within the framework. At the center of the framework is the pregnant woman, whose life hangs in a delicate balance in the hands of personal and health system factors that may or may not be within her control. The targeted SDGs for reducing maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are unlikely to be met without a tailored integration of maternal health service delivery with emergency medicine. Our proposed framework integrates the fields of maternal health with emergency medicine by juxtaposing the three critical phases of emergency obstetric care with various aspects of healthcare access. The framework should be adopted in its entirety, with measureable benchmarks set to track the successes and failures of the various EC intervention programs being developed across the African continent.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Do Bacteremic patients with end-stage renal disease have a fever when presenting to the emergency department? A paired, retrospective cohort study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Sarah L. Weatherall; Alison B. Chambers; Leonard A. Mermel

    Fever is a common symptom when patients present to Emergency Departments. It is unclear if the febrile response of bacteremic hemodialysis-dependent patients differs from bacteremic patients not receiving hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to compare Emergency Departments triage temperatures of patients with and without hemodialysis-dependent end-stage rental disease who have Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and determine the incidence of afebrile S. aureus bacteremia. Paired, retrospective cohort study of 37 patients with and 37 patients without hemodialysis hospitalized with Methicillin-resistant or Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteremia. Emergency Department triage temperatures were reviewed for all patients, as were potential confounding variables. 54% (95% CI, 38–70%) and 82% (95% CI 65–91%) of hemodialysis and non-hemodialysis patients did not have a detectable fever (<100.4 °F) at triage. Triage temperatures were 100.5 °F (95% CI 99.9–101.2 °F) and 99.0 °F (95% CI 98.4–99.6 °F) in the hemodialysis and non-hemodialysis cohorts, respectively (p < 0.001). Triage temperature in patients with and without diabetes mellitus was 99.2 °F (95% CI 98.4–99.9 °F) and 100.4 °F (95% CI 99.7–101.0 °F), respectively (p = 0.03). We were unable to detect a significant effect of diabetes mellitus and other potential confounding variables on differences in temperature between the hemodialysis and non-hemodialysis cohorts (all interactions p > 0.19). Hemodialysis-dependent patients with S. aureus bacteremia had significantly higher temperatures than non- hemodialysis-dependent end stage renal disease patients but more than half of patients were without detectable fever at triage, possibly reflecting use of insensitive methods for measuring temperature. Absence of fever at presentation to the Emergency Department should not delay blood culture acquisition in patients who are at increased risk of S. aureus bacteremia.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Emergency medical dispatch services across Pan-Asian countries: a web-based survey
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Shawn Chieh Loong Lee; Desmond Renhao Mao; Yih Yng Ng; Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong; Jirapong Supasaovapak; Faith Joan Gaerlan; Do Ngoc Son; Boon Yang Chia; Sang Do Shin; Chih-Hao Lin; G. V. Ramana Rao; Takahiro Hara; Marcus Eng Hock Ong

    Dispatch services (DS’s) form an integral part of emergency medical service (EMS) systems. The role of a dispatcher has also evolved into a crucial link in patient care delivery, particularly in dispatcher assisted cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (DACPR) during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Yet, there has been a paucity of research into the emerging area of dispatch science in Asia. This paper compares the characteristics of DS’s, and state of implementation of DACPR within the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes (PAROS) network. A cross-sectional descriptive survey addressing population characteristics, DS structures and levels of service, state of DACPR implementation (including protocols and quality improvement programs) among PAROS DS’s. 9 DS’s responded, representing a total of 23 dispatch centres from 9 countries that serve over 80 million people. Most PAROS DS’s operate a tiered dispatch response, have implemented medical oversight, and tend to be staffed by dispatchers with a predominantly medical background. Almost all PAROS DS’s have begun tracking key EMS indicators. 77.8% (n = 7) of PAROS DS’s have introduced DACPR. Of the DS’s that have rolled out DACPR, 71.4% (n = 5) provided instructions in over one language. All DS’s that implemented DACPR and provided feedback to dispatchers offered feedback on missed OHCA recognition. The majority of DS’s (83.3%; n = 5) that offered DACPR and provided feedback to dispatchers also implemented corrective feedback, while 66.7% (n = 4) offered positive feedback. Compression-only CPR was the standard instruction for PAROS DS’s. OHCA recognition sensitivity varied widely in PAROS DS’s, ranging from 32.6% (95% CI: 29.9–35.5%) to 79.2% (95% CI: 72.9–84.4%). Median time to first compression ranged from 120 s to 220 s. We found notable variations in characteristics and state of DACPR implementation between PAROS DS’s. These findings will lay the groundwork for future DS and DACPR studies in the PAROS network.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • What are emergency ambulance services doing to meet the needs of people who call frequently? A national survey of current practice in the United Kingdom
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Helen A. Snooks; Ashrafunnesa Khanom; Robert Cole; Adrian Edwards; Bethan Mair Edwards; Bridie A. Evans; Theresa Foster; Rachael T. Fothergill; Carol P. Gripper; Chelsey Hampton; Ann John; Robin Petterson; Alison Porter; Andy Rosser; Jason Scott

    Emergency ambulance services are integral to providing a service for those with unplanned urgent and life-threatening health conditions. However, high use of the service by a small minority of patients is a concern. Our objectives were to describe: service-wide and local policies or pathways for people classified as Frequent Caller; call volume; and results of any audit or evaluation. We conducted a national survey of current practice in ambulance services in relation to the management of people who call the emergency ambulance service frequently using a structured questionnaire for completion by email and telephone interview. We analysed responses using a descriptive and thematic approach. Twelve of 13 UK ambulance services responded. Most services used nationally agreed definitions for ‘Frequent Caller’, with 600–900 people meeting this classification each month. Service-wide policies were in place, with local variations. Models of care varied from within-service care where calls are flagged in the call centre; contact made with callers; and their General Practitioner (GP) with an aim of discouraging further calls, to case management through cross-service, multi-disciplinary team meetings aiming to resolve callers’ needs. Although data were available related to volume of calls and number of callers meeting the threshold for definition as Frequent Caller, no formal audits or evaluations were reported. Ambulance services are under pressure to meet challenging response times for high acuity patients. Tensions are apparent in the provision of care to patients who have complex needs and call frequently. Multi-disciplinary case management approaches may help to provide appropriate care, and reduce demand on emergency services. However, there is currently inadequate evidence to inform commissioning, policy or practice development.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Costs and effects of interventions targeting frequent presenters to the emergency department: a systematic and narrative review
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Viola Korczak; Janani Shanthosh; Stephen Jan; Michael Dinh; Thomas Lung

    Previous systematic reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for frequent presenters to the Emergency Department (ED) but not the costs and cost-effectiveness of such interventions. A systematic literature review was conducted which screened the following databases: Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Econlit. An inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed following PRISMA guidelines. A narrative review methodology was adopted due to the heterogeneity of the reporting of the costs across the studies. One thousand three hundred eighty-nine papers were found and 16 were included in the review. All of the interventions were variations of a case management approach. Apart from one study which had mixed results, all of the papers reported a decrease in ED use and costs. There were no cost effectiveness studies. The majority of interventions for frequent presenters to the ED were found to decrease ED use and cost. Future research should be undertaken to examine the cost effectiveness of these interventions.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Stakeholder opinion on the proposal to introduce ‘treat and referral’ into the Irish emergency medical service
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Brian Power; Gerard Bury; John Ryan

    The Irish ambulance services have traditionally transported all patients following an emergency (112/999) call, regardless of acuity, to an emergency department (ED). A proposal to introduce Treat and Referral, an established care pathway in some jurisdictions, is under active consideration in Ireland. This will present a significant change. Stakeholder engagement is recognised as an essential component of management of such change. This study has conducted a multicentre, cross-sectional survey exploring opinions on the introduction of Treat and Referral among key Irish stakeholders; consultants in emergency medicine, paramedics and advanced paramedics. Public-sector consultants in emergency medicine (EM), registered paramedics and advanced paramedics, in Ireland at the time of the study, were invited to complete an on-line survey. A significant finding was that 90% of both cohorts (EM consultants and registered paramedic practitioners) support written after-care instructions being given to referred patients, that > 83% agree that Treat and Referral will reduce unnecessary ambulance journeys and that 70% are in favour of their own family member being offered Treat and Referral. Consensus was reached between respondents that Treat and Referral would improve care and increase clinical judgement of practitioners. Differences were identified in relation to the increased availability of ambulances locally, that only adults should be included, and that research was required to extend Treat and Referral beyond the index conditions. There was no consensus on whether general practitioners (GPs) should be directly informed. This study identified that the Irish healthcare practitioners surveyed are supportive of the introduction of Treat and Referral into Ireland. It also affords healthcare policymakers the opportunity to address the concerns raised, in particular the clinical level which will be targeted for inclusion in this extended scope of practice.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Spontaneous bladder rupture secondary to warfarin overdose: a case report
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Taner Sahin; Ufuk Oner; Omer Baser; Ismail Kurtuncu

    Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, is a widely used medication for the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic events. Patients with various clinical conditions due to warfarin overdose present to emergency departments. Although there may be serious bleeding due to a warfarin overdose, no bleeding may also be seen in some clinical conditions. Some of these bleedings may be life-threatening and result in death. Warfarin overdose and related cases of spontaneous bladder rupture are not frequently observed in the literature. We present a case of spontaneous bladder rupture due to warfarin overdose that was unexpectedly seen in a patient using warfarin for coronary artery disease and arrhythmia. A 77-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain, haematuria, and a reduced volume of urine lasting for three days. The patient’s amount of urine was reduced, and he came to the hospital for the first time with this complaint. The patient had local bruises on his arms and legs. From the ultrasound, retrograde cystography and computed tomography images, it was thought that there was blood accumulation due to bladder rupture to the intraperitoneal region. Spontaneous bladder rupture secondary to warfarin overdose was considered for this patient who also had an international normalized ratio (INR) level of 13.4. After the INR level was normalized with vitamin K and a prothrombin complex concentrate, the patient underwent surgery. During the operation, a catheter was placed in the bladder, and the bladder mucosa and muscle were closed separately with a primary repair performed by a urologist. The patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day without any complications. In addition to the known findings of warfarin overdose in these patients presenting to the emergency department, we think that the emergency department staff should suspect bladder rupture, which is a fatal complication in the presence of signs such as oliguria, haematuria, anuria, abdominal pain, and syncope.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Needs assessment of emergency medical and rescue services in Abuja/Nigeria and environs
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Peter Asaga Mac; Axel Kroeger; Philomena Ehi Airiohuodion

    Nigeria is ranked second highest in the rate of road accidents and other emergencies (Deaths, disabilities) among 193 countries of the world. There is therefore the need for analyzing Emergency Medical Rescue Services (EMRS) in the country to identify options for improvement. The study was conducted from February, 2016 to March, 2017 in three EMRS organizations (FRSC, NEMA and MAITAMA Hospital) located in Abuja. The structure, resources, process of EMRS activities and outcome (delay times, case fatality as well as victims and service-providers satisfaction with services) were assessed through observation, time measurements and interviews. FRSC and NEMA offers (Road Traffic Injury) RTI and Disaster services, the ambulances consist of Intensive Care Unit(ICU) buses, Helicopters, Speed boats, motorbikes and other specialized vehicles. Mortality and morbidity recorded for 2016 was 1.1 and 2% respectively. MAITAMA is a specialist centre that offers general medical services. A total number 1227(88.8%) lives were saved during the observational period by three organizations, 60(4.9%) deaths, 132 (9.6%) disabilities, 793 (57.2%) NCDs and 593(42.8%) RTI. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause many deaths and morbidities in the developing world compared to infectious diseases. There is need for total revamping and education of EMRS institutions in Nigeria and Low- Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Abuja and its surroundings suffers from delays in rapid emergency services, lack of adequate awareness, functional ambulances, minimal specialists and inadequate consumables lead to the loss of many lives.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • The Sydney triage to admission risk tool (START) to improve patient flow in an emergency department: a model of care implementation pilot study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Anja Ebker-White; Kendall J. Bein; Saartje Berendsen Russell; Michael M. Dinh

    The Sydney Triage to Admission Risk Tool (START) is a validated clinical analytics tool designed to estimate the probability of in-patient admission based on Emergency Department triage characteristics. This was a single centre pilot implementation study using a matched case control sample of patients assessed at ED triage. Patients in the intervention group were identified at triage by the START tool as likely requiring in-patient admission and briefly assessed by an ED Consultant. Bed management were notified of these patients and their likely admitting team based on senior early assessment. Matched controls were identified on the same day of presentation if they were admitted to the same in-patient teams as patients in the intervention group and same START score category. Outcomes were ED length of stay and proportion of patients correctly classified as an in-patient admission by the START tool. One hundred and thirteen patients were assessed using the START-based model of care. When compared with matched control patients, this intervention model of care was associated with a significant reduction in ED length of stay [301 min (IQR 225–397) versus 423 min (IQR 297–587) p < 0.001] and proportion of patients meeting 4 h length of stay thresholds increased from 24 to 45% (p < 0.001). In this small pilot implementation study, the START tool, when used in conjunction with senior early assessment was associated with a reduction in ED length of stay. Further controlled studies are now underway to further examine its utility across other ED settings.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Diagnostic error in the emergency department: learning from national patient safety incident report analysis
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Faris Hussain; Alison Cooper; Andrew Carson-Stevens; Liam Donaldson; Peter Hibbert; Thomas Hughes; Adrian Edwards

    Diagnostic error occurs more frequently in the emergency department than in regular in-patient hospital care. We sought to characterise the nature of reported diagnostic error in hospital emergency departments in England and Wales from 2013 to 2015 and to identify the priority areas for intervention to reduce their occurrence. A cross-sectional mixed-methods design using an exploratory descriptive analysis and thematic analysis of patient safety incident reports. Primary data were extracted from a national database of patient safety incidents. Reports were filtered for emergency department settings, diagnostic error (as classified by the reporter), from 2013 to 2015. These were analysed for the chain of events, contributory factors and harm outcomes. There were 2288 cases of confirmed diagnostic error: 1973 (86%) delayed and 315 (14%) wrong diagnoses. One in seven incidents were reported to have severe harm or death. Fractures were the most common condition (44%), with cervical-spine and neck of femur the most frequent types. Other common conditions included myocardial infarctions (7%) and intracranial bleeds (6%). Incidents involving both delayed and wrong diagnoses were associated with insufficient assessment, misinterpretation of diagnostic investigations and failure to order investigations. Contributory factors were predominantly human factors, including staff mistakes, healthcare professionals’ inadequate skillset or knowledge and not following protocols. Systems modifications are needed that provide clinicians with better support in performing patient assessment and investigation interpretation. Interventions to reduce diagnostic error need to be evaluated in the emergency department setting, and could include standardised checklists, structured reporting and technological investigation improvements.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The prognostic value of red blood cell distribution width in patients with suspected infection in the emergency department
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Jan Willem Uffen; Patrick Oomen; Marieke de Regt; Jan Jelrik Oosterheert; Karin Kaasjager

    Sepsis is a potential life threatening dysregulated immune response to an infection, which can result in multi-organ failure and death. Unfortunately, good prognostic markers are lacking in patients with suspected infection to identify those at risk. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a common and inexpensive hematologic laboratory measurement associated with adverse prognosis in multiple diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of RDW for mortality and early clinical deterioration in patients with a suspected infection in the emergency department. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, consecutive patients with suspected infection presenting for internal medicine in the emergency department between September 2016 and March 2018 were included. For prognostic validation of bedside sepsis scores and RDW receiver operating characteristics were generated. Association between RDW and mortality and ICU admission was analyzed univariate and in a multivariate logistic regression model. 1046 patients were included. In multivariate analyses, RDW was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04–1.28) and early clinical deterioration (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00–1.18). For 30-day mortality RDW had an AUROC of 0.66 (95% CI 0.59–0.72). Optimal cut-off value for RDW 2 was 12.95%. For early clinical deterioration RDW had an AUROC of 0.59 (95% CI 0.54–0.63) with an optimal cut-off value of 14.48%. RDW was found to be a significant independent prognostic factor of 30-day mortality and early clinical deterioration in patients with suspected infection.. Therefore it can be a used as an extra marker besides bedside sepsis scores in identifying patients at risk for worse outcome in patients with suspected infection.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Proenkephalin a 119–159 (penKid) – a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury in sepsis: an observational study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Mari Rosenqvist; Kevin Bronton; Oliver Hartmann; Andreas Bergmann; Joachim Struck; Olle Melander

    Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide and a major challenge for physicians to predict and manage. Proenkephalin A 119–159 (penKid) is a reliable surrogate marker for the more unstable endogenous opioid peptide enkephalin, which has previously been shown to predict both acute and chronic kidney disease. The aim of this prospective observational study was to assess penKid as a predictor of acute kidney injury (AKI), multi-organ failure and mortality in sepsis among unselected sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We enrolled 644 patients consecutively during office-hours (6 AM-6 PM) between December 1, 2013 and February 1, 2015. Fifty-six patients were excluded due to incomplete data. We measured penKid in 588 adult patients (patients under 18 years of age were excluded) with sepsis (≥2SIRS criteria + suspected infection) upon admission to the ED at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden. Logistic regression analysis was used to relate levels of penKid at presentation to AKI, multi-organ failure, 28-day mortality and progression of renal SOFA subscore. Odds ratios are presented as the number of standard deviations from the mean of log-transformed penKid. In age and sex adjusted models, penKid predicted AKI within 48 h and 7 days, but these associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for estimated creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In models adjusted for age, sex and eGFR, penKid significantly predicted progression from rSOFA = 0 and ≤ 1 to higher rSOFA scores as well as multi-organ failure and mortality. In contrast, eGFR did not predict 28-day mortality. PenKid is an effective predictor of renal injury, severe multi-organ failure and mortality in unselected sepsis patients presenting to the emergency department.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic incident among adolescents and children in the hospitals of Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-03-04
    Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh; Berhanu Boru Bifftu; Berihun Assefa Dachew

    Road Traffic Incident (RTI) has been commonly reported as a major public health problem around the world and the incidence is higher in low and middle income countries, such as Ethiopia than high income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with RTI among adolescents and children in the hospitals of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was employed among 830 injured children visiting the Emergency Department of four randomly selected hospitals of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia between February 1 and April 30, 2016. Data were entered into EPI info version 7 and then exported to SPSS version 20, for further analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. Adjusted odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used to determine the statistical significance. The overall prevalence of RTI, from all injury cases, was 20%. Socioeconomic status, being wealthy (AOR: 0.08, 95% CI, 0.01, 0.45) and middle income (AOR: 0.40,95% CI, 0.17, 0.97), parental/guardian education/no education (AOR: 6.91, 95% CI, 2.52, 8.93), mothers marital status/divorced (AOR: 0.01, 95% CI, 0.01, 0.05), and leaving a child with another child for sometime (AOR: 2.56, CI 1.06, 6.20) and most often (AOR: 4.77, CI, 1.15, 9.77) were factors independently associated with RTI . The prevalence of RTI was found to be high. RTI prevention needs critical consideration and the intervention strategies shall focus on those families who are practicing of leaving a child with another child.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Severe Viperidae envenomation complicated by a state of shock, acute kidney injury, and gangrene presenting late at the emergency department: a case report
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Agnès Esiéné; Paul Owono Etoundi; Joel Noutakdie Tochie; Arlette Junette Mbengono Metogo; Jacqueline Ze Minkande

    Snake envenomation is an underestimated pathology in sub-Saharan Africa associated with severe emergencies, and even death in case of late presentation. We herein present a case of severe envenomation managed at the surgical emergency department of the Yaoundé Central Hospital. We report a case of a 47-year-old female farmer with no relevant past history who sustained a snakebite by an Echis occellatus viper during an agricultural activity. Her initial management consisted in visiting a traditional healer who administered her some herbal remedies orally and applied a white balm on the affected limb. Due to progressive deterioration of her condition, she was rushed to our surgical department where she arrived 20 h after the snakebite incident. On admission she presented in a state of shock (suggestive of an anaphylactic shock), coagulopathy, renal impairment, and gangrene of the entire right upper limb. Emergency management consisted of fluid resuscitation, repeated boluses of adrenaline, a total of three vials of polyvalent anti-venom sera, promethazine, analgesics, corticosteroids, and administration of fresh frozen plasma. Within four hours of emergency department hospitalisation she developped signs of sepsis and persistent hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation, suggestive of an associated septic shock. Management pursued with antiobiotherapy and administration of noradrenaline through an electric pump syringe to achieve a mean arterial blood pressure above 65 mmHg. The patient deceased at the 10th hour of hospitalisation in a state of circulatory collapse unresponsive to vasopressors, coagulopathy, renal failure, sepsis and gangrene of the right forearm. The authors highlight this unusual presentation but equally pinpoint how late presentation to the emergency department, harmful tradition practices, poverty and cultural beliefs can adversely affect the prognosis of snakebite in our setting.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Association between emergency department length of stay and adverse perioperative outcomes in emergency surgery: a cohort study in two Colombian University hospitals
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-04-17
    Félix R. Montes; Skarlet Marcell Vásquez; Claudia Marcela Camargo-Rojas; Myriam V. Rueda; Lina Góez-Mogollón; Paula A. Alvarado; Danny J. Novoa; Juan Carlos Villar

    In low- and middle-income countries emergency surgery represents a higher proportion of the total number of surgeries and is associated with greater morbidity/mortality. Study aims were to determine if emergency department length of stay (ED-LOS) was associated with adverse perioperative outcomes and if such association varied across patient’s risk categories. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients who underwent orthopedic or abdominal emergency surgery at two Colombian University hospitals. The population comprised a mix of a representative sample of eligible cases, with unselected patients (2/3), enriched with a high-risk subset (1/3). ED-LOS was defined as the interval between emergency department arrival and surgery start time. Our primary outcome was an adverse perioperative outcome during hospitalization, which was a composite of in-hospital mortality or severe complications such as major cardiovascular adverse events, infection, renal failure and bleeding. Among 1487 patients analyzed, there were 519 adverse perioperative outcomes including 150 deaths. In the unselected sample (n = 998) 17.9% of patients presented an adverse perioperative outcome with a mortality of 4.9%. The median ED-LOS was 24.6 (IQR 12.5–53.2) hours. ED-LOS was associated with age, comorbidities and known risk factors for 30-day mortality. Patients developing an adverse perioperative outcome started surgery 27.1 h later than their counterparts. Prolonged ED-LOS increased the risk of an adverse perioperative outcome in patients without risk factors (covariate-adjusted OR = 2.52), while having 1–2 or 3+ risk factors was negatively associated (OR = 0.87 and 0.72, respectively, p < 0.001 for the interaction). Prolonged ED-LOS is associated with increased adverse perioperative outcome for patients without risk factors for mortality, but seems protective and medically justified for more complex cases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Trends and barriers of emergency medical service use in Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-04-18
    Menbeu Sultan; Yonas Abebe; Assefu Welde Tsadik; Asmamaw Ababa; Alegnta Gebre Yesus; Nee-Kofi Mould-Millman

    The increasing burdens of trauma and time sensitive non-communicable disease in Addis Ababa necessitate a robust emergency medical care system. The objectives of this study were to assess the proportion of patients who used emergency medical services (EMS) and to quantitatively and qualitatively assess barriers to EMS utilization in Addis Ababa. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on patients who visited five selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa with specific emergency conditions. Data were collected by trained nurses using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression was done on cleaned and coded quantitative data using SPSS version 20. Thematic analysis was performed on the qualitative data. Ethical approval was obtained prior to the study. A total of 429 participants completed the survey with a non-response rate of 5.1%. The most common emergency scene was the home (n = 222, 51.8%) followed by road side (n = 159, 37.1%). Only 87(20.3%) patients arrived by ambulance, though a majority (53.4%) of participants recalled at least one access number for an ambulance service and 96.3% stated that ambulances were an important part of the continuum of care for their emergency condition. A higher proportion of participants believed that ambulance transportation is generally safer (n = 341, 78.5%) and faster (n = 298, 69.5%) than emergency transport by taxi or private car. Patients who were non-Amharic speaking had a negative association with arriving by ambulance (P = 0.001, OR 0.47; C.I, 0.31, 0.71). The median acceptable time to get the ambulance (according to respondent’s perception) was 16 min but actually perceived ambulance waiting time was 40 min. EMS utilization in Addis Ababa is relatively low and emergency patients are instead being transported by taxi or private car. Perceived longer ambulance waiting time and language barriers may have contributed for low utilization. Findings of this study suggest an action to improve access by improving ambulance availability while simultaneously enhancing the public’s knowledge and perception of EMS in Addis Ababa.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Gender differences in acute recreational drug toxicity: a case series from Oslo, Norway
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Victoria Lykke Syse; Mette Brekke; Marit Mæhle Grimsrud; Per Sverre Persett; Fridtjof Heyerdahl; Knut Erik Hovda; Odd Martin Vallersnes

    Female drug users report poorer physical and mental health than male drug users. We describe female and male patients treated for acute recreational drug toxicity, and look for gender differences in clinical state, treatment, and toxic agents taken. Retrospective case series from a primary care emergency outpatient clinic and a hospital emergency department in Oslo, Norway. All patients treated for acute recreational drug toxicity from October 2013 through March 2015 were included, except patients with lone alcohol intoxication. Patients were grouped according to whether they had taken opioids or not, as a proxy differentiation between heavy drug users and party drug users. Data from the two clinical settings were analysed separately. In total, 2495 cases were included, 567 (22.7%) were women. Female patients were younger than males, median 31 vs 34 years (p < 0.001). On most comparisons of clinical variables there were no significant differences between genders. A larger proportion of females in the outpatient opioid group were hypotensive, 10.9% vs 3.9% (p < 0.001). Fewer females were intubated, none vs 21.1% (p = 0.019) in the hospital opioid group, and 6.4% vs 21.0% (p = 0.039) in the hospital non-opioid group. The proportion of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) poisoning was larger among females both at the outpatient clinic (14.4% vs 8.6%, p < 0.001) and at the hospital (60.3% vs 36.4%, p = 0.001), while the proportion of heroin poisoning was smaller among females at the outpatient clinic (37.1% vs 47.0%, p < 0.001). One in four patients treated for acute recreational drug toxicity were women. Female patients were younger, had more frequently taken GHB and were less frequently intubated. Otherwise, the gender differences regarding clinical state and treatment were small. Although female drug users are known to report poorer health than males, we did not find that women had a more severe clinical course than men when presenting with overdose.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Community paramedic point of care testing: validity and usability of two commercially available devices
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Ian E. Blanchard; Ryan Kozicky; Dana Dalgarno; Justin Simms; Stacy Goulder; Tyler S. Williamson; Susan Biesbroek; Lenore Page; Karen Leaman; Suzanne Snozyk; Lyle Redman; Keith Spackman; Christopher J. Doig; Eddy S. Lang; Gerald Lazarenko

    Community Paramedics (CPs) require access to timely blood analysis in the field to guide treatment and transport decisions. Point of care testing (POCT), as opposed to laboratory analysis, may offer a solution, but limited research exists on CP POCT. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of two devices (Abbott i-STAT® and Alere epoc®) by CPs in the community. In a CP programme responding to 6000 annual patient care events, a split sample validation of POCT against traditional laboratory analysis for seven analytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose) was conducted on a consecutive sample of patients. The difference of proportion of discrepant results between POCT and laboratory was compared using a two sample proportion test. Usability was analysed by survey of CP experience, a linear mixed effects model of Systems Usability Scale (SUS) adjusted for CP clinical and POCT experience, an expert heuristic evaluation of devices, a review of device-logged errors, and coded observations of POCT use during quality control testing. Of 1649 episodes of care screened for enrollment, 174 required a blood draw, with 108 episodes (62.1%) enrolled from 73 participants. Participants had a mean age of 58.7 years (SD16.3); 49% were female. In 4 of 646 (0.6%) comparisons, POCT reported a critical value but the laboratory did not; with no statistically significant (p = 0.323) difference between i-STAT® (0.9%;95%CI:0.0,1.9%) compared with epoc® (0.3%;95%CI:0.0,0.9%). There were no instances of the laboratory reporting a critical value when POCT did not. In 88 of 1046 (8.4%) comparisons the a priori defined acceptable difference between POCT and the laboratory was exceeded; occurring more often in epoc® (10.7%;95%CI:8.1,13.3%) compared with i-STAT® (6.1%;95%CI:4.1,8.2%)(p = 0.007). Eighteen of 19 CP surveys were returned, with 11/18 (61.1%) preferring i-STAT® over epoc®. The i-STAT® had a higher mean SUS score (higher usability) compared with epoc® (84.0/100 vs. 59.6/100; p = 0.011). There were no statistically significant differences in device logged errors between i-STAT® and epoc® (p = 0.063). CP programmes can expect clinically valid results from POCT. Device usability assessments should be considered with any local implementation as the two POCT systems have different strengths.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The MEDEA FAR-EAST Study: Conceptual framework, methods and first findings of a multicenter cross-sectional observational study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Sophia Hoschar; Jiangqi Pan; Zhen Wang; Xiaoyan Fang; Xian’e Tang; Weiqi Shi; Rongxiang Tu; Peng Xi; Wenliang Che; Hongbao Wang; Yawei Li; Kurt Fritzsche; Xuebo Liu; Karl-Heinz Ladwig; Wenlin Ma

    The substantial increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in China over the last three decades warrants comprehensive preventive primary and secondary strategies. Prolonged prehospital delay (PHD) has been identified as a substantial barrier to timely therapeutic interventions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite worldwide efforts to decrease the patient’s decision-making time, minimal change has been achieved so far. Here, we aim to describe the conceptual framework and methods and outline key data of the MEDEA FAR-EAST Study, which aimed to elucidate in-depth barriers contributing to delay in Chinese AMI-patients. Data sources of this multicenter cross-sectional observational study are a standardized bedside interview, a self-administered tailored questionnaire tool and the patient chart. PHD was defined as the main outcome and triangulated at bedside. Standard operation procedures ensured uniform data collection by trained study personnel. The study was ethically approved by Tongji-Hospital and applied to all participating hospitals. Among 379 consecutively screened patients, 296 (78.1%) fulfilled eligibility criteria. A total of 241 (81.4%) AMI-patients were male and 55 (18.6%) female. Mean age was 62.9 years. Prehospital delay time was assessed for 294 (99.3%) patients. Overall median PHD was 151 min with no significant sex difference. Symptom mismatch was present in 200 (69.7%) patients and 106 (39.0%) patients did not attribute their symptoms to cardiac origin. A total of 33 (12.4%) patients suffered from depression, 31 (11.7%) from anxiety and 141 (53.2%) patients employed denial as their major coping style. This is the first study on prehospital delay with emphasis on psychological variables in Chinese AMI-patients. A comprehensive assessment tool to measure clinical and psychological factors was successfully implemented. Socio-demographic key data proved a good fit into preexisting Chinese literature. Potential barriers including cardiac denial and symptom-mismatch were assessed for the first time in Chinese AMI-patients. The pretested selection of instruments allows future in depth investigations into barriers to delay of Chinese AMI-patients and enables inter-cultural comparisons.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Influence of patient race on administration of analgesia by student paramedics
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Bill Lord; Sahaj Khalsa

    Disparities in the management of pain are associated with factors that include social status, age and race. As there is limited data regarding the influence of race on analgesia provided by paramedics this study investigated associations between patient race and student paramedic management of pain. Retrospective study of student paramedic records entered in the FISDAP Skill Tracker database between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. Cases were extracted if aged 16 to 100 years, the patient was alert and the primary or secondary impression was trauma. The primary outcome of interest was the association between patient race and student paramedic administration of any analgesia. The adjusted odds of patients receiving any analgesic was tested with logistic regression using a stepped modelling approach. 59,915 cases were available for analysis; median age was 50 years (IQR 39 years), 50.1% were female (n = 30,040). Fall was the most common case type 43% (n = 26,009) of cases. 14.1% of patients received any analgesia (n = 8424). Caucasian patients have significantly higher odds of receiving analgesia than non-Caucasian patients (p < 0.001). When analgesic administration is adjusted for gender, age category and injury cause, African Americans have the lowest logged odds of receiving any analgesia when compared to Caucasian patients (OR 0.60, p < 0.001). The results indicate inequality in the provision of analgesia by student paramedics based on patient race. This suggests a need for interventions to reduce disparities in care based on race.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • ECG alterations suggestive of hyperkalemia in normokalemic versus hyperkalemic patients
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Csaba Varga; Zsolt Kálmán; Alíz Szakáll; Kata Drubits; Márton Koch; Róbert Bánhegyi; Tibor Oláh; Éva Pozsgai; Norbert Fülöp; József Betlehem

    In periarrest situations and during resuscitation it is essential to rule out reversible causes. Hyperkalemia is one of the most common, reversible causes of periarrest situations. Typical electrocardiogram (ECG) alterations may indicate hyperkalemia. The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of ECG alterations suggestive of hyperkalemia in normokalemic and hyperkalemic patients. 170 patients with normal potassium (K+) levels and 135 patients with moderate (serum K+ = 6.0–7.0 mmol/l) or severe (K+ > 7.0 mmol/l) hyperkalemia, admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine at the Somogy County Kaposi Mór General Hospital, were selected for this retrospective, cross-sectional study. ECG obtained upon admission were analyzed by two emergency physicians, independently, blinded to the objectives of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS22 software. χ2 test and Fischer exact tests were applied. 24% of normokalemic patients and 46% of patients with elevated potassium levels had some kind of ECG alteration suggestive of hyperkalemia. Wide QRS (31.6%), peaked T-waves (18.4%), Ist degree AV-block (18.4%) and bradycardia (18.4%) were the most common and significantly more frequent ECG alterations suggestive of hyperkalemia in severely hyperkalemic patients compared with normokalemic patients (8.2, 4.7, 7.1 and 6.5%, respectively). There was no significant difference between the frequency of ECG alterations suggestive of hyperkalemia in normokalemic and moderately hyperkalemic patients. Upon examining ECG alterations not typically associated with hyperkalemia, we found that prolonged QTc was the only ECG alteration which was significantly more prevalent in both patients with moderate (17.5%) and severe hyperkalemia (21.1%) compared to patients with normokalemia (5.3%). A minority of patients with normal potassium levels may also exhibit ECG alterations considered to be suggestive of hyperkalemia, while more than half of the patients with hyperkalemia do not have ECG alterations suggesting hyperkalemia. These results imply that treatment of hyperkalemia in the prehospital setting should be initiated with caution. Multiple ECG alterations, however, should draw attention to potentially life threatening conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The importance of increased awareness for delirium in elderly patients with rib fractures after blunt chest wall trauma: a retrospective cohort study on risk factors and outcomes
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Ties L. Janssen; Elmand Hosseinzoi; Dagmar I. Vos; Eelco J. Veen; Paul G. H. Mulder; Adrianus M. van der Holst; Lijckle van der Laan

    Rib fractures are common in ageing people after trauma and delirium is a complication often seen in acutely hospitalized elderly patients. For both conditions, elderly have an increased risk for institutionalization, morbidity, and mortality. This study is the first to investigate risk factors of delirium in elderly patients with rib fractures after trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients ≥65 years admitted with rib fractures after blunt chest wall trauma to the Amphia hospital Breda, the Netherlands, between July 2013 and June 2018. Baseline patient, trauma- and treatment-related characteristics were identified. The main objectives were identification of risk factors of delirium and investigation of the effect of delirium on outcomes after rib fractures. Outcomes were additional complications, length of hospital stay, need for institutionalization and mortality within six months. Forty-seven (24.6%) of 191 patients developed a delirium. Independent risk factors for delirium were increased age, physical impairment (lower KATZ-ADL score), nutritional impairment (higher SNAQ score) and the need for a urinary catheter, with odds ratios of 1.07, 0.78, 1.53 and 8.53 respectively. Overall, more complications were observed in patients with delirium. Median ICU and hospital length of stay were 4 and 7 days respectively, of which the latter was significantly longer for delirious patients (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients with delirium were discharged to a nursing home or rehabilitation institution (p < 0.001). The 6-month mortality in delirious patients was nearly twice as high as in non-delirious patients; however, differences did not reach statistical significance. Delirium in elderly patients with rib fractures is a serious and common complication, with a longer hospital stay and a higher risk of institutionalization as a consequence. Increased awareness for delirium is imperative, most importantly in older patients, in physically or nutritionally impaired patients and in patients in need of a urinary catheter.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Grading and assessment of clinical predictive tools for paediatric head injury: a new evidence-based approach
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Mohamed Khalifa; Blanca Gallego

    Many clinical predictive tools have been developed to diagnose traumatic brain injury among children and guide the use of computed tomography in the emergency department. It is not always feasible to compare tools due to the diversity of their development methodologies, clinical variables, target populations, and predictive performances. The objectives of this study are to grade and assess paediatric head injury predictive tools, using a new evidence-based approach, and to provide emergency clinicians with standardised objective information on predictive tools to support their search for and selection of effective tools. Paediatric head injury predictive tools were identified through a focused review of literature. Based on the critical appraisal of published evidence about predictive performance, usability, potential effect, and post-implementation impact, tools were evaluated using a new framework for grading and assessment of predictive tools (GRASP). A comprehensive analysis was conducted to explain why certain tools were more successful. Fourteen tools were identified and evaluated. The highest-grade tool is PECARN; the only tool evaluated in post-implementation impact studies. PECARN and CHALICE were evaluated for their potential effect on healthcare, while the remaining 12 tools were only evaluated for predictive performance. Three tools; CATCH, NEXUS II, and Palchak, were externally validated. Three tools; Haydel, Atabaki, and Buchanich, were only internally validated. The remaining six tools; Da Dalt, Greenes, Klemetti, Quayle, Dietrich, and Güzel did not show sufficient internal validity for use in clinical practice. The GRASP framework provides clinicians with a high-level, evidence-based, comprehensive, yet simple and feasible approach to grade, compare, and select effective predictive tools. Comparing the three main tools which were assigned the highest grades; PECARN, CHALICE and CATCH, to the remaining 11, we find that the quality of tools’ development studies, the experience and credibility of their authors, and the support by well-funded research programs were correlated with the tools’ evidence-based assigned grades, and were more influential, than the sole high predictive performance, on the wide acceptance and successful implementation of the tools. Tools’ simplicity and feasibility, in terms of resources needed, technical requirements, and training, are also crucial factors for their success.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Public knowledge of people visiting Imam Reza hospital regarding stroke symptoms and risk factors
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi; Samad Shams Vahdati; Reza Rikhtegar; Khazar Ghasempour; Aysa Rezabakhsh

    Early recognition of stroke symptoms results in a lower time period after stroke onset to treatment with a better outcome. This depends on the awareness of patients, family members, and the general public. The aim of this study was to evaluate public awareness about stroke risk factors, warning symptoms, and treatments. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a hospital-based survey on 2712 people who visited clinics or emergency department of Imam Reza hospital for any reason, from March 2015 to February 2016. All subjects were interviewed face-to-face by four trained physicians and a structured, pre-tested questionnaire was filled. The mean age of participants was 41.0 ± 12.1 years old. Considering Cincinnati prehospital stroke scale (CPSS) as the main diagnostic system, the percentage of participants that mentioned face asymmetry, speech disturbances, and arm paralysis as a symptom of stroke was 7, 1.5, and 7.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, 71.2% of participants could not mention any of the stroke symptoms. Among participants, 20.2% did not know any of stroke risk factors although 35.1, 27.8, and 17.3% could name one, two and three or more risk factors, respectively. Among participants, only 1.1% were aware of thrombolytic therapy (t-PA) as a first-line drug for stroke treatment. In this study, public knowledge regarding stroke symptoms, risk factors, and therapy approaches was low. Taken together, public education is necessary to reduce the time for recognition of stroke symptoms and subsequently prompt and proper proceeding seems to be necessary for the community.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Routine creatine kinase testing does not provide clinical utility in the emergency department for diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
    Evan J. Wiens; Jorden Arbour; Kristjan Thompson; Colette M. Seifer

    Despite the high sensitivity and negative predictive value of contemporary high-sensitivity troponin T assays (hsTnT), creatine kinase (CK) continues to be routinely tested for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We conducted a study to identify the clinical utility of routine CK measurement, its relevance in clinical decision making in the era of hsTnT, and the potential cost-savings achievable by limiting its use. We conducted a retrospective review of all adult patients presenting to a tertiary care center in the year 2017. We identified patients presenting with cardiac complaints who had non-diagnostic hsTnT and positive CK. These patients underwent chart review to determine whether a diagnosis of AMI was made. A total of 36,251 presentations were reviewed. 9951 had cardiac complaints and 8150 had CK measured. 82% of these patients had hsTnT and CK measured; 2012 of these patients had non-diagnostic hsTnT with positive CK. Of these 2012 patients, only 1 was subsequently diagnosed with AMI (0.012%). CK provided no diagnostic benefit over hsTnT alone in > 99.9% of cases. With a cost for CK of $4/test, we estimated that routine CK testing costs at least $32,000 per year in our center, and over $100,000 per year across the region. Routine CK testing does not provide a significant benefit to patient care and therefore represents an unnecessary system cost. Routine CK testing for the diagnosis of AMI should be eliminated from emergency departments in the era of hsTnT assays.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Emergency Medical System (EMS) response to Iraqi pilgrims’ bus crash in Iran: a case report
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Meysam Safi Keykaleh; Sanaz Sohrabizadeh

    In Iran, Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) with mass casualties occur repeatedly. Since Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) occur far from health facilities, EMSs play an important role in reducing the disability and mortality resulting from RTIs. Thus, the study aimed to report Iraqi pilgrims’ bus which rolled over in the Malayer town. A mass casualty event occurred on 7 September 2017 when a bus full of Iraqi pilgrims rolled over on a road 4-km outside of Malayer, Iran. A large team of responders were dispatched including 5 ambulances with 10 EMTs along with 6 police officers serving in the area. The accident resulted in 35 injured patients (21 female and 14 male) as well as 11 deaths ranging in age from 2 to 65 years. Twenty-one of the injured were transported to the hospital and 14 patients refused transport and 12 patients sustained multiple trauma. The case has been described four phases of dispatch, on-scene, hospital and post-mission. Frequent calls made by laypeople were considered as the main challenge of dispatch phase. The response on scene was hampered by large numbers of lay bystanders. The over-crowding around the emergency units disrupted the medical care procedures in hospital phase. This case highlights over-crowding and laypeople interference at the scene disrupts the relief and rescue. To solve these challenges, the public education and police monitoring and control is recommended. Establishing a unified command post at the scene can facilitate effective coordination among relief and rescue organizations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Epidemiology of injuries presenting to the accident centre of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-20
    Paa-Kwesi Blankson; Joachim K. A. Amoako; Kwaku Asah-Opoku; Francis Odei-Ansong; Margaret Y. Lartey

    Injuries directly lead to 5 million deaths every year, accounting for 9% of all deaths worldwide. While knowledge of the pattern of injuries is essential to plan health interventions to reduce the incidence of injuries, these are not thoroughly described in Ghana. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of injuries seen at the Accident centre of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana’s main referral hospital. A retrospective review of two-year records of all patients who attended the Accident centre of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from January 2016 to December 2017 was done. Data on the cause of injuries was the main focus of this review. A total of 17,860 patients’ records were included in the study. There were 12,116 (67.8%) males and 5,744 (32.2%) females. The ages of the patients seen during the period ranged from three (3) days to 101 years. The overall mean age was 27.9 (±18.2). Majority of the injuries resulted from road traffic accidents and falls, accounting for 39.1 and 19.7% respectively. Road Traffic accidents (RTA), especially motorcycle related, are a significant cause of injuries in Ghana. Future studies should focus on interventions that can reduce the incidence of RTA’s to reduce the number of injuries that present to the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Strengths and weaknesses of the acute care systems in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands: what can we learn from each other?
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
    Marjolein N. T. Kremers; Prabath W. B. Nanayakkara; Marcel Levi; Derek Bell; Harm R. Haak

    The demand on Emergency Departments and acute medical services is increasing internationally, creating pressure on health systems and negatively influencing the quality of delivered care. Visible consequences of the increased demand on acute services is crowding and queuing. This manifests as delays in the Emergency Departments, adverse clinical outcomes and poor patient experience. Despite the similarities in the UK’s and Dutch health care systems, such as universal health coverage, there are differences in the number of patients presenting at the Emergency Departments and the burden of crowding between these countries. Given the similarities in funding, this paper explores the similarities and differences in the organisational structure of acute care in the UK and the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, less patients are seen at the ED than in England and the admission rate is higher. GPs and so-called GP-posts serve 24/7 as gatekeepers in acute care, but EDs are heterogeneously organised. In the UK, the acute care system has a number of different access points and the accessibility of GPs seems to be suboptimal. Acute ambulatory care may relieve the pressure from EDs and Acute Medical Units. In both countries the ageing population leads to a changing case mix at the ED with an increased amount of multimorbid patients with polypharmacy, requiring generalistic and multidisciplinary care. The acute and emergency care in the Netherlands and the UK face similar challenges. We believe that each system has strengths that the other can learn from. The Netherlands may benefit from an acute ambulatory care system and the UK by optimizing the accessibility of GPs 24/7 and improving signposting for urgent care services. In both countries the changing case mix at the ED needs doctors who are superspecialists instead of subspecialists. Finally, to improve the organisation of health care, doctors need to be visible medical leaders and participate in the organisation of care.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Patients’ time perception in the waiting room of an ambulatory emergency unit: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Hervé Spechbach; Jessica Rochat; Jean-Michel Gaspoz; Christian Lovis; Frederic Ehrler

    Patient satisfaction has become an increasingly important element in a service-oriented healthcare market. Although satisfaction is influenced by many factors, the waiting time to be seen by medical staff has been shown to be one of the key criteria. However, waiting is not an objective experience and several factors can influence its perception. We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study among patients attending the emergency unit of a Swiss university hospital in order to explore the key factors influencing wait perception. A total of 509 patients participated in the study. Appropriate assessment of emergency level by caregivers, the feeling of being forgotten, respect of privacy, and lack of information on the exact waiting time were identified as significant variables for wait perception. Our study confirmed the existence of a ‘golden hour’ when the patient is willing to wait until the medical encounter. In case the wait cannot be limited, an appropriate assessment of the emergency level by caregivers and avoiding the patients of feeling being forgotten are very important factors to avoid a negative perception of the waiting time before seeing a doctor. (ID REQ-2016-00555).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Real-time forecasting of emergency department arrivals using prehospital data
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Andreas Asheim; Lars P. Bache-Wiig Bjørnsen; Lars E. Næss-Pleym; Oddvar Uleberg; Jostein Dale; Sara M. Nilsen

    Crowding in emergency departments (EDs) is a challenge globally. To counteract crowding in day-to-day operations, better tools to improve monitoring of the patient flow in the ED is needed. The objective of this study was the development of a continuously updated monitoring system to forecast emergency department (ED) arrivals on a short time-horizon incorporating data from prehospital services. Time of notification and ED arrival was obtained for all 191,939 arrivals at the ED of a Norwegian university hospital from 2010 to 2018. An arrival notification was an automatically captured time stamp which indicated the first time the ED was notified of an arriving patient, typically by a call from an ambulance to the emergency service communication center. A Poisson time-series regression model for forecasting the number of arrivals on a 1-, 2- and 3-h horizon with continuous weekly and yearly cyclic effects was implemented. We incorporated time of arrival notification by modelling time to arrival as a time varying hazard function. We validated the model on the last full year of data. In our data, 20% of the arrivals had been notified more than 1 hour prior to arrival. By incorporating time of notification into the forecasting model, we saw a substantial improvement in forecasting accuracy, especially on a one-hour horizon. In terms of mean absolute prediction error, we observed around a six percentage-point decrease compared to a simplified prediction model. The increase in accuracy was particularly large for periods with large inflow. The proposed model shows increased predictability in ED patient inflow when incorporating data on patient notifications. This approach to forecasting arrivals can be a valuable tool for logistic, decision making and ED resource management.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Prehospital characteristics among patients with sepsis: a comparison between patients with or without adverse outcome
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Agnes Olander; Henrik Andersson; Annelie J. Sundler; Anders Bremer; Lars Ljungström; Magnus Andersson Hagiwara

    The prehospital care of patients with sepsis are commonly performed by the emergency medical services. These patients may be critically ill and have high in-hospital mortality rates. Unfortunately, few patients with sepsis are identified by the emergency medical services, which can lead to delayed treatment and a worse prognosis. Therefore, early identification of patients with sepsis is important, and more information about the prehospital characteristics that can be used to identify these patients is needed. Based on this lack of information, the objectives of this study were to investigate the prehospital characteristics that are identified while patients with sepsis are being transported to the hospital by the emergency medical services, and to compare these values to those of the patients with and without adverse outcomes during their hospital stays. This was a retrospective observational study. The patients’ electronic health records were reviewed and selected consecutively based on the following: retrospectively diagnosed with sepsis and transported to an emergency department by the emergency medical services. Data were collected on demographics, prehospital characteristics and adverse outcomes, defined as the in-hospital mortality or treatment in the intensive care unit, and analysed by independent sample t-test and chi-square. Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio, of prehospital characteristics for predicting or development of adverse outcome were analysed. In total, 327 patients were included. Of these, 50 patients had adverse outcomes. When comparing patients with or without an adverse outcome, decreased oxygen saturation and body temperature, increased serum glucose level and altered mental status during prehospital care were found to be associated with an adverse outcome. The findings suggests that patients having a decreased oxygen saturation and body temperature, increased serum glucose level and altered mental status during prehospital care are at risk of a poorer patient prognosis and adverse outcome. Recognizing these prehospital characteristics may help to identify patients with sepsis early and improve their long-term outcomes. However further research is required to predict limit values of saturation and serum glucose and to validate the use of prehospital characteristics for adverse outcome in patients with sepsis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Body temperature measurement in ambulance: a challenge of 21-st century?
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Paweł Podsiadło; Tomasz Darocha; Sylweriusz Kosiński; Tomasz Sanak; Robert Gałązkowski

    Some crucial decisions in treatment of hypothermic patients are closely linked to core body temperature. They concern modification of resuscitation algorithms and choosing the target hospital. Under- as well as over-estimation of a patient’s temperature may limit his chances for survival. Only thermometers designed for core temperature measurement can serve as a guide in such decision making. The aim of the study was to assess whether ambulance teams are equipped properly to measure core temperature. A survey study was conducted in collaboration with the Health Ministry in April 2018. Questionnaires regarding the model, number, and year of production of thermometers were sent to each pre-hospital unit of the National Emergency Medical System in Poland. A total of 1523 ground ambulances are equipped with 1582 thermometers. 53.57% are infrared-based ear thermometers, 23.02% are infrared-based surface thermometers, and 20.13% are conventional medical thermometers. Only 3.28% of devices are able to measure core body temperature. Most of analyzed thermometers (91.4%) are not allowed to operate in ambient temperature below 10 °C. There are only 3.28% of ground ambulances that are able to follow precisely international guidelines regarding a patient’s core body temperature. A light, reliable thermometer designed to measure core temperature in pre-hospital conditions is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Cameroonian physicians with regards to acute pain management in the emergency department: a multicenter cross-sectional study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Paul Owono Etoundi; Junette Arlette Metogo Mbengono; Ferdinand Ndom Ntock; Joel Noutakdie Tochie; Dominique Christelle Anaba Ndom; Francky Teddy Endomba Angong; Gérard Beyiha; Jacqueline Ze Minkande

    Pain is the most frequent presenting complaint in patients consulting or admitted to the emergency department (ED). Thus, its acute management is often done by physicians working in the ED. These clinicians are often general practitioners and not emergency medicine physicians in resource-poor settings. Hence, a mastery of pain management by these physicians may be important in relieving acute pain. We aimed to assess the knowledge, to determine the attitudes and practices of physicians in the management of pain in EDs of Cameroon. We carried out a prospective cross-sectional study over 4 months in the year 2018. We enrolled all consenting physicians who were neither emergency medicine doctors nor anesthesiologists working at the EDs of five tertiary hospitals of Cameroon. Using a validated and pretested structured questionnaire, data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of acute pain management at the ED by these clinicians were studied. We used an externally validated score to assess the knowledge as either poor, insufficient, moderate or good. A total of 58 physicians were included; 18 interns or residents and 39 general practitioners. Their mean age was 28.6 ± 3 years and their average number of years of practice was 2.9 years. The level of knowledge was rated “poor” in 77.6% of physicians. Being a general practitioner was significantly associated with a poor level of knowledge (p = 0.02; OR = 5.1). We found a negative and significant correlation between knowledge and years of practice (p = 0.04; r2 = 0.06). More than three-quarter (82.8%) of participants used a pain scale to evaluate the severity of pain. The most used scale was the Visual Analog Scale (56.9%). The most frequently used analgesic was paracetamol (98.3%), although only 3.5% of physicians correctly knew its half-life, delay of onset of action and duration of action. These findings suggest that physicians in EDs of Cameroon have poor knowledge and suboptimal practices in pain management. General practice and a greater number of professional experience seemed to favour these attitudes. Overall, there is an urgent need for refresher courses in acute pain management for physicians working in these resource-limited EDs.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Usefulness of a stool to stabilize dental chairs for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-08
    Norimasa Awata; Takashi Hitosugi; Yoichiro Miki; Masanori Tsukamoto; Yoshifumi Kawakubo; Takeshi Yokoyama

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires immediate start of manual chest compression (MCC) and defibrillation as soon as possible. During dental surgery, CPR could be started in the dental chair considering difficulty to move the patient from the dental chair to the floor. However, all types of dental chairs are not stable for MCC. We previously developed a procedure to stabilize a dental chair by using a stool. EUROPEAN RESUSCITATION COUNCIL (ERC) guideline 2015 adopted our procedure when cardiac arrest during dental surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of a stool as a stabilizer in different types of dental chairs. Three health care providers participated in this study, and 8 kinds of dental chairs were examined. MCC were performed on a manikin that was laid on the backrest of a dental chair. A stool was placed under the backrest to stabilize the dental chair. The vertical displacement of the backrest by MCC was recorded by a camcorder and measured by millimeter. Next, the vertical displacement of the backrest by MCC were compared between with and without a stool. In all 8 dental chairs, the method by using a stool significantly reduced the vertical displacements of the backrest by during MCC. The reduction ratio (mean [interquartile range]) varied between nearly 27 [20] and 87 [5] %. In the largest stabilization case, the displacement was 3.5 [0.5] mm with a stool versus 26 [5.5] mm without a stool (p < 0.001). Our procedure to stabilize dental chairs by using a stool reduced the displacement of a backrest against MCC in all chairs. Effective MCC could be performed in dental chairs by using a stool when sudden cardiac arrest occurs during dental surgery.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Do health care professionals’ perceptions help to measure the degree of overcrowding in the emergency department? A pilot study in an Italian University hospital
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Andrea Strada; Francesca Bravi; Giorgia Valpiani; Roberto Bentivegna; Tiziano Carradori

    Overcrowding in emergency departments (EDs) is internationally recognized as one of the greatest challenges to healthcare provision. Numerous studies have highlighted the ill-effects of overcrowding, including increased length of stay, mortality and cost per admission. This study measures overcrowding in EDs through health care professionals’ perceptions of it, comparing the results with the NEDOCS score, an objectively validated measurement tool and describing meaningful tools and strategies used to manage ED overcrowding. This single-centre prospective, observational, pilot study was conducted from February 19th to March 7th, 2018 at the ED in the University Hospital of Ferrara, Italy to measure the agreement of the NEDOCS, comparing objective scores with healthcare professionals’ perception of overcrowding, using the kappa statistic assessing linear weights according to Cohen’s method. The tools and strategies used to manage ED overcrowding are described. Seventy-two healthcare professionals (66.1% of 109 eligible subjects) were included in the analyses. The study obtained a total of 262 surveys from 23 ED physicians (31.9%), 31 nurses (43.1%) and 18 nursing assistants (25.0%) and a total of 262 NEDOCS scores. The agreement between the NEDOCS and the subjective scales was poor (k = 0.381, 95% CI 0.313–0.450). The subjective health care professionals’ perceptions did not provide an adequate real-time measure of the current demands and capacity of the ED. A more objective measure is needed to make quality decisions about health care professional needs and the ability to manage patients to ensure the provision of proper care.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Patient’s perception of kidney stone prevention within the emergency department and its adherence factors: a single institution study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Mohamad Moussa; Mohamed Abou Chakra

    No known data in the literature assessing practice of kidney stone prevention in the emergency department (ED) is available. Assess patient perception and compliance to kidney stone prevention given within the emergency department. It also indirectly detects the attitude and practice patterns of primary care providers in kidney stone prevention. This is a qualitative study done in a single institution from January 2018 to January 2019 that includes 99 patients that were diagnosed with kidney or ureteral stone in ED and were discharged home, all of them where stone formers. They were asked to fill a self- administered questionnaire when they are able to read, or interviewed by the resident within the ED when they are unable to read. The majority of patients (68%) did not receive any instructions about kidney stones prevention within the ED. Most of patients who follow instructions if it was given were educated (90%), had an insurance coverage (85%), and had an income higher than $1000 per month (76%), (p < 0.05). Seventy one percents of patients believe in the effectiveness of stone prevention if it was provided and most of them are interested in learning about these preventive strategies (82%). Reasons for not following the instructions about kidney stones prevention measures were the cost (53.1%) following by the lack of explanation by ED physicians (18.8%). The majority of patients (62.6%) prefer to receive kidney stones prevention measures from urologists. Most of patients in our institute did not receive kidney stones prevention measures in ED despite that they declared their interest in following these measures. Most of the time they did not adhere to those measures due to socioeconomic factors and lack of clarifications. If these instructions were given within the ED, it could lead to an acceptable compliance rate.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tools for assessment of acute stroke: a systematic review
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Daria Antipova; Leila Eadie; Ashish Macaden; Philip Wilson

    Recanalisation therapy in acute ischaemic stroke is highly time-sensitive, and requires early identification of eligible patients to ensure better outcomes. Thus, a number of clinical assessment tools have been developed and this review examines their diagnostic capabilities. Diagnostic performance of currently available clinical tools for identification of acute ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and stroke mimicking conditions was reviewed. A systematic search of the literature published in 2015–2018 was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and The Cochrane Library. Prehospital and in-hospital studies with a minimum sample size of 300 patients reporting diagnostic accuracy were selected. Twenty-five articles were included. Cortical signs (gaze deviation, aphasia and neglect) were shown to be significant indicators of large vessel occlusion (LVO). Sensitivity values for selecting subjects with LVO ranged from 23 to 99% whereas specificity was 24 to 97%. Clinical tools, such as FAST-ED, NIHSS, and RACE incorporating cortical signs as well as motor dysfunction demonstrated the best diagnostic accuracy. Tools for identification of stroke mimics showed sensitivity varying from 44 to 91%, and specificity of 27 to 98% with the best diagnostic performance demonstrated by FABS (90% sensitivity, 91% specificity). Hypertension and younger age predicted intracerebral haemorrhage whereas history of atrial fibrillation and diabetes were associated with ischaemia. There was a variation in approach used to establish the definitive diagnosis. Blinding of the index test assessment was not specified in about 50% of included studies. A wide range of clinical assessment tools for selecting subjects with acute stroke has been developed in recent years. Assessment of both cortical and motor function using RACE, FAST-ED and NIHSS showed the best diagnostic accuracy values for selecting subjects with LVO. There were limited data on clinical tools that can be used to differentiate between acute ischaemia and haemorrhage. Diagnostic accuracy appeared to be modest for distinguishing between acute stroke and stroke mimics with optimal diagnostic performance demonstrated by the FABS tool. Further prehospital research is required to improve the diagnostic utility of clinical assessments with possible application of a two-step clinical assessment or involvement of simple brain imaging, such as transcranial ultrasonography.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sensitivity of urinary pathogens for patients discharged from the emergency department compared with the hospital antibiogram
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Sean Carlsen; Scott P. Krall; K. Tom Xu; Alainya Tomanec; Daylon Farias; Peter Richman

    Data for hospital antibiograms are typically compiled from all patients, regardless of disposition, demographics and other comorbidities. We hypothesized that the sensitivity patterns for urinary pathogens would differ significantly from the hospital antibiogram in patients that were discharged from the emergency department (ED). We evaluated a retrospective cohort of all adult patients with positive urine cultures treated in the 2016 calendar year at an inner-city academic ED. Positive urine cultures defined by our institution’s microbiology department. Investigators conducted a structured review of an electronic medical record (EMR) to collect demographic, historical and microbiology records. We utilized a one-sample test of proportion to compare the sensitivity of each organism for discharged patients to the hospital published antibiogram. Alpha set at 0.05. During the study period, 414 patients were discharged from the ED and found to have positive urine cultures; 20% age > 60 years old, 85% female, 79% Hispanic, 33% diabetic. The most common organisms was E. coli (78%). E. coli was sensitive to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for 59% vs. 58% in our antibiogram (p = 0.77), Ciprofloxacin 81% vs. 69% (p < 0. 001), Nitrofurantoin 96% vs 95%; (p = 0.25). K. pneumoniae was sensitive to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 87% vs. 80% in our antibiogram (p = 0.26), Ciprofloxacin 100% vs. 92% (p = 0.077), Nitrofurantoin 86% vs 41% (p < 0.001). For our predominantly Hispanic study group with a high prevalence of diabetes, we found that our hospital antibiogram had relatively good value in guiding antibiotic therapy though for some organism/antibiotic combinations sensitivities were higher than expected.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Traffic police officers’ experience of post-crash care to road traffic injury victims: a qualitative study in Tanzania”
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Gift G. Lukumay; Anne H. Outwater; Dickson A. Mkoka; Menti L. Ndile; Britt-Inger Saveman

    Recently, road traffic injuries (RTIs) have become a major health problem affecting health systems in many low- and middle-income countries. Regardless of whether an ambulance is available for evacuation, police officers have been shown to arrive at the crash scene first, becoming, in effect, the first responders to RTI victims. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the experiences of traffic police officers in regard to the provision of care to RTI victims in the prehospital environment, including the role of traffic police upon arriving at the crash scene, the challenges they face, and their opinions about how to improve care to RTI victims. The study used a qualitative approach in which data were obtained from 10 individual interviews and three focus group discussions. There were 41 participants, 27 of them were male and 14 were female. About half (48.7%) of the study participants were aged between 30 to 39 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse all the materials. Three themes emerged from the analysis. The theme “Maintain safety while saving injured victims’ lives and facilitating access to a health facility” was comprised of safety, sorting, initial help, and assisting access to hospital care. “Overwhelmed working with limited resources and support” included limited care and transport resources, police fatigue, and little or no support. “Improving supportive system and empowering frontline personnel” included the need for an emergency care system, availability of resources and an emergency medical support system, and training for police and drivers regarding victims’ first-aid care, and road safety. The study findings characterize an environment in which the police first responders have no knowledge or skills and no equipment and supplies to provide care to RTI victims at the scene before rushing them to definitive care. The results suggest a favorable climate for training and equipping officers so that they can deliver competent postcrash care at the scene while emergency medical services are yet to be established. However, more research will be needed to determine the efficacy of such training and its acceptability in the Tanzanian context.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Uncompleted emergency department care and discharge against medical advice in patients with neurological complaints: a chart review
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Carolin Hoyer; Patrick Stein; Angelika Alonso; Michael Platten; Kristina Szabo

    Uncompleted emergency department care and against-medical-advice discharge represent relevant medical problems with impact on patient safety and potential medicolegal and socioeconomic consequences. They may also indicate structural or procedural problems in the emergency department (ED) relating to patient management and flow. While patients with neurological complaints frequently leave the ED against medical advice or without being seen, no dedicated analysis of this group of patients aiming at the identification of characteristics associated with irregular ED discharge has been performed so far. A chart review was performed of all patients with neurological complaints presenting to a German interdisciplinary emergency department between January and December 2017 for neurological evaluation. Demographics, mode of presentation, process times, presenting symptoms and diagnosis were recorded. Patients leaving against medical advice after an informed consent discussion and signing of documentation (DAMA) or leaving prematurely without notifying ED staff (PL) were compared to the total of patients who were admitted or discharged (non-DAMA/PL). Of all patients presenting with neurological symptoms or complaints, 3% left against medical advice and 2.2% left prematurely. DAMA/PL patients were younger (p < .001), and they were more frequently self-presenting (p < 0.001). Headaches, seizures and sensory deficits were the most frequent presenting symptoms in DAMA/PL patients, and 56.1% of those presenting with a seizure had a history of epilepsy. The most common documented reason for leaving was the duration of door-to-doctor time. Younger age, self-presenting mode of presentation and presentation with headache, seizures or sensory deficits are associated with premature leave or against-medical-advice discharge of patients with neurological complaints from the ED, and long waiting times were given as the major reason for leaving the ED. Increasing ED staff’s awareness of these factors and the optimization of pre-hospital assessment and demand management, thereby positively impacting on patient flow and ED process times, may help to prevent irregular discharges from the ED.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The reliability and accuracy of operational system data in a nationwide helicopter emergency medical services mission database
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    A. Heino; T. Iirola; L. Raatiniemi; J. Nurmi; A. Olkinuora; P. Laukkanen-Nevala; I. Virkkunen; M. Tommila

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of documentation in FinnHEMS database, which is a nationwide helicopter emergency service (HEMS) clinical quality registry. This is a nationwide study based on written fictional clinical scenarios. Study subjects were HEMS physicians and paramedics, who filled in the clinical quality registry based on the clinical scenarios. The inter-rater -reliability of the collected data was analyzed with percent agreement and free-marginal multi-rater kappa. Dispatch coding had a percent agreement of 91% and free-marginal multi-rater kappa value of 0.83. Coding for transportation or mission cancellation resulted in an agreement of 84% and free-marginal kappa value of 0.68. An agreement of 82% and a kappa value of 0.73 for dispatcher coding was found. Mission end, arrival at hospital and HEMS unit dispatch -times had agreements from 80 to 85% and kappa values from 0.61 to 0.73. The emergency call to dispatch centre time had an agreement of 71% and kappa value of 0.56. The documentation of pain had an agreement of 73% on both the first and second measurements. All other vital parameters had less than 70% agreement and 0.40 kappa value in the first measurement. The documentation of secondary vital parameter measurements resulted in agreements from 72 to 91% and kappa values from 0.43 to 0.64. Data from HEMS operations can be gathered reliably in a national clinical quality registry. This study revealed some inaccuracies in data registration and data quality, which are important to detect to improve the overall reliability and validity of the HEMS clinical quality register.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Women’s experience of unplanned out-of-hospital birth in paramedic care
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Belinda Flanagan; Bill Lord; Rachel Reed; Gail Crimmins

    Healthcare literature describes predisposing factors, clinical risk, maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes of unplanned out-of-hospital birth; however, there is little quality research available that explores the experiences of mothers who birth prior to arrival at hospital. This study utilised a narrative inquiry methodology to explore the experiences of women who birth in paramedic care. The inquiry was underscored by 22 narrative interviews of women who birthed in paramedic care in Queensland, Australia between 2011 and 2016. This data identified factors that contributed to the planned hospital birth occurring in the out-of-hospital setting. Women in this study began their story by discussing previous birth experience and their knowledge, expectations and personal beliefs concerning the birth process. Specific to the actual birth event, women reported feeling empowered, confident and exhilarated. However, some participants also identified concerns with paramedic practice; lack of privacy, poor interpersonal skills, and a lack of consent for certain procedures. This study identified several factors and a subset of factors that contributed to their experiences of the planned hospital birth occurring in the out-of-hospital setting. Women described opportunities for improvement in the care provided by paramedics, specifically some deficiencies in technical and interpersonal skills.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Acute poisoning related to the recreational use of prescription drugs: an observational study from Oslo, Norway
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Marit Mæhle Grimsrud; Mette Brekke; Victoria Lykke Syse; Odd Martin Vallersnes

    Recreational use of prescription drugs is widespread. We describe acute poisonings related to the recreational use of prescription drugs. Retrospective observational study. We retrospectively registered all patients presenting from October 2013 through March 2015 at a primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway, with an acute poisoning related to recreational drug use. We registered demographic data, toxic agents taken, clinical course and treatment. From this data set we extracted the 819/2218 (36.9%) cases involving one or more prescription drugs. Among the 819 included cases, 190 (23.2%) were female. Median age was 37 years. The drugs most commonly involved were benzodiazepines in 696 (85.0%) cases, methadone in 60 (7.3%), buprenorphine in 53 (6.5%), other opioids in 56 (6.8%), zopiclone/zolpidem in 26 (3.2%), and methylphenidate in 11 (1.3%). Prescription drugs were combined with other toxic agents in 659 (80.5%) cases; heroin in 351 (42.9%), ethanol in 232 (28.3%), amphetamine in 141 (17.2%), cannabis in 70 (8.5%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in 34 (4.2%), cocaine in 29 (3.5%), and other illegal drugs in 46 (5.6%). The patient was given naloxone in 133 (16.2%) cases, sedation in 15 (1.8%), and flumazenil in 3 (0.4%). In 157 (19.2%) cases, the patient was sent on to hospital. One in three acute poisonings related to recreational drug use involved prescription drugs. Benzodiazepines were by far the most common class of drugs. Prescription drugs had mostly been taken in combination with illegal drugs or ethanol.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Introduction of a standardised protocol, including systematic use of tranexamic acid, for management of severe adult trauma patients in a low-resource setting: the MSF experience from Port-au-Prince, Haiti
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Alessandro Jachetti; Rose Berly Massénat; Nathalie Edema; Sophia C. Woolley; Guido Benedetti; Rafael Van Den Bergh; Miguel Trelles

    Bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. In 2010, the CRASH-2 study, a multicentre randomized control trial on the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to trauma patients with suspected significant bleeding, reported a decreased mortality in randomized patients compared to placebo. Currently, no evidence on the use of TXA in humanitarian, low-resource settings is available. We aimed to measure the hospital outcomes of adult patients with severe traumatic bleeding in the Médecins Sans Frontières Tabarre Trauma Centre in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, before and after the implementation of a Massive Haemorrhage protocol including systematic early administration of TXA. Patients admitted over comparable periods of four months (December2015- March2016 and December2016 - March2017) before and after the implementation of the Massive Haemorrhage protocol were investigated. Included patients had blunt or penetrating trauma, a South Africa Triage Score ≥ 7, were aged 18–65 years and were admitted within 3 h from the traumatic event. Measured outcomes were hospital mortality and early mortality rates, in-hospital time to discharge and time to discharge from intensive care unit. One-hundred and sixteen patients met inclusion criteria. Patients treated after the introduction of the Massive Haemorrhage protocol had about 70% less chance of death during hospitalization compared to the group “before” (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95%confidence interval 0.1–0.8). They also had a significantly shorter hospital length of stay (p = 0.02). Implementing a Massive Haemorrhage protocol including early administration of TXA was associated with the reduced mortality and hospital stay of severe adult blunt and penetrating trauma patients in a context with poor resources and limited availability of blood products.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Canadian in-hospital mortality for patients with emergency-sensitive conditions: a retrospective cohort study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Simon Berthelot; Eddy S. Lang; Hude Quan; Henry T. Stelfox

    The emergency department (ED) sensitive hospital standardized mortality ratio (ED-HSMR) measures risk-adjusted mortality for patients admitted to hospital with conditions for which ED care may improve health outcomes. This study aimed to describe in-hospital mortality across Canadian provinces using the ED-HSMR. Hospital discharge data were analyzed from April 2009 to March 2012. The ED-HSMR was calculated as the ratio of observed deaths among patients with emergency-sensitive conditions in a hospital during a year (2010–11 or 2011–12) to the expected deaths for the same patients during the reference year (2009–10), multiplied by 100. The expected deaths were estimated using predictive models fitted from the reference year. Aggregated provincial ED-HSMR values were calculated. A HSMR value above or below 100 respectively means that more or fewer deaths than expected occurred within a province. During the study period, 1,335,379 patients were admitted to hospital in Canada with an emergency-sensitive condition as the most responsible diagnosis. More in-hospital deaths (95% confidence interval) than expected were respectively observed for the years 2010–11 and 2011–12 in Newfoundland [124.3 (116.3–132.6); & 117.6 (110.1–125.5)] and Nova Scotia [116.4 (110.7–122.5) & 108.7 (103.0–114.5)], while mortality was as expected in Prince Edward Island [99.9 (86.5–114.8) & 100.7 (87.5–115.3)] and Manitoba [99.2 (94.5–104.1) & 98.3 (93.5–103.3)], and less than expected in all other provinces and territories. Our study revealed important variation in risk-adjusted mortality for patients admitted to hospital with emergency-sensitive conditions among Canadian provinces. The ED-HSMR may be a useful outcome indicator to complement existing process indicators in measuring ED performance. N/A – Retrospective cohort study.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Disaster preparedness among Thai elderly emergency department patients: a survey of patients’ perspective
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Jiraporn Sri-on; Alissara Vanichkulbodee; Natchapon Sinsuwan; Rapeeporn Rojsaengroeng; Anucha Kamsom; Shan Woo Liu

    In disaster situations, the elderly are considered to be a particularly vulnerable population. Preparedness is the key to reduce post-disaster damage. There is limited research in middle-income countries on how well elderly emergency department (ED) patients are prepared for disaster situations. The objective of this study was to determine the attitudes and behavior of elderly ED patients toward disaster preparedness. This study was a cross-sectional face-to-face survey at one urban teaching hospital in Bangkok, Thailand between August 1st and September 30th, 2016. Patients aged 60 and older who presented to the ED were included to this study. We excluded patients who had severe dementia [defined as Short Portable Mental State Questionnaires (SPMSQ) > 8], were unable to speak Thai, had severe trauma and/or needed immediate resuscitation. The survey instruction was adapted from previous disaster surveys. This study was approved by the Vajira Institutional Review Board (IRB). A total of 243 patients were enrolled. Most of them were female [154 patients (63.4%)]. The median age was 72 [Interquartile range (IQR) 66–81] years and the most common underlying diseases were hypertension [148 patients (60.9%)] and diabetes [108 patients (44.4%)]. The majority of patients [172 patients (72.4%)] reported that they had had some teaching about disaster knowledge from a healthcare provider and had experienced a disaster [138 patients (56.8%)]. While 175/197 (81.8%) patients who had underlying diseases reported that they had a medication supply for disaster situations, only 61 (25.1%) patients had an emergency toolbox for disasters. Most patients (159, 65.4%) did not know the emergency telephone number, and 133 (54.7%) patients reported transportation limitations. While most Thai elderly ED patients reported having a medication supply for disaster situations, many lacked comprehensive plans for a disaster situation. Work needs to be done to improve the quality of preparedness in disaster situations among elderly patients. Future research should focus on preparedness knowledge regarding evacuation, and shelter/residence for older patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Acute pelvic pain following miscarriage heterotopic pregnancy must be excluded: case report
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Udit Thakur; Kiran Atmuri; Angelika Borozdina

    Heterotopic pregnancies are increasing in prevalence and this case highlights the importance of excluding the diagnosis in patients with pelvic pain following miscarriage. A known pre-existing intrauterine pregnancy can be falsely reassuring and delay the diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening concurrent ectopic pregnancy. In this report, we describe a case of spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy in a woman who had initially presented with pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding, and was diagnosed on pelvic ultrasound with a missed miscarriage; a non-viable intrauterine pregnancy. She re-presented 7 days later with worsening pelvic pain and bleeding, and a repeat pelvic ultrasound identified a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy in addition to an incomplete miscarriage of the previously identified intrauterine pregnancy. She underwent an emergency laparoscopy where a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy was confirmed. Being a time critical diagnosis with the potential for an adverse outcome, it is important that the emergency physician considers heterotopic pregnancy as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with pelvic pain following a recent miscarriage. The same principle should apply to pelvic pain in the context of a known viable intrauterine pregnancy or recent termination of pregnancy. A combination of clinical assessment, beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels, point of care ultrasound and formal transvaginal ultrasound must be utilized together in these situations to explicitly exclude heterotopic pregnancy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Early inter-hospital transfer of patients with myocardial infarction without a doctor, paramedic or nurse on board: results from a French regional emergency care network
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Sebastien Cassan; Mihaela Rata; Claire Vallenet; Philippe Fromage; Frederic Champly; Patrick Broin; Guillaume Peribois; Valerie Sierra; Cedric Lutz; Lionel Mangin; Dominique Savary; François-Xavier Ageron; Loic Belle

    In France, patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are usually transferred from remote hospitals to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centres in mobile intensive care units (MICUs) with on-board medical staff. They are then returned to the remote hospitals by MICU 48 h after PCI. However, MICU transportation and beds in a PCI centre are in short supply. Therefore, we investigated clinical outcomes among intermediate-risk ACS patients who were transferred in private ambulances without an on-board medic or paramedic; and returned to the remote hospital sooner after PCI. In the French Alps, the RESURCOR network manages ‘SCA-Alp’ transfers using strict management protocols in ambulances with trained drivers and automatic external defibrillators, but without heart rhythm monitoring. We conducted an observational retrospective study that assessed outcomes (death and emergency return to the PCI centre within 48 h) in patients transferred using SCA-Alp. Our population comprised stabilized patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who returned to the remote hospital within 24–48 h of PCI, and uncomplicated patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) within 24–72 h of symptom onset who come from and returned to (‘round-trip’) the remote hospital on the day of PCI (return < 12 h after PCI). Between 2010 and 2014, 101 STEMI and 490 NSTEMI patients were transferred using SCA-Alp. No adverse events occurred during transportation and no deaths were reported. Two of 591 patients (0.3% [95% confidence interval 0.1–1.4%]) experienced a stent thrombosis within 48 h of PCI that required a second urgent PCI; both were event free at 6-month follow-up. Inter-hospital transfer using SCA-Alp is associated with low event rates in intermediate-risk ACS patients, allowing a more streamlined use of medical facilities and freeing-up of beds in PCI centres.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Injury coding in a national trauma registry: a one-year validation audit in a level 1 trauma centre
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Anna Bågenholm; Ina Lundberg; Bjørn Straume; Rune Sundset; Kristian Bartnes; Tor Ingebrigtsen; Trond Dehli

    Hospitals must improve patient safety and quality continuously. Clinical quality registries can drive such improvement. Trauma registries code injuries according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and benchmark outcomes based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and New ISS (NISS). The primary aim of this study was to validate the injury codes and severities registered in a national trauma registry. Secondarily, we aimed to examine causes for missing and discordant codes, to guide improvement of registry data quality. We conducted an audit and established an expert coder group injury reference standard for patients met with trauma team activation in 2015 in a Level 1 trauma centre. Injuries were coded according to the AIS. The audit included review of all data in the electronic health records (EHR), and new interpretation of all images in the picture archiving system. Validated injury codes were compared with the codes registered in the registry. The expert coder group’s interpretations of reasons for discrepancies were categorised and registered. Inter-rater agreement between registry data and the reference standard was tested with Bland–Altman analysis. We validated injury data from 144 patients (male sex 79.2%) with median age 31 (inter quartile range 19–49) years. The total number of registered AIS codes was 582 in the registry and 766 in the reference standard. All injuries were concordantly coded in 62 (43.1%) patients. Most non-registered codes (n = 166 in 71 (49.3%) patients) were AIS 1, and information in the EHR overlooked by registrars was the dominating cause. Discordant coding of head injuries and extremity fractures were the most common causes for 157 discordant AIS codes in 74 (51.4%) patients. Median ISS (9) and NISS (12) for the total population did not differ between the registry and the reference standard. Concordance between the codes registered in the trauma registry and the reference standard was moderate, influencing individual patients’ injury codes validity and ISS/NISS reliability. Nevertheless, aggregated median group ISS/NISS reliability was acceptable.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Challenges, consequences, and lessons for way–outs to emergencies at hospitals: a systematic review study
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Hamid Reza Rasouli; Ali Aliakbar Esfahani; Mohsen Abbasi Farajzadeh

    Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding adversely affects patients’ health, accessibility, and quality of healthcare systems for communities. Several studies have addressed this issue. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review study concerning challenges, lessons and way outs of clinical emergencies at hospitals. Original research articles on crowding of emergencies at hospitals published from 1st January 2007, and 1st August 2018 were utilized. Relevant studies from the PubMed and EMBASE databases were assessed using suitable keywords. Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts and the methodological validity of the records using data extraction format before their inclusion in the final review. Discussions with the senior faculty member were used to resolve any disagreements among the reviewers during the assessment phase. Out of the total 117 articles in the final record, we excluded 11 of them because of poor quality. Thus, this systematic review synthesized the reports of 106 original articles. Overall 14, 55 and 29 of the reviewed refer to causes, effects, and solutions of ED crowding, respectively. The review also included four articles on both causes and effects and another four on causes and solutions. Multiple individual patients and healthcare system related challenges, experiences and responses to crowding and its consequences are comprehensively synthesized. ED overcrowding is a multi-facet issue which affects by patient-related factors and emergency service delivery. Crowding of the EDs adversely affected individual patients, healthcare delivery systems and communities. The identified issues concern organizational managers, leadership, and operational level actions to reduce crowding and improve emergency healthcare outcomes efficiently.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Validation of a 5-item tool to measure patient assessment of clinician compassion in the emergency department
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Praveen Sabapathi; Michael B. Roberts; Brian M. Fuller; Michael A. Puskarich; Christopher W. Jones; J. Hope Kilgannon; Valerie Braz; Christina Creel-Bulos; Nathaniel Scott; Kristina L. Tester; Anthony Mazzarelli; Stephen Trzeciak; Brian W. Roberts

    To test if the 5-item compassion measure (a tool previously validated in the outpatient setting to measure patient assessment of clinician compassion) is a valid and reliable tool to quantify a distinct construct (i.e. clinical compassion) among patients evaluated in the emergency department (ED). Cross-sectional study conducted in three academic emergency departments in the U.S. between November 2018 and April 2019. We enrolled adult patients who were evaluated in the EDs of the participating institutions and administered the 5-item compassion measure after completion of care in the ED. Validity testing was performed using confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test reliability. Convergent validity with patient assessment of overall satisfaction questions was tested using Spearman correlation coefficients and we tested if the 5-item compassion measure assessed a construct distinct from overall patient satisfaction using confirmatory factor analysis. We analyzed 866 patient responses. Confirmatory factor analysis found all five items loaded well on a single construct and our model was found to have good fit. Reliability was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93) among the entire cohort. These results remained consistent on sub-analyses stratified by individual institutions. The 5-item compassion measure had moderate correlation with overall patient satisfaction (r = 0.66) and patient recommendation of the ED to friends and family (r = 0.57), but reflected a patient experience domain (i.e. compassionate care) distinctly different from patient satisfaction. The 5-item compassion measure is a valid and reliable tool to measure patient assessment of clinical compassion in the ED.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of tools to assess psychological distress: how to measure psychological stress reactions in citizen responders– a systematic review
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Astrid Rolin Kragh; Fredrik Folke; Linn Andelius; Emma Slebsager Ries; Rasmus Vedby Rasmussen; Carolina Malta Hansen

    Dispatched citizen responders are increasingly involved in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation which can lead to severe stress. It is unknown which psychological assessment tools are most appropriate to evaluate psychological distress in this population. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate existing assessment tools used to measure psychological distress with emphasis on citizen responders who attempted resuscitation. A systematic literature search conducted by two reviewers was carried out in March 2018 and revised in July 2018. Four databases were searched: PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, and The Social Sciences Citation Index. A total of 504 studies examining assessment tools to measure psychological distress reactions after acute traumatic events were identified, and 9 fulfilled the inclusion criteria for further analysis. The selected studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) were the preferred assessment tools, and were used on diverse populations exposed to various traumatic events. One study included lay rescuers performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and this study used the IES. The IES and the IES-R also have proven a high validity in various other populations. The Clinical administered PTSD scale (CAPS) was applied in two studies. Though the CAPS is comparable to both the IES-R and the IES, the CAPS assess PTSD symptoms in general and not in relation to a specific experienced event, which makes the scale less suitable when measuring stress due to a specific resuscitation attempt. The IES and the IES-R seem to be solid measures for psychological distress among people experiencing an acute psychological traumatic event. However, only one study has assessed psychological distress among citizen responders in OHCA for which the IES-R scale was used, and therefore, further research on this topic is warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Association of Japan Coma Scale score on hospital arrival with in-hospital mortality among trauma patients
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Tetsuya Yumoto; Hiromichi Naito; Takashi Yorifuji; Toshiyuki Aokage; Noritomo Fujisaki; Atsunori Nakao

    The Japan Coma Scale (JCS) score has been widely used to assess patients’ consciousness level in Japan. JCS scores are divided into four main categories: alert (0) and one-, two-, and three-digit codes based on an eye response test, each of which has three subcategories. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the JCS score on hospital arrival in predicting outcomes among adult trauma patients. Using the Japan Trauma Data Bank, we conducted a nationwide registry-based retrospective cohort study. Patients 16 years old or older directly transported from the trauma scene between January 2004 and December 2017 were included. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We examined outcome prediction accuracy based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and multiple logistic regression analysis with multiple imputation. A total of 222,540 subjects were included; their in-hospital mortality rate was 7.1% (n = 15,860). The 10-point scale JCS and the total sum of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores demonstrated similar performance, in which the AUROC (95% CIs) showed 0.874 (0.871–0.878) and 0.878 (0.874–0.881), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the higher the JCS score, the higher the predictability of in-hospital death. When we focused on the simple four-point scale JCS score, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were 2.31 (2.12–2.45), 4.81 (4.42–5.24), and 27.88 (25.74–30.20) in the groups with one-digit, two-digit, and three-digit scores, respectively, with JCS of 0 as a reference category. JCS score on hospital arrival after trauma would be useful for predicting in-hospital mortality, similar to the GCS score.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Predictors of mortality and validation of burn mortality prognostic scores in a Malaysian burns intensive care unit
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Henry Tan Chor Lip; Mohamad Azim Md. Idris; Farrah-Hani Imran; Tuan Nur’ Azmah; Tan Jih Huei; Mathew Thomas

    Majority burn mortality prognostic scores were developed and validated in western populations. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and identify possible risk factors which may be used to predict burns mortality in a local Malaysian burns intensive care unit. The secondary objective was to validate the five well known burn prognostic scores (Baux score, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) score, Ryan score, Belgium Outcome Burn Injury (BOBI) score and revised Baux score) to predict burn mortality prediction. Patients that were treated at the Hospital Sultan Ismail’s Burns Intensive Care (BICU) unit for acute burn injuries between 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2017 were included. Risk factors to predict in-patient burn mortality were gender, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area burn (TBSA), inhalational injury, mechanical ventilation, presence of tracheotomy, time from of burn injury to BICU admission and initial centre of first emergency treatment was administered. These variables were analysed using univariate and multivariate analysis for the outcomes of death. All patients were scored retrospectively using the five-burn mortality prognostic scores. Predictive ability for burn mortality was analysed using the area under receiver operating curve (AUROC). A total of 525 patients (372 males and 153 females) with mean age of 34.5 ± 14.6 years were included. There were 463 survivors and 62 deaths (11.8% mortality rate). The outcome of the primary objective showed that amongst the burn mortality risk factors that remained after multivariate analysis were older age (p = 0.004), wider TBSA burn (p < 0.001) and presence of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Outcome of secondary objective showed good AUROC value for the prediction of burn death for all five burn prediction scores (Baux score; AUROC:0.9, ABSI score; AUROC:0.92, Ryan score; AUROC:0.87, BOBI score; AUROC:0.91 and revised Baux score; AUROC:0.94). The revised Baux score had the best AUROC value of 0.94 to predict burns mortality. Current study evaluated and identified older age, total body surface area burns, and mechanical ventilation as significant predictors of burn mortality. In addition, the revised Baux score was the most accurate burn mortality risk score to predict mortality in a Malaysian burn’s population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Concordance between physiotherapists and physicians for care of patients with musculoskeletal disorders presenting to the emergency department
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    E. Matifat; K. Perreault; J.-S. Roy; A. Aiken; E. Gagnon; M. Mequignon; V. Lowry; S. Décary; B. Hamelin; M. Ambrosio; N. Farley; D. Pelletier; L. Carlesso; F. Desmeules

    Overcrowding in emergency departments (ED) is a major concern worldwide. To answer increasing health care demands, new models of care including advanced practice physiotherapists (APP) have been implemented in EDs. The purpose of this study was to assess diagnostic, treatment and discharge plan concordance between APPs and ED physicians for patients consulting to the ED for minor musculoskeletal disorders (MSKD). Patients presenting to two EDs in Montréal (Canada) with a minor MSKD were recruited and independently assessed by an APP and ED physician. Both providers had to formulate diagnosis, treatment and discharge plans. Cohen’s kappa (κ) and Prevalence and Bias Adjusted Kappas (PABAK) with associated 95%CI were calculated. Chi Square and t-tests were used to compare treatment, discharge plan modalities and patient satisfaction between providers. One hundred and thirteen participants were recruited, mean age was 50.3 ± 17.4 years old and 51.3% had an atraumatic MSKD. Diagnostic inter-rater agreement between providers was very good (κ = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.72–0.90). In terms of treatment plan, APPs referred significantly more participants to physiotherapy care than ED physicians (κ = 0.27; PABAK = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.07–0.45; p = 0.003). There was a moderate inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.46; PABAK = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46–0.77) for discharge plans. High patient satisfaction was reported with no significant differences between providers (p = 0.57). There was significant agreement between APPs and ED physicians in terms of diagnosis and discharge plans, but more discrepancies regarding treatment plans. These results tend to support the integration of APPs in ED settings, but further prospective evaluation of the efficiency of these types of models is warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Towards developing a consensus assessment framework for global emergency medicine fellowships
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Haiko Kurt Jahn; James Kwan; Gerard O’Reilly; Heike Geduld; Katherine Douglass; Andrea Tenner; Lee Wallis; Janis Tupesis; Hani O. Mowafi

    The number of Global Emergency Medicine (GEM) Fellowship training programs are increasing worldwide. Despite the increasing number of GEM fellowships, there is not an agreed upon approach for assessment of GEM trainees. In order to study the lack of standardized assessment in GEM fellowship training, a working group was established between the International EM Fellowship Consortium (IEMFC) and the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM). A needs assessment survey of IEMFC members and a review were undertaken to identify assessment tools currently in use by GEM fellowship programs; what relevant frameworks exist; and common elements used by programs with a wide diversity of emphases. A consensus framework was developed through iterative working group discussions. Thirty-two of 40 GEM fellowships responded (80% response). There is variability in the use and format of formal assessment between programs. Thirty programs reported training GEM fellows in the last 3 years (94%). Eighteen (56%) reported only informal assessments of trainees. Twenty-seven (84%) reported regular meetings for assessment of trainees. Eleven (34%) reported use of a structured assessment of any sort for GEM fellows and, of these, only 2 (18%) used validated instruments modified from general EM residency assessment tools. Only 3 (27%) programs reported incorporation of formal written feedback from partners in other countries. Using these results along with a review of the available assessment tools in GEM the working group developed a set of principles to guide GEM fellowship assessments along with a sample assessment for use by GEM fellowship programs seeking to create their own customized assessments. There are currently no widely used assessment frameworks for GEM fellowship training. The working group made recommendations for developing standardized assessments aligned with competencies defined by the programs, that characterize goals and objectives of training, and document progress of trainees towards achieving those goals. Frameworks used should include perspectives of multiple stakeholders including partners in other countries where trainees conduct field work. Future work may evaluate the usability, validity and reliability of assessment frameworks in GEM fellowship training.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effectiveness of interventions to alleviate emergency department crowding by older adults: a systematic review
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Gijs Hesselink; Özcan Sir; Yvonne Schoon

    The growing demand for elderly care often exceeds the ability of emergency department (ED) services to provide quality of care within reasonable time. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of interventions on reducing ED crowding by older patients, and to identify core characteristics shared by successful interventions. Six major biomedical databases were searched for (quasi)experimental studies published between January 1990 and March 2017 and assessing the effect of interventions for older patients on ED crowding related outcomes. Two independent reviewers screened and selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data into a standardized form. Data were synthesized around the study setting, design, quality, intervention content, type of outcome and observed effects. Of the 16 included studies, eight (50%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two (13%) were non-RCTs and six (34%) were controlled before-after (CBA) studies. Thirteen studies (81%) evaluated effects on ED revisits and four studies (25%) evaluated effects on ED throughput time. Thirteen studies (81%) described multicomponent interventions. The rapid assessment and streaming of care for older adults based on time-efficiency goals by dedicated staff in a specific ED unit lead to a statistically significant decrease of ED length of stay (LOS). An ED-based consultant geriatrician showed significant time reduction between patient admission and geriatric review compared to an in-reaching geriatrician. Inter-study heterogeneity and poor methodological quality hinder drawing firm conclusions on the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing ED crowding by older adults. More evidence-based research is needed using uniform and valid effect measures. The protocol is registered with the PROSPERO International register of systematic reviews: ID = CRD42017075575).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Atypical presentation of hemorrhagic shock in pregnancy: a case highlighting the developing field of emergency medicine in Israel
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Barcuh Berzon; Michael Gleenberg; Joseph Offenbacher; Debra West

    Occult hemorrhagic shock secondary to uterine rupture represents a true obstetric emergency and can result in significant morbidity and mortality for both the patient and the fetus. Multiparity and prior cesarean sections are known risk factors. Typically, these patients present late in gestation, often secondary to the physiologic stresses on the uterus related to contractions. This pathology is less common earlier in pregnancy and can often be overlooked in the acute setting. We present the case of a 31-year-old female with three prior gestations, two parities and two prior cesarean sections, resulting in three live births, who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) 22-weeks pregnant with acute onset dyspnea and an episode of syncope. Due to her altered mental status there was concern for occult shock, despite normal vital signs. Large amounts of free fluid in the abdomen were noted on bedside ultrasonography with a high suspicion for uterine pathology. She was resuscitated with blood and taken immediately to the operating room for surgical management where she was found to have had a uterine rupture. This case highlights a rare presentation of a well-known obstetric emergency, due to the patient’s development of uterine rupture early in gestation. Consequently, emergency physicians should consider atraumatic hypovolemic shock, secondary to this obstetric catastrophe, even at a stage that far precedes its expected presentation. In addition, we make note of how this case validated our department’s integrated emergency medicine model, the first in the State of Israel.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pancreatitis in pre-adolescent children: a 10 year experience in the pediatric emergency department
    BMC Emerg. Med. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Melanie M. Randall; Sarah McDaniels; Kristina Kyle; Meina Michael; Julia Giacopuzzi; Lance A. Brown

    The diagnosis of pediatric pancreatitis has been increasing over the last 15 years but the etiology of this is uncertain. The population of pre-adolescent patients with pancreatitis in the emergency department has not been specifically described. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of these patients to illuminate this population and disease in order to better identify them and avoid a delay in diagnosis and treatment. This was a retrospective descriptive study of consecutive pediatric patients under the age of 13 years between 2006 and 2016 who presented to our pediatric emergency department with a diagnosis of atraumatic pancreatitis. Patient characteristics, lab and imaging results, identified etiology of pancreatitis, and recurrence rates were recorded and evaluated. There were 139 visits, of which 85 were for a first episode of acute pancreatitis, and 54 were patients with an episode of recurrent pancreatitis. The median age for all visits was 8 years (IQ range 5–11). Of the acute cases, 26% had uncertain or undetermined etiologies of which half were thought to likely be viral related; 20% had systemic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases; 19% were associated with medications, with the most common being valproic acid; 16% were cholelithiasis-related; and 15% were found to have a genetic, congenital or structural etiology. No patients had elevated triglycerides. Those with cholelithiasis and genetic or structural defects were found to have a higher recurrence rate than those with other etiologies. There were only four patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis. The etiology of pancreatitis in pre-adolescent children has a different distribution than in adolescents and adults, with gallstone disease less frequent and concurrent contributing illness more common. Patients on pancreatitis-causing medications or with known genetic risk or structural pancreatic problems should be tested for pancreatitis if presenting with concerning symptoms. Hypertriglyceridemia and chronic pancreatitis with evidence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is uncommon in this population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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