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  • Factors associated with costs of care in community-dwelling persons with dementia from a third party payer and societal perspective: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    S. Vandepitte; L. Van Wilder; K. Putman; N. Van Den Noortgate; S. Verhaeghe; J. Trybou; L. Annemans

    Besides the importance of estimating the global economic impact of care for persons with dementia, there is an emerging need to identify the key factors associated with this cost. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between the cost of care in community-dwelling persons with dementia and caregiver characteristics from both the healthcare third party payer perspective and the societal perspective. Several characteristics based on the cross-sectional data of 355 dyads of informal caregivers and persons with dementia living in Belgium were identified to include in a log-gamma generalized linear model and were used in a multiple linear regression model with bootstrapping to test robustness. The mean monthly cost of care for a community-dwelling person with dementia was estimated at € 2339 (95% CI € 2133 – € 2545) per person from a societal perspective and at € 968 (95% CI € 825 – € 1111) per person from a third party payer viewpoint. Informal care accounted for the majority of the monthly costs from the societal perspective. Community based healthcare resource use represented the largest cost from the third party perspective. According to the regression analyses, a higher level of functional dependency of the person with dementia and a higher educational level of the caregiver were associated with a higher monthly cost from both a third party payer perspective and a societal perspective. In addition, being retired and a higher quality of life in the caregivers were associated with a lower monthly cost of care from the societal perspective. Several characteristics of the caregiver and the person with dementia were associated with the monthly costs of care from a third party payer and a societal perspective. Despite the lack of clear causal relationships, the results of this study can assist policy makers in planning and financing future dementia care. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02630446, December 15, 2015.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Orthopaedic surgeons’ perceptions of frailty and frailty screening
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mandy M. Archibald; Michael Lawless; Tiffany K. Gill; Mellick J. Chehade

    Over the past decade, there has been significant growth in the awareness and understanding of fragility among orthopaedic surgeons in the context of osteoporotic fractures and with it, improvements in the recognition and management of fragility fractures. Emerging as a major clinical and research focus in aged care is the concept of frailty and its associations with fragility, sarcopenia, falls and rehabilitation. Currently, research is lacking on how orthopaedic surgeons perceive frailty and the role of frailty screening. A baseline understanding of these perceptions is needed to inform integration of frailty identification and management for patient optimization in orthopaedic practices, as well as research and education efforts of patients and healthcare professionals in orthopaedic contexts. We used an exploratory design guided by qualitative description to conduct 15 semi-structured telephone and in-person interviews across three orthopaedic surgeon subgroups (Registrars, Junior Consultants, and Senior Consultants). Data collection and analysis occurred iteratively and was guided by thematic saturation. Orthopaedic surgeons have a disparate understanding of frailty. Between colleagues, frailty is often referred to non-specifically to suggest a general state of risk to the patient. Frailty screening is regarded positively but its specific utility in orthopaedic environments is questioned. Easy-to-administer frailty screening tools that are not exclusive assessments of functional status are viewed most satisfactorily. However these tools are rarely used. There is little understanding among orthopaedic surgeons of frailty as a phenotype. Beliefs around modifiability of frailty were dissimilar as were the impact of related risk factors, such a cognitive status, chronic disease, social isolation, and environmental influences. This in turn may significantly impact on the occurrence and treatment outcomes of fragility fracture, a common orthopaedic problem in older populations. This study highlights need for knowledge translation efforts (e.g. education) to achieve cohesive understanding of frailty among health professionals.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • The importance of different frailty domains in a population based sample in England
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Solveig A. Arnadottir; Julie Bruce; Ranjit Lall; Emma J. Withers; Martin Underwood; Fiona Shaw; Ray Sheridan; Anower Hossain; Sarah E. Lamb

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of frailty and relative contribution of physical/balance, nutritive, cognitive and sensory frailty to important adverse health states (falls, physical activity levels, outdoor mobility, problems in self-care or usual activities, and lack of energy or accomplishment) in an English cohort by age and sex. Analysis of baseline data from a cohort of 9803 community-dwelling participants in a clinical trial. The sample was drawn from a random selection of all people aged 70 or more registered with 63 general practices across England. Data were collected by postal questionnaire. Frailty was measured with the Strawbridge questionnaire. We used cross sectional, multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between frailty domains and known correlates and adjusted for age. Some models were stratified by sex. Mean age of participants was 78 years (sd 5.7), range 70 to 101 and 47.5% (4653/9803) were men. The prevalence of overall frailty was 20.7% (2005/9671) and there was no difference in prevalence by sex (Odds Ratio 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval 0.89 to 1.08). Sensory frailty was the most common and this was reported by more men (1823/4586) than women (1469/5056; Odds Ratio for sensory frailty 0.62, 95% Confidence Interval 0.57 to 0.68). Men were less likely than women to have physical or nutritive frailty. Physical frailty had the strongest independent associations with adverse health states. However, sensory frailty was independently associated with falls, less frequent walking, problems in self-care and usual activities, lack of energy and accomplishment. Physical frailty was more strongly associated with adverse health states, but sensory frailty was much more common. The health gain from intervention for sensory frailty in England is likely to be substantial, particularly for older men. Sensory frailty should be explored further as an important target of intervention to improve health outcomes for older people both at clinical and population level. ISRCTN71002650.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Pain and recurrent falls in the older and oldest-old non-institutionalized population
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    César Gálvez-Barrón; Francesc Formiga; Antonio Miñarro; Oscar Macho; Leire Narvaiza; María Dolores Dapena; Ramon Pujol; Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero

    Recurrent falls represent a priority in geriatric research. In this study we evaluated the influence of pain as a risk factor for recurrent falls (two or more in 1 year) in the older (65–79 years) and oldest-old (80 or more years) non-institutionalized population. Prospective cohort study. 772 non-institutionalized individuals with ages of 65 years or older (with overrepresentation of people aged 80 years or older [n = 550]) were included through randomized and multistage sampling, stratified according to gender, geographic area and habitat size. Basal evaluation at participant’s home including pain evaluation by Face Pain Scale (FPS, range 0–6) and then telephonic contact every 3 months were performed until complete 12 months. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression (recurrent falls as outcome variable) for each age group (older and oldest-old group) were developed considering pain as a quantitative variable (according to FPS score). Models were adjusted for age, gender, balance, muscle strength, depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, number of drugs and number of drugs with risk of falls. 114 (51.35%) and 286 (52%) participants of older and oldest-old group, respectively, reported pain; and recurrent falls occurred in 6.93% (n = 12) of the older group and 12.06% (n = 51) of the oldest-old group. In the older group, pain was associated with recurrent falls, with an associated odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% CI 1.08–2.00; beta 0.3864) for each unit increase in pain intensity (thus, participants with the most severe pain [FPS 6] had OR of 10.16 regarding to participants without pain [FPS 0]). In the oldest-old group, pain was not associated with recurrent falls. Pain, a potentially modifiable and highly prevalent symptom, is a risk factor for recurrent falls in the older people (65–79 years). However, we have not been able to demonstrate that this relationship is maintained in the oldest-old population (80 or more years).

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Hand grip strength variability during serial testing as an entropic biomarker of aging: a Poincaré plot analysis
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Elena Ioana Iconaru; Constantin Ciucurel

    The Poincaré plot method can be used for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of self-similarity in usually periodic functions, hence the idea of applying it to the study of homeostasis of living organisms. From the analysis of numerous scientific data, it can be concluded that hand functionality can be correlated with the state of the human body as a biological system exposed to various forms of ontogenetic stress. We used the Poincaré plot method to analyze the variability of hand grip strength (HGS), as an entropic biomarker of aging, during 60 repetitive tests of the dominant and nondominant hand, in young and older healthy subjects. An observational cross-sectional study was performed on 80 young adults (18–22 years old, mean age 20.01 years) and 80 older people (65–69 years old, mean age 67.13 years), with a sex ratio of 1:1 for both groups. For statistical analysis, we applied univariate descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Shapiro–Wilk test, Mann–Whitney U-test for independent large samples, with the determination of the effect size coefficient r, and simple linear regression. We calculated the effect of fatigue and the Poincaré indices SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2 and the area of the fitting ellipse (AFE) for the test values of each subject. The analysis of the differences between groups revealed statistically significant results for most HGS-derived indices (p ≤ 0.05), and the magnitude of the differences indicated, in most situations, a large effect size (r > 0.5). Our results demonstrate that the proposed repetitive HGS testing indicates relevant differences between young and older healthy subjects. Through the mathematical modeling of data and the application of the concept of entropy, we provide arguments supporting this new design of HGS testing. Our results indicate that the variability of HGS during serial testing, which reflects complex repetitive biomechanical functions, represents an efficient indicator for differentiation between young and older hand function patterns from an entropic perspective. In practical terms, the variability of HGS, evaluated by the new serial testing design, can be considered an attractive and relatively simple biomarker to use for gerontological studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Drug related problems in admitted geriatric patients: the impact of clinical pharmacist interventions
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Berhane Yohannes Hailu; Derebew Fikadu Berhe; Esayas Kebede Gudina; Kidu Gidey; Mestawet Getachew

    Geriatric patients are at high risk of Drug Related Problems (DRPs) due to multi- morbidity associated polypharmacy, age related physiologic changes, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics alterations. These patients often excluded from premarketing trials that can further increase the occurrence of DRPs. This study aimed to identify drug related problems and determinants in geriatric patients admitted to medical and surgical wards, and to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacist interventions for treatment optimization. A prospective interventional study was conducted among geriatric patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of Jimma University Medical Center from April to July 2017. Clinical pharmacists reviewed patients drug therapy, identified drug related problems and provided interventions. Data were analyzed by using SPSS statistical software version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were performed to determine the proportion of drug related problems. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of drug related problems. A total of 200 geriatric patients were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 67.3 years (SD7.3). About 82% of the patients had at least one drug related problems. A total of 380 drug related problems were identified and 670 interventions were provided. For the clinical pharmacist interventions, the prescriber acceptance rate was 91.7%. Significant determinants for drug related problems were polypharmacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.350, 95% C.I: 1.212–9.260, p = 0.020) and number of comorbidities (AOR = 1.588, 95% C.I: 1.029–2.450, p = 0.037). Drug related problems were substantially high among geriatric inpatients. Patients with polypharmacy and co-morbidities had a much higher chance of developing DRPs. Hence, special attention is needed to prevent the occurrence of DRPs in these patients. Moreover, clinical pharmacists’ intervention was found to reduce DRPs in geriatric inpatients. The prescriber acceptance rate of clinical pharmacists’ intervention was also substantially high.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Risk of falls and fear of falling in older adults residing in public housing in Ontario, Canada: findings from a multisite observational study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Melissa Pirrie; Guneet Saini; Ricardo Angeles; Francine Marzanek; Jenna Parascandalo; Gina Agarwal

    Falls in older adults is a widely researched topic. However, older adults residing in public housing are a vulnerable population that may have unique risk factors for falls. This study aims to describe the prevalence and risk factors for falls, fear of falling, and seeking medical attending for falls in this population. Sociodemographic and health-related data was collected as part of a community-based health assessment program with older adults in public housing. Three pre-screening questions identified individuals at potential risk for falls; individuals who screened positive performed the objective Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for four outcome variables: falls in the past year, seeking medical attention for falls, fear of falling, and objectively measured fall risk via TUG test. A total of 595 participants were evaluated, of which the majority were female (81.3%), white (86.7%), did not have a high school diploma (50.0%), and reported problems in mobility (56.2%). The prevalence of falls in the past year was 34.5%, seeking medical attention for falls was 20.2% and fear of falling was 38.8%. The TUG test was completed by 257 participants. Notably, males had significantly reduced odds of seeking medical attention for a fall (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.25–0.98) and having a fear of falling (OR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.24–0.76); daily fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with decreased odds of having a fall in the past year (OR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.37–0.83), and alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of fear of falling (OR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.03–2.88). Older adults residing in public housing have unique risk factors associated with social determinants of health, such as low fruit and vegetable consumption, which may increase their risk for falls. The findings of this study can be used to inform falls interventions for this population and identify areas for further research.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Online training and support program (iSupport) for informal dementia caregivers: protocol for an intervention study in Portugal
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Soraia Teles; Ana Ferreira; Katrin Seeher; Stéfanie Fréel; Constança Paúl

    Informal caregivers (IC) of people with dementia (PwD) are at greater risk of developing physical and mental health problems when compared to the general population and to IC of people with other chronic diseases. Internet-based interventions have been explored for their potential to minimize the negative effects of caring, accounting for their ubiquitous nature, convenient delivery, potential scalability and presumed (cost) effectiveness. iSupport is a self-help online program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide education, skills training and support to IC of PwD. This paper describes the design of an intervention study aimed at determining the effectiveness of a Portuguese culturally adapted version of iSupport on mental health and other well-being outcomes. The study follows an experimental parallel between-group design with two arms: access to the five modules and twenty-three lessons of “iSupport” for three months (intervention group); or access to an education-only e-book (comparison group). One hundred and eighty four participants will be recruited by referral from national associations. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years or older and provide e-consent; being a self-reported non-paid caregiver for at least six months; of a person with a formal diagnosis of dementia; being skilled to use internet; and experience a clinically relevant level of burden (≥ 21 on Zarit Burden Interview) or depression or anxiety symptoms (≥ 8 on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Data is collected online, resorting to self-administered instruments, at baseline, 3 and 6 months after baseline. The primary outcome is caregiver burden, measured by the Zarit Burden Interview. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, positive aspects of caregiving and general self-efficacy are secondary study outcomes. The data analysis will follow an Intention-to-treat (ITT) protocol. This protocol is an important resource for the many organizations in several countries aiming to replicate iSupport. Findings from this intervention study will offer evidence to bolster an informed decision making on scaling up iSupport as a new intervention program with minimal costs aimed at minimizing the psychological distress of IC of PwD in Portugal and elsewhere. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04104568. Registered 26 September 2019.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Associations of sleep quality and sleep duration with frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population Rugao longevity and ageing study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Xue-Hui Sun; Teng Ma; Shun Yao; Ze-Kun Chen; Wen-Dong Xu; Xiao-Yan Jiang; Xiao-Feng Wang

    Previous studies suggest that poor sleep quality or abnormal sleep duration may be associated with frailty. Here we test the associations of sleep disturbances with both frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population. Participants included 1726 community-dwelling elders aged 70–87 years. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep disturbances. Frailty was defined using phenotype criteria. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio of the associations. The average PSQI score was 5.4 (SD, 3.1). Overall 43.6% of the participants had poor sleep quality (PSQI> 5), 8.2% had night sleep time ≤ 5 h, and 27.8% had night sleep time ≥ 9 h. The prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 9.2 and 52.8%, respectively. The proportions of PSQI> 5 increased with the severity of frailty status (robust: pre-frail: frail, 34.5%: 48%: 56.1%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, poor sleep quality (PSQI> 5) was associated with higher odds of frailty (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.19–2.66) and pre-frailty (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.20–1.90). Sleep latency, sleep disturbance, and daytime dysfunction components of PSQI measurements were also associated with frailty and pre-frailty. In addition, sleep time 9 h/night was associated with higher odds of frailty and pre-frailty. We provided preliminary evidences that poor sleep quality and prolonged sleep duration were associated with being frailty and pre-frailty in an elderly population aged 70–87 years. The associations need to be validated in other elderly populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Nawi Ng; Ailiana Santosa; Lars Weinehall; Gunnar Malmberg

    Living alone is increasingly common and has been depicted as an important cause of mortality. We examined the association between living alone and mortality risks among older men and women in northern Sweden, by linking two unique longitudinal datasets. We used the Linnaeus database, which links several population registers on socioeconomic and health. This register-based study included 22,226 men and 23,390 women aged 50 and 60 years in Västerbotten County who had participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) during 1990–2006, with a total of 445,823 person-years of observation. We conducted Cox-proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of living alone on the mortality that was observed between 1990 and 2015, controlling for socio-demographic factors, chronic disease risk factors and access to social capital. Older men and women who lived alone with no children at home were at a significantly higher risk of death compared to married/cohabiting couples with children at home (with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.38, 95% CI of 1.26–1.50 in men and 1.27, 95% CI of 1.13–1.42 in women). Living alone was an even stronger factor than the well-established chronic disease risk factors and a lack of access to social capital. A significant association between living alone and mortality among the older adult population in Sweden was observed. Providing good social support for older people is important in preventing the negative health impact of living alone.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Exploring the experiences of the older adults who are brought to live in shelter homes in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Laila Akber Cassum; Keith Cash; Waris Qidwai; Samina Vertejee

    The traditional joint family system in a culturally diverse Pakistani society shows great respect and care for older population by the families and their generations. However, in the recent years the phenomenon of population ageing in Pakistan is rapidly increasing due to demographic shift influencing life expectancy, along with changes in socio-cultural values. This transition has resulted in institutionalization of the elderly as an emerging shelter alternative. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the elderly people and to identify the reason which compelled them to reside in these shelter homes. A qualitative methodology, with a descriptive exploratory design, was adopted for the study. A purposive sample of 14 elderly males and females were selected, from two different shelter homes in Karachi, Pakistan. Semi-structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was done to extract the themes and comprehend the data. Content analysis revealed five major themes: the circumstances of leaving home, experiences, and challenges to wellbeing before entering the care facility, coping with challenges, and decision to live in a shelter home. The analysis discovered that the elderly were experiencing lack of physical, psychological, emotional, and financial support from their family and children. It also indicated that migration of children for better career and employment opportunities, entrance of women into the workforce, and insensitive behaviour of children, left the senior citizens neglected and helpless. The findings also uncovered the challenges of unemployment and family disputes that the elderly had to face made them dependent, distressed, helpless, and lonely resulting in both their apparently willing and forceful decision to reside in shelter homes. The findings point to need for further investigation of the identified areas in this study through qualitative and quantitative researches. There is a dire need for increasing public awareness through the social, electronic, and print media, and providing capacity building training to HCPs for the care of the elderly. The lobbying group can act as a catalyst in persuading the government officials for the execution of a policy on retirement, day care and subsidized provision of health services for the betterment of the elderly.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Measurement properties of oral health assessments for non-dental healthcare professionals in older people: a systematic review
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Babette Everaars; Linet F. Weening-Verbree; Katarina Jerković-Ćosić; Linda Schoonmade; Nienke Bleijenberg; Niek J. de Wit; Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden

    Regular inspection of the oral cavity is required for prevention, early diagnosis and risk reduction of oral- and general health-related problems. Assessments to inspect the oral cavity have been designed for non-dental healthcare professionals, like nurses. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the content and the measurement properties of oral health assessments for use by non-dental healthcare professionals in assessing older peoples’ oral health, in order to provide recommendations for practice, policy, and research. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE.com, and Cinahl (via Ebsco) has been performed. Search terms referring to ‘oral health assessments’, ‘non-dental healthcare professionals’ and ‘older people (60+)’ were used. Two reviewers individually performed title/abstract, and full-text screening for eligibility. The included studies have investigated at least one measurement property (validity/reliability) and were evaluated on their methodological quality using “The Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments” (COSMIN) checklist. The measurement properties were then scored using quality criteria (positive/negative/indeterminate). Out of 879 hits, 18 studies were included in this review. Five studies showed good methodological quality on at least one measurement property and 14 studies showed poor methodological quality on some of their measurement properties. None of the studies assessed all measurement properties of the COSMIN. In total eight oral health assessments were found: the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG); the Minimum Data Set (MDS), with oral health component; the Oral Health Assessment Tool (OHAT); The Holistic Reliable Oral Assessment Tool (THROAT); Dental Hygiene Registration (DHR); Mucosal Plaque Score (MPS); The Brief Oral Health Screening Examination (BOHSE) and the Oral Assessment Sheet (OAS). Most frequently assessed items were: lips, mucosa membrane, tongue, gums, teeth, denture, saliva, and oral hygiene. Taken into account the scarce evidence of the proposed assessments, the OHAT and ROAG are most complete in their included oral health items and are of best methodological quality in combination with positive quality criteria on their measurement properties. Non-dental healthcare professionals, policymakers and researchers should be aware of the methodological limitations of the available oral health assessments and realize that the quality of the measurement properties remains uncertain.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • “I just keep thinking that I don’t want to rely on people.” a qualitative study of how people living with dementia achieve and maintain independence at home: stakeholder perspectives
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Penny Rapaport; Alexandra Burton; Monica Leverton; Ruminda Herat-Gunaratne; Jules Beresford-Dent; Kathryn Lord; Murna Downs; Sue Boex; Rossana Horsley; Clarissa Giebel; Claudia Cooper

    Most people living with dementia want to remain in their own homes, supported by family and paid carers. Care at home often breaks down, necessitating transition to a care home and existing interventions are limited. To inform the development of psychosocial interventions to enable people with dementia to live well for longer at home, we qualitatively explored the views of people living with dementia, family carers and health and social care professionals, on how to achieve and maintain independence at home and what impedes this. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with 11 people living with dementia, 19 professionals and 22 family carers in England. We identified four overarching themes: being in a safe and familiar environment, enabling not disabling care, maintaining relationships and community connectedness, and getting the right support. For people living with dementia, the realities of staying active were complex: there was a tension between accepting support that enabled independence and a feeling that in doing so they were accepting dependency. Their and professionals’ accounts prioritised autonomy and ‘living well with dementia’, while family carers prioritised avoiding harm. Professionals promoted positive risk-taking and facilitating independence, whereas family carers often felt they were left holding this risk. Psychosocial interventions must accommodate tensions between positive risk-taking and avoiding harm, facilitating autonomy and providing support. They should be adaptive and collaborative, combining self-management with flexible support. Compassionate implementation of rights-based dementia care must consider the emotional burden for family carers of supporting someone to live positively with risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Development and validation of a screening tool for early identification of bloodstream infection in older patients – a retrospective case-control study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sandra A. N. Walker; Heather Bannerman; Nathan Ma; Christine Peragine; Marion Elligsen; Lesley Palmay; Evelyn Williams; Barbara Liu

    Delayed diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI) occurs in > 20% of older patients, with misdiagnosis in 35%. Our objective was to develop and validate a clinically useful screening tool to identify older patients with a high probability of having a BSI. Hospitalized patients > 80 years old with BSI (n = 105/group) were evaluated for the tool development in this retrospective matched case-controlled study (learn cohort). The tool was validated in different retrospectively matched case and control patients > 80 years old (n = 120/group) and 65 to 79 years old (n = 250/group) (test cohort). Binary logistic regression was used to develop a screening tool using laboratory and clinical parameters that were significantly associated with BSI (P < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio (OR) > 1); and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to identify parameter breakpoints. Performance metrics were used to evaluate and validate the tool. The significant parameters associated with BSI were maximum temperature (Tmax)(> 37.55C)(OR = 42.575), neutrophils (> 7.95)(OR = 1.923), a change in level of consciousness (LOC) (Yes = 1, No = 0)(OR = 1.571), blood urea nitrogen (BUN)(> 10.05)(OR = 1.359), glucose (> 7.35)(OR = 1.167), albumin (< 33.5)(OR = 1.038) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (> 19.5)(OR = 1.005). The optimal screening tool [Ln (odds of BSI) = − 150.299 + 3.751(Tmax) + 0.654(neutrophils) + 0.452(change in LOC) + 0.307(BUN) + 0.154(glucose) + 0.038(albumin) + 0.005(ALT)] had favorable performance metrics in the learn and test cohorts (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 95% in the learn cohort and 77, 89, and 81% in the total test cohort); and performed better than using only temperature and neutrophil count. The validated tool had high predictive value which may improve early identification and management of BSI in older patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Daytime napping and successful aging among older adults in China: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Chunyu Xin; Baiyang Zhang; Shu Fang; Junmin Zhou

    The study aimed to examine the association between daytime napping and successful aging (including its five dimensions, “low probability of disease,” “no disease-related disability,” “high cognitive functioning,” “high physical functioning,” and “active engagement with life”) among China’s older adults using data from the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2015. Cross-sectional data were used in the analysis. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to investigate the association between daytime napping and successful aging, and stratified analyses were performed to explore differences in nighttime sleep duration. A total of 7469 participants were included in the analysis. Daytime napping was prevalent in China’s older adults (59.3%). The proportion of study participants with “successful aging” was 13.7%. Additionally, 48.6, 91.7, 54.1, 78.5, and 49.1% participants achieved “low probability of disease,” “no disease-related disability,” “high cognitive functioning,” “high physical functioning,” and “active engagement with life,” respectively. Compared with the 0 min/day napping group, the > 60 min/day napping group was associated with a lower probability of achieving successful aging (OR, 0.762; 95% CI, 0.583–0.996). In the nighttime sleep duration stratification, the findings showed that in the ≥8 h/night group, napping > 60 min per day was associated with a lower likelihood of aging successfully (OR, 0.617; 95% CI, 0.387–0.984). Considering the five dimensions of successful aging, moderate and long daytime napping were negatively associated with “low probability of disease”; long daytime napping had negative associations with “no disease-related disability” and “high physical functioning”; moderate daytime napping had positive associations with “high cognitive functioning” and “active engagement with life.” Long daytime napping showed a lower likelihood of successful aging among the elderly in China. Special attention is necessary for elderly people who sleep for longer duration both during day and night. Biological and social factors affecting the relationship between daytime napping and successful aging need to be explored in depth in the future.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Social support and depressive symptoms among family caregivers of older people with disabilities in four provinces of urban China: the mediating role of caregiver burden
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yaqin Zhong; Jian Wang; Stephen Nicholas

    To examine the relationship between social support and depressive symptoms of Chinese family caregivers of older people with disabilities, and to evaluate the role of caregiver burden as a potential mediator of that relationship. A survey questionnaire was completed face-to-face by 567 primary family caregivers of older people with disabilities in four provinces in China. Covariates that may affect depressive symptoms, such as the characteristics of disabled people (socio-economic factors, functional and cognitive capacity) and caregivers (caregiver duration and self-rated health of caregivers) were collected. Social support was measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS); depressive symptoms were assessed by the shortened 10 item version of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D); and the caregiver burden was assessed by the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). The prevalence of depressive symptoms among caregivers was 37.7%. Higher levels of social support was negatively associated with lower depressive symptoms. This relationship was partially mediated by the caregiver burden, where higher levels of the caregiver burden were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, caregivers who were women, spent extended time in caregiving and were in poor health, reported significantly higher depressive symptoms. Our results indicated that social support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in family caregivers and in the caregiver burden. The caregiver burden partially mediated the social support-depressive symptoms association. Interventions for family caregivers should include increasing social support, health monitoring and structured interventions to reduce the caregiver burden and attenuate family caregivers’ depressive symptoms.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Falls and risk factors of falls for urban and rural community-dwelling older adults in China
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Li Zhang; Zhihong Ding; Liya Qiu; An Li

    Falls among older people have become a public health concern due to serious health consequences. Despite abundant literature on falls in older people, little is known about the rural-urban differentials in falls among older people in China. This research fills the voids of prior literature by investigating falls and the associated risk factors among Chinese seniors, with a particular focus on the rural-urban differences. Data are from the 2010 wave of Chinese Longitudinal Survey on Urban and Rural Elderly. The analysis includes 16,393 respondents aged 65 and over, with 8440 and 7953 of them living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Descriptive analyses are performed to examine incidence, locations, circumstances and consequences of falls in older people. Regression analysis is used to investigate the effects of risk factors on falls among older people in urban and rural China. The incidence of falls is higher among rural than urban older people. In both settings, older people are more likely to fell outside of home. But common outdoor falls among rural and urban older people differ in terms of locations and circumstances. Urban older people are more likely to report falling on the road whereas their rural counterparts have experienced more falls in the yard. Falls occurring within homes or immediate home surroundings are also common; but few falls occurred in public areas. The rate of hospitalization of urban seniors after falling is higher than that of rural ones. Most risk factors of falls show similar than different effects on rural and urban elders’ risks of falling. Incidence, locations, circumstances and consequences of falls vary among Chinese rural and urban older people. But most risk factors for falls show similar effects on rural and urban elders’ odds of falling. Implications drawn from this research provide suggestions for the government and local agencies to develop suitable fall prevention strategies which may well be applicable to other countries.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Cumulative use of therapeutic bladder anticholinergics and the risk of dementia in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a nationwide 12-year cohort study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Yi-Chi Wang; Yung-Liang Chen; Chun-Che Huang; Chung-Han Ho; Yu-Tung Huang; Ming-Ping Wu; Ming-Jung Ou; Chiu-Hsien Yang; Ping-Jen Chen

    Studies have shown an association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and an increased risk of dementia. Whether anticholinergic use contributes to the development of dementia in patients with LUTS remains unknown, especially in Asian populations. This study aims to investigate the association between anticholinergic use and dementia in patients with LUTS. This study included patients aged 50 years and over with newly diagnosed LUTS (January 2001 to December 2005), divided into four groups according to their cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) of anticholinergics: < 28 cDDDs, 28–84 cDDDs, 85–336 cDDDs, ≥337 cDDDs. Patients were followed up until dementia developed or until the end of 2012. We recruited a total of 16,412 patients. The incidence of dementia was 10% in the < 28 cDDD group, 8.9% in the 28–84 cDDD group, 11.5% in the 85–336 cDDD group, and 14.4% in the ≥337 cDDD group (p = .005). In a Cox proportional hazards analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio of dementia was 1.15 (95% CI = 0.97–1.37) in the 85–336 cDDD group, and 1.40 (95% CI = 1.12–1.75) in the ≥337 cDDD group after adjusting for covariates. Our study indicates that higher cumulative anticholinergic exposure is associated with an increase in the risk of incident dementia in patients with LUTS aged 50 years of age and over. Either using one anticholinergic agent or switching anticholinergic agents cumulatively increases this risk. Therapeutic risks and benefits of using anticholinergics in LUTS treatment should be clinically reviewed and weighed.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency: a cross sectional study of 385 nursing home residents
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Rebeka Arnljots; Egill Snaebjörnsson Arnljots; Jörgen Thorn; Marie Elm; Michael Moore; Pär-Daniel Sundvall

    Up to half of elderly people at nursing homes have asymptomatic bacteriuria, and concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are generally low. Vitamin D is a modulator of the immune system and involved in protection of the epithelium in the urinary tract as well. The objective was to determine a possible association between bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency among elderly people at nursing homes. Cross-sectional study: Voided urine specimens and blood samples for cultivation and analysis of 25OHD were collected from elderly people at nursing homes in Sweden. Exclusion criteria were: urinary catheter, ongoing antibiotic treatment, incontinence or dementia too severe to provide a voided urine specimen or leave a blood sample, unwillingness to participate or terminal illness. Urine cultures and serum 25OHD concentrations were outcome measures and the association of bacteriuria with vitamin D deficiency was determined by logistic regression. Twenty-two nursing homes participated and 385 of 901elderly people provided voided urine specimens and blood samples. The mean age was 87 (SD 6.7), 69% women, 19% received vitamin D supplement, 13% had diabetes mellitus, and 54% were diagnosed with dementia. There was significant growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in 32% (123/385) of voided urine specimens. Escherichia coli were present in 83% of positive urine cultures. The mean concentration of 25OHD in serum was 35 nmol/L (SD 21). Thirty-seven per cent (143/385) had 25OHD < 25 nmol/L, and 3.1% (12/385) 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L. No association between bacteriuria and 25OHD < 25 nmol/L, OR 1.4 (0.86–2.3; p = 0.18) adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus and dementia was found. However, if using 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L as a cut-off for vitamin D deficiency the adjusted odds-ratio was 4.4 (1.1–17; p = 0.031). Bacteriuria and vitamin D deficiency was common. No association between bacteriuria and 25OHD < 25 nmol/L was found. If using 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L as cut-off for vitamin D deficiency there was an association. However, this has to be interpreted with caution as causality cannot be evaluated as well as only few residents had 25OHD < 12.5 nmol/L.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Process of implementing and delivering the Prevention of Delirium system of care: a mixed method preliminary study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Mary Godfrey; John Green; Jane Smith; Francine Cheater; Sharon K. Inouye; Keith Hurst; John Young

    Delirium is a frequent complication of hospital admission among older people. Multicomponent interventions which can reduce incident delirium by ≈one-third are recommended by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Currently, a standardised delirium prevention system of care suitable for adoption in the UK National Health Service does not exist. The Prevention of Delirium (POD) system of care is a theory informed, multicomponent intervention and systematic implementation process which includes a role for hospital volunteers. We report POD implementation and delivery processes in NHS hospital wards, as part of a feasibility study. A comparative case study design and participatory, multi-method evaluation was performed with sequential six month preparatory and six month delivery stages. Six wards in five hospitals in Northern England were recruited. Methods included: facilitated workshops; observation of POD preparatory activities; qualitative interviews with staff; collection of ward organisational and patient profiles; and structured observation of staff workload. POD implementation and delivery was fully accomplished in four wards. On these wards, implementation strategies informed by Normalization Process Theory operated synergistically and cumulatively. An interactive staff training programme on delirium and practices that might prevent it among those at risk, facilitated purposeful POD engagement. Observation of practice juxtaposed to action on delirium preventive interventions created tension for change, legitimating new ways of organising work around it. Establishing systems, processes and documentation to make POD workable in the ward setting, enhanced staff ownership. ‘Negotiated experimentation’ to involve staff in creating, appraising and modifying systems and practices, helped integrate the POD care system in ward routines. Activating these change mechanisms required a particular form of leadership: pro-active ‘steer’, and senior ward ‘facilitator’ to extend ‘reach’ to the staff group. Organisational discontinuity (i.e. ward re-location and re-modelling) disrupted and extended POD implementation; staff shortages adversely affected staff capacity to invest in POD. Findings resulted in the development of ‘site readiness’ criteria without which implementation of this complex intervention was unlikely to occur. POD implementation and delivery is feasible in NHS wards, but a necessary context for success is ‘site readiness.’

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Leukocyte telomere length and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary habits, cardiovascular risk factors and features of myocardial infarction in elderly patients
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Are A. Kalstad; Sjur Tveit; Peder L. Myhre; Kristian Laake; Trine B. Opstad; Arnljot Tveit; Erik B. Schmidt; Svein Solheim; Harald Arnesen; Ingebjørg Seljeflot

    Telomeres are non-coding sequences at the end of eukaryote chromosomes, which in complex with associated proteins serve to protect subtelomeric DNA. Telomeres shorten with each cell division, are regarded as a biomarker for aging and have also been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between leukocyte telomere length and serum polyunsaturated fatty acids, diet, cardiovascular risk factors and features of myocardial infarction (MI) in elderly patients. The material is based upon the first 299 included patients in the OMEMI trial, where patients aged 70–82 years of age are randomized to receive omega-3 supplements or corn oil (placebo) after MI. Patients were included 2–8 weeks after the index MI. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was analyzed by qPCR and reported as a number relative to a reference gene. Serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content was analyzed by gas chromatography. Diet was evaluated with the validated SmartDiet food frequency questionnaire. Medical records, patient interviews and clinical examination provided previous medical history and anthropometric data. Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Median (25, 75 percentile) LTL was 0.55 (0.42, 0.72). Patients had a median age of 75 years, 70.2% were male and 45.2% used omega-3 supplements. There was a weak, but significant correlation between LTL and linoleic acid (r = 0.139, p = 0.017), but not with other LCPUFAs. There was a trend towards longer telomeres with a healthier diet, but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.073). No associations were found between LTL and CVD risk factors or features of MI. In our population of elderly with a recent myocardial infarction LTL was associated with linoleic acid concentrations, but not with other LCPUFAs. Patients with a healthy diet tended to have longer telomeres. The limited associations may be due to age and the narrow age-span in our population. Further studies, designed to detect longitudinal changes should be performed to explore the role of telomeres in cardiovascular aging. Clinical trials no. NCT01841944, registration date April 29, 2013.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Risk factors for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus acquisition during a large outbreak in patients aged 65 years and older
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Benjamin Mathis; Max Haïne; Raphaële Girard; Marc Bonnefoy

    In the context of an aging population, identifying risk factors for Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), specific to older people, is important. However, if age is a known risk factor for VRE infection, a limited number of studies have focused on older patients. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for VRE acquisition in a population aged 65 years and older, during a large VRE outbreak that occurred in a teaching hospital in Lyon, France, from December 2013 to July 2014. The present retrospective, multi-center, descriptive, and analytical study used part of a previous cohort, and included only a sub-group of patients aged 65 years and older. The analysis of the factors included in the original study was completed with factors more specific to geriatric patients. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 65 years and older, in contact with a VRE index patient. Patients were screened by rectal swabs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 180 VRE contacts were included and 18 patients became carriers. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for VRE acquisition in older people included major contact type (RR: 5.31, 95%CI [1.33; 21.19]), number of antibiotics used (RR: 1.36, 95%CI [1.04; 1.76]), a score of McCabe = 2 (RR: 116.39, 95%CI [5.52; 2455.98]), ethylism (RR: 5.50, 95%CI [1.49; 20.25]), and dementia (RR: 7.50, 95%CI [1.89; 29.80]). This study was able to demonstrate risk factors for VRE acquisition in older people. These risk factors should be taken into account when in the presence of older people in a VRE infected unit.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Incidence of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: a nationally representative profile in China
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Weihao Xu; Ya-Xi Li; Chenkai Wu

    Frailty is a clinically recognizable state of reduced resilience to stressors and increased vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The majority of studies have focused on the prevalence and risk factors of frailty, while the incidence of frailty has not been well documented, especially in less developed regions including China—a country that has the largest aging population in the world. We investigated the incidence of frailty among non-frail Chinese older adults by sociodemographic characteristics, disease burden, and geographic region. Participants were 4939 adults aged ≥60 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a cohort study of a nationally representative sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling adults from 28 provinces in China. Frailty was assessed by an adapted version of the well-validated Fried’s physical frailty phenotype, in which five criteria were included: weakness, slowness, exhaustion, physical inactivity, and shrinking. Over an average of 2.1 years of follow-up (10,514.2 person-years), the weighted incidence rate of frailty was 60.6 per 1000 person-years; the incidence rate was 28.8 and 86.6 per 1000 person-years for those who were initially robust and prefrail, respectively. Participants who were older and widowed, had lower education and household income, lived in rural areas, and had higher burden of chronic conditions had higher frailty incidence. Frailty incidence ranged from 44.8 per 1000 person-years in the Southeast to 93.0 per 1000 person-years in the Northwest. Incidence rate of frailty was 60.6 per 1000 person-years among community-living Chinese adults aged ≥ 60 years. Substantial sociodemographic and geographical disparities exist in frailty incidence.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Post-stroke patients with moderate function have the greatest risk of falls: a National Cohort Study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Wycliffe E. Wei; Deirdre A. De Silva; Hui Meng Chang; Jiali Yao; David B. Matchar; Sherry H. Y. Young; Siew Ju See; Gek Hsiang Lim; Ting Hway Wong; Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian

    Stroke patients have increased risks of falls. We examined national registry data to evaluate the association between post-stroke functional level and the risk of low falls among post-stroke patients. This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from national registries to examine the risk factors for post-stroke falls. Data for patients who suffered ischemic strokes and survived the index hospital admission was obtained from the Singapore National Stroke Registry and matched to the National Trauma Registry, from 2011 to 2015. The primary outcome measure was a low fall (fall height ≤ 0.5 m). Competing risk analysis was performed to examine the association between functional level (by modified Rankin score [mRS] at discharge) and the risk of subsequent low falls. In all, 2255 patients who suffered ischemic strokes had recorded mRS. The mean age was 66.6 years and 58.5% were men. By the end of 2015, 54 (2.39%) had a low fall while 93 (4.12%) died. After adjusting for potential confounders, mRS was associated with fall risk with an inverted U-shaped relationship. Compared to patients with a score of zero, the sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) increased to a maximum of 3.42 (95%CI:1.21–9.65, p = 0.020) for patients with a score of 2. The SHR then declined to 2.45 (95%CI:0.85–7.12, p = 0.098), 2.86 (95%CI:0.95–8.61, p = 0.062) and 1.93 (95%CI:0.44–8.52, p = 0.38) for patients with scores of 3, 4 and 5 respectively. An inverted U-shaped relationship between functional status and fall risk was observed. This is consistent with the complex interplay between decreasing mobility (hence decreased opportunity to fall) and increasing susceptibility to falls. Fall prevention intervention could be targeted accordingly. (263 words)

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Life expectancy with and without cognitive impairment among Chilean older adults: results of the National Survey of Health (2003, 2009 and 2016)
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ximena Moreno; Lydia Lera; Francisco Moreno; Cecilia Albala

    Chile has one of the highest life expectancies within Latin American. This is the first study to determine health expectancies in older populations in Chile, considering cognitive status as a health indicator. We estimated prevalence of cognitive decline among people aged 60 years and over based on the Mini-mental State Examination and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire, with data from the National Survey of Health (2003, 2009, 2016). Life expectancy free of cognitive impairment was calculated using the Sullivan method. At age 60, life expectancy free of cognitive impairment was more than 3 years longer for women, compared to men of the same age. Life expectancy free from cognitive impairment was higher for both men and women aged 60 in 2016 when compared to 2003 (2.1 and 2 years higher, respectively). Longer life expectancy in women was accompanied by more years free of cognitive impairment. Men expected to live a similar proportion of years free of cognitive impairment, compared to women. Common and standardised assessments of health status of older people should be adopted in Latin American studies, to allow for time-trend analyses and international comparisons.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • “Being in good hands”: next of kin’s perceptions of continuity of care in patients with heart failure
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Malin Östman; Siv Bäck-Pettersson; Ann-Helén Sandvik; Annelie J. Sundler

    Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition with a variety of diverse symptoms. Patients with HF are usually elderly with multimorbidity, which are both multifaceted and challenging. Being a next of kin to patients with HF is described as a complex task consisting of managing care and treatment, monitoring illness and being an emotional support, while also being able to navigate the healthcare system especially in long-term contact. However, few studies have investigated next of kin’s perceptions of continuity of care in connection with HF. The present study aimed to describe continuity of care as perceived by the next of kin who care for patients with HF. This study used a qualitative descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the next of kin (n = 15) of patients with HF to obtain their perceptions of continuity of care. A phenomenographic analysis method was used to capture the participants’ perceptions of the phenomenon. The analysis reveals that the next of kin perceive that support from healthcare professionals was strongly associated with experiences of continuity of care. Four categories reveal the next of kin’s perceptions of continuity of care: Want to be involved without being in charge; A desire to be in control without acting as the driving force in the care situation; A need for sustainability without being overlooked; and Focusing on making life meaningful while being preoccupied with caregiving activities. Next of kin perceive continuity of care, when they have access to care and treatment and when caregivers collaborate, regardless of healthcare is given by primary care, municipalities or specialist clinics. A sense of “being in good hands” sums up the need for continuous support, shared decision-making and seamless transitions between caregivers. It seems important that healthcare organisations safeguard effective and collaborative models. Moreover, professionals need to plan and perform healthcare in collaboration with patients and next of kin.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • A multicomponent exercise intervention to improve physical functioning, cognition and psychosocial well-being in elderly nursing home residents: a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial in the PROCARE (prevention and occupational health in long-term care) project
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Thomas Cordes; Laura L. Bischoff; Daniel Schoene; Nadja Schott; Claudia Voelcker-Rehage; Charlotte Meixner; Luisa-Marie Appelles; Michael Bebenek; Andre Berwinkel; Claudia Hildebrand; Thomas Jöllenbeck; Bettina Johnen; Wolfgang Kemmler; Thomas Klotzbier; Heide Korbus; Julian Rudisch; Lutz Vogt; Matthias Weigelt; Rita Wittelsberger; Katharina Zwingmann; Bettina Wollesen

    Older adults, who are living in nursing homes that provide a high level of long-term nursing care, are characterized by multimorbidity and a high prevalence of dependency in activities of daily living. Results of recent studies indicate positive effects of structured exercise programs during long-term care for physical functioning, cognition, and psychosocial well-being. However, for frail elderly the evidence remains inconsistent. There are no evidence-based guidelines for exercises for nursing home residents that consider their individual deficits and capacities. Therefore, high-quality studies are required to examine the efficacy of exercise interventions for this multimorbid target group. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a multicomponent exercise intervention for nursing home residents that aims to improve physical and cognitive functioning as well as quality of life. A two-arm single-blinded multicenter randomized controlled trial will be conducted, including 48 nursing homes in eight regions of Germany with an estimated sample size of 1120 individuals. Participants will be randomly assigned to either a training or a waiting time control group. For a period of 16 weeks the training group will meet twice a week for group-based sessions (45–60 min each), which will contain exercises to improve physical functioning (strength, endurance, balance, flexibility) and cognitive-motor skills (dual-task). The intervention is organized as a progressive challenge which is successively adapted to the residents’ capacities. Physical functioning, cognitive performance, and quality of life will be assessed in both study groups at baseline (pre-test), after 16-weeks (post-treatment), and after 32-weeks (retention test, intervention group only). This study will provide information about the efficacy of a multicomponent exercise program in nursing homes (performance, recruitment). Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence of multicomponent exercises, which specifically focus on cognitive-motor approaches in the maintenance of mental and physical functioning. In addition, it will help to encourage older adults to actively engage in social life. Furthermore, the findings will lead to recommendations for health promotion interventions for frail nursing home residents. The trial was prospectively registered at DRKS.de with the registration number DRKS00014957 on October 9, 2018.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations among the elderly in a rural community: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Hye Rin Choi; Seung Won Lee; Da-Hye Jeon; Nam Wook Hur; Yoosik Youm; Hyeon Chang Kim

    Reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are prevalent in elderly people. However, most of the studies that have examined the association between the two conditions were performed in patients with renal dysfunction, but not in the general elderly population. Thus, we investigated an association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and ADMA concentration among community-dwelling older Koreans. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 269 men and 382 women (mean age, 71.6 years) enrolled in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP), a population-based cohort study of health determinants in elderly Koreans. We calculated eGFR using chronic kidney disease- Epidemiology Collaboration Group (CKD-EPI) equation. ADMA concentration was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between eGFR and ADMA concentrations was analyzed by multiple linear regression models. The mean ADMA was significantly higher in people with eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (0.691 μmol/L) than in those with eGFR≥60 mL/min/1.73m2 (0.667 μmol/L, p = 0.013). The negative correlations between eGFR level and ADMA concentrations were significant in men and women after adjusted age. After adjusting for potential confounders which were sex, age, body surface, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and drinking, eGFR levels were inversely associated with ADMA concentrations both in men (β = − 0.0015, p = 0.005) and women (β = − 0.001, p = 0.039). Our findings suggest that an inverse association exists between eGFR and ADMA concentrations among the Korean elderly in a rural community.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • The prevalence of obesity in older adults in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Aliakbar Vaisi-Raygani; Masoud Mohammadi; Rostam Jalali; Akram Ghobadi; Nader Salari

    one of the most important age-dependent physiologic alterations in the body composition of older adult people is obesity and overweight, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality rate. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of obesity in older adults in Iran. The present study was conducted via meta-analysis and systematic review method, from March 2000 to October 2018. Subject-related literature was obtained via searches in ScienceDirect, Medline (PubMed), SID, Magiran, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 index, and data were analyzed by Comprehensive-Meta analysis software. In the assessment of 18 studies and 29,943 persons aged over 50 years, the prevalence of obesity in older adults of Iran was 21.4% (95%CI: 26.6–16.9%) based on the meta-analysis. The highest obesity prevalence was obtained in older adults of Babol (Amir Shahr) which was 44.2% (95%CI: 41.1–47.2%) in 2007, while the minimum obesity prevalence was found in older adults of Razavi Khorasan which was 11.3% (95%CI, 10–12.8%) in 2007. Further, as the sample size and the study year increased, the obesity prevalence diminished in older Iranian adults (p < 0.05). This study suggests that the prevalence of obesity in the older adults of Iran is high. Accordingly, healthcare planners and politicians should consider effective and practical policies to reduce obesity in older adults.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Old subjects with sepsis in the emergency department: trend analysis of case fatality rate
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Andrea Fabbri; Giulio Marchesini; Barbara Benazzi; Alice Morelli; Danilo Montesi; Cesare Bini; Stefano Giovanni Rizzo

    The burden of sepsis represents a global health care problem. We aimed to assess the case fatality rate (CFR) and its predictors in subjects with sepsis admitted to a general Italian hospital from 2009 to 2016, stratified by risk score. We performed a retrospective analysis of all sepsis-related hospitalizations after Emergency Department (ED) visit in a public Italian hospital in an 8-year period. A risk score to predict CFR was computed by logistic regression analysis of selected variables in a training set (2009–2012), and then confirmed in the whole study population. A trend analysis of CFR during the study period was performed dividing patient as high-risk (upper tertile of risk score) or low-risk. Two thousand four hundred ninety-two subjects were included. Over time the incidental admission rate (no. of sepsis-related admissions per 100 total admissions) increased from 4.1% (2009–2010) to 5.4% (2015–2016); P < 0.001, accompanied by a reduced CFR (from 38.0 to 18.4%; P < 0.001). A group of 10 variables (admission to intensive care unit, cardio-vascular dysfunction, HIV infection, diabetes, age ≥ 80 years, respiratory diseases, number of organ dysfunction, digestive diseases, dementia and cancer) were selected by the logistic model to predict CFR with good accuracy: AUC 0.873 [0.009]. Along the years CFR decreased from 31.8% (2009–2010) to 25.0% (2015–2016); P = 0.007. The relative proportion of subjects ≥80 years (overall, 52.9% of cases) and classified as high-risk did not change along the years. CFR decreased only in low-risk subjects (from 13.3 to 5.2%; P < 0.001), and particularly in those aged ≥80 (from 18.2 to 6.6%; P = 0.003), but not in high-risk individuals (from 69.9 to 64.2%; P = 0.713). Between 2009 and 2016 the incidence of sepsis-related hospitalization increased in a general Italian hospital, with a downward trend in CFR, only limited to low-risk patients and particularly to subjects ≥80 years.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • A qualitative study of older adults’ perspectives on initiating exercise and mindfulness practice
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Diana C. Parra; Julie Loebach Wetherell; Alexandria Van Zandt; Ross C. Brownson; Janardan Abhishek; Eric J. Lenze

    Mindfulness practice and exercise are ways by which older adults can improve and maintain their physical, emotional and cognitive health. This single-site qualitative study gathered insights of older adults’ perceptions about initiating and maintaining mindfulness and exercise practices. We carried out focus groups with 41 adults aged 65–85 who had recently initiated Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), structured exercise, or their combination as part of participation in a clinical trial. We used a semi-structured interview to ask them open-ended questions regarding the benefits, barriers and facilitators of participating in mindfulness and/or exercise interventions. The interview also included questions regarding translation of these practices into community settings as well as the long-term maintenance potential of these practices. Older adults indicated that the mindfulness training increased their awareness and self-reflection and fostered a more self-accepting attitude. Furthermore, they improved their self-care habits and reported having better familial and social relationships. The main barrier for both the exercise and Mindfulness group was time management. The social benefits and sense of community were some of the primary motivators for older adults in the exercise and/or MBSR interventions. However, the research on how to motivate older adults to initiate healthy behavioral changes also needs to be answered. The benefits of exercise and MBSR are a motivation in and of themselves, as indicated by some of the participants. This study indicates that mindfulness training and exercise can serve as tools to cultivate important health lifestyle qualities among older adults, who are in the midst of mental, social, emotional and physical change. If it were not for the purpose of the research or the incentives provided by the research team, these older adults may have never started the healthy behavioral changes. From the responses, this may indicate that older adults may need more incentives to begin and maintain behavioral changes other than for their own health benefit.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Advance care planning in Norwegian nursing homes – limited awareness of the residents’ preferences and values? A qualitative study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Lisbeth Thoresen; Reidar Pedersen; Lillian Lillemoen; Elisabeth Gjerberg; Reidun Førde

    52% of all deaths in Norway occur in nursing homes. Still advance care planning (ACP) is scarce and heterogeneous. To improve the implementation and practice of ACP in nursing homes, knowledge about health care professionals’ views on ACP is vital. The objective of this study is to explore nurses and physicians’ aims and experiences with carrying out ACP in nursing homes. Semi-structured group interviews were conducted with 20 health care professionals, recruited from nursing homes where ACP was performed regularly. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The primary aim of the nursing home professionals when doing ACP in nursing homes were to build alliances with next of kin to avoid misunderstandings and future conflicts. Two main experiences with ACP were described: i) due to the sensitivity of ACP issues, it was important to balance directness with being sensitive, and ii) when the physicians raised questions concerning future medical treatment, the answers from residents as well as next of kin were often hesitant and unclear. Our study add insights into how ACP is practiced in nursing homes and the professionals’ agenda. A focus on medical issues and achieving consensus with next of kin may result in lack of involvement of the residents and limited awareness of the residents’ needs. Interdisciplinary approaches, ACP-training and tailored guidelines may improve the implementation and practice of ACP.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Measuring fidelity of delivery of the Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia-UK intervention
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Holly Walton; Ildiko Tombor; Jane Burgess; Hilary Groarke; Tom Swinson; Jennifer Wenborn; Aimee Spector; Martin Orrell; Gail Mountain; Susan Michie

    Interpreting data about intervention effectiveness requires an understanding of which intervention components were delivered and whether they were delivered as planned (fidelity of delivery). These studies aimed to develop a reliable measure for assessing fidelity of delivery of the Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia-UK intervention (COTiD-UK) (Study 1) and measure fidelity of delivery of COTiD-UK across sessions, sites and occupational therapists (Study 2). The studies used a longitudinal observational design nested within a multi-site randomised controlled trial. Where practicable, all intervention sessions were audio-recorded. Fidelity checklists and coding guidelines were developed, piloted and refined until good agreement was achieved between two coders. Ten percent of sessions were purposively sampled from 12 sites and 31 occupational therapists. Transcripts were coded using checklists developed in Study 1; 10% of sets of intervention session transcripts were double coded to ensure that agreement was maintained. Percentages of components that were delivered were calculated for each session, site and occupational therapist. A reliable measure of fidelity of delivery for COTiD-UK was developed after several rounds of piloting and amendments. COTiD-UK was delivered with moderate fidelity across all six sessions (range: 52.4–75.5%). The mean range of fidelity varied across sites (26.7–91.2%) and occupational therapists (26.7–94.1%). A reliable, systematic method for measuring fidelity of delivery of COTiD-UK was developed and applied, and can be adapted for use in similar interventions. As COTiD-UK was delivered with moderate fidelity, there is a reasonable degree of confidence that intervention effects were attributable to COTiD-UK.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Internet use and self-rated health among Swedish 70-year-olds: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Hanna Falk Erhag; Felicia Ahlner; Therese Rydberg Sterner; Ingmar Skoog; Annika Bergström

    The Internet is increasingly becoming an infrastructure for a number of services, both commercial, public (including health related) and personal. Using the internet have the potential to promote social interaction and social connectedness by upholding social networks and social contacts. However, Internet use is lower in older adults compared to other age groups. This digital divide is considered a risk to the health of older adults since it limits their participation in society, access and use of relevant health related information and services. This study focuses on whether there is an association between Internet use and self-rated health. A cross-sectional population-based sample of 70-year-olds from The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study (n = 1136) was examined in 2014–16. All data was collected using structured interviews and questionnaires. Differences in proportions were tested with chi-square test and ordinary least square regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between Internet use and self-rated health controlling for health factors, hearing and visual impairment, and social contacts. There is a relationship between more frequent Internet use and good self-rated health (unstandardized β 0.101 p < 0.001), and the effect remained after adjusting for all covariates (unstandardized β 0.082 p < 0.001). Our results also show that, in comparison to health factors, Internet use is of minor importance to the SRH of older adults, since adding these improved the explanatory power of the model by approximately 400% (from 0.04 to 0.18). Although the direction of the relationship between more frequent interne use and better self-rated health is undetermined in the present study, it can be suggested that using the Internet informs and educates older adults, strengthening their position as active and engaged participants of society. It can also be suggested that those using the Internet report less loneliness and a possibility to establish new computer-mediated relationships within online communities. Further research needs to examine what aspects of Internet use, and in what contexts such positive perceptions arise.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Effect of continuation of antiplatelet therapy on survival in patients receiving physician home visits
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Yasuhiro Osugi; Teruo Ino; Daiki Kobayashi; Mitsunaga Iwata; Kanichi Asai

    Little is known about the effects of continued antiplatelet therapy in patients who receive physician home visits. This study aimed to evaluate the association of survival with the continuation of antiplatelet drugs in patients who received physician home visits. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Toyota, Japan, from April 2015 to October 2018. All patients who received home visits by physicians from the department of Family Medicine of the hospital were included. The primary outcome was the difference in all-cause mortality between patients who were taking antiplatelet drugs and those who were not. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied, adjusted for the patient’s demographic features, activities of daily living, comorbidities, and primary disease requiring home care. A total of 815 patients were included, of whom 61 received antiplatelet drugs (n = 42 for aspirin, n = 17 for clopidogrel, and n = 8 for cilostazol) and 772 received no antiplatelet drugs. The mean age of the patients was 78.3 years, 409 (49.1%) were male, and 314 (37.7%) had end-stage cancer. During a median follow-up period of 120 days (interquartile range, 29–364), 54.3% of the patients died. Compared with patients not taking antiplatelet drugs, patients taking antiplatelet drugs had a better outcome (p < 0.01, log-rank test) and a significantly lower hazard ratio (0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.65; Cox proportional hazards regression). The continuous prescription of antiplatelet drugs may have beneficial effects on mortality among patients who receive physician home visits.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Correlation between the Charlson comorbidity index and skeletal muscle mass/physical performance in hospitalized older people potentially suffering from sarcopenia
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ge Gong; Wenhui Wan; Xinghu Zhang; Yu Liu; Xinhui Liu; Jian Yin

    Sarcopenia is a decrease in skeletal muscle mass, physical performance, and muscle strength in older people. In this study, we aimed to explore the correlation between comorbidity and skeletal muscle mass and physical performance in older people. This retrospective study included 168 subjects. Their medical history, physical function, computed tomography (CT) chest scans, and blood tests for nutrition were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: (1) a low muscle mass group and (2) a normal muscle mass group. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare multiple sets of mean vectors. Overall, 72.02% of the subjects had a low skeletal muscle index (SMI) and low gait speed. The patients with low skeletal muscle mass and physical performance were older, had more serious comorbidities, and had longer average hospitalization periods and lower albumin and hemoglobin levels. Subjects with a high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were more likely to be in the sarcopenic group than in the non-sarcopenic group. In addition, there was a linear correlation between the CCI and SMI (r = − 0.549, P < 0.05), and between the CCI and gait speed (r = − 0.614, P < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) value for low skeletal muscle mass with the CCI was 0.879. We identified an independent association between comorbidity and skeletal muscle mass/physical performance by researching the correlation between the CCI and SMI/gait speed. Our results suggested that the CCI score may have important clinical diagnostic value for sarcopenia.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Meaning in life and health care use: findings from a nationally representative study of older adults in Germany
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    André Hajek; Hans-Helmut König

    There is a lack of studies examining the link between meaning in life and health care use. Meaning in life refers to a sense of comprehension and significance in life. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between meaning in life and health care use. Cross-sectional data from the German Ageing Survey, a nationally representative sample of older adults, was used for this study (in the analytical sample: n = 3850; year 2002). The frequency of GP and specialist visits in the past 12 months were used as outcome measures. Meaning in life was assessed using a single item measure. Based on Andersen’s model, covariates were selected. Sex, age, family status, occupational status, income, self-rated health, physical functioning, depressive symptoms, and the number of physical illnesses were adjusted for in a multiple regression analysis. After adjusting for various potential confounders, there was a positive association between meaning in life and GP (IRR: 1.04, 95%-CI: 1.01–1.08) as well as specialist visits (IRR: 1.07, 95%-CI: 1.02–1.12) in a multiple regression analysis. With the exception of employment status (retired vs. employed), income and need factors, no covariates were consistently associated with both outcome measures. This study highlighted the association between meaning in life and health care use. Our results indicate that there are other factors that are associated with health care use, beyond need-variables. This might help to identify individuals at risk for under- or overuse of health care services.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Diet quality and cognitive function in mid-aged and older men and women
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Catherine M. Milte; Kylie Ball; David Crawford; Sarah A. McNaughton

    To date much research into nutrition and cognitive function has been at the nutrient or food level, with inconsistent results. There is increasing interest in the dietary pattern approach to assess whole diet quality and its association with cognitive function. This study investigated if diet quality is associated with cognitive function in men and women aged 55 years and over. Adults aged 55–65 years in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 617) completed a postal survey including a 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2010 and 2014. Diet quality was assessed via the revised dietary guideline index (DGI-2013) and also by its individual components which assessed key food groups and dietary behaviours from the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status (TICS-m) measured cognitive function in 2014. Associations between past (2010) and recent (2014) diet quality and its components, and cognitive function were assessed by linear regression adjusted for covariates. After adjustment for age, sex, education, urban/rural status and physical activity there were no associations between diet quality in 2010 and cognitive function in 2014. However participants who reported higher dietary variety (B = 0.28, 95% CI 0.03, 0.52) and women who reported “sometimes” adding salt to food after cooking (B = 0.98, 95% CI 0.25, 1.71) in 2010 displayed better cognitive function in 2014. In 2014, usual consumption of higher fibre bread choices in the total sample (B = 1.32, 95% CI 0.42, 2.23), and higher diet quality (B = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00, 0.07) and greater fluid consumption (B = 0.14, 95% CI 0.01, 0.27) in men were all associated with better cognitive function. In addition, men who reported “usually” adding salt to their food during cooking displayed poorer cognitive function (B = -1.37, 95% CI -2.39, − 0.35). There were no other associations between dietary intake and cognitive function observed in the adjusted models. An association between dietary variety and some limited dietary behaviours and cognitive function was observed, with variation by gender. Future research should consider trajectories of dietary change over longer time periods as determinants of health and function in older age.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • How older patients prioritise their multiple health problems: a qualitative study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ulrike Junius-Walker; Tanja Schleef; Ulrike Vogelsang; Marie-Luise Dierks

    Patients with multimorbidity often receive diverse treatments; they are subjected to polypharmacy and to a high treatment burden. Hence it is advocated that doctors set individual health and treatment priorities with their patients. In order to apply such a concept, doctors will need a good understanding of what causes patients to prioritise some of their problems over others. This qualitative study explores what underlying reasons patients have when they appraise their health problems as more or less important. We undertook semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 34 patients (aged 70 years and over) in German general practices. Initially, patients received a comprehensive geriatric assessment, on the basis of which they rated the importance of their uncovered health problems. Subsequently, they were interviewed as to why they considered some of their problems important and others not. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Patients considered their health problems important, if they were severe, constant, uncontrolled, risky or if they restricted daily activities, autonomy and social inclusion. Important problems often correlated with negative feelings. Patients considered problems unimportant, if they were related to a bearable degree of suffering, less restrictions in activities, or psychological adjustment to diseases. Altogether different reasons occurred on the subject of preventive health issues. Patients assess health problems as important if they interfere with what they want from life (life values and goals). Psychological adjustment, by contrast, facilitates a downgrading of the importance. Asking patients with multimorbidity, which health problems are important, may guide physicians to treatment priorities and health problems in need of empowerment.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Claims data-based analysis of the influence of individual and regional characteristics on the utilisation of long-term care by people with dementia in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Johanna Forstner; Michel Wensing; Jan Koetsenruijter; Pamela Wronski

    Challenges of future dementia care include increasing shortage of qualified healthcare providers and decreasing potential of informal care by relatives. In order to meet those challenges, changes in dementia care are needed. These changes should be based on data of both care utilisation and care supply. The aim of this study was to provide insight into individual and regional characteristics that influence the utilisation of long-term care by people with dementia. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of claims-based data and other available data referring to one index year. All data were aggregated for small geographic districts. The study population comprised people with a dementia diagnosis, 65 years and older in Baden-Wuerttemberg and insured by the largest health insurer. Utilisation of nursing home care, informal care, and respite care was analysed using binary coded logistic multilevel analyses. Seventy nine thousand three hundred forty-nine people with dementia were included in the analyses. Nursing home care was used by 20.4%, informal care by 30.6%, and respite care by 3.5% of people with dementia. Individual characteristics that influence care utilisation included age, sex and the level of care dependency. The utilisation of informal care (OR = 1.713) and respite care (OR = 2.036) was higher in rural districts than in city districts. Respite care supply had an effect on the utilisation of respite care (OR = 1.173). The study found differences between districts in the utilisation of long-term care for dementia. These differences were largely explained by the composition of the population within the districts. An exception was the utilisation of respite care, which was higher in districts which have higher supply. Individual characteristics that influenced care utilisation are age, sex, level of care dependency and, with regard to informal care, comorbidity. Further research should be conducted on a small-area level, include further individual characteristics as well as other care and living forms.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Implementation of new standard operating procedures for geriatric trauma patients with multiple injuries: a single level I trauma centre study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Lorenz Peterer; Christian Ossendorf; Kai Oliver Jensen; Georg Osterhoff; Ladislav Mica; Burkhardt Seifert; Clément M. L. Werner; Hans-Peter Simmen; Hans-Christoph Pape; Kai Sprengel

    The demographic changes towards ageing of the populations in developed countries impose a challenge to trauma centres, as geriatric trauma patients require specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This study investigated whether the integration of new standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the resuscitation room (ER) has an impact on the clinical course in geriatric patients. The new SOPs were designed for severely injured adult trauma patients, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and imply early whole-body computed tomography (CT), damage control surgery, and the use of goal-directed coagulation management. Single-centre cohort study. We included all patients ≥65 years of age with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 9 who were admitted to our hospital primarily via ER. A historic cohort was compared to a cohort after the implementation of the new SOPs. We enrolled 311 patients who met the inclusion criteria between 2000 and 2006 (group PreSOP) and 2010–2012 (group SOP). There was a significant reduction in the mortality rate after the implementation of the new SOPs (P = .001). This benefit was seen only for severely injured patients (ISS ≥ 16), but not for moderately injured patients (ISS 9–15). There were no differences with regard to infection rates or rate of palliative care. We found an association between implementation of new ER SOPs, and a lower mortality rate in severely injured geriatric trauma patients, whereas moderately injured patients did not obtain the same benefit. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03319381, retrospectively registered 24 October 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Impaired kidney function is associated with lower cognitive function in the elder general population. Results from the Good Aging in Skåne (GÅS) cohort study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Tomas Månsson; Marieclaire Overton; Mats Pihlsgård; Sölve Elmståhl

    A possible connection on vascular basis between impaired kidney function and cognitive dysfunction has been suggested in previous studies. Contradictory results regarding specific cognitive domains have been reported. The aim for this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and specific cognitive domains. In this cross-sectional design, data from the general population based cohort study “Good aging in Skåne” (GÅS) was used. The sample included 2931 subjects ages 60 to 93 randomly selected from the southern part of Sweden. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for both creatinine and cystatine C was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The subjects underwent a test battery of neuropsychological tests assessing global cognitive function, learning and memory, language, complex attention, executive function, perceptual motor and meta-memory. Adjustments were made for age, sex, education and country of origin. After adjustment for demographic variables, impaired kidney function was associated with 0.41 points worse result in MMSE, 0.56 points worse result in recognition, 0.66 points worse result in word fluency, 0.45 points worse result in digit cancellation, 0.99 points worse result in pattern comparison, and 3.71 s longer time to finish TMT B-A. Associations to cognitive function was also noted for mildly impaired kidney function defined as eGFR 45- < 60 ml/min/1,73m2. No association was found between kidney function and meta-memory. Impaired kidney function as well as the severity of impaired kidney function is associated with impairment in learning and memory, language, complex attention, executive function and global cognitive function, but not meta-memory.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Quality of prescribing predicts hospitalisation in octogenarians: life and living in advanced age: a cohort study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ)
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Cristín Ryan; Ruth Teh; Simon Moyes; Tim Wilkinson; Martin Connolly; Anna Rolleston; Mere Kepa; Ngaire Kerse

    Prescribing for older people is complex, and many studies have highlighted that appropriate prescribing in this cohort is not always achieved. However, the long-term effect of inappropriate prescribing on outcomes such as hospitalisation and mortality has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the level of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) for participants of the Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ) study at baseline and examine the association between PIP and hospitalisation and mortality at 12-months follow-up. PIP was determined using STOPP/START. STOPP identified potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) prescribed, START identified potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). STOPP/START were applied to all LiLACS NZ study participants, a longitudinal study of ageing, which includes 421 Māori aged 80–90 years and 516 non-Māori aged 85 years. Participants’ details (e.g. age, sex, living arrangements, socioeconomic status, physical functioning, medical conditions) were gathered by trained interviewers. Some participants completed a core questionnaire only, which did not include medications details. Medical conditions were established from a combination of self-report, review of hospital discharge and general practitioner records. Binary logistic regression, controlled for multiple potential confounders, was conducted to determine if either PIMs or PPOs were associated with hospital admissions and mortality (p < 0.05 was considered significant). Full data were obtained for 267 Māori and 404 non-Māori. The mean age for Māori was 82.3(±2.6) years, and 84.6(±0.53) years for non-Māori. 247 potentially inappropriate medicines were identified, affecting 24.3% Māori and 28.0% non-Māori. PIMs were not associated with 12-month mortality or hospitalisation for either cohort (p > 0.05; adjusted models). 590 potential prescribing omissions were identified, affecting 58.1% Māori and 49.0% non-Māori. PPOs were associated with hospitalisation (p = 0.001 for Māori), but were not associated with risk of mortality (p > 0.05) for either cohort within the 12-month follow-up (adjusted models). PPOs were more common than PIMs and were associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for Māori. This study highlights the importance of carefully considering all indicated medicines when deciding what to prescribe. Further follow-up is necessary to determine the long-term effects of PIP on mortality and hospitalisation.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Self-reported oral health in the Dutch 100-plus Study of cognitively healthy centenarians: an observational cohort study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Nina Beker; Claar D. van der Maarel-Wierink; Cees de Baat; Henne Holstege

    Due to improved healthcare, more people reach extreme ages. Oral health in the oldest-old has thus far been poorly described. Here, we investigated self-reported oral health factors, use of professional oral health care, and associations with clinical measures in centenarians considered cognitively healthy. In this observational cohort study, we included 162 (74% female) centenarians from the Dutch 100-plus Study cohort who self-reported to be cognitively healthy, as confirmed by a proxy. Centenarians were questioned about their physical well-being including medication use and their cognitive functioning was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Questions regarding oral health included preservation of teeth, oral pain or discomfort, chewing ability, xerostomia, and time since last visit to an oral health care provider. Associations between oral health and clinical measures were investigated with ordinal logistic or linear regression analyses, adjusted for gender, age, and education. The majority of the centenarians indicated to have good oral health: 76% felt no oral pain/discomfort, 65% indicated to chew well; while only 18% had symptoms of xerostomia. Of all centenarians, 83% were edentulous and were wearing removable complete maxillary and mandibular dental prostheses, 1% was edentulous with no dental prosthesis, while 16% was dentate with or without removable partial dental prostheses (10 and 6% respectively). Dentate and edentulous centenarians experienced similar levels of oral pain and/or discomfort, chewing ability, xerostomia, and their cognitive functioning was similar. No relationship between cognitive functioning and chewing ability was found. Xerostomia was associated with medication use (p = .001), which mostly regarded medications for cardiovascular diseases, diuretics, anti-coagulants, and antacids. Only 18% of the centenarians visited an oral health care provider during the year prior to the interview, of whom 48% were dentate centenarians. Notably, 49% of the centenarians had not visited an oral health care provider for ≥10 years. Most centenarians were edentulous and did not report oral complaints. Less than one-fifth of the centenarians continued to seek regular professional oral health care. Since the proportion of dentates in the oldest-old will increase in the near future, a proactive attitude toward this group is necessary.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • The prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery in Korea
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Seong-Eun Byun; Kyeu Back Kwon; Sang Ho Kim; Seung-Jae Lim

    Dysphagia is prevalent in geriatric patients, such as elderly hip fracture patients, and is associated with a poor prognosis. This study investigated (1) the prevalence of dysphagia based on clinical screening and a video-fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), (2) the risk factors of dysphagia, and (3) the prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients (≥ 65 years) undergoing hip fracture surgery. In this retrospective study, data from 393 female and 153 male patients ≥65 years of age who underwent surgery for a hip fracture between 2015 and 2018 were analysed. Patients who were considered at high risk of dysphagia after screening underwent a VFSS. To identify risk factors of dysphagia, demographic factors, the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, past medical history, known risk factors of dysphagia, and factors associated with surgery were analysed using a binary logistic regression model. Odds ratios (ORs) of dysphagia for having poor prognosis including postoperative pneumonia, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death within 6 months after surgery were obtained by logistic regression. The association of postoperative pneumonia with poor prognosis was also analysed. Dysphagia was seen in 5.3% of hip fracture patients. In multivariate regression analysis, a serum albumin level < 3.5 g/dL was identified as a risk factor for dysphagia (OR [95%CI] = 3.13 [1.40, 7.01]). Dysphagia was identified as a risk factor for postoperative pneumonia in regression analysis after adjustment (OR [95%CI] = 3.12 [1.05, 9.27]). Postoperative pneumonia was significantly associated with ICU admission (OR [95% CI] = 4.56 [1.85, 11.28]) and death within 6 months after surgery (OR [95% CI] = 2.56 [1.03, 6.33]). Dysphagia in elderly hip fracture surgery patients was associated with postoperative pneumonia, a risk factor for poor outcomes including ICU admission and death within 6 months after surgery. A serum albumin level < 3.5 g/dL was identified as a risk factor for dysphagia. Therefore, diagnostic testing should be performed to detect dysphagia, especially in patients with a low serum albumin level. Finally, particular care should be taken to prevent postoperative complications in patients with dysphagia.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Creating conditions for a sense of security during the evenings and nights among older persons receiving home health care in ordinary housing: a participatory appreciative action and reflection study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Inger James; Margaretha Norell Pejner; Annica Kihlgren

    Today many older persons in ordinary housing receive home health care. It is stipulated that the care is to provide security; however, deficiencies in home health care are reported in many countries. It may be difficult to implement a sense of security among older persons receiving home health care in ordinary housing, especially during the evenings and nights, due to a lack of knowledge. This study is part of a larger project with a participatory appreciative action and reflection (PAAR) approach. We invited older persons, relatives, nurse assistants, registered nurses, and their managers to co-create knowledge with us on how conditions for a sense of security can be created during evenings and nights among older persons receiving home health care in ordinary housing. We performed thematic analysis of the data. Five subthemes were developed that gave structure to two main themes. The first main theme, To confirm the self-image, has the following subthemes: To see the home as a reflection of the person’s identity and To maintain self-determination. The second main theme, To create interaction in a sheltered place, has these subthemes: To undress the power, To create control and lifelines, and To create a good sleeping environment. The two themes interact and are each other’s conditions. The person’s self-image must be confirmed in order to create interaction in a sheltered place and through the interaction, the self-image is confirmed. Conditions necessary for older persons to have a sense of security are living in a familiar environment, having habits and routines maintained, and having self-determination. Other conditions are equality, the prevention of falls, and an individualized sleeping environment. Older people’s self-determination should be honored, and they should not being excluded from decision-making. We need to ask them if the conditions are sufficient and their sense of security is great enough to allow them to continue living in their ordinary housing.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • A prospective study of hepatic safety of statins used in very elderly patients
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Meizi Guo; Junli Zhao; Yingjiu Zhai; Panpan Zang; Qing Lv; Dongya Shang

    Statins play an important role in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease and have a good safety record in clinical practice. Hepatotoxicity is a barrier that limits the ability of primary care physicians to prescribe statins for patients with elevated liver transaminase values and/or underlying liver disease. However, limited population-based data are available on the use of statin therapy and on the hepatotoxicity of statins in very elderly patients. This prospective study evaluated the liver enzyme elevation during statin therapy in very elderly patients (≥80 years old). Patients with hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C levels ≥3.4 and < 5.7 mmol/L), atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease (CHD), or a CHD-risk equivalent were enrolled and received once-daily statin treatment. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the impact of age, gender, hepatitis B infection, fatty liver disease, biliary calculus, other chronic diseases, drug kinds, alcohol abuse, statin variety, and statin dose variables. A total of 515 consecutive patients ranging from 80 to 98 years old were included in the analysis. These patients were treated with simvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, or atorvastatin. Twenty-four patients (4.7, 95% CI 2.7–6.6) showed an increase in their hepatic aminotransferase levels. No significant difference of hepatic aminotransferase elevation rates was observed in different statin treatment groups. The incidence of mild, moderate, and severe elevation of aminotransferase levels was 62.5% (15/24), 29.2% (7/24), and 8.3% (2/24), respectively. None of the patients developed hepatic failure. Nine patients with moderate or severe aminotransferase elevations discontinued therapy. The time of onset of hepatic aminotransferase elevation ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months after statin treatment. The onset of hepatic aminotransferase elevation was within 1 month for 70.8% of patients. The patients took 2 weeks to 3 months to recover their liver function after statin therapy cessation. Multivariate analysis identified chronic hepatitis B infection and alcohol consumption as independent factors associated with the hepatic response to statins: OR, 12.83; 95% CI (4.36–37.759) and OR, 2.736; 95% CI (1.373–5.454), respectively. The prevalence of elevated transaminases was higher than published data in very elderly patients. Overall, statin treatment is safe for patients ≥80 years old.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Promoting activity, Independence and stability in early dementia (PrAISED): a, multisite, randomised controlled, feasibility trial
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Sarah E. Goldberg; Veronika van der Wardt; Andy Brand; Clare Burgon; Rupinder Bajwa; Zoe Hoare; Pip L. Logan; Rowan H. Harwood

    We tested the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a complex therapy intervention which aimed to promote activity and independence for people with early dementia (PrAISED). Feasibility questions were on: recruitment, randomisation, intervention delivery, adherence and withdrawals, level of supervision required, adverse events, data collection and sample size assumptions. We conducted a three-arm, multi-site, single-blind, randomised controlled feasibility trial. Eligibility criteria were aged 65 years or older, diagnosed mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment, able to walk without human help, and communicate in English, no co-morbidities that prevented participation in cognitive assessment and capacity to give consent. Participants were recruited from Memory Assessment Service clinics and the ‘Join Dementia Research’ register. Patient participants were randomised 1:1:1 to a high intensity supervision PrAISED intervention, moderate intensity supervision PrAISED intervention or brief falls prevention assessment and advice (control). The PrAISED intervention aimed for participants to complete three hours of PrAISED exercises a week for 12 months. It included individualised activity and exercise plans and supervised exercises with regular re-assessment and progression, and was delivered by occupational therapists, physiotherapists and rehabilitation support workers. Primary efficacy outcome was the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD), measured after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included physical activity, quality of life, mood, cognition, strength, balance, rate of falls, frailty and carer strain. Falls and activity were ascertained by monthly diary. Between September 2016 and March 2017 we recruited 60 patient participants and 54 carer participants from two sites. Forty-nine patient participants completed a follow-up interview. Feasibility outcomes were mostly satisfactory, including recruitment and retention, intervention delivery and data completeness for most scales used. We could not maintain blinding of researchers at follow-up and experienced difficulties collecting data using some questionnaires and devices. Participants only completed a mean 77 (moderate supervision) and 71 (high supervision) minutes per week of PrAISED exercises over 12 months. We recorded 19 adverse events, none serious and related to the intervention. We conclude that with some adjustments to the trial protocol, it is feasible to deliver the PrAISED intervention and conduct a trial. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02874300 (first posted 22nd August 2016), ISRCTN: 10550694 (date assigned 31st August 2016).

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Use it or lose it: a qualitative study of the maintenance of physical activity in older adults
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Asiya Maula; Natasher LaFond; Elizabeth Orton; Steve Iliffe; Sarah Audsley; Kavita Vedhara; Denise Kendrick

    Lack of physical activity (PA) is a recognised global public health problem, which is increasing in prevalence with a detrimental impact on the pattern of disease worldwide. In the UK, older adults comprise the most sedentary group, with only 57% of males and 52% of females aged 65–74 years and 43% of males and 21% of females aged 75–84 years meeting PA recommendations. PA confers multiple health benefits including increased stamina, muscle, bone and joint strength, increased independence and reduced risk of falls in old age. Despite benefits experienced during time-limited PA programmes, increased PA is not always continued. This study aimed to provide a better understanding of PA maintenance behaviours in older people. Face to face semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults who completed one of two strength and balance exercise programmes as part of the ProAct65+ trial: group (FaME) and home based (OTAGO) exercises. Five GP practices in Nottingham and Derby were recruited and invited people aged 65 years and older who met eligibility criteria. Interviews were conducted in participants’ homes. Interviews explored PA levels pre and post intervention, perceived health benefits, facilitators, barriers and use of technology for PA maintenance. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis and the software NVivo10. Fifteen participants from each intervention group were interviewed. The FaME group consisted of 10 females and 5 males, age range of 70–88 years. The OTAGO group consisted of 12 females and 3 males aged 72–95 years. Important themes identified were physical, social, psychological and environmental facilitators and barriers. These included increased physical autonomy, enjoyment, positive evaluation of the activity and physical benefits, importance of social interaction, positive feedback, development of behaviour considered normal or habitual, motivation and self-efficacy. Some participants used technologies not included in the original interventions, like pedometers and smart phones to motivate themselves. A range of modifiable factors influence continued participation in PA at the end of exercise programmes. The findings from this study will inform the commissioning and quality improvement of future PA programmes and development of an intervention to enhance continuation of PA after exercise interventions in older adults.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A bio-psycho-social approach for frailty amongst Singaporean Chinese community-dwelling older adults – evidence from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nigel Teo; Pei Shi Yeo; Qi Gao; Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt; Jie Jing Foo; Shiou Liang Wee; Tze Pin Ng

    Few empirical studies support a bio-psycho-social conceptualization of frailty. In addition to physical frailty (PF), we explored mental (MF) and social (SF) frailty and studied the associations between multidimensional frailty and various adverse health outcomes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted using data from a population-based cohort (SLAS-1) of 2387 community-dwelling Singaporean Chinese older adults. Outcomes examined were functional and severe disability, nursing home referral and mortality. PF was defined by shrinking, weakness, slowness, exhaustion and physical inactivity, 1–2 = pre-frail, 3–5 = frail; MF was defined by ≥1 of cognitive impairment, low mood and poor self-reported health; SF was defined by ≥2 of living alone, no education, no confidant, infrequent social contact or help, infrequent social activities, financial difficulty and living in low-end public housing. The prevalence of any frailty dimension was 63.0%, dominated by PF (26.2%) and multidimensional frailty (24.2%); 7.0% had all three frailty dimensions. With a few exceptions, frailty dimensions share similar associations with many socio-demographic, lifestyle, health and behavioral factors. Each frailty dimension varied in showing independent associations with functional (Odds Ratios [ORs] = 1.3–1.8) and severe disability prevalence at baseline (ORs = 2.2–7.3), incident functional disability (ORs = 1.1–1.5), nursing home referral (ORs = 1.5–3.4) and mortality (Hazard Ratios = 1.3–1.5) after adjusting for age, gender, medical comorbidity and the two other frailty dimensions. The addition of MF and SF to PF incrementally increased risk estimates by more than 2 folds. This study highlights the relevance and utility of PF, MF and SF individually and together. Multidimensional frailty can better inform policies and promote the use of targeted multi-domain interventions tailored to older adults’ frailty statuses.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Patient and system factors associated with unassisted and injurious falls in hospitals: an observational study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Dawn M. Venema; Anne M. Skinner; Regina Nailon; Deborah Conley; Robin High; Katherine J. Jones

    Unassisted falls are more likely to result in injury than assisted falls. However, little is known about risk factors for falling unassisted. Furthermore, rural hospitals, which care for a high proportion of older adults, are underrepresented in research on hospital falls. This study identified risk factors for unassisted and injurious falls in rural hospitals. Seventeen hospitals reported 353 falls over 2 years. We categorized falls by type (assisted vs. unassisted) and outcome (injurious vs. non-injurious). We used multivariate logistic regression to determine factors that predicted fall type and outcome. With all other factors being equal, the odds of falling unassisted were 2.55 times greater for a patient aged ≥65 than < 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30–5.03), 3.70 times greater for a patient with cognitive impairment than without (95% CI = 2.06–6.63), and 6.97 times greater if a gait belt was not identified as an intervention for a patient than if it was identified (95% CI = 3.75–12.94). With all other factors being equal, the odds of an injurious fall were 2.55 times greater for a patient aged ≥65 than < 65 (95% CI = 1.32–4.94), 2.48 times greater if a fall occurred in the bathroom vs. other locations (95% CI = 1.41–4.36), and 3.65 times greater if the fall occurred when hands-on assistance was provided without a gait belt, compared to hands-on assistance with a gait belt (95% CI = 1.34–9.97). Many factors associated with unassisted or injurious falls in rural hospitals were consistent with research conducted in larger facilities. A novel finding is that identifying a gait belt as an intervention decreased the odds of patients falling unassisted. Additionally, using a gait belt during an assisted fall decreased the odds of injury. We expanded upon other research that found an association between assistance during falls and injury by discovering that the manner in which a fall is assisted is an important consideration for risk mitigation.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Evaluating audio-visual falls prevention messages with community-dwelling older people using a World Café forum approach
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Lex D. de Jong; Jacqueline Francis-Coad; Chris Wortham; Terry P. Haines; Dawn A. Skelton; Tammy Weselman; Anne-Marie Hill

    Falls risk increases sharply with older age but many older people are unaware or underestimate their risk of falling. Increased population-based efforts to influence older people’s falls prevention behavior are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to obtain a group of older people’s collective perspectives on newly developed prototypes of audio-visual (AV) falls prevention messages, and evaluate changes in their falls prevention behaviour after watching and discussing these. A mixed-method study using a community World Café forum approach. Although the forum participants (n = 38) mostly responded positively to the three AV messages and showed a significant increase in their falls prevention capability and motivation after the forum, the participants collectively felt the AV messages needed a more inspirational call to action. The forum suggested this could be achieved by means of targeting the message and increasing the personal connection. Participants further suggested several alternatives to online falls prevention information, such as printed information in places in the community, as a means to increase opportunity to seek out falls prevention information. Falls prevention promotion messages need to be carefully tailored if they are to be more motivating to older people to take action to do something about their falls risk. A wider variety of revised and tailored AV messages, as one component of a community-wide falls prevention campaign, could be considered in an effort to persuade older people to take decisive action to do something about their falls risk. This study was registered prospectively: NCT03154788. Registered 11 May 2017.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Concordances and differences between a unidimensional and multidimensional assessment of frailty: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Michael C. J. Van der Elst; Birgitte Schoenmakers; Linda P. M. Op het Veld; Ellen E. De Roeck; Anne Van der Vorst; Gertrudis I. J. M. Kempen; Nico De Witte; Jan De Lepeleire; Jos M. G. A. Schols

    Many instruments to identify frail older people have been developed. One of the consequences is that the prevalence rates of frailty vary widely dependent on the instrument selected. The aims of this study were 1) to examine the concordances and differences between a unidimensional and multidimensional assessment of frailty, 2) to assess to what extent the characteristics of a ‘frail sample’ differ depending on the selected frailty measurement because ‘being frail’ is used in many studies as an inclusion criterion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 196 community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years), which were selected from the census records. Unidimensional frailty was operationalized according to the Fried Phenotype (FP) and multidimensional frailty was measured with the Comprehensive Frailty Assessment Instrument (CFAI). The concordances and differences were examined by prevalence, correlations, observed agreement and Kappa values. Differences between sample characteristics (e.g., age, physical activity, life satisfaction) were investigated with ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis test. The mean age was 72.74 (SD 8.04) and 48.98% was male. According to the FP 23.59% was not-frail, 56.92% pre-frail and 19.49% frail. According to the CFAI, 44.33% was no-to-low frail, 37.63% was mild frail and 18.04% was high frail. The correlation between FP and the CFAI was r = 0.46 and the observed agreement was 52.85%. The Kappa value was κ = 0.35 (quadratic κ = 0.45). In total, 11.92% of the participants were frail according to both measurements, 7.77% was solely frail according to the FP and 6.21% was solely frail according to the CFAI. The ‘frail sample respondents’ according to the FP had higher levels of life satisfaction and net income, but performed less physical activities in comparison to high frail people according to the CFAI. The present study shows that the FP and CFAI partly measure the same ‘frailty-construct’, although differences were found for instance in the prevalence of frailty and the composition of the ‘frail participants’. Since ‘being frail’ is an inclusion criterion in many studies, researchers must be aware that the choice of the frailty measurement has an impact on both the estimates of frailty prevalence and the characteristics of the selected sample.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A longitudinal analysis of the association between the living arrangements and psychological well-being of older Chinese adults: the role of income sources
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Zi Zhou; Lun Cai; Meilan Zhuang; Y. Alicia Hong; Ya Fang

    Understanding how living arrangements may affect psychological well-being (PWB) is critical in China, a society with the largest older population in the world. However, few studies have examined the moderating effect of income sources on the relationship between living arrangements and PWB. Our aim was to examine whether living arrangements are associated with PWB and whether income sources moderate this association. The data were drawn from the third (2002) to sixth (2011/2012) waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Six questions reflecting older adults’ well-being were used to measure PWB. Living arrangements were classified as follows: living alone, living with family and living in an institution. Income sources were categorized into financially independent, supported by children, and governmental support. We performed random-effects ordinal probit models to examine the association of living arrangements with PWB and the moderating effect of income sources on this relationship. We included a total sample of 30,899 observations for 16,020 respondents aged 65 and over during 9-year follow-up. Older adults living with family (β = .29, p < .001) and those living in an institution (β = .34, p < .001) had stronger PWB than those living alone; moreover, support from children (β= −.24, p < .001) or from the government (β= −.08, p < .05) has a negative effect on PWB compared to the effect of financial self-support. Living in an institution with support from children (β= −.22, p < .05) led to lower PWB than living alone with financial self-support. The opposite result was observed for older adults living with their family and supported by the government (β = .16, p < .05). Our analysis provides a significant contribution to the existing literature on the relationship between living arrangements and PWB in China. We recognize that living with family or in an institution leads to better PWB than does living alone. In addition, financial support from the government can moderate this association.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Acceptability of oral liquid pharmaceutical products in older adults: palatability and swallowability issues
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Emilie Belissa; Thibault Vallet; Sandra Laribe-Caget; Alain Chevallier; François-Xavier Chedhomme; Fattima Abdallah; Nathalie Bachalat; Sid-Ahmed Belbachir; Imad Boulaich; Vanessa Bloch; Anne Delahaye; Mathieu Depoisson; Amélie Dufaÿ Wojcicki; Stéphane Gibaud; Anne-Sophie Grancher; Caroline Guinot; Celia Lachuer; Laurent Lechowski; Patrick Leglise; Abdel Mahiou; Sylvie Meaume; Corinne Michel; Hugues Michelon; Yann Orven; Ines Perquy; Matthieu Piccoli; Maïté Rabus; Annie-Claude Ribemont; Jean-Paul Rwabihama; Jean-Hugues Trouvin; Fabrice Ruiz; Vincent Boudy

    In institutional care, oral liquid pharmaceutical products are widely prescribed for older patients, especially for those with swallowing disorders. As medicines acceptability is a key factor for compliance in the older population, this study investigated the acceptability of oral liquid pharmaceutical products in this targeted population. An observational, multicenter, prospective study was conducted in eight geriatric hospitals and eight nursing homes in France. Observers reported several behaviours/events describing the many aspects of acceptability for various pharmaceutical products’ uses in patients aged 65 and older. Acceptability scores of oral liquid pharmaceutical products were obtained using an acceptability reference framework (CAST - ClinSearch Acceptability Score Test®): a 3D-map summarizing the different users’ behaviors, with two clusters defining the positively and negatively accepted profiles materialized by the green and red zones, respectively. Among 1288 patients included in the core study and supporting the acceptability reference framework, 340 assessments were related to the administration of an oral liquid pharmaceutical product. The mean age of these patients was 87 (Range [66-104y]; SD = 6.7), 68% were women and 16% had swallowing disorders. Globally, the oral liquid pharmaceutical products were classified as “positively accepted,” the barycenter of the 340 assessments, along with the entire confidence ellipses surrounding it, were positioned on the green zone of the map. Sub-populations presenting a different acceptability profile have also been identified. For patients with swallowing disorders, the oral liquid pharmaceutical products were classified as “negatively accepted,” the barycenter of the 53 assessments along with 87% of its confidence ellipses were associated with this profile. A gender difference was observed for unflavored oral liquids. In women, they were classified “negatively accepted,” the barycenter of the 68 assessments with 75% of its confidence ellipses were located in the red zone, while they were classified “positively accepted” in men. This study showed that oral liquid pharmaceutical products are a suboptimal alternative to solid oral dosage forms in patients with swallowing disorders. To ensure an optimal acceptability, prescribers should also consider the presence of a taste-masker in these oral liquids. As highlighted herein, palatability remains crucial in older populations, especially for women.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Five-factor model personality traits and cognitive function in five domains in older adulthood
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Angelina R. Sutin; Yannick Stephan; Martina Luchetti; Antonio Terracciano

    Five-factor model (FFM) personality traits have been associated consistently with risk of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Less is known about how these traits are associated with functioning in specific domains of cognitive function in older adulthood. Participants (N = 2865) were drawn from the 2016 Harmonized Cognitive Assessment Protocol sub-study of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks that measured performance in five domains: Memory (eight tasks), speed-attention-executive (five tasks), visuospatial ability (three tasks), fluency (one task), and numeric reasoning (one task). Participants completed an FFM personality measure as part of the regular HRS assessment in either 2014 or 2016. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the traits and each cognitive task and composite scores for the five domains, controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and education. We also tested whether the associations were moderated by these sociodemographic factors or mental status. Neuroticism was associated with worse performance on all of the cognitive tasks. Conscientiousness was associated with better performance across all five cognitive domains, although not necessarily with every task. Openness and Agreeableness were associated with better performance in all domains, except for numeric reasoning. Extraversion was associated with better speed-attention-executive and fluency. There was no robust evidence that the association between personality and cognition was moderated by sociodemographic characteristics or global cognitive function. Personality traits have pervasive associations with functioning across five cognitive domains. Consistent with the literature on personality and risk of ADRD, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were associated with cognitive performance in the expected direction in all domains. Extraversion was the only trait that showed domain-specific associations. The present research supports models of personality and health in the context of cognition and suggests that personality is associated with intermediate markers of cognitive health.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Association between anemia and frailty in 13,175 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older in China
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Ye Ruan; Yanfei Guo; Paul Kowal; Ye Lu; Chazhen Liu; Shuangyuan Sun; Zhezhou Huang; Yang Zheng; Wenjing Wang; Gan Li; Yan Shi; Fan Wu

    Anemia and frailty contribute to poor health outcomes in older adults; however, most current research in lower income countries has concentrated on anemia or frailty alone rather than in combination. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between anemia and frailty in community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older in China. The study population was sourced from the 2007/10 SAGE China Wave 1. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin less than 13 g/dL for men and less than 12 g/dL for women. A Frailty Index (FI) was compiled to assess frailty. The association between anemia and frailty was evaluated using a 2-level hierarchical logistic model. The prevalence of anemia was 31.0% (95%CI: 28.4, 33.8%) and frailty 14.7% (95%CI: 13.5, 16.0%). In the univariate regression model, presence of anemia was significantly associated with frailty (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.39, 1.90) and the effect remained consistent after adjusting for various potential confounding factors including age, gender, residence, education, household wealth, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, alcohol comsumption and physical activity (adjusted OR = 1.31, 95% CI:1.09, 1.57). Each 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin concentration was associated with 4% decrease in the odds of frailty after adjusting for several confounding variables (adjusted OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.99). Anemia and low hemoglobin concentrations were significantly associated with frailty. Therefore, health care professionals caring for older adults should increase screening, assessment of causes and treatment of anemia as one method of avoiding, delaying or even reversing frailty.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • The need for improved cognitive, hearing and vision assessments for older people with cognitive impairment: a qualitative study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lucas Wolski; Iracema Leroi; Jemma Regan; Piers Dawes; Anna Pavlina Charalambous; Chryssoula Thodi; Juliana Prokopiou; Roxane Villeneuve; Catherine Helmer; Abebaw Mengistu Yohannes; Ines Himmelsbach

    Hearing and vision (sensory) impairments are highly prevalent in people with dementia (PwD) and exacerbate the impact of living with dementia. Assessment of sensory or cognitive function may be difficult if people have concurrent dual or triple impairments. Most standard cognitive assessment tests are heavily dependent on having intact hearing and vision, and impairments in these domains may render the assessments unreliable or even invalid. Likewise, dementia may impede on the accurate reporting of symptoms that is required for most hearing and vision assessments. Thus, there is an urgent need for hearing, vision and cognitive assessment strategies to be adapted to ensure that appropriate management and support can be provided. To explore the perspectives of PwD and the care partners regarding the need for accurate hearing, vision and cognitive assessments. We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews regarding the clinical assessment for cognitive, hearing and visual impairment. Participants (n = 18) were older adults with mild to moderate dementia and a sensory impairment as well as their care partners (e.g. a family member) (n = 15) at three European sites. The qualitative material was analysed according to Mayring’s summative content analysis approach. Participants reported that hearing, vision and cognitive assessments were not appropriate to the complex needs of PwD and sensory comorbidity and that challenges in communication with professionals and conveying unmet needs and concerns by PwD were common in all three types of clinical assessments. They felt that information about and guidance regarding support for the condition was not adequate in the assessments and that information sharing among the professionals regarding the concurrent problems was limited. Professionals were reported as being concerned only with problems related to their own discipline and had limited regard for problems in other domains which might impact on their own assessments. The optimal assessment and support for PwD with multiple impairments, more comprehensive, yet easy to understand, information regarding these linked to conditions and corrective device use is needed. Communication among health care professionals relevant to hearing, vision and cognition needs to be improved.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Comparison of body mass index range criteria and their association with cognition, functioning and depression: a cross-sectional study in Mexican older adults
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Damaris Francis Estrella-Castillo; Lizzette Gómez-de-Regil

    World population is living longer, demanding adjustments in public health policies. Body mass index (BMI) is widely known and used as a parameter and predictor of health status although an adapted criterion for older adults is usually overlooked. BMI has been extensively analysed in relation to mortality but fewer studies address its association with cognition, functioning and depression in older adults. The present study aimed at 1) comparing BMI distribution according to the ranges proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States National Research Council Committee on Diet and Health (CDH), 2) analysing their association with cognitive functioning, physical functioning and depression and 3) analysing a possible, interaction of BMI criteria with sex on the outcome measures. This cross-sectional study included 395 participants recruited by convenience sampling; 283 (71.6%) women and 112 (24.58%) men. Mean age was 74.68 (SD = 8.50, range: 60–98). Outcome measures included the Short Portable Mental State Questionnaire for cognitive status, the Barthel’s Index of Activities of Daily Living for physical functioning, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. WHO criterion classified most cases (65.3%) as overweight, followed by normal weight (32.2%) and underweight (2.5%) whereas CDH criterion considered most (48.1%) as normal weight, and followed by overweight (31.4%) and underweight (20.5%). Analysing cognitive status, independent physical functioning and depression mean scores, significant differences (p ≤ .001) were found when comparing the three weight groups (underweight, normal weight and overweight) using either the WHO- or the CDH criterion. Post-hoc tests revealed that in all comparisons the underweight group scored the lowest in all three outcome measures. According to the CDH criterion, overweight was favourable for females but unfavourable for males regarding cognitive status (interaction F(2,389) = 4.52, p ≤ .01) and independent functioning (interaction F(2,389) = 3.86, p ≤ .05). BMI and its associations to relevant outcome measures in the older adults must rely on criteria that take into account the particular features of this population, such as the CDH criterion. Underweight was associated with decremented cognition, less independent physical functioning and more depression. Overweight seemed favourable for women but unfavourable for men.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Effect of dance on multi-muscle synergies in older adults: a cross-sectional study
    BMC Geriatr. (IF 2.818) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Yun Wang; Kazuhiko Watanabe; Tadayoshi Asaka

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of dance in the experienced older dancers compared to the inexperienced older adults. We explored the effect of dance on the composition of muscle groups and multi-muscle synergies stabilizing the center of pressure (COP) displacement in preparation to take a step during support surface translation. Eight dance experienced elderly participants were asked to take a step in response to support surface perturbations. Uncontrolled manifold analysis was used to identify muscle modes (M-modes) as factors in the muscle activation space. Variance components in the M-mode space and indices of M-mode synergy stabilizing COP displacement were computed. The reciprocal M-modes were observed more frequently in the dance group than in the control group prior to the step initiation. Dance led to higher indices of multi-muscle synergies and earlier anticipatory synergy adjustments during preparation for making a step in response to the support surface translations. Dance appeared to be associated with adjustments in both the composition of M-modes and M-mode co-variation patterns resulting in stronger synergies stabilizing COP coordinate in older adults. The results reported here could have clinical relevance when offering a dance approach to balance training for impaired individuals.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
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