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  • Pharmacotherapy for the Pseudobulbar Affect in Individuals Who Have Sustained a Traumatic Brain Injury: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Amelia J. Hicks, Fiona J. Clay, Jennie L. Ponsford, Luke A. Perry, Mahesh Jayaram, Rachel Batty, Malcolm Hopwood

    Pseudobulbar affect is a debilitating condition that significantly reduces quality of life for many individuals following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is characterized by embarrassing and often uncontrollable episodes of crying or laughter. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy as compared to all other comparators for the management of pseudobulbar affect in adults who have sustained TBI. Six databases were searched, with additional hand searching of journals, clinical trials registries and international drug regulators to identify published and unpublished studies in English up to June 2018. Studies were eligible for this review if they included adults who had sustained a medically confirmed TBI and presented with pseudobulbar affect. All pharmacotherapy and comparator interventions were considered for inclusion, and study design was not limited to randomised controlled trials. Evidence quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Instruments. Two quasi-experimental studies examining the effectiveness of dextrometamorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) were identified. These studies reported that DM/Q was effective in reducing symptoms of pseudobulbar affect and had a positive safety profile, over follow-up periods of 3 months (n = 87) and 12 months (n = 23). However, both studies were limited by lack of a control group and a high dropout rate. The findings of twelve case reports examining the effectiveness of DM/Q (n = 6) and anti-depressants (n = 6) are also discussed. Further research is required to determine which pharmacological interventions provide the best outcomes for individuals with pseudobulbar affect following TBI, with consideration given to side effect profiles and financial costs.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • A Lifespan Model of Interference Resolution and Inhibitory Control: Risk for Depression and Changes with Illness Progression
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Katie L. Bessette, Aimee J. Karstens, Natania A. Crane, Amy T. Peters, Jonathan P. Stange, Kathleen H. Elverman, Sarah Shizuko Morimoto, Sara L. Weisenbach, Scott A. Langenecker

    Abstract The cognitive processes involved in inhibitory control accuracy (IC) and interference resolution speed (IR) or broadly – inhibition – are discussed in this review, and both are described within the context of a lifespan model of mood disorders. Inhibitory control (IC) is a binary outcome (success or no for response selection and inhibition of unwanted responses) for any given event that is influenced to an extent by IR. IR refers to the process of inhibition, which can be manipulated by task design in earlier and later stages through use of distractors and timing, and manipulation of individual differences in response proclivity. We describe the development of these two processes across the lifespan, noting factors that influence this development (e.g., environment, adversity and stress) as well as inherent difficulties in assessing IC/IR prior to adulthood (e.g., cross-informant reports). We use mood disorders as an illustrative example of how this multidimensional construct can be informative to state, trait, vulnerability and neuroprogression of disease. We present aggregated data across numerous studies and methodologies to examine the lifelong development and degradation of this subconstruct of executive function, particularly in mood disorders. We highlight the challenges in identifying and measuring IC/IR in late life, including specificity to complex, comorbid disease processes. Finally, we discuss some potential avenues for treatment and accommodation of these difficulties across the lifespan, including newer treatments using cognitive remediation training and neuromodulation.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Correction to: Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Eric L. A. Fonseca Wald, Jos G. M. Hendriksen, Gerald S. Drenthen, Sander M. J. V. Kuijk, Albert P. Aldenkamp, Johan S. H. Vles, R. Jeroen Vermeulen, Mariette H. J. A. Debeij van Hall, Sylvia Klinkenberg

    Due to an error during the editorial phase, a correction regarding Fig. 2 is added to the original article: “Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Please see below correct Fig. 2.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • A Systematic Review of Studies Reporting Data-Driven Cognitive Subtypes across the Psychosis Spectrum
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Melissa J. Green, Leah Girshkin, Kyle Kremerskothen, Oliver Watkeys, Yann Quidé

    The delineation of cognitive subtypes of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may offer a means of determining shared genetic markers and neuropathology among individuals with these conditions. We systematically reviewed the evidence from published studies reporting the use of data-driven (i.e., unsupervised) clustering methods to delineate cognitive subtypes among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We reviewed 24 studies in total, contributing data to 13 analyses of schizophrenia spectrum patients, 8 analyses of bipolar disorder, and 5 analyses of mixed samples of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Studies of bipolar disorder most consistently revealed a 3-cluster solution, comprising a subgroup with ‘near-normal’ (cognitively spared) cognition and two other subgroups demonstrating graded deficits across cognitive domains. In contrast, there was no clear consensus regarding the number of cognitive subtypes among studies of cognitive subtypes in schizophrenia, while four of the five studies of mixed diagnostic groups reported a 4-cluster solution. Common to all cluster solutions was a severe cognitive deficit subtype with cognitive impairments of moderate to large effect size relative to healthy controls. Our review highlights several key factors (e.g., symptom profile, sample size, statistical procedures, and cognitive domains examined) that may influence the results of data-driven clustering methods, and which were largely inconsistent across the studies reviewed. This synthesis of findings suggests caution should be exercised when interpreting the utility of particular cognitive subtypes for biological investigation, and demonstrates much heterogeneity among studies using unsupervised clustering approaches to cognitive subtyping within and across the psychosis spectrum.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Towards a Better Understanding of Cognitive Deficits in Absence Epilepsy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Eric L. A. Fonseca Wald, Jos G. M. Hendriksen, Gerald S. Drenthen, Sander M. J. V. Kuijk, Albert P. Aldenkamp, Johan S. H. Vles, R. Jeroen Vermeulen, Mariette H. J. A. Debeij-van Hall, Sylvia Klinkenberg

    Cognition in absence epilepsy (AE) is generally considered undisturbed. However, reports on cognitive deficits in AE in recent years have suggested otherwise. This review systematically assesses current literature on cognitive performance in children with AE. A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science. All studies reporting on cognitive performance in children with AE were considered. In total 33 studies were eligible for inclusion. Neuropsychological tests were classified into the following domains: intelligence; executive function; attention; language; motor & sensory-perceptual examinations; visuoperceptual/visuospatial/visuoconstructional function; memory and learning; achievement. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted by estimating the pooled mean and/or pooling the mean difference in case-control studies. Full-scale IQ in children with AE was estimated at 96.78 (95%CI:94.46–99.10) across all available studies and in case-control studies IQ was on average 8.03 (95%CI:-10.45- -5.61) lower. Verbal IQ was estimated at 97.98 (95%CI:95.80–100.16) for all studies and 9.01 (95%CI:12.11- -5.90) points lower in case-control studies. Performance IQ was estimated at 97.23 (93.24–101.22) for all available studies and 5.32 (95%CI:-8.27–2.36) points lower in case-control studies. Lower performance was most often reported in executive function (cognitive flexibility, planning, and verbal fluency) and attention (sustained, selective and divided attention). Reports on school difficulties, neurodevelopmental problems, and attentional problems were high. In conclusion, in contrast to common beliefs, lower than average neurocognitive performance was noted in multiple cognitive domains, which may influence academic and psychosocial development.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Role of Cortico-Thalamo-Cortical Circuits in Language: Recurrent Circuits Revisited
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Bruce Crosson

    Based on a review of recent literature, a recurrent circuit model describes how cortico-thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical circuitry supports word retrieval, auditory-verbal comprehension, and other language functions. Supporting data include cellular and layer-specific cortico-thalamic, thalamo-cortical, and cortico-cortical neuroanatomy and electrophysiology. The model posits that during word retrieval, higher order cortico-thalamo-cortical relays maintain stable representations of semantic information in feedforward processes at the semantic-lexical interface. These stable semantic representations are compared to emerging lexical solutions to represent the semantic construct to determine how well constructs are associated with each other. The resultant error signal allows cortico-cortical sculpting of activity between the semantic and lexical mechanisms until there is a good match between these two levels, at which time the lexical solution will be passed along to the cortical processor necessary for the next stage of word retrieval. Evidence is cited that high gamma activity is the neural signature for processing in the cortico-thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical circuitry. Methods for testing hypotheses generated from this recurrent circuit model are discussed. Mathematical modeling may be a useful tool in exploring underlying properties of these circuits.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Caregiver- and Clinician-Reported Adaptive Functioning in Rett Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Evaluation of Measurement Strategies
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Eric S. Semmel, Michelle E. Fox, Sabrina D. Na, Rella Kautiainen, Robert D. Latzman, Tricia Z. King

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of intellectual disability in females worldwide. The severity of many individuals’ impairment limits the effectiveness of traditional assessment. However, clinician and parent reports of adaptive functioning may provide insight into these patients’ abilities. This review aims to synthesize the current literature assessing adaptive functioning in Rett syndrome and evaluate existing measurement tools in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed using the search term “Rett syndrome.” Studies that quantitatively assessed adaptive functioning outcomes in Rett syndrome with published and normed questionnaire measures were included. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria. Overall results indicate that the population of people with Rett syndrome is highly impaired, both in overall adaptive functioning as well as in specific subdomains (e.g., mobility, activities of daily living). Atypical Rett syndrome groups performed better on measures of adaptive functioning relative to patients with classic Rett syndrome. Our findings identified measurement weaknesses, as many of the studies found floor effects and therefore were unable to capture meaningful variability in outcomes. Individuals with Rett syndrome are highly reliant on caregivers due to disrupted adaptive functioning abilities. Optimizing measurement of adaptive skills in Rett syndrome will facilitate the quantification of meaningful change in skills and the identification of efficacious interventions aimed at improving outcomes and quality of life.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Visuospatial Neglect - a Theory-Informed Overview of Current and Emerging Strategies and a Systematic Review on the Therapeutic Use of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Paul Theo Zebhauser, Marine Vernet, Evelyn Unterburger, Anna-Katharine Brem

    Visuospatial neglect constitutes a supramodal cognitive deficit characterized by reduction or loss of spatial awareness for the contralesional space. It occurs in over 40% of right- and 20% of left-brain-lesioned stroke patients with lesions located mostly in parietal, frontal and subcortical brain areas. Visuospatial neglect is a multifaceted syndrome - symptoms can be divided into sensory, motor and representational neglect - and therefore requires an individually adapted diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Several models try to explain the origins of visuospatial neglect, of which the “interhemispheric rivalry model” is strongly supported by animal and human research. This model proposes that allocation of spatial attention is balanced by transcallosal inhibition and both hemispheres compete to direct attention to the contralateral hemi-space. Accordingly, a brain lesion causes an interhemispheric imbalance, which may be re-installed by activation of lesioned, or deactivation of unlesioned (over-activated) brain areas through noninvasive brain stimulation. Research in larger patient samples is needed to confirm whether noninvasive brain stimulation can improve long-term outcomes and whether these also affect activities of daily living and discharge destination.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • A Quantitative Meta-analysis of Olfactory Dysfunction in Epilepsy
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Kiran Khurshid, Andrew J. D. Crow, Petra E. Rupert, Nancy L. Minniti, Melissa A. Carswell, Dawn J. Mechanic-Hamilton, Vidyulata Kamath, Richard L. Doty, Paul J. Moberg, David R. Roalf

    Olfactory dysfunction in epilepsy is well-documented in several olfactory domains. However, the clinical specificity of these deficits remains unknown. The aim of this systematic meta-analysis was to determine which domains of olfactory ability were most impaired in individuals with epilepsy, and to assess moderating factors affecting olfactory ability. Extant peer-reviewed literature on olfaction in epilepsy were identified via a computerized literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Google Scholar databases. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. These studies included a total of 912 patients with epilepsy and 794 healthy comparison subjects. Included studies measured olfaction using tests of odor identification, discrimination, memory, and detection threshold in patients with different types of epilepsy, including temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), mixed frontal epilepsy (M-F), and mixed epilepsy (MIX). Olfactory deficits were robust in patients with epilepsy when compared to healthy individuals, with effect sizes in the moderate to large range for several olfactory domains, including odor identification (d = −1.59), memory (d = −1.10), discrimination (d = −1.04), and detection threshold (d = −0.58). Olfactory deficits were most prominent in patients with TLE and M-F epilepsy. Amongst patients with epilepsy, sex, age, smoking status, education, handedness, and age of illness onset were significantly related to olfactory performance. Overall, these meta-analytic findings indicate that the olfactory system is compromised in epilepsy and suggest that detailed neurobiological investigations of the olfactory system may provide further insight into this disorder.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Comparison of Virtual Reality Classroom Continuous Performance Tests to Traditional Continuous Performance Tests in Delineating ADHD: a Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Thomas D. Parsons, Tyler Duffield, Justin Asbee

    Computerized continuous performance tests (CPTs) are commonly used to characterize attention in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Virtual classroom CPTs, designed to enhance ecological validity, are increasingly being utilized. Lacking is a quantitative meta-analysis of clinical comparisons of attention performance in children with ADHD using virtual classroom CPTs. The objective of the present systematic PRISMA review was to address this empirical void and compare three-dimensional (3D) virtual classroom CPTs to traditional two-dimensional (2D) CPTs. The peer-reviewed literature on comparisons of virtual classroom performance between children with ADHD and typically developing children was explored in six databases (e.g., Medline). Published studies using a virtual classroom to compare attentional performance between children with ADHD and typically developing children were included. Given the high heterogeneity with modality comparisons (i.e., computerized CPTs vs. virtual classroom CPTs for ADHD), both main comparisons included only population comparisons (i.e., control vs. ADHD) using each CPT modality. Meta-analytic findings were generally consistent with previous meta-analyses of computerized CPTs regarding the commonly used omission, commission, and hit reaction time variables. Results suggest that the virtual classroom CPTs reliably differentiate attention performance in persons with ADHD. Ecological validity implications are discussed pertaining to subtle meta-analytic outcome differences compared to computerized 2D CPTs. Further, due to an inability to conduct moderator analyses, it remains unclear if modality differences are due to other factors. Suggestions for future research using the virtual classroom CPTs are provided.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Corticosteroids and Cognition: A Meta-Analysis
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-05-26
    Catherine E. Prado, Simon F. Crowe

    A thorough understanding of the cognitive effects of corticosteroids is essential given their frequency of use. This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of corticosteroids on the various domains of cognitive functioning, grouped by duration of use. An electronic search of PsycInfo, Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for all journal articles published between January 1990 and May 2018. Twenty six studies were included enabling calculation of standardised mean difference (SMD) using a random effects model for the cognitive domains of divided attention, executive function, expressive language, immediate memory, processing speed, recent memory, sustained attention, very long term memory and working memory. Results revealed that corticosteroids had a modest, negative effect on executive function for acute users, recent memory for short term and chronic users, and very long term memory for acute users. Corticosteroids had a small, significant, positive effect on expressive language for short term users.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cognitive Assessment of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis in the Arab World: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Samira Paul, Aeysha Brown, Abbey J. Hughes

    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is on the rise globally, and recent epidemiological studies have observed increased rates in the Arab world (i.e., countries of North Africa and the Middle East where Arabic is the primary language). However, assessment of cognitive impairment and its relevant covariates (e.g., fatigue and depressive symptomatology) in the Arab world has not been rigorously reviewed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to systematically review the current use of cognitive assessment measures in observational and interventional studies of individuals with MS in the Arab world. A systematic review of studies that assessed cognitive function in adults with MS in the Arab world was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Embase, WHO Global Index Medicus, and Ovid Global Health. Studies that featured at least one objective cognitive measure were included. Eligible studies were reviewed for bias and study quality using the QUADAS-2 and NIH QAT. Study characteristics and finding were extracted by two independent reviewers, with results confirmed by a third reviewer. A total of 13 (N = 846) studies met inclusion criteria. Risk of bias and included measures varied across studies. Results demonstrated inconsistent availability and use of MS cognitive assessment tools across the Arab world. An Arabic version of the BICAMS was the only cognitive battery that was evaluated with regard to psychometric properties. The most common individual test include in reviewed studies was the SDMT. However, validation studies are still needed for this and a number of other measures. Other measures are still in the early stages of translation and cultural-linguistic norming. This review of cognitive assessment of individuals with MS in the Arab world was limited by variable study quality and measure selection. The present review provides a summary of the tests most commonly used in this region and recommendations for future investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Functional Neural Correlates of Anosognosia in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Jaime D. Mondragón, Natasha M. Maurits, Peter P. De Deyn

    Functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to assess the neural correlates of anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A systematic review of this literature was performed, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, on PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-five articles met all inclusion criteria. Specifically, four brain connectivity and 21 brain perfusion, metabolism, and activation articles. Anosognosia is associated in MCI with frontal lobe and cortical midline regional dysfunction (reduced perfusion and activation), and with reduced parietotemporal metabolism. Reduced within and between network connectivity is observed in the default mode network regions of AD patients with anosognosia compared to AD patients without anosognosia and controls. During initial stages of cognitive decline in anosognosia, reduced indirect neural activity (i.e. perfusion, metabolism, and activation) is associated with the cortical midline regions, followed by the parietotemporal structures in later stages and culminating in frontotemporal dysfunction. Although the current evidence suggests differences in activation between AD or MCI patients with anosognosia and healthy controls, more evidence is needed exploring the differences between MCI and AD patients with and without anosognosia using resting state and task related paradigms.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Genetic Modulation of Neurocognitive Development in Cancer Patients throughout the Lifespan: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-03-30
    Charlotte Sleurs, Aline Madoe, Lieven Lagae, Sandra Jacobs, Sabine Deprez, Jurgen Lemiere, Anne Uyttebroeck

    The rise in cancer survival rates has raised concerns about the long-term adverse effects of cancer treatment, including neurocognitive impairment. Neurocognitive deficits such as attention and processing speed are frequently observed and can have a profound, lifelong impact in daily life of cancer patients. Interestingly, large interpatient variability exists in cognitive outcomes. Emerging evidence indicates that such differences may be related to genetic variation. The aim of our review was to systematically summarize the current literature on the modulatory effects of germline genetic polymorphisms on cancer treatment-induced cognitive changes and the potential age-dependent impact in cancer survivors. The PubMed/Medline database was screened using an extensive search string focusing on four components: “cancer”, “cancer treatment”, “neurocognitive outcome” and “germline genetic variation”. Seventeen studies meeting predefined eligibility criteria were analyzed, including sixteen candidate gene studies and one genome-wide association study. 38 polymorphisms in 15 genes across proposed pathophysiological pathways, including (1) neural plasticity and repair, (2) neuroinflammation and defenses against oxidative stress, (3) neurotransmission, and (4) folate metabolism pathway, were reported to be significantly associated with treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction or neuroimaging abnormalities. Still, some study results remained discordant, partly due to the methodological heterogeneity (i.e. in test assessments, age, cancer-type populations). Future large-scale, (epi-)genome studies integrating neurocognitive assessments and advanced neuroimaging techniques, are recommended in order to investigate neurotoxicity throughout the lifespan. Hence, adverse neurodevelopmental problems during childhood and neurodegenerative processes later in life could be minimized based on genetic risk classifications.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Roles of the Amygdala and Basal Forebrain in Defense: a Reply to Luyck Et al. and Implications for Defensive Action
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Floris Klumpers, Marijn C. W. Kroes

    The commentary by Luyck and colleagues on our paper provides many stimulating viewpoints and interpretations of our original study on dissociable responses in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat processing. Here, we reply to some of the points raised and while agreeing with most of the comments also provide some alternative viewpoints. We end by putting forward a research agenda for how to further investigate the roles of these regions in threat processing, with an emphasis on studying their roles in defensive action.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • (Neuro)Psychological Interventions for Non-Motor Symptoms in the Treatment of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: a Systematic Umbrella Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Hanna Kampling, Lisa K. Brendel, Oskar Mittag

    Conducted in a multidisciplinary and multimodal setting, the main objectives of neuropsychological treatment are to improve cognition, alleviate affective disorders, and to promote activities and participation. This article reviews the evidence on therapeutic or educative interventions based on psychological principles for patients with Parkinson’s disease. The electronic bibliographic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, and CINAHL were systematically searched for meta-analyses on psychological interventions for patients with Parkinson’s disease, published from January 2000 to June 2018. We extracted psychological interventions, non-motor outcomes, effect sizes, confidence intervals, and I2 heterogeneity statistics. In addition, we rated the level of evidence on an intervention’s effectiveness regarding a specific outcome. We identified 15 meta-analyses out of 1084 search results and identified a broad variety of psychological interventions for non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In total, 48 outcome-intervention-pairs were extracted. Psychotherapy, mind and body interventions, and cognitive training are promising treatment approaches when addressing cognition, depression, and QoL in patients with Parkinson’s disease. The available evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in the treatment of symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease is very heterogeneous. Still, our review reveals that some interventions are appropriate and effective for a variety of symptoms. Primary studies are not considered in this review, resulting in the omission of potentially relevant findings. Further high-quality research is needed to confirm the existing evidence and to explore the potential of psychological interventions for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Decision-Making in Offender Populations with Mental Disorder
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-02-23
    Katy A. Jones, Thomas Hewson, Christian P. Sales, Najat Khalifa

    Decision-making has many different definitions and is measured in varied ways using neuropsychological tasks. Offenders with mental disorder habitually make disadvantageous decisions, but no study has systematically appraised the literature. This review aimed to clarify the field by bringing together different neuropsychological measures of decision-making, and using meta-analysis and systematic review to explore the performance of offenders with mental disorders on neuropsychological tasks of decision-making. A structured search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Medline, Cinahl was conducted with additional hand searching and grey literature consulted. Controlled studies of decision-making in offenders with evidence of any mental disorder, including a validated measure of decision-making were included. Total score on each relevant decision-making task was collated. Twenty-three studies met inclusion criteria (n = 1820), and 10 studies (with 15 experiments) were entered into the meta-analysis (n = 841). All studies included in the meta-analysis used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to measure decision-making. Systematic review findings from individual studies showed violent offenders made poorer decisions than matched offender groups or controls. An omnibus meta-analysis was computed to examine performance on IGT in offenders with mental disorder compared with controls. Additionally, two sub-group meta-analyses were computed for studies involving offenders with personality disorder and psychopathy, and recidivists who were convicted of Driving While Intoxicated (DWI). Individual studies not included in the meta-analysis partially supported the view that offenders make poorer decisions. However, the meta-analyses showed no significant differences in performance on IGT between the offender groups and controls. Further research is required to ascertain whether offenders with mental disorder have difficulty in making advantageous decisions. An analysis of cause and effect and various directions for future work are recommended to help understand the underpinning of these findings. Trial Registration: CRD42018088402.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Role of the Amygdala and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Emotional Regulation: Implications for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    David G. Andrewes, Lisanne M. Jenkins

    The importance of the amygdala as a salience detector and in emotional learning is now well accepted. The mechanisms that regulate and inhibit the amygdala, however, are less well understood. This review provides evidence from imaging and lesion studies to support the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a moderator and inhibitor of the amygdala. The dual inhibition model centres on the broadly defined ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the distinct role of two of its subcomponents, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The dual inhibition model posits that these two regions, along with their associated inhibitory pathways, must interact for adequate inhibitory control of the amygdala and emotional regulation. Following a description of the model’s experimental support, it is then proposed as a neuropsychological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Flashbacks, as a defining feature of PTSD, are described in terms of a subcortical orienting network. Finally, there is a discussion of how a neuropsychological understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might inform a clinician’s approach to treatment and how the dual inhibition model might have a more general application to understanding emotional dysregulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Distinct Activity Patterns of the Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Amygdala during Fear Learning
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Kelly Luyck, Travis D. Goode, Haemy Lee Masson, Laura Luyten

    The amygdala and, more recently, also the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have been widely implicated in fear and anxiety. Much of our current knowledge is derived from animal studies and suggests an intricate convergence and divergence in functions related to defensive responding. In a recent paper, Klumpers and colleagues set out to examine these functions in a human fear learning procedure using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their main findings were a role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in threat anticipation, and for the amygdala in threat confrontation. Here, we provide a critical summary of this interesting study and point out some important issues that were not addressed by its authors. In particular, we first take a closer look at the striking differences between both samples that were combined for the study, and, secondly, we provide an in-depth discussion of their findings in relation to existing neurobehavioral models.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neuropsychological Interventions for Decision-Making in Addiction: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2018-09-26
    Antonio Verdejo-García, Miguel A. Alcázar-Córcoles, Natalia Albein-Urios

    Decision-making deficits are strong predictors of poor clinical outcomes in addiction treatment. However, research on interventions that address decision-making deficits among people with addiction is scarce and has not been analyzed. We aimed to systematically review evidence on neuropsychological interventions for decision-making deficits in addiction to identify promising therapies. Eligibility criteria were (1) participants with a diagnosis of substance use or behavioral addictive disorders, (2) interventions consisting of (neuro) psychological treatments that address decision-making, (3) comparators comprising control (sham) interventions, treatment as usual or no-treatment, (4) outcomes including a decision-making task, and (5) studies including RCTs and non-randomized trials. Search terms included addiction (or alcohol/drug/substance use/gambling) AND treatment (or specific interventions) AND decision-making (or specific tasks). The search yielded 728 hits, and two independent assessors agreed on the final selection of 12 articles. Interventions included Contingency Management (3 studies), Working Memory Training (2 studies) Goal Management Training (2 studies), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (2 studies), Reality Therapy, Motivational Interview and Monetary Management. The main outcome measures were tasks of delay discounting, risk-taking and reward-based decision-making. Results showed that Goal Management Training improves reward-based decision-making, while Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has beneficial effects on delay discounting. The evidence on Working Memory Training and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as stand-alone treatments was mixed. Motivational Interview and Monetary Management had no significant effects on decision-making. Bias control across studies was moderate. We conclude that Goal Management Training and Contingency Management combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy have potential to modify decision-making in people with addiction. RCTs are needed to establish the efficacy of these interventions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging of the developing child and adolescent brain and effects of genetic variation.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2010-11-12
    Jay N Giedd,Michael Stockman,Catherine Weddle,Maria Liverpool,Aaron Alexander-Bloch,Gregory L Wallace,Nancy R Lee,Francois Lalonde,Rhoshel K Lenroot

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies have begun to map effects of genetic variation on trajectories of brain development. Longitudinal studies of children and adolescents demonstrate a general pattern of childhood peaks of gray matter followed by adolescent declines, functional and structural increases in connectivity and integrative processing, and a changing balance between limbic/subcortical and frontal lobe functions, which extends well into young adulthood. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors are responsible for a significant amount of variation in pediatric brain morphometry. Longitudinal studies have shown specific genetic polymorphisms affect rates of cortical changes associated with maturation. Although over-interpretation and premature application of neuroimaging findings for diagnostic purposes remains a risk, converging data from multiple imaging modalities is beginning to elucidate the influences of genetic factors on brain development and implications of maturational changes for cognition, emotion, and behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man: Part I. 1965.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2010-06-12
    Norman Geschwind

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The riddle of frontal lobe function in man. 1964.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2009-05-22
    Hans-Lukas Teuber

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hans-Lukas Teuber: a remembrance.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2009-05-22
    James R Lackner

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome: the need for subtypes.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-06-03
    Leonard A Jason,Karina Corradi,Susan Torres-Harding,Renee R Taylor,Caroline King

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an important condition confronting patients, clinicians, and researchers. This article provides information concerning the need for appropriate diagnosis of CFS subtypes. We first review findings suggesting that CFS is best conceptualized as a separate diagnostic entity rather than as part of a unitary model of functional somatic distress. Next, research involving the case definitions of CFS is reviewed. Findings suggest that whether a broad or more conservative case definition is employed, and whether clinic or community samples are recruited, these decisions will have a major influence in the types of patients selected. Review of further findings suggests that subtyping individuals with CFS on sociodemographic, functional disability, viral, immune, neuroendocrine, neurology, autonomic, and genetic biomarkers can provide clarification for researchers and clinicians who encounter CFS' characteristically confusing heterogeneous symptom profiles. Treatment studies that incorporate subtypes might be particularly helpful in better understanding the pathophysiology of CFS. This review suggests that there is a need for greater diagnostic clarity, and this might be accomplished by subgroups that integrate multiple variables including those in cognitive, emotional, and biological domains.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Broad-perspective perceptual disorder of the right hemisphere.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-06-03
    Larry E Schutz

    Traditional accounts of right-posterior brain injury describe a syndrome of low-level perceptual sequelae producing marked acute dependency and transient safety concerns. The syndrome is also held to spare cognition and to carry a generally favorable long-term prognosis. The present paper reviews publications and anecdotal data that challenge this picture. Recent theoretical expositions and empirical studies stipulate three major cognitive functions of the right posterior association cortex: processing novel input, guiding reactions to emergencies, and anticipating consequences. Appearing benign after acute recovery, the impairment of these processes produces vocational, social and marital dysfunctions that increase as a function of chronicity, ultimately becoming more broadly disabling than focal injuries in other cortical loci. The unique symptom picture and serious implications suggest that the long-term syndrome should be labeled (Broad-Perspective Perceptual Disorder) and incorporated in future clinical taxonomies, underscoring the need for extraordinary long-term assistance and specialized therapeutics. Procedures for assessment and differential diagnosis are outlined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Working memory and learning in early Alzheimer's disease.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-06-03
    Carmela Germano,Glynda J Kinsella

    Cognitive deficits associated with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been recently operationalised in terms of an acquisition deficit and the research supporting this view is presented. However, there is still debate concerning the nature of this deficit and how underlying cognitive processes may be detrimentally affecting the ability to acquire new information in early AD. This review argues that the pattern of cognitive deficits contributing to the acquisition impairment in early AD patients may be readily interpreted within the context of a working memory model. Isolating the component processes of working memory that underlie the acquisition deficit in early AD patients will aid in the design of clinical applications that are focussed at enhancing the ability to acquire new information in everyday life.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropsychological functioning associated with high-altitude exposure.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-03-31
    Javier Virués-Ortega,Gualberto Buela-Casal,Eduardo Garrido,Bernardino Alcázar

    This article focuses on neuropsychological functioning at moderate, high, and extreme altitude. This article summarizes the available literature on respiratory, circulatory, and brain determinants on adaptation to hypoxia that are hypothesized to be responsible for neuropsychological impairment due to altitude. Effects on sleep are also described. At central level, periventricular focal damages (leuko-araiosis) and cortical atrophy have been observed. Frontal lobe and middle temporal lobe alterations are also presumed. A review is provided regarding the effects on psychomotor performance, perception, learning, memory, language, cognitive flexibility, and metamemory. Increase of reaction time and latency of P300 are observed. Reduced thresholds of tact, smell, pain, and taste, together with somesthetic illusions and visual hallucinations have been reported. Impairment in codification and short-term memory are especially noticeable above 6,000 m. Alterations in accuracy and motor speed are identified at lower altitudes. Deficits in verbal fluency, language production, cognitive fluency, and metamemory are also detected. The moderating effects of personality variables over the above-mentioned processes are discussed. Finally, methodological flaws found in the literature are detailed and some applied proposals are suggested.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quality of life of caregivers.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-03-31
    Janna M Glozman

    This article is a descriptive analysis of various features of the quality of life (QoL) of the caregivers in different pathological conditions. Definitions of the concept of QoL, caregiver goals and burdens, caregiver stress and coping with factors that could contribute to or impact the QoL in caregivers are discussed both through a review of literature and an analysis of empirical evidences. The QoL in caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease is also discussed. An original Scale of QoL of Caregivers is described and compared with other existing measures. The concepts of patient-caregiver dyad in research and in interventions is stressed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A critique of Miller and Rohling's statistical interpretive method for neuropsychological test data.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-01-28
    Victor L Willson,Cecil R Reynolds

    A critical review of the 24-step procedure of Miller and Rohling's (in press) proposed standardization of clinician's use of neuropsychological assessment batteries is presented. Each step is examined for statistical sources of invalidity. It was concluded that parts of the procedure are quite vulnerable to between-battery variability that cannot be easily estimated or controlled, leading to significant errors in analysis and classification. A second fatal flaw is the failure to distinguish in the procedures between standard error measurement and standard error of the estimate in calculations in several steps. The purpose of the process remains viable, however, and is an important contribution toward the improvement of clinical diagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rohling's Interpretive Method and inherent limitations on the flexibility of "flexible batteries".
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-01-28
    Barton W Palmer,Mark I Appelbaum,Robert K Heaton

    Miller and Rohling (2001) proposed a 24-step algorithm, the Rohling Interpretive Method (RIM), for quantitative interpretation of results from flexible neuropsychological test batteries. We believe that the RIM as presented in that paper has several conceptual problems, including (a) a failure to distinguish "statistically significant" from pathological differences, (b) an assumption that declines in specific abilities can be inferred when a particular test score deviates from an estimate of general premorbid ability, and (c) confusion between the standard deviation associated with individual test scores versus that of a composite of those scores. As an alternative, we suggest the value of developing and using co-normed comprehensive neuropsychological test batteries from which test users might select subsets of tests.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Depression after traumatic brain injury: a review of evidence for clinical heterogeneity.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-01-28
    Joseph E Moldover,Kenneth B Goldberg,Maurice F Prout

    Depression represents a major source of disability among individuals who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI), with estimates of prevalence in this population ranging over 50%. In comparison with other sequelae of TBI, depression is often poorly conceptualized and treated among acute care and rehabilitation professionals. One reason for this is the lack of clear etiological models for the development of depression following TBI. This paper argues that post-TBI depression actually represents a heterogeneous category, with multiple etiologic pathways and clinical implications. The literature in this area is reviewed, with an emphasis on an appreciation of the diversity within this clinical population. Conclusions focus on suggestions for differential diagnosis and treatment options.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2005-01-28
    Karen Sullivan

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Clinical perspectives on neurobiological effects of psychological trauma.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-22
    Deborah A Weber,Cecil R Reynolds

    Physical trauma to the brain has always been known to affect brain functions and subsequent neurobiological development. Research primarily since the early 1990s has shown that psychological trauma can have detrimental effects on brain function that are not only lasting but that may alter patterns of subsequent neurodevelopment, particularly in children although developmental effects may be seen in adults as well. Childhood trauma produces a diverse range of symptoms and defining the brain's response to trauma and the factors that mediate the body's stress response systems is at the forefront of scientific investigation. This paper reviews the current evidence relating psychological trauma to anatomical and functional changes in the brain and discusses the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment to minimize such effects and to recognize their existence in developing treatment programs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of cognitive deficits in the development of eating disorders.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-22
    Suji M Lena,Alexandra J Fiocco,JoAnna K Leyenaar

    Eating disorders (ED), including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are chronic illnesses with periods of symptom exacerbation and remission. Because symptoms are usually present from 6 to 24 months before a diagnosis is made, aetiological agents are believed to be active well before symptoms appear. It is proposed that neuropsychological deficits in various cognitive domains preexist and underlie the aetiology of ED. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature relevant to neuropsychological deficits in ED patients and explores the relationship between cognitive deficits, psychosocial development, and the development of ED. Although the role of neuropsychological deficits in the evolution of ED requires further research, the proposed association has significant implications for clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The association between delirium and cognitive decline: a review of the empirical literature.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-22
    James C Jackson,Sharon M Gordon,Robert P Hart,Ramona O Hopkins,E Wesley Ely

    Delirium is a common neurobehavioral syndrome that occurs across health care settings which is associated with adverse outcomes, including death. There are limited data on long-term cognitive outcomes following delirium. This report reviews the literature regarding relationships between delirium and cognitive impairment. Psych Info and Medline searches and investigation of secondary references for all English language articles on delirium and subsequent cognitive impairment were carried out. Nine papers met inclusion criteria and documented cognitive impairment in patients following delirium. Four papers reported greater cognitive impairment among patients with delirium than matched controls. Four papers reported higher incidence of dementia in patients with a history of delirium. One study found 1 of 3 survivors of critical illness with delirium developed cognitive impairment. The evidence suggests a relationship between delirium and cognitive impairment, although significant questions remain regarding the nature of this association. Additional research on delirium-related effects on long-term cognitive outcome is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Clinical implications and methodological challenges in the study of the neuropsychological correlates of cannabis, stimulant, and opioid abuse.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-21
    Antonio Verdejo-García,Francisca López-Torrecillas,Carmen Orozco Giménez,Miguel Pérez-García

    Chronic consumption of several drugs of abuse (cannabis, stimulants, opioids) has been associated with the presence of neuropsychological impairments in a broad range of functions. Nevertheless, in recent years neuropsychological research on substance abuse has focused on the study of impairments in the executive functions linked to the prefrontal cortex and their influence on the personality, cognitions, and behaviors of the substance abusers. The aim of our review is, first, to summarize the main neuropsychological impairments shown by classic studies, as well as these new discoveries in executive functioning; second, to consider the mediating role of neuropsychological status on treatment outcomes and analyze the impact of these impairments in clinical practice with drug addicts; and third, to review the principal methodological challenges associated with research in the field of the neuropsychology of substance abuse. We also highlight the convenience of intervening in those functions most relevant to the abusers' persistence in consumption and risk of relapse.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A critical review of the clinical effects of therapeutic irradiation damage to the brain: the roots of controversy.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-21
    Carol L Armstrong,Kunsang Gyato,Abdel W Awadalla,Robert Lustig,Zelig A Tochner

    We critically examined the damaging affects of therapeutic irradiation by comparing results from cross-disciplinary studies of early- and late-delayed radiotherapy effects. Focus is attained by concentrating on clinical treatment issues (volume of brain, dose, timing of effects, age, modality types, and stereotactic treatment techniques), rather than on methodological means or problems, which is necessary to understand the mechanisms and characteristics of radiotherapy-induced behavioral dysfunction including cognition. We make observations and hypotheses about the actual risks from radiotherapy that could be informative in the treatment decision process, and which may lessen the concerns of some patients and their families about the risks they take when receiving radiation. Conditions that predispose to radiation injury are reviewed: (1) higher doses even to part of the brain versus lower doses to the whole brain, (2) combined treatment modalities, (3) malignancy itself, (4) radiation early during postnatal brain development, and (5) late-delayed effects (more than 3 years posttreatment). Current neurocognitive frameworks for understanding cognitive change over time in children and adults are summarized, along with the literature on effects of brain tumors and treatment on depression. No studies have as yet identified candidate brain regions that are more sensitive to radiotherapy. Two studies have provided early, preliminary evidence for a specific vulnerability of visual attention/memory to the early stage of late radiation damage. Furthermore, radiation effects appear severe only in a minority of patients. Risk is related to direct and indirect effects of cancer type, concurrent clinical factors, and premorbid risk factors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sequential memory: a developmental perspective on its relation to frontal lobe functioning.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-07-21
    Cassandra Burns Romine,Cecil R Reynolds

    The multidimensional nature of the frontal lobes serves to organize and coordinate brain functionings playing a central and pervasive role in human cognition. The executive processes implicated in complex cognition such as novel problem solving, modifying behavior as appropriate in response to changes in the environment, inhibiting prepotent or previous responses, and the implementation of schemas that organize behavior over time are believed to be mediated by the frontal regions of the brain. Overall, the functioning of the frontal lobes assists individuals in goal directed and self-regulatory behavior. Additional theories of frontal lobe functioning have focused on its involvement in temporal, or time-related domains. The organizational and strategic nature of frontal lobe functioning affects memory processes by enhancing the organization of to-be-remembered information. Among the specific memory systems presumed to be based on anterior cerebral structures is the temporal organization of memory. An essential component of memory that involves temporal organization is sequential ordering entailing the ability to judge which stimuli were seen most recently and the temporal ordering of events in memory. Focal lesion studies have demonstrated the importance of the frontal lobes on retrieval tasks in which monitoring, verification, and placement of information in temporal and spatial contexts of critical importance. Similarly, frontal lobe damage has been associated with deficits in memory for the temporal ordering, or sequencing, of events. The acquisition of abilities thought to be mediated by the frontal lobes, including sequential memory, unfolds throughout childhood, serving to condition patterns of behavior for the rest of the brain. Development of the frontal regions of the brain is known to continue through late adolescence and into early adulthood, in contrast to the earlier maturation of other cortical regions. The developmental patterns of the frontal lobes are thought to involve a hierarchical, dynamic, and multistage process.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Questioning the link between PTSD and cognitive dysfunction.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-03-06
    Angela Danckwerts,Janet Leathem

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked with impairment in cognitive functioning, but anomalies appear to arise on several levels, masking the true nature of the relationship. On one level, there is a blurring of the emotional and physical causes of cognitive dysfunction, especially with memory problems that are similar to those due to neurological disorders. At other levels, problems are evident due to issues such as overgeneralizing from specific populations to the general population, and the use of narrow-focused neuropsychological assessment instruments that neither dissociate among precise memory components nor relate to everyday situations. In this review we highlight methodological problems and concerns, and make suggestions to establish valid links between PTSD and cognitive dysfunction.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The electroconvulsive therapy controversy: evidence and ethics.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-03-06
    Andrew D Reisner

    The author reviews literature pertaining to the efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), with emphasis on the controversy concerning whether ECT causes brain damage. ECT does appear to be effective in the treatment of severe depression and possibly mania. The types of memory problems caused by ECT are discussed, and evidence suggests that most of these deficits are transitory. Although most evidence points toward modern ECT not causing brain damage, there are still some findings that raise questions about safety. Ethical issues involving this treatment's use, its availability to the public, and informed consent procedures are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: a review of the literature on everyday cognitive skills.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2004-03-06
    Naomi Chaytor,Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe

    Evaluating the ecological validity of neuropsychological tests has become an increasingly important topic over the past decade. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the research on the ecological validity of neuropsychological tests, as it pertains to everyday cognitive skills. This review is presented in the context of several theoretical issues facing ecological validity research. Overall, the research suggests that many neuropsychological tests have a moderate level of ecological validity when predicting everyday cognitive functioning. The strongest relationships were noted when the outcome measure corresponded to the cognitive domain assessed by the neuropsychological tests. Several other factors that may moderate the degree of ecological validity established for neuropsychological tests are in need of further exploration. These factors include the effects of the population being tested, the approach utilized (verisimilitude vs. veridicality), the person completing the outcome measure (significant other vs. clinician), illness severity, and time from injury until evaluation. In addition, a standard measurement of outcome for each cognitive domain is greatly needed to allow for comparison across studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The neuropsychology of heading and head trauma in Association Football (soccer): a review.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-10-31
    Andrew Rutherford,Richard Stephens,Douglas Potter

    Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Processing faces and facial expressions.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-10-31
    Mette T Posamentier,Hervé Abdi

    This paper reviews processing of facial identity and expressions. The issue of independence of these two systems for these tasks has been addressed from different approaches over the past 25 years. More recently, neuroimaging techniques have provided researchers with new tools to investigate how facial information is processed in the brain. First, findings from "traditional" approaches to identity and expression processing are summarized. The review then covers findings from neuroimaging studies on face perception, recognition, and encoding. Processing of the basic facial expressions is detailed in light of behavioral and neuroimaging data. Whereas data from experimental and neuropsychological studies support the existence of two systems, the neuroimaging literature yields a less clear picture because it shows considerable overlap in activation patterns in response to the different face-processing tasks. Further, activation patterns in response to facial expressions support the notion of involved neural substrates for processing different facial expressions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A review of symptoms commonly associated with menopause: implications for clinical neuropsychologists and other health care providers.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-10-31
    Sid E O'Bryant,Anjali Palav,Robert J McCaffrey

    Menopause is a process, either naturally or medically induced, that occurs in nearly all women at some point in life. Some of the most commonly reported symptoms associated with menopause are hot flushes/flashes, fatigue, headaches, irritability, insomnia, and depression. These symptoms overlap with symptoms commonly reported in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) as well as postconcussive syndrome. This overlap between symptoms commonly associated with menopause and neuropsychological conditions makes it necessary to have the base rates of these symptoms and conditions available. The purpose of the present review was to consolidate the clinical literature on the most commonly reported menopausal symptoms and to calculate the base rates associated with these symptoms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Verbal declarative memory dysfunction in schizophrenia: from clinical assessment to genetics and brain mechanisms.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-07-31
    Michael A Cirillo,Larry J Seidman

    The recent literature on the neuropsychology of schizophrenia has emphasized memory deficits as a key area of impairment. Abnormalities in the medial temporal lobe, a brain region crucial for long-term memory formation, have also consistently been reported. We conducted a comprehensive review of verbal declarative memory (VDM) in schizophrenia with the aim of systematically addressing the nature of this impairment. We conclude that verbal declarative memory is significantly impaired in schizophrenia and is largely accounted for by deficits in the encoding stage. Subtle impairments in increased rates of forgetting are present, but are mild compared with those in amnestic disorders. Impairment in other cognitive domains studied thus far (e.g., attention), medication effects, or fluctuations in symptoms do not completely account for the deficit. VDM is among the most impaired neurocognitive domains in schizophrenia (along with attention and executive functions). Milder encoding deficits are present in high-risk subjects and non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia suggesting that components of the deficit are associated with a genetic vulnerability to the illness, and are independent of the frank psychotic illness. Furthermore, VDM is observed in individuals experiencing their first-psychotic episode and it remains fairly consistent over time. Preliminary imaging studies and other work suggest abnormalities in prefrontal-hippocampal processing networks. Future work should emphasize delineating specific information processing components contributing to the deficit. This would allow imaging studies to determine which brain regions contribute to specific information processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Alzheimer's disease as a disconnection syndrome?
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-07-31
    X Delbeuck,M Van der Linden,F Collette

    This paper reviews the growing amount of evidence supporting the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease includes a disconnection syndrome. This evidence came mainly from neuropathological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. Moreover, a few recent neuropsychological studies have also explored the effects of a disconnection between cerebral areas on cognitive functioning. Finally, and more generally, the contribution of this interpretation to the understanding of Alzheimer's disease cognitive deficits is considered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In search of a conceptualization of multiple sclerosis: a historical perspective.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-07-31
    Michelle A Butler,Thomas L Bennett

    A thorough understanding of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is necessary to offer individuals informed options for treatment and planning. To assist in this quest, the following historical analysis examined how MS has been conceived from the 14th century through the early 20th century. Primary sources were consulted whenever possible, and many of the original archival materials were accessed by the first author (MB) during an on-site visit to the Rare Book Room of the New York Academy of Medicine. There is a striking similarity between how MS symptoms have presented throughout history compared with the 21st century. Sensorimotor and cognitive sequelae have been observed in patients since the 1800s. Cognitive symptoms were acknowledged in the 1800s, but disregarded in the early 1900s and were not given recognition again until the latter part of the 20th century. If conceptualizations of MS are inaccurate, patients will not be served well. In contrast to the shared symptomatology across time, early conceptualizations of etiology and treatment choices differed dramatically from today, a genuine reflection of the times in which they were created.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The neuropsychology of depression: a literature review and preliminary model.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Brian V Shenal,David W Harrison,Heath A Demaree

    Neuropsychological research provides a useful framework to study emotional problems, such as depression, and their correlates. This paper reviews several prominent neuropsychological theories. Functional neuroanatomical systems of emotion and depression are reviewed, including those that describe cerebral asymmetries in emotional processing. Following the review, a model that is composed of three neuroanatomical divisions (left frontal, right frontal, and right posterior) and corresponding neuropsychological emotional sequelae within each quadrant is presented. It is proposed that dysfunction in any of these quadrants could lead to symptomatology consistent with a diagnosis of depression. The proposed model combines theories of arousal, lateralization, and functional cerebral space and lends itself to scientific methods of investigation. Accordingly, research, prevention, and treatment programs in accordance with the proposed model may promote an improved understanding of the neuropsychological mechanisms involved in depression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A meta-analysis of structural and functional brain imaging in dementia of the Alzheimer's type: a neuroimaging profile.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Konstantine K Zakzanis,Simon J Graham,Zachariah Campbell

    We conducted a quantitative review of the imaging literature using meta-analytic methodology to characterize further the magnitude of hippocampal deficit in probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine whether other neuroanatomic structures in AD can better discriminate the disease from normal aging. Additionally, we parceled the discriminability of neuroanatomic structures by duration of disease to determine those structures most sensitive to AD in its early and late stages. One hundred twenty-one studies published between 1984 and 2000 met criteria for inclusion in the present analysis. In total, structural (i.e., CT and MRI) and functional (i.e., SPECT and PET) neuroimaging results from 3511 patients with AD, and 1632 normal healthy controls were recorded across meta-analyses. Our results include neuroimaging profiles for both early onset and longer duration patients with AD. In sum, these profiles yield a signature of diagnostic markers in both cortical and subcortical neuroanatomic areas. This signature is consistent with the clinical phenomenology of Alzheimer's dementia and should aid in the positive identification of AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The automatic and controlled information-processing dissociation: is it still relevant?
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Smadar Birnboim

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the "dual-process" information-processing model of Schneider and Shiffrin (Schneider, W., and Shiffrin, R. M., Psychol. Rev. 84: 1-66, 1977; see also Shiffrin, R. M., and Schneider, W., Psychol. Rev. 84: 127-190, 1977) in light of the research data that have accumulated since the model was introduced more than 20 years ago. First, a brief introduction of the basic model of automatic and controlled information processing will be given. Second, some alternatives to the basic model that were developed over the last two decades will be reviewed. Third, data from neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience that have a bearing upon this framework will be considered. Finally, some comments on the current usefulness of the dual-process framework for neuropsychological research will be offered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hemisphere specialization as an aid in early infancy.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-01-24
    Gordon Burnand

    In order that different directions of attention can be organized, they have to be labeled and assessed. A statement of a general problem can be regarded as a label for a general direction of attention. Hope about it, as the perceived probability of sufficient success, on the basis of work done, can be regarded as an assessment. It can be argued that a young infant meets an impasse arising from the work on 2 incompatible general problems, (1) that of raising hope of certainty about the environment (linked to the arousal system because repeated stimulation has less effect), and (2) that of raising hope of producing effects (linked to the activation system because here some effect must be produced before activity can cease). A certainty-right hypothesis, that the right hemisphere deals with the certainty problem and the left deals with the producing-effects problem, and hence keeps work on the two problems apart in early infancy while the corpus callosum is undeveloped, and that a matching specialization continues in later life, is supported.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acalculia and dyscalculia.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2003-01-24
    Alfredo Ardila,Mónica Rosselli

    Even though it is generally recognized that calculation ability represents a most important type of cognition, there is a significant paucity in the study of acalculia. In this paper the historical evolution of calculation abilities in humankind and the appearance of numerical concepts in child development are reviewed. Developmental calculation disturbances (developmental dyscalculia) are analyzed. It is proposed that calculation ability represents a multifactor skill, including verbal, spatial, memory, body knowledge, and executive function abilities. A general distinction between primary and secondary acalculias is presented, and different types of acquired calculation disturbances are analyzed. The association between acalculia and aphasia, apraxia and dementia is further considered, and special mention to the so-called Gerstmann syndrome is made. A model for the neuropsychological assessment of numerical abilities is proposed, and some general guidelines for the rehabilitation of calculation disturbances are presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Holly James Westervelt,Robert J McCaffrey

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Houston Conference: the need for more discussion.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Alfredo Ardila

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An essay on the Houston Conference policy statement: static yet incomplete or a work in progress?
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Cecil R Reynolds

    Ardila (Neuropsychol. Rev. 12: 3, 2002) criticizes the Policy Statement from the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology (Hannay et al., Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 13: 157-250, 1998) as possessing deficiencies in the training of clinical neuropsychologists in three fundamental knowledge areas: the history of the discipline, neuropsychological syndromes, and neuropsychological theory. These problems are seen here as a result of a more pervasive problem associated with the Houston Conference training model's emphasis on technical skill over science and the attempt to micromanage the training of the clinical neuropsychologist at the administrative level.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Houston Conference: the road more traveled.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Kenneth M Adams

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Houston Conference: need for more fundamental knowledge in neuropsychology.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Alfredo Ardila

    Two training models in neuropsychology have been recently proposed (Guidelines of the INS-Division 40 Task Force on Education, Accreditation, and Credentialing, Clin. Neuropsychol. 1: 29-34, 1987; Hannay, H. J. et al., Anh. Clin. Neuropsychol. 13: 157-250,1998). When comparing both educational models, similarities but also differences are found. According to the Houston Conference model--but not to the former model--neuropsychology represents a specialty of psychology. In the Houston Conference training model, applied knowledge is overtly emphasized, whereas fundamental or basic knowledge in neuropsychology appears weak. The proposed program does not seem to provide sufficient emphasis and background knowledge in (1) History of neuropsychology, (2) Neuropsychological syndromes, and (3) Neuropsychology theory.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effects of estrogen replacement therapy on neuropsychological functioning in postmenopausal women with and without dementia: a critical and theoretical review.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-10-10
    Ronald F Zec,Mehul A Trivedi

    We review 42 studies examining the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on memory and cognition in nondemented postmenopausal women. Although there are an appreciable number of nonsignificant findings, the number of significant findings favoring ERT users considerably outnumbers the rare findings of better performance in controls. Experimental studies demonstrate a consistent beneficial effect on verbal memory, but these are short-term studies of the more acute effects of ERT. The observational studies suggest that there may be a long-lasting effect of continued ERT on cognitive functioning, but these studies need to be interpreted with caution because of the lack of random assignment and a possible "healthy user bias." We also summarize findings from studies on the effects of ERT on Alzheimer's disease (AD). ERT is associated with a decreased risk for dementia, but there is little evidence for a positive effect on cognition in women with AD. Definitive answers to questions about the long-term effects of ERT on cognitive aging and risk of developing AD should be provided by 3 ongoing clinical trials.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropsychological sequelae of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a critical review.
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2002-10-10
    Steven Paul Woods,Julie A Fields,Alexander I Tröster

    Neuropsychologists are increasingly involved in surgical candidacy evaluations and postoperative neurobehavioral assessments of patients with movement disorders, most notably those with Parkinson's disease (PD). We review here the initial studies regarding neuropsychological outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for treatment of PD. Overall, these initial investigations provide preliminary support for the cognitive and neurobehavioral safety of STN DBS. Improvements in self-reported symptoms of depression and diminished verbal fluency were the most common findings, whereas changes in global cognitive abilities, memory, attention, and frontal/executive functions were inconsistent and most often described as nominal and/or transient. The generalizability of this literature is hindered by several methodological limitations, including small samples and the absence of appropriate control participants. The clinical and theoretical implications of these initial studies are highlighted and recommendations are offered to guide future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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