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  • Microaggressions: Clarification, Evidence, and Impact
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Monnica T. Williams

    In a 2017 article in Perspectives on Psychological Science, Scott Lilienfeld critiqued the conceptual basis for microaggressions as well as the scientific rigor of scholarship on the topic. The current article provides a response that systematically analyzes the arguments and representations made in Lilienfeld’s critique with regard to the concept of microaggressions and the state of the related research. I show that, in contrast to the claim that the concept of microaggressions is vague and inconsistent, the term is well defined and can be decisively linked to individual prejudice in offenders and mental-health outcomes in targets. I explain how the concept of microaggressions is connected to pathological stereotypes, power structures, structural racism, and multiple forms of racial prejudice. Also described are recent research advances that address some of Lilienfeld’s original critiques. Further, this article highlights potentially problematic attitudes, assumptions, and approaches embedded in Lilienfeld’s analysis that are common to the field of psychology as a whole. It is important for all academics to acknowledge and question their own biases and perspectives when conducting scientific research.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Microaggression Research and Application: Clarifications, Corrections, and Common Ground
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Scott O. Lilienfeld

    Science thrives on criticism (Popper, 1940). Only by subjecting assertions to incisive scrutiny can we hope to identity and root out errors in our “web of belief” (Quine & Ullian, 1978) and thereby arrive at a more veridical approximation of reality (O’Donohue, 2013). When constructive questioning is discouraged, research programs frequently stagnate, as they effectively cut off their vital blood supply of potential self-correction. In this respect, I welcome Williams’s (2019b) spirited and at times impassioned response to my critiques (Lilienfeld, 2017b, 2017c) of the microaggression research program (MRP). Although I disagree, in some cases forcefully, with many of Williams’s contentions, I believe that the field will ultimately benefit from vigorous debate regarding the scientifically fraught issues raised by the MRP.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Psychology Cannot Afford to Ignore the Many Harms Caused by Microaggressions
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Monnica T. Williams

    In an ongoing debate, Scott Lilienfeld (2019) continues to question the merits and meaning of microaggressions research. Key issues include how to define microaggressions, whether microaggressions cause measurable harm, whether microaggression education is helpful, and defining the most important next steps in the microaggressions research agenda. I discuss the importance of understanding microaggressions in context and as they relate to pathological stereotypes about groups, given that this is critical to identifying them. I summarize some of the many longitudinal studies linking psychological and medical problems to experiences of everyday discrimination. In addition, the literature indicates that victims of microaggressions experience further harms when trying to respond to offenders, but there is little research to support any specific interventions, including those advanced by Lilienfeld. I discuss the importance of believing and supporting those reporting experiences of microaggressions. I conclude that there is a need for more research examining (a) how to reduce the commission of microaggressions, (b) how to best respond to offenders in the moment in a way that mitigates harm for all persons involved, and (c) how clinicians can best help those who are suffering as a result of microaggressions as the next frontier in this important work.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • How Behavioral Economics and Nudges Could Help Diminish Irrationality in Suicide-Related Decisions
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Brian W. Bauer; Daniel W. Capron

    People regularly make decisions that are not aligned with their own self-interests. These irrational decisions often stem from humans having bounded rationality (e.g., limited computational power), which produces reliable cognitive biases that occur outside of people’s awareness and influences the decisions people make. There are many important decisions leading up to a suicide attempt, and it is likely that these same biases exist within suicide-related decisions. This article presents an argument for the likely existence of cognitive biases within suicide-related decision making and how they may influence people to make irrational decisions. In addition, this article provides new evidence for using a behavioral economic intervention—nudges—as a potential way to combat rising suicide rates. We explore how nudges can help increase means safety, disseminate suicide prevention skills/materials, diminish well-known biases (e.g., confirmation bias), and uncover biases that may be occurring when making suicide-related decisions.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Mapping the Social-Norms Literature: An Overview of Reviews
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Sophie Legros; Beniamino Cislaghi

    Few concepts in the social sciences are as fundamental and cross-disciplinary as the concept of social norms, commonly understood as the unwritten rules shared by members of the same group or society (Hecter & Opp, 2001). The study of social norms spans several disciplines, including philosophy (Nichols, 2002), sociology (Durkheim, 1951), social and moral psychology (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955; Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Miller & Prentice, 1994; Sherif, 1936), law (Posner, 2009), economics (Ostrom, 2014), anthropology (Boyd & Richerson, 1994), gender studies (Butler, 2004), health sciences (Berkowitz, 2002; Fleming & Agnew-Brune, 2015; Sheeran et al., 2016), communication studies (Smith, Atkin, Martell, Allen, & Hembroff, 2006), environmental studies (de Groot & Schuitema, 2012), political science (Dalton, 2008), finance (Hong & Kacperczyk, 2009), marketing (Gregory & Munch, 1997), and information technology (Loch, Straub, & Kamel, 2003). The concept of social norms already populated the work of early philosophers, such as Aristotle (Keyt & Miller, 1993), as well as later ones, such as Thomasius (Wickham, 2007), Locke (Grant, 1988), Hume (1739/1978), and many thereafter. However, the allusions to norms existed in religious doctrines and philosophical knowledge that preceded Aristotle by thousands of years (Norenzayan et al., 2016).

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • The E Is in the G: Gene–Environment–Trait Correlations and Findings From Genome-Wide Association Studies
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Reut Avinun

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that pleiotropy is widespread (i.e., the same genetic variants affect multiple traits) and that complex traits are polygenic (i.e., affected by many genetic variants with very small effect sizes). However, despite the growing number of GWASs, the possible contribution of gene–environment correlations (rGEs) to pleiotropy and polygenicity has been mostly ignored. rGEs can lead to environmentally mediated pleiotropy or gene–environment–trait correlations (rGETs), given that an environment that is affected by one genetically influenced phenotype, can in turn affect a different phenotype. By adding correlations with environmentally mediated genetic variants, rGETs can contribute to polygenicity. Socioeconomic status (SES) and the experience of stressful life events may, for example, be involved in rGETs. Both are genetically influenced and have been associated with a myriad of physical and mental disorders. As a result, GWASs of these disorders may find the genetic correlates of SES and stressful life events. Consequently, some of the genetic correlates of physical and mental disorders may be modified by public policy that affects environments such as SES and stressful life events. Thus, identifying rGETs can shed light on findings from GWASs and have important implications for public health.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A Psychological Profile of the Alt-Right
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Patrick S. Forscher; Nour S. Kteily

    The 2016 U.S. presidential election coincided with the rise of the “alternative right,” or alt-right. Alt-right associates have wielded considerable influence on the current administration and on social discourse, but the movement’s loose organizational structure has led to disparate portrayals of its members’ psychology and made it difficult to decipher its aims and reach. To systematically explore the alt-right’s psychology, we recruited two U.S. samples: An exploratory sample through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (N = 827, alt-right n = 447) and a larger, nationally representative sample through the National Opinion Research Center’s Amerispeak panel (N = 1,283, alt-right n = 71–160, depending on the definition). We estimate that 6% of the U.S. population and 10% of Trump voters identify as alt-right. Alt-right adherents reported a psychological profile more reflective of the desire for group-based dominance than economic anxiety. Although both the alt-right and non-alt-right Trump voters differed substantially from non-alt-right, non-Trump voters, the alt-right and Trump voters were quite similar, differing mainly in the alt-right’s especially high enthusiasm for Trump, suspicion of mainstream media, trust in alternative media, and desire for collective action on behalf of Whites. We argue for renewed consideration of overt forms of bias in contemporary intergroup research.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • On the Evolution of a Radical Concept: Affordances According to Gibson and Their Subsequent Use and Development
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Isis Chong; Robert W. Proctor

    James J. Gibson, the founder of ecological psychology, introduced a radical empiricist approach to perception and action centered on direct perception in naturalistic environments that was counter to popular representational views of his time. This direct perception approach and the associated introduction of the affordance concept have been extremely influential in several fields of study. However, since its inception, the affordance concept has evolved in a manner such that it now deviates significantly from Gibson’s original intention. This review follows use of the affordance concept by four sets of influential experimental psychologists: Gibson, Donald Norman, Mike Tucker and Rob Ellis, and Daniel Bub and Michael Masson. Particular attention is paid to the manner in which they applied the concept and the contributions provided by each set of researchers. The primary goal of this review is to determine what cognitive psychologists can take away from developments within the field and what considerations should be taken into account when using the term affordance. Having a more thorough understanding of the factors that led to the concept of affordance and its recent reformulations will better equip cognitive psychologists and, by extension, human factors researchers to further advance the study of perception–action relations.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Looking at the Figures: Visual Adaptation as a Mechanism for Body-Size and -Shape Misperception
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Kevin R. Brooks; Jonathan Mond; Deborah Mitchison; Richard J. Stevenson; Kirsten L. Challinor; Ian D. Stephen

    Many individuals experience body-size and -shape misperception (BSSM). Body-size overestimation is associated with body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression, and the development of eating disorders in individuals who desire to be thinner. Similar symptoms have been noted for those who underestimate their muscularity. Conversely, individuals with high body mass indices (BMI) who underestimate their adiposity may not recognize the risks of or seek help for obesity-related medical issues. Although social scientists have examined whether media representations of idealized bodies contribute to the overestimation of fat or underestimation of muscle, other scientists suggest that increases in the prevalence of obesity could explain body-fat underestimation as a form of renormalization. However, these disparate approaches have not advanced our understanding of the perceptual underpinnings of BSSM. Recently, a new unifying account of BSSM has emerged that is based on the long-established phenomenon of visual adaptation, employing psychophysical measurements of perceived size and shape following exposure to “extreme” body stimuli. By inducing BSSM in the laboratory as an aftereffect, this technique is rapidly advancing our understanding of the underlying mental representation of human bodies. This nascent approach provides insight into real-world BSSM and may inform the development of therapeutic and public-health interventions designed to address such perceptual errors.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • The “Why” and “How” of Narcissism: A Process Model of Narcissistic Status Pursuit
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Stathis Grapsas; Eddie Brummelman; Mitja D. Back; Jaap J. A. Denissen

    Grandiose narcissism (hereafter: narcissism) is a personality trait marked by beliefs of personal superiority and a sense of entitlement to special treatment (Krizan & Herlache, 2018; Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). Narcissists (i.e., individuals with relatively high levels of grandiose narcissism) tend to go out of their way to impress others: They often groom their appearance to grasp others’ attention (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010), brag about themselves (Buss & Chiodo, 1991), and showcase their talents and abilities in front of others (Wallace & Baumeister, 2002). At the same time, narcissists are often combative toward others. In such instances, they are often perceived as confrontational, insulting, belittling, and intimidating (Holtzman, Vazire, & Mehl, 2010; Morf & Rhodewalt, 1993; Reijntjes et al., 2016).

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Family Matters: Rethinking the Psychology of Human Social Motivation
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Ahra Ko; Cari M. Pick; Jung Yul Kwon; Michael Barlev; Jaimie Arona Krems; Michael E. W. Varnum; Rebecca Neel; Mark Peysha; Watcharaporn Boonyasiriwat; Eduard Brandstätter; Ana Carla Crispim; Julio Eduardo Cruz; Daniel David; Oana A. David; Renata Pereira de Felipe; Velichko H. Fetvadjiev; Ronald Fischer; Silvia Galdi; Oscar Galindo; Galina Golovina; Luis Gomez-Jacinto; Sylvie Graf; Igor Grossmann; Pelin Gul; Takeshi Hamamura; Shihui Han; Hidefumi Hitokoto; Martina Hřebíčková; Jennifer Lee Johnson; Johannes A. Karl; Oksana Malanchuk; Asuka Murata; Jinkyung Na; Jiaqing O; Muhammed Rizwan; Eric Roth; Sergio Antonio Salgado Salgado; Elena Samoylenko; Tatyana Savchenko; A. Timur Sevincer; Adrian Stanciu; Eunkook M. Suh; Thomas Talhelm; Ayse K. Uskul; Irem Uz; Danilo Zambrano; Douglas T. Kenrick

    What motives do people prioritize in their social lives? Historically, social psychologists, especially those adopting an evolutionary perspective, have devoted a great deal of research attention to sexual attraction and romantic-partner choice (mate seeking). Research on long-term familial bonds (mate retention and kin care) has been less thoroughly connected to relevant comparative and evolutionary work on other species, and in the case of kin care, these bonds have been less well researched. Examining varied sources of data from 27 societies around the world, we found that people generally view familial motives as primary in importance and mate-seeking motives as relatively low in importance. Compared with other groups, college students, single people, and men place relatively higher emphasis on mate seeking, but even those samples rated kin-care motives as more important. Furthermore, motives linked to long-term familial bonds are positively associated with psychological well-being, but mate-seeking motives are associated with anxiety and depression. We address theoretical and empirical reasons why there has been extensive research on mate seeking and why people prioritize goals related to long-term familial bonds over mating goals. Reallocating relatively greater research effort toward long-term familial relationships would likely yield many interesting new findings relevant to everyday people’s highest social priorities.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • How Well Do Bibliometric Indicators Correlate With Scientific Eminence? A Comment on Simonton (2016)
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Marco Del Giudice

    Citing an earlier study on eminence in psychology, Simonton (2016) argued that associations between measures of scholars’ reputation, scientific productivity, and citation counts are only small to moderate [Simonton, D. K. (2016). Giving credit where credit’s due: Why it’s so hard to do in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 888–892]. However, this reading is based on partial regression coefficients, which underestimate the joint explanatory power of correlated variables. A reanalysis of the original data showed that a composite bibliometric index was substantially associated with reputation (β = 0.70; 46% explained variance). Very similar results were obtained with a newly calculated h index (β = 0.67; 42% explained variance). Although both Simonton’s original analysis and the current reanalysis are inherently limited, the data suggest that the reputation of psychologists tracks their scientific contribution more closely than has been acknowledged in the recent literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • The Misperception of Racial Economic Inequality
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Michael W. Kraus; Ivuoma N. Onyeador; Natalie M. Daumeyer; Julian M. Rucker; Jennifer A. Richeson

    Despite America’s tumultuous racial history (Massey & Denton, 1993), Americans generally believe the nation has made steady, consistent progress toward achieving racial equality (Brodish, Brazy, & Devine, 2008; Eibach & Keegan, 2006; Fisman, Jakiela, Kariv, & Markovits, 2015; Kraus & Tan, 2015). Narratives highlighting America’s path toward, if not achievement of, racial equality dominate national discourse, are widely communicated in both literature and popular culture, and are strongly endorsed in attitude surveys (Reeves, 2018). In this article, we argue and offer evidence that these beliefs about the inevitable march toward racial equality, especially in the context of wealth, are overly optimistic and unfounded.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Cultural Fabric of Human Causal Cognition
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Andrea Bender; Sieghard Beller

    Causal cognition emerges early in development and confers an important advantage for survival. But does this mean that it is universal in humans? Our cross-disciplinary review suggests a broad evolutionary basis for core components of causal cognition but also underlines the essential role of culturally transmitted content as being uniquely human. The multiple ways in which both content and the key mechanisms of cultural transmission generate cultural diversity suggest that causal cognition in humans is not only colored by their specific cultural background but also shaped more fundamentally by the very fact that humans are a cultural species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social Ambivalence and Disease (SAD): A Theoretical Model Aimed at Understanding the Health Implications of Ambivalent Relationships
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Bert N. Uchino

    The protective influence of social relationships on health is widely documented; however, not all relationships are positive, and negative aspects of relationships may be detrimental. Much less is known about the relationships characterized by both positivity and negativity (i.e., ambivalence). This article provides a theoretical framework for considering the influence of ambivalent relationships on physical health, including reasons why ambivalence should be considered separately from relationships characterized as primarily positive (supportive) or primarily negative (aversive). We introduce the social ambivalence and disease (SAD) model as a guide to understanding the social psychological antecedents, processes, and consequences of ambivalent relationships. We conclude by highlighting gaps in the literature and features of the SAD model that may serve as a guide to future research on potential health-relevant pathways of ambivalent relationships.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parenting and Self-Control Across Early to Late Adolescence: A Three-Level Meta-Analysis
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Jian-Bin Li; Yayouk E Willems; F. Marijn Stok; Maja Deković; Meike Bartels; Catrin Finkenauer

    Self-control plays a significant role in positive youth development. Although numerous self-control challenges occur during adolescence, some adolescents control themselves better than others. Parenting is considered a critical factor that distinguishes adolescents with good self-control from those with poor self-control, but existing findings are inconsistent. This meta-analysis summarizes the overall relationship between parenting and self-control among adolescents aged 10 to 22 years. The analysis includes 191 articles reporting 1,540 effect sizes (N = 164,459). The results show that parenting is associated with adolescents’ self-control both concurrently (r = .204, p < .001) and longitudinally (r = .157, p < .001). Longitudinal studies also reveal that adolescents’ self-control influences subsequent parenting (r = .155, p < .001). Moderator analyses show that the effect sizes are largely invariant across cultures, ethnicities, age of adolescents, and parent and youth gender. Our results point to the importance of parenting in individual differences in adolescent self-control and vice versa.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vector-Space Models of Semantic Representation From a Cognitive Perspective: A Discussion of Common Misconceptions
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Fritz Günther; Luca Rinaldi; Marco Marelli

    Models that represent meaning as high-dimensional numerical vectors—such as latent semantic analysis (LSA), hyperspace analogue to language (HAL), bound encoding of the aggregate language environment (BEAGLE), topic models, global vectors (GloVe), and word2vec—have been introduced as extremely powerful machine-learning proxies for human semantic representations and have seen an explosive rise in popularity over the past 2 decades. However, despite their considerable advancements and spread in the cognitive sciences, one can observe problems associated with the adequate presentation and understanding of some of their features. Indeed, when these models are examined from a cognitive perspective, a number of unfounded arguments tend to appear in the psychological literature. In this article, we review the most common of these arguments and discuss (a) what exactly these models represent at the implementational level and their plausibility as a cognitive theory, (b) how they deal with various aspects of meaning such as polysemy or compositionality, and (c) how they relate to the debate on embodied and grounded cognition. We identify common misconceptions that arise as a result of incomplete descriptions, outdated arguments, and unclear distinctions between theory and implementation of the models. We clarify and amend these points to provide a theoretical basis for future research and discussions on vector models of semantic representation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Wiring of Intelligence
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Alexander O. Savi; Maarten Marsman; Han L. J. van der Maas; Gunter K. J. Maris

    Formal models of intelligence have greatly evolved since Spearman’s (1904) fundamental finding of the positive manifold: the robust pattern of positive correlations between scores on cognitive tests (Carroll, 1993). In explaining this manifold, contemporary models have diverged from the popular reflective latent factor models (e.g., Spearman, 1927) to various proposed mechanisms of emergence (Conway & Kovacs, 2015). Models that have been key in expanding the realm of explanatory mechanisms include sampling models (Bartholomew, Deary, & Lawn, 2009; Kovacs & Conway, 2016; Thomson, 1916; Thorndike, Bregman, Cobb, & Woodyard, 1926), gene–environment interaction models (Ceci, Barnett, & Kanaya, 2003; Dickens, 2007; Dickens & Flynn, 2001, 2002; Sauce & Matzel, 2018), and network models (Jung & Haier, 2007; van der Maas et al., 2006, van der Maas, Savi, Hofman, Kan, & Marsman, 2019). We embrace this trend because exploring alternative mechanisms for the positive manifold may significantly aid us in our understanding of intelligence (Bartholomew, 2004).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Confidence Can Be Used to Discriminate Between Accurate and Inaccurate Lie Decisions
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Andrew M. Smith; Amy-May Leach

    There is a long-standing belief that confidence is not useful at discriminating between accurate and inaccurate deception decisions. Historically, this position made sense because people showed little ability to discriminate lie-tellers from truth-tellers. But, it is now widely accepted that, under certain conditions, people can discriminate between lie-tellers and truth-tellers. Nevertheless, belief that confidence does not discriminate between accurate and inaccurate responses persists. This belief is somewhat paradoxical because, to the extent that people can discriminate between lie-tellers and truth-tellers, signal detection theory naturally predicts a positive relationship between confidence and accuracy. In line with our signal-detection-based predictions, we show that, among decisions about whether someone is lying, those made with high confidence are more accurate than those made with low confidence. This important relationship has gone unnoticed in past work because of a reliance on inappropriate measures. Past research examining the confidence–accuracy relationship in deception research relied on correlating average confidence with proportion of correctly identified lies. These correlations provide information on whether more confident judges tend to be more accurate but remain silent on the arguably more important question of whether higher confidence decisions are more accurate than lower confidence decisions. We show that confidence–accuracy characteristic analyses are uniquely suited to measuring the confidence–accuracy relationship in deception research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Return of the Repressed: The Persistent and Problematic Claims of Long-Forgotten Trauma
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Henry Otgaar; Mark L. Howe; Lawrence Patihis; Harald Merckelbach; Steven Jay Lynn; Scott O. Lilienfeld; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    The past is never dead. It’s not even past.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • When and How Video Games Can Be Good: A Review of the Positive Effects of Video Games on Well-Being
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Yemaya J. Halbrook; Aisling T. O’Donnell; Rachel M. Msetfi

    Video games are a source of entertainment for a wide population and have varied effects on well-being. The purpose of this article is to comprehensively examine game-play research to identify the factors that contribute to these disparate well-being outcomes and to highlight the potential positive effects. On the basis of existing literature, we argue that the effects of gaming on well-being are moderated by other variables, such as motivations for gaming and video-game characteristics. Specifically, the inclusion of social activity can benefit prosocial behaviors and affect the relationship between violent video games and aggression that some studies have demonstrated. Moreover, the research on the relationship between violent video games and aggression depends greatly on individual and sociocontextual variables outside of game play. The inclusion of physical activity in games can provide an improvement in physical health with high levels of enjoyment, potentially increasing adherence rates. Overall, following our review, we determined that the effects of gaming on well-being are moderated by and depend on the motivation for gaming, outside variables, the presence of violence, social interaction, and physical activity. Thus, we argue that there is potential for an “optimal gaming profile” that can be used in the future for both academic- and industry-related research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Curtailing the Use of Preregistration: A Misused Term
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Danielle B. Rice; David Moher

    Improving the usability of psychological research has been encouraged through practices such as prospectively registering research plans. Registering research aligns with the open-science movement, as the registration of research protocols in publicly accessible domains can result in reduced research waste and increased study transparency. In medicine and psychology, two different terms, registration and preregistration, have been used to refer to study registration, but applying inconsistent terminology to represent one concept can complicate both educational outreach and epidemiological investigation. Consistently using one term across disciplines to refer to the concept of study registration may improve the understanding and uptake of this practice, thereby supporting the movement toward improving the reliability and reproducibility of research through study registration. We recommend encouraging use of the original term, registration, given its widespread and long-standing use, including in national registries.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Implicit Association Test: A Method in Search of a Construct
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Ulrich Schimmack

    In 1998, Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz proposed that the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures individual differences in implicit social cognition. This claim requires evidence of construct validity. I review the evidence and show that there is insufficient evidence for this claim. Most important, I show that few studies were able to test discriminant validity of the IAT as a measure of implicit constructs. I examine discriminant validity in several multimethod studies and find little or no evidence of discriminant validity. I also show that validity of the IAT as a measure of attitudes varies across constructs. Validity of the self-esteem IAT is low, but estimates vary across studies. About 20% of the variance in the race IAT reflects racial preferences. The highest validity is obtained for measuring political orientation with the IAT (64%). Most of this valid variance stems from a distinction between individuals with opposing attitudes, whereas reaction times contribute less than 10% of variance in the prediction of explicit attitude measures. In all domains, explicit measures are more valid than the IAT, but the IAT can be used as a measure of sensitive attitudes to reduce measurement error by using a multimethod measurement model.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Scientific Utopia III: Crowdsourcing Science
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Eric Luis Uhlmann; Charles R. Ebersole; Christopher R. Chartier; Timothy M. Errington; Mallory C. Kidwell; Calvin K. Lai; Randy J. McCarthy; Amy Riegelman; Raphael Silberzahn; Brian A. Nosek

    There is no perfect study. Scientists, in their effort to understand nature, are constrained by limited time, resources, and expertise. This constraint may produce a dilemma between choosing a lower quality, expedient approach or conducting a better powered, more intensive investigation allowing for stronger inferences. Ideals of the scientific process can be outweighed by the pragmatic reality of scientists’ available resources and pursuit of career advancement. Scientists are rewarded for being the originators of new ideas and evidence through the authorship of articles. These cultural incentives foster a focus on novelty and authorship that can come at the expense of rigor and foster questionable practices (Bakker, van Dijk, & Wicherts, 2012; Greenland & Fontanarosa, 2012; Nosek, Spies, & Motyl, 2012; Open Science Collaboration, 2015). One alternative is for researchers to take more time for individual studies, expend more resources on each project, and publish fewer findings. Scientists could also work more collectively, combining resources across more contributors. But such choices have implications for productivity, individual credit, and career advancement.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • The Acute Effect of High-Intensity Exercise on Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    David Moreau; Edward Chou

    High-intensity exercise has recently emerged as a potent alternative to aerobic regimens, with ramifications for health and brain function. As part of this trend, single sessions of intense exercise have been proposed as powerful, noninvasive means for transiently enhancing cognition. However, findings in this field remain mixed, and a thorough synthesis of the evidence is lacking. Here, we synthesized the literature in a meta-analysis of the acute effect of high-intensity exercise on executive function. We included a total of 1,177 participants and 147 effect sizes across 28 studies and found a small facilitating effect (d = 0.24) of high-intensity exercise on executive function. However, this effect was significant only compared with rest (d = 0.34); it was not significant when high-intensity exercise was compared with low-to-moderate intensity exercise (d = 0.07). This suggests that intense and moderate exercise affect executive function in a comparable manner. We tested a number of moderators that together explained a significant proportion of the between-studies variance. Overall, our findings indicate that high-intensity cardiovascular exercise might be a viable alternative for eliciting acute cognitive gains. We discuss the potential of this line of research, identify a number of challenges and limitations it faces, and propose applications to individuals, society, and policies.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Deconstructing and Reconstructing Resilience: A Dynamic Network Approach
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Raffael Kalisch; Angélique O. J. Cramer; Harald Binder; Jessica Fritz; IJsbrand Leertouwer; Gabriela Lunansky; Benjamin Meyer; Jens Timmer; Ilya M. Veer; Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Resilience is still often viewed as a unitary personality construct that, as a kind of antinosological entity, protects individuals against stress-related mental problems. However, increasing evidence indicates that maintaining mental health in the face of adversity results from complex and dynamic processes of adaptation to stressors that involve the activation of several separable protective factors. Such resilience factors can reside at biological, psychological, and social levels and may include stable predispositions (such as genotype or personality traits) and malleable properties, skills, capacities, or external circumstances (such as gene-expression patterns, emotion-regulation abilities, appraisal styles, or social support). We abandon the notion of resilience as an entity here. Starting from a conceptualization of psychiatric disorders as dynamic networks of interacting symptoms that may be driven by stressors into stable maladaptive states of disease, we deconstruct the maintenance of mental health during stressor exposure into time-variant dampening influences of resilience factors onto these symptom networks. Resilience factors are separate additional network nodes that weaken symptom–symptom interconnections or symptom autoconnections, thereby preventing maladaptive system transitions. We argue that these hybrid symptom-and-resilience-factor networks provide a promising new way of unraveling the complex dynamics of mental health.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Intuitive Honesty Versus Dishonesty: Meta-Analytic Evidence
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Nils C. Köbis; Bruno Verschuere; Yoella Bereby-Meyer; David Rand; Shaul Shalvi

    You pay for your $3 cappuccino with a $5 bill. The sleepy cashier mistakenly assumes you have paid with a $20 bill and gives you $17 in change. The person behind you is already eager to order, so time is of the essence. Deciding quickly, do you take the money? Or do you return the undue amount? Almost daily, people face similar temptations to bend ethical rules to serve their self-interest. For example, people may decide to free-ride on public transport or exaggerate the costs of a business trip. When making those decisions, people are often distracted, stressed, or under pressure and thus do not take time to deliberate. Faced with the temptation to lie for profit, what is people’s basic inclination: honesty or dishonesty?

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Skin-Tone Trauma: Historical and Contemporary Influences on the Health and Interpersonal Outcomes of African Americans
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Antoinette M. Landor; Shardé McNeil Smith

    Empirical evidence demonstrates that racism is a source of traumatic stress for racial/ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans. Like race and racism, skin tone and experiences of colorism—an often overlooked form of discrimination that privileges lighter skinned over darker skinned individuals, although not uniformly, may also result in traumatic stress. This article proposes a new conceptual model of skin-tone trauma. The model depicts how historical and contemporary underpinnings of colorism lead to colorist incidents that may directly and indirectly, by eliciting traumatic stress reactions, lead to negative effects on the health and interpersonal relationships of African Americans. Key tenets of critical race and intersectionality theories are used to highlight the complexities of skin-tone trauma as a result of intersectional identities on the basis of existing social hierarchies. Last, we present suggestions for researchers, as well as recommendations and strategies for practitioners, to unmask “skin-tone wounds” and promote healing for individuals, families, and communities that suffer from skin-tone trauma. Skin-tone trauma should be acknowledged by researchers, scholars, and practitioners to better understand and assess the widespread scope of trauma in the African American community.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Specificity of Future Thinking in Depression: A Meta-Analysis
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Beau Gamble; David Moreau; Lynette J. Tippett; Donna Rose Addis

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory has been well established in depression, but whether this overgenerality extends to future thinking has not been the focus of a meta-analysis. Following a preregistered protocol, we searched six electronic databases, Google Scholar, and personal libraries and contacted authors in the field for studies matching search terms related to depression, future thinking, and specificity. We reduced an initial 7,332 results to 46 included studies, with 89 effect sizes and 4,813 total participants. Random-effects meta-analytic modeling revealed a small but robust correlation between reduced future specificity and higher levels of depression (r = −.13, p < .001). Of the 11 moderator variables examined, the most striking effects were related to the emotional valence of future thinking (p < .001) and the sex of participants (p = .025). Namely, depression was linked to reduced specificity for positive (but not negative or neutral) future thinking, and the relationship was stronger in samples with a higher proportion of males. This meta-analysis contributes to our understanding of how prospection is altered in depression and dysphoria and, by revealing areas where current evidence is inconclusive, highlights key avenues for future research.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Implicit Bias Is Behavior: A Functional-Cognitive Perspective on Implicit Bias
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Jan De Houwer

    Implicit bias is often viewed as a hidden force inside people that makes them perform inappropriate actions. This perspective can induce resistance against the idea that people are implicitly biased and complicates research on implicit bias. I put forward an alternative perspective that views implicit bias as a behavioral phenomenon. more specifically, it is seen as behavior that is automatically influenced by cues indicative of the social group to which others belong. This behavioral perspective is less likely to evoke resistance because implicit bias is seen as something that people do rather than possess and because it clearly separates the behavioral phenomenon from its normative implications. Moreover, performance on experimental tasks such as the Implicit Association Test is seen an instance of implicitly biased behavior rather than a proxy of hidden mental biases. Because these tasks allow for experimental control, they provide ideal tools for studying the automatic impact of social cues on behavior, for predicting other instances of biased behavior, and for educating people about implicitly biased behavior. The behavioral perspective not only changes the way we think about implicit bias but also shifts the aims of research on implicit bias and reveals links with other behavioral approaches such as network modeling.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Real-Life Neuroscience: An Ecological Approach to Brain and Behavior Research
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory; Avi Mendelsohn

    Owing to advances in neuroimaging technology, the past couple of decades have witnessed a surge of research on brain mechanisms that underlie human cognition. Despite the immense development in cognitive neuroscience, the vast majority of neuroimaging experiments examine isolated agents carrying out artificial tasks in sensory and socially deprived environments. Thus, the understanding of the mechanisms of various domains in cognitive neuroscience, including social cognition and episodic memory, is sorely lacking. Here we focus on social and memory research as representatives of cognitive functions and propose that mainstream, lab-based experimental designs in these fields suffer from two fundamental limitations, pertaining to person-dependent and situation-dependent factors. The person-dependent factor addresses the issue of limiting the active role of the participants in lab-based paradigms that may interfere with their sense of agency and embodiment. The situation-dependent factor addresses the issue of the artificial decontextualized environment in most available paradigms. Building on recent findings showing that real-life as opposed to controlled experimental paradigms involve different mechanisms, we argue that adopting a real-life approach may radically change our understanding of brain and behavior. Therefore, we advocate in favor of a paradigm shift toward a nonreductionist approach, exploiting portable technology in semicontrolled environments, to explore behavior in real life.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Latitudinal Psychology: An Ecological Perspective on Creativity, Aggression, Happiness, and Beyond
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Evert Van de Vliert; Paul A. M. Van Lange

    Are there systematic trends around the world in levels of creativity, aggressiveness, life satisfaction, individualism, trust, and suicidality? This article suggests a new field, latitudinal psychology, that delineates differences in such culturally shared features along northern and southern rather than eastern and western locations. In addition to geographical, ecological, and other explanations, we offer three metric foundations of latitudinal variations: replicability (latitudinal gradient repeatability across hemispheres), reversibility (north-south gradient reversal near the equator), and gradient strength (degree of replicability and reversibility). We show that aggressiveness decreases whereas creativity, life satisfaction, and individualism increase as one moves closer to either the North or South Pole. We also discuss the replicability, reversibility, and gradient strength of (a) temperatures and rainfall as remote predictors and (b) pathogen prevalence, national wealth, population density, and income inequality as more proximate predictors of latitudinal gradients in human functioning. Preliminary analyses suggest that cultural and psychological diversity often need to be partially understood in terms of latitudinal variations in integrated exposure to climate-induced demands and wealth-based resources. We conclude with broader implications, emphasizing the importance of north-south replications in samples that are not from Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) societies.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Animals Have No Language, and Humans Are Animals Too
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Yosef Prat

    Language is a cornerstone of human culture, yet the evolution of this cognitive-demanding ability is shrouded in mystery. Studying how different species demonstrate this trait can provide clues for its evolutionary route. Indeed, recent decades saw ample scientific attempts to compare human speech, the prominent behavioral manifestation of language, with other animals’ vocalizations. Diligent studies have found only elementary parallels to speech in other animals, fortifying the belief that language is uniquely human. But have we really tested this uniqueness claim? Surprisingly, a true impartial comparison between human speech and other animals’ vocalizations has hardly ever been conducted. Here, I illustrate how treating humans as an equal species in vocal-communication research is expected to provide us with no evidence for human superiority in this realm. Thus, novel balanced and unbiased comparative studies are vital for identifying any unique component of human speech and language.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Infant Statisticians: The Origins of Reasoning Under Uncertainty
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Stephanie Denison; Fei Xu

    Humans frequently make inferences about uncertain future events with limited data. A growing body of work suggests that infants and other primates make surprisingly sophisticated inferences under uncertainty. First, we ask what underlying cognitive mechanisms allow young learners to make such sophisticated inferences under uncertainty. We outline three possibilities, the logic, probabilistic, and heuristics views, and assess the empirical evidence for each. We argue that the weight of the empirical work favors the probabilistic view, in which early reasoning under uncertainty is grounded in inferences about the relationship between samples and populations as opposed to being grounded in simple heuristics. Second, we discuss the apparent contradiction between this early-emerging sensitivity to probabilities with the decades of literature suggesting that adults show limited use of base-rate and sampling principles in their inductive inferences. Third, we ask how these early inductive abilities can be harnessed for improving later mathematics education and inductive inference. We make several suggestions for future empirical work that should go a long way in addressing the many remaining open questions in this growing research area.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • The Magic of Mechanism: Explanation-Based Instruction on Counterintuitive Concepts in Early Childhood
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-04-24
    Deborah Kelemen

    Common-sense intuitions can be useful guides in everyday life and problem solving. However, they can also impede formal science learning and provide the basis for robust scientific misconceptions. Addressing such misconceptions has generally been viewed as the province of secondary schooling. However, in this article, I argue that for a set of foundational but highly counterintuitive ideas (e.g., evolution by natural selection), coherent causal-explanatory instruction—instruction that emphasizes the multifaceted mechanisms underpinning natural phenomena—should be initiated much sooner, in early elementary school. This proposal is motivated by various findings from research in the cognitive, developmental, and learning sciences. For example, it has been shown that explanatory biases that render students susceptible to intuitively based scientific misconceptions emerge early in development. Furthermore, findings also reveal that once developed, such misconceptions are not revised and replaced by subsequently learned scientific theories but competitively coexist alongside them. Taken together, this research, along with studies revealing the viability of early coherent explanation-based instruction on counterintuitive theories, have significant implications for the timing, structure, and scope of early science education.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • The Shifting Architecture of Cognition and Brain Function in Older Adulthood
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    R. Nathan Spreng; Gary R. Turner

    Cognitive aging is often described in the context of loss or decline. Emerging research suggests that the story is more complex, with older adults showing both losses and gains in cognitive ability. With increasing age, declines in controlled, or fluid, cognition occur in the context of gains in crystallized knowledge of oneself and the world. This inversion in cognitive capacities, from greater reliance on fluid abilities in young adulthood to increasingly crystallized or semanticized cognition in older adulthood, has profound implications for cognitive and real-world functioning in later life. The shift in cognitive architecture parallels changes in the functional network architecture of the brain. Observations of greater functional connectivity between lateral prefrontal brain regions, implicated in cognitive control, and the default network, implicated in memory and semantic processing, led us to propose the default-executive coupling hypothesis of aging. In this review we provide evidence that these changes in the functional architecture of the brain serve as a neural mechanism underlying the shifting cognitive architecture from younger to older adulthood. We incorporate findings spanning cognitive aging and cognitive neuroscience to present an integrative model of cognitive and brain aging, describing its antecedents, determinants, and implications for real-world functioning.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Affective Working Memory: An Integrative Psychological Construct
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Joseph A. Mikels; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz

    When people ruminate about an unfortunate encounter with a loved one, savor a long-sought accomplishment, or hold in mind feelings from a marvelous or regretfully tragic moment, what mental processes orchestrate these psychological phenomena? Such experiences typify how affect interacts with working memory, which we posit can occur in three primary ways: emotional experiences can modulate working memory, working memory can modulate emotional experiences, and feelings can be the mental representations maintained by working memory. We propose that this last mode constitutes distinct neuropsychological processes that support the integration of particular cognitive and affective processes: affective working memory. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence suggests that affective working memory processes maintain feelings and are partially separable from their cognitive working memory counterparts. Affective working memory may be important for elucidating the contribution of affect to decision making, preserved emotional processes in later life, and mechanisms of psychological dysfunction in clinical disorders. We review basic behavioral, neuroscience, and clinical research that provides evidence for affective working memory; consider its theoretical implications; and evaluate its functional role within the psychological architecture. In sum, the perspective we advocate is that affective working memory is a fundamental mechanism of mind.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Historical Migration Patterns Shape Contemporary Cultures of Emotion
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Paula M. Niedenthal; Magdalena Rychlowska; Fangyun Zhao; Adrienne Wood

    Human emotional behavior varies across cultures. Smiling at a passing stranger on the street may seem perfectly normal in one culture and profoundly strange or even suspicious in another. What are the origins of cultural differences in emotional expression, communication, and regulation? We review new evidence in favor of one answer to this question. A socioecological factor, historical heterogeneity—defined as the ancestral diversity of the world’s regions based on human migration patterns over centuries—accounts for important cultural variations in emotional experience and expression. We summarize findings from studies of large global samples that link the migratory history of a country’s population with present-day cultural differences in how overtly and clearly emotions are expressed to others, in the frequency and meaning of smiles, and in associated character traits. New research also extends the analysis to the historical heterogeneity of the United States, and country-level findings are replicated at the level of the states. We suggest that enduring emotional behaviors and traits evolve from the opportunities and challenges posed by the commingling of people of diverse ancestries. We conclude by highlighting the questions and challenges for future research stemming from this approach.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Six Lessons for a Cogent Science of Implicit Bias and Its Criticism
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Bertram Gawronski

    Skepticism about the explanatory value of implicit bias in understanding social discrimination has grown considerably. The current article argues that both the dominant narrative about implicit bias as well as extant criticism are based on a selective focus on particular findings that fails to consider the broader literature on attitudes and implicit measures. To provide a basis to move forward, the current article discusses six lessons for a cogent science of implicit bias: (a) There is no evidence that people are unaware of the mental contents underlying their implicit biases; (b) conceptual correspondence is essential for interpretations of dissociations between implicit and explicit bias; (c) there is no basis to expect strong unconditional relations between implicit bias and behavior; (d) implicit bias is less (not more) stable over time than explicit bias; (e) context matters fundamentally for the outcomes obtained with implicit-bias measures; and (f) implicit measurement scores do not provide process-pure reflections of bias. The six lessons provide guidance for research that aims to provide more compelling evidence for the properties of implicit bias. At the same time, they suggest that extant criticism does not justify the conclusion that implicit bias is irrelevant for the understanding of social discrimination.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Smartphones and Close Relationships: The Case for an Evolutionary Mismatch
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    David A. Sbarra; Julia L. Briskin; Richard B. Slatcher

    This article introduces and outlines the case for an evolutionary mismatch between smartphones and the social behaviors that help form and maintain close social relationships. As psychological adaptations that enhance human survival and inclusive fitness, self-disclosure and responsiveness evolved in the context of small kin networks to facilitate social bonds, promote trust, and enhance cooperation. These adaptations are central to the development of attachment bonds, and attachment theory is a middle-level evolutionary theory that provides a robust account of the ways human bonding provides for reproductive and inclusive fitness. Evolutionary mismatches operate when modern contexts cue ancestral adaptations in a manner that does not provide for their adaptive benefits. We argue that smartphones and their affordances, although highly beneficial in many circumstances, cue humans’ evolved needs for self-disclosure and responsiveness across broad virtual networks and, in turn, have the potential to undermine immediate interpersonal interactions. We review emerging evidence on the topic of technoference, which is defined as the ways in which smartphone use may interfere with or intrude into everyday social interactions. The article concludes with an empirical agenda for advancing the integrative study of smartphones, intimacy processes, and close relationships.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Toward a Positive Psychology of Immigrants
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-04-18
    Cory L. Cobb; Nyla R. Branscombe; Alan Meca; Seth J. Schwartz; Dong Xie; Maria Cecilia Zea; Ludwin E. Molina; Charles R. Martinez, Jr.

    The vast majority of immigration-focused research in psychology is rooted in deficit models that center on negative health outcomes (e.g., depression, acculturative stress, anxiety, substance use), resulting in a widely held assumption that immigrants are at greater risk for pathology and poor well-being compared with native-born individuals. Moreover, current political discourse often portrays immigrants as more prone to crime compared with native-born individuals. From a positive-psychology perspective, we argue that, despite numerous migration-related challenges, many immigrant populations report positive patterns of psychological health. We also provide evidence that immigrants are, in fact, less prone to crime than their native-born counterparts. We conclude by discussing several contributing factors that account for positive immigrant well-being across the range of destination countries. Ultimately, the field should address questions regarding (a) immigrants’ strategies for coping with the challenges involved in adapting to new homelands and (b) asset-based factors that help immigrants to thrive during difficult life challenges.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • An Overview and Proposed Research Framework for Studying Co-Occurring Mental- and Physical-Health Dysfunction
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Sarah L. Hagerty; Jarrod M. Ellingson; Timothy B. Helmuth; L. Cinnamon Bidwell; Kent E. Hutchison; Angela D. Bryan

    Mental- and physical-health conditions co-occur at a rate much higher than chance. Of patients who have a mental-health condition, more than half also have a physical disease, and these cases are associated with increased human suffering and societal cost. Comorbidity research to date has focused on co-occurring mental- and physical-health disorders separately, and relatively little research has examined the co-occurrence of mental- and physical-health dysfunction. In addition, even less is known about why mental- and physical-health dysfunction co-occurs or how to treat these cases. Thus, the aims of this article are to highlight the need for research at the intersection of physical- and mental-health dysfunction and to provide guidance on how to research cases of comorbidity. Toward these ends, we begin by presenting a selective overview of the possible role of biological processes in the co-occurrence of physical- and mental-health dysfunction using specific illustrative examples. Specifically, we outline how biological processes within the immune system and gastrointestinal system could underlie depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and their co-occurrence. We then advance and discuss a proposed research framework, including methodological and analytic guidance, that researchers could use when studying the phenomenon of co-occurring physical- and mental-health dysfunction.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Lessons From Pinocchio: Cues to Deception May Be Highly Exaggerated
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Timothy J. Luke

    Deception researchers widely acknowledge that cues to deception—observable behaviors that may differ between truthful and deceptive messages—tend to be weak. Nevertheless, several deception cues have been reported with unusually large effect sizes, and some researchers have advocated the use of such cues as tools for detecting deceit and assessing credibility in practical contexts. By examining data from empirical deception-cue research and using a series of Monte Carlo simulations, I demonstrate that many estimated effect sizes of deception cues may be greatly inflated by publication bias, small numbers of estimates, and low power. Indeed, simulations indicate the informational value of the present deception literature is quite low, such that it is not possible to determine whether any given effect is real or a false positive. I warn against the hazards of relying on potentially illusory cues to deception and offer some recommendations for improving the state of the science of deception.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Redefining Science: The Impact of Complexity on Theory Development in Social and Behavioral Research
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    David M. Sanbonmatsu; William A. Johnston

    Disciplinary differences in the development of scientific generalizations and explanations are reviewed in this article. The social and behavioral sciences have identified fewer laws, established fewer “paradigms,” and developed “worse” theories than the physical sciences. We argue that the variability in the theoretical attainments of disciplines is due primarily to differences in the complexity of the topics studied. Accounts suggesting that differences in the maturity of disciplines are responsible for the variability are dismissed. In the study of complex phenomena, there is an extreme trade-off between generality and precision in which basic theories do not make the precise predictions needed for the development of applications and in which applied models are lacking in generality. The examination of proximal determinants and the generation of context-specific mathematical models are essential for prediction and application in complex disciplines. The impossibility of developing exacting theories of complex phenomena suggests that we need to redefine our conceptions of “good” and “bad” theories and “real” and “fake” science.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Exploring Research-Methods Blogs in Psychology: Who Posts What About Whom, and With What Effect?
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Gandalf Nicolas; Xuechunzi Bai; Susan T. Fiske

    During the methods crisis in psychology and other sciences, much discussion developed online in forums such as blogs and other social media. Hence, this increasingly popular channel of scientific discussion itself needs to be explored to inform current controversies, record the historical moment, improve methods communication, and address equity issues. Who posts what about whom, and with what effect? Does a particular generation or gender contribute more than another? Do blogs focus narrowly on methods, or do they cover a range of issues? How do they discuss individual researchers, and how do readers respond? What are some impacts? Web-scraping and text-analysis techniques provide a snapshot characterizing 41 current research-methods blogs in psychology. Bloggers mostly represented psychology’s traditional leaderships’ demographic categories: primarily male, mid- to late career, associated with American institutions, White, and with established citation counts. As methods blogs, their posts mainly concern statistics, replication (particularly statistical power), and research findings. The few posts that mentioned individual researchers substantially focused on replication issues; they received more views, social-media impact, comments, and citations. Male individual researchers were mentioned much more often than female researchers. Further data can inform perspectives about these new channels of scientific communication, with the shared aim of improving scientific practices.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Finding Common Ground in Meta-Analysis “Wars” on Violent Video Games
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Maya B. Mathur; Tyler J. VanderWeele

    Independent meta-analyses on the same topic can sometimes yield seemingly conflicting results. For example, prominent meta-analyses assessing the effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior have reached apparently different conclusions, provoking ongoing debate. We suggest that such conflicts are sometimes partly an artifact of reporting practices for meta-analyses that focus only on the pooled point estimate and its statistical significance. Considering statistics that focus on the distributions of effect sizes and that adequately characterize effect heterogeneity can sometimes indicate reasonable consensus between “warring” meta-analyses. Using novel analyses, we show that this seems to be the case in the video-game literature. Despite seemingly conflicting results for the statistical significance of the pooled estimates in different meta-analyses of video-game studies, all of the meta-analyses do in fact point to the conclusion that, in the vast majority of settings, violent video games do increase aggressive behavior but that these effects are almost always quite small.

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • The Dark Side of Information Proliferation
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2018-11-29
    Thomas T. Hills

    There are well-understood psychological limits on our capacity to process information. As information proliferation—the consumption and sharing of information—increases through social media and other communications technology, these limits create an attentional bottleneck, favoring information that is more likely to be searched for, attended to, comprehended, encoded, and later reproduced. In information-rich environments, this bottleneck influences the evolution of information via four forces of cognitive selection, selecting for information that is belief-consistent, negative, social, and predictive. Selection for belief-consistent information leads balanced information to support increasingly polarized views. Selection for negative information amplifies information about downside risks and crowds out potential benefits. Selection for social information drives herding, impairs objective assessments, and reduces exploration for solutions to hard problems. Selection for predictive patterns drives overfitting, the replication crisis, and risk seeking. This article summarizes the negative implications of these forces of cognitive selection and presents eight warnings that represent severe pitfalls for the naive “informavore,” accelerating extremism, hysteria, herding, and the proliferation of misinformation.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • The Need to Contribute During Adolescence
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Andrew J. Fuligni

    As an intensely social species, humans demonstrate the propensity to contribute to other individuals and groups by providing support, resources, or helping to achieve a shared goal. Accumulating evidence suggests that contribution benefits the givers as well as the receivers. The need to contribute during adolescence, however, has been underappreciated compared with more individually focused psychological or social developmental needs. The need is particularly significant during the teenage years, when children’s social world expands and they become increasingly capable of making contributions of consequence. Moreover, contribution can both promote and be a key element of traditionally conceived fundamental needs of the adolescent period such as autonomy, identity, and intimacy. The neural and biological foundations of the adolescent need to contribute, as well as the ways in which social environments meet that need, are discussed. A scientific and practical investment in contribution would synergize with other recent efforts to reframe thinking about the adolescent period, providing potential returns to the field as well as to youths and their communities.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Children’s Judgments of Epistemic and Moral Agents: From Situations to Intentions
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Melissa A. Koenig; Valerie Tiberius; J. Kiley Hamlin

    Children’s evaluations of moral and epistemic agents crucially depend on their discerning that an agent’s actions were performed intentionally. Here we argue that children’s epistemic and moral judgments reveal practices of forgiveness and blame, trust and mistrust, and objection or disapproval and that such practices are supported by children’s monitoring of the situational constraints on agents. Inherent in such practices is the understanding that agents are responsible for actions performed under certain conditions but not others. We discuss a range of situational constraints on children’s early epistemic and moral evaluations and clarify how these situational constraints serve to support children’s identification of intentional actions. By monitoring the situation, children distinguish intentional from less intentional action and selectively hold epistemic and moral agents accountable. We argue that these findings inform psychological and philosophical theorizing about attributions of moral and epistemic agency and responsibility.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Making Research Evaluation More Transparent: Aligning Research Philosophy, Institutional Values, and Reporting
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-01-10
    Michael R. Dougherty; L. Robert Slevc; James A. Grand

    There is a growing interest in changing the culture of psychology to improve the quality of our science. At the root of this interest is concern over the reproducibility of key findings. A variety of large-scale replication attempts have revealed that several previously published effects cannot be reproduced, whereas other analyses indicate that the published literature is rife with underpowered studies and publication bias. These revelations suggest that it is time to change how psychological science is carried out and increase the transparency of reporting. We argue that change will be slow until institutions adopt new procedures for evaluating scholarly activity. We consider three actions that individuals and departments can take to facilitate change throughout psychological science: the development of individualized research-philosophy statements, the creation of an annotated curriculum vitae to improve the transparency of scholarly reporting, and the use of a formal evaluative system that explicitly captures behaviors that support reproducibility. Our recommendations build on proposals for open science by enabling researchers to have a voice in articulating (and contextualizing) how they would like their work to be evaluated and by providing a mechanism for more detailed and transparent reporting of scholarly activities.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Genetic Contributions to Loneliness and Their Relevance to the Evolutionary Theory of Loneliness
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-03-07
    A. W. M. Spithoven; S. Cacioppo; L. Goossens; J. T. Cacioppo

    Loneliness is a negative and distressing emotional state that arises from a discrepancy between one’s desired and achieved levels of social connectedness. The evolutionary theory of loneliness (ETL) posits that experiencing loneliness is an inherited adaptation that signals that salutary social relations are endangered or damaged and prompts people to reconnect to significant others. The basic tenets of the ETL has led researchers to examine the genetic underpinnings of loneliness. The current review provides an updated overview of genetic studies on loneliness and discusses the importance of genetic research for the ETL. The most recent studies suggest that the many genes that contribute to a small degree to differences in loneliness partially overlap with genes that contribute to neuroticism, but not with depression. In addition, the genetic studies discussed in this review show that genes are unlikely to have a direct effect on loneliness. Instead, environmental factors determine in a dynamic fashion how genes that contribute to loneliness are expressed. Future research on epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can further elucidate the dynamic interplay between genes and the environment and how this interplay contributes to loneliness.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Microbes and the Mind: How Bacteria Shape Affect, Neurological Processes, Cognition, Social Relationships, Development, and Pathology
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-03-28
    Leigh K. Smith; Emily F. Wissel

    Recent data suggest that the human body is not so exclusively human after all. Specifically, humans share their bodies with approximately 10 trillion microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiome. Chief among these microbes are bacteria, and there is a growing consensus that they are critical to virtually all facets of normative functioning. This article reviews the ways in which bacteria shape affect, neurological processes, cognition, social relationships, development, and psychological pathology. To date, the vast majority of research on interactions between microbes and humans has been conducted by scientists outside the field of psychology, despite the fact that psychological scientists are experts in many of the topics being explored. This review aims to orient psychological scientists to the most relevant research and perspectives regarding the microbiome so that we might contribute to the now widespread, interdisciplinary effort to understand the relationship between microbes and the mind.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology Can Transform Mental Health Research
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-03-07
    Christopher C. Conway; Miriam K. Forbes; Kelsie T. Forbush; Eiko I. Fried; Michael N. Hallquist; Roman Kotov; Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt; Alexander J. Shackman; Andrew E. Skodol; Susan C. South; Matthew Sunderland; Monika A. Waszczuk; David H. Zald; Mohammad H. Afzali; Marina A. Bornovalova; Natacha Carragher; Anna R. Docherty; Katherine G. Jonas; Robert F. Krueger; Praveetha Patalay; Aaron L. Pincus; Jennifer L. Tackett; Ulrich Reininghaus; Irwin D. Waldman; Aidan G. C. Wright; Johannes Zimmermann; Bo Bach; R. Michael Bagby; Michael Chmielewski; David C. Cicero; Lee Anna Clark; Tim Dalgleish; Colin G. DeYoung; Christopher J. Hopwood; Masha Y. Ivanova; Robert D. Latzman; Christopher J. Patrick; Camilo J. Ruggero; Douglas B. Samuel; David Watson; Nicholas R. Eaton

    For more than a century, research on psychopathology has focused on categorical diagnoses. Although this work has produced major discoveries, growing evidence points to the superiority of a dimensional approach to the science of mental illness. Here we outline one such dimensional system—the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP)—that is based on empirical patterns of co-occurrence among psychological symptoms. We highlight key ways in which this framework can advance mental-health research, and we provide some heuristics for using HiTOP to test theories of psychopathology. We then review emerging evidence that supports the value of a hierarchical, dimensional model of mental illness across diverse research areas in psychological science. These new data suggest that the HiTOP system has the potential to accelerate and improve research on mental-health problems as well as efforts to more effectively assess, prevent, and treat mental illness.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Broadening the Perspective on Emotional Contagion and Emotional Mimicry: The Correction Hypothesis
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-03-07
    Monika Wróbel; Kamil K. Imbir

    Emotional contagion has long been conceptualized as the automatic transfer of affective states between people, similar to the spread of diseases. New evidence, however, has challenged this view by demonstrating that emotions, contrary to diseases, spread selectively rather than blindly because their transfer is controlled by social factors. Here, we take a closer look at this top-down social control of emotional contagion. We review literature on the moderating role of social factors in emotional contagion and emotional mimicry, a process often considered a basic mechanism of emotional contagion. We argue that top-down social processes controlling emotional mimicry may be explained by the correction hypothesis formulated to account for contrast effects in priming research. We also analyze whether similar corrective processes may be involved in less automatic mechanisms of emotional contagion, such as social appraisal. Finally, we propose that the modulating effects of social factors on emotional contagion and its mechanisms, similar to priming effects, may be interpreted within the framework of dual-process theories.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Suicide in Transgender Veterans: Prevalence, Prevention, and Implications of Current Policy
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-04-04
    Raymond P. Tucker

    Transgender adults serve in the U.S. military at 2 to 3 times the rate of the general adult population. Unfortunately, transgender veterans die by suicide at twice the rate of their cisgender veteran peers and approximately 5.85 times the rate of the general population. This article reviews the literature regarding the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in transgender veterans. Suicide risk and resilience factors are reviewed, and future areas of study are detailed that incorporate findings from the broader suicide-prevention literature and research on transgender mental-health disparities. Individual services and broader prevention considerations are discussed, including the adaptation of evidence-based suicide-specific psychological interventions, national transgender health-training resources, and relevant veteran suicide-prevention initiatives. Finally, U.S. Department of Defense and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs policies regarding transgender service and health care are reviewed. State-level policies relevant to transgender veteran suicide such as firearm ownership and nondiscrimination laws are also reviewed, and their implications for suicide prevention are discussed. The aim of this article is to provide a broad review of research findings from multiple fields of study to assist health-care providers, researchers, and policymakers in their efforts to prevent transgender veteran suicide.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Outsiders’ Thoughts on Generating Self-Regulatory-Depletion (Fatigue) Effects in Limited-Resource Experiments
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-03-29
    Rex A. Wright; Christopher Mlynski; Ivan Carbajal

    We offer thoughts pertaining to purported conceptual and replication crises that have been discussed in relation to the limited-resource model (LRM) of self-control, functioning as crisis outsiders who have been conducting related research concerned with determinants and cardiovascular correlates of effort. Guiding analyses in our laboratory convey important lessons about experimental generation of the now-classic LRM self-regulatory-fatigue effect on control. They do so by drawing attention to conditions that must be met in fatigue-induction and fatigue-influence phases of relevant experiments. One fundamental lesson is that even highly standardized fatigue-induction protocols cannot be expected to consistently allow definitive tests of this effect. Another is that the effect might emerge consistently only in a behavioral-restraint “sweet spot” of sorts—a multidimensional motivational space wherein rested study participants view restraint as possible and worthwhile and fatigued participants do not. Implications are identified and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Mindsets: A View From Two Eras
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Carol S. Dweck; David S. Yeager

    A growth mindset is the belief that human capacities are not fixed but can be developed over time, and mindset research examines the power of such beliefs to influence human behavior. This article offers two personal perspectives on mindset research across two eras. Given recent changes in the field, the authors represent different generations of researchers, each focusing on different issues and challenges, but both committed to “era-bridging” research. The first author traces mindset research from its systematic examination of how mindsets affect challenge seeking and resilience, through the ways in which mindsets influence the formation of judgments and stereotypes. The second author then describes how mindset research entered the era of field experiments and replication science, and how researchers worked to create reliable interventions to address underachievement—including a national experiment in the United States. The authors conclude that there is much more to learn but that the studies to date illustrate how an era-bridging program of research can continue to be generative and relevant to new generations of scholars.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Motivational Accounts of the Vicious Cycle of Social Status: An Integrative Framework Using the United States as a Case Study
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2018-11-02
    Kristin Laurin; Holly R. Engstrom; Adam Alic

    Social mobility is limited in most industrialized countries, and especially in the United States: Children born to relatively poor parents are less likely to prosper than other children. This observation has multiple explanations; in the current article, we focus on emerging motivational perspectives, synthesizing them into a novel integrative framework grounded in a classic theory of motivation: expectancy-value theory. Together, these findings indicate that individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be less motivated to achieve status relative to individuals with higher SES—not because of their own personal failings, but as a result of their material, social and cultural contexts. We then consider the significant theoretical advantages of this integrative framework, most notably that it enables us to consider how the disparate perspectives linking motivation to SES are linked and may at times compound or offset each other. In turn, this enables us to make sophisticated predictions concerning the conditions that will enable individuals with low SES to escape the vicious cycle of low motivation. Moreover, our account helps bridge the gap between explanations that locate the cause for low social mobility within individuals and those that locate it in the broader system. We end by addressing implications for the psychological understanding of low status and implications for social policy.

    更新日期:2019-03-06
  • What Modern Sports Competitions Can Tell Us About Human Nature
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Philip Furley

    To fully understand human behavior, it seems inevitable to approach it from an evolutionary perspective. However, much of human behavior has been overwritten by culture and society, thus allowing little insight into how it might have evolved amid natural and sexual selection. Here, I argue that sports competitions, although a cultural phenomenon in themselves, strip away many of the cultural layers and reveal more primary, rudimentary aspects of human behavior. Fortunately, because they are ubiquitous, meticulously recorded, and often quantified in great detail, sports competitions provide a plethora of usable data. In this article I provide an evolutionary account of the cross-cultural existence and popularity of sports by reviewing evidence of four functional hypotheses that regard the omnipresence of sports as a by-product of fitness-related adaptations (skill acquisition and development, status seeking, courtship display, and coalition formation). Then I outline how the growing body of sports data and documentation can be exploited for increasing our understanding of human nature (e.g., on conflict and cooperation, lateral preferences, territoriality, and nonverbal communication). The article concludes by giving guidelines for future cross-disciplinary research to advance the understanding of how evolution has shaped human behavior.

    更新日期:2019-03-06
  • Difference Matters: Teaching Students a Contextual Theory of Difference Can Help Them Succeed
    Perspect. Psychol. Sci. (IF 8.190) Pub Date : 2018-12-19
    Nicole M. Stephens; MarYam G. Hamedani; Sarah S. M. Townsend

    Today’s increasingly diverse and divided world requires the ability to understand and navigate across social-group differences. We propose that interventions that teach students about these differences can not only improve all students’ intergroup skills but also help disadvantaged students succeed in school. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, this article theorizes that teaching students a contextual understanding of difference can accomplish both of these important goals. Understanding difference as contextual means recognizing that social-group differences come from participating in and adapting to diverse sociocultural contexts. This article begins by reviewing research that highlights two distinct understandings of social-group differences—as contextual or essential—and demonstrates their consequences for intergroup outcomes. We then review research on multicultural and social justice education that highlights the potential benefits of educating students about social-group differences. We propose that these educational approaches are associated with intergroup and academic benefits for one key reason: They teach students a contextual theory of difference. Finally, to illustrate and provide causal evidence for our theory of how a contextual understanding of difference affords these benefits, this article provides an overview of the first social psychological intervention to teach students a contextual understanding of difference: difference-education.

    更新日期:2019-03-06
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