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  • Perspectives of a Practitioner-Scientist on Organizational Psychology/Organizational Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Gary P. Latham

    In this article I comment on areas where I agree/disagree with the five previous perspectives on organizational psychology/organizational behavior (OP/OB). This is followed by a dire prediction of the future for OP doctoral programs, criticisms of the journal editorial processes and the overemphasis on deductive theory building, the value of qualitative analyses and enumerative reviews, the importance of mentors for advancing one's career, and the strengths and weaknesses of our scholarly societies. The article ends with a call for improving the balance currently in favor of scientists at the expense of practitioners.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Embracing Complexity: Reviewing the Past Decade of Team Effectiveness Research
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    John E. Mathieu, Peter T. Gallagher, Monique A. Domingo, Elizabeth A. Klock

    We conceptualize organizational teams as dynamic systems evolving in response to their environments. We then review the past 10 years of team effectiveness research and summarize its implications by categorizing studies under three main overlapping and coevolving dimensions: compositional features, structural features, and mediating mechanisms. We highlight prominent work that focused on variables in each of these dimensions and discuss their key relationships with team outcomes. Furthermore, we review how contextual factors impact team effectiveness. On the basis of this review, we advocate that future research seek to examine team relationships through a dynamic, multilevel perspective, while incorporating new and novel measurement techniques. We submit that the future of teams research may benefit from a conceptualization of them as dynamic networks and modeling them as small complex systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Self-Leadership: A Paradoxical Core of Organizational Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Greg L. Stewart, Stephen H. Courtright, Charles C. Manz

    This review focuses on the paradoxical concept of self-leadership—defined as a comprehensive self-influence process capturing how individuals motivate themselves to complete work that is naturally motivating or work that must be done but is not naturally motivating—as a fundamental process that challenges many traditional assumptions in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. We first present a historical review that traces the roots of self-leadership to early psychological theory and research. We next briefly summarize research related to self-leadership at both the individual and team levels of analysis. We then discuss four paradoxes associated with self-leadership: the paradox of self-leadership depletion and strengthening, the paradox of self-leadership through collaboration, the paradox of me-but-not-you self-leadership, and the paradox of needing self-leadership to improve self-leadership. We conclude with guidelines for future research and practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Diversity in the Workplace: A Review, Synthesis, and Future Research Agenda
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Quinetta M. Roberson

    Fueled by socioeconomic trends that changed the composition of organizational workforces, the term workforce diversity was coined in the 1990s. Since then, both researchers and practitioners have strived (and struggled) to understand the concept, its effects in and on organizations, and strategies for managing such effects. In this article, I provide an overview and interpretation of the current literature to examine its purpose, progress, and direction. Highlighting key conceptualizations of the construct, theoretical foundations, and empirical findings on diversity and diversity management, I discuss the evolution and current state of the field and synthesize this information to propose a future research agenda. In doing so, I seek to identify theoretical, empirical, and practice areas of opportunity for advancing scientific knowledge about the meaning, substance, and outcomes of diversity as well as the implementation of diversity science in organizations.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Moment of Truth: A Review, Synthesis, and Research Agenda for the Customer Service Experience
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Markus Groth, Yu Wu, Helena Nguyen, Anya Johnson

    Customer service is a central feature of the service context. As service research has evolved into a burgeoning multidisciplinary field, management scholars have developed an impressive body of research regarding the antecedents, processes, and outcomes of customer service. We provide an integrative review and synthesis of the literature with a focus on three important and interrelated aspects of customer service that specifically focus on the interpersonal service interaction between employees and customers: (a) affect in customer service, including emotional labor and emotional contagion processes; (b) customer mistreatment, the low-quality interpersonal treatment of customers toward service employees; and (c) customer service behaviors, including customer orientation and service-oriented citizenship behaviors. We review theoretical perspectives for each of these streams of research and summarize the current knowledge regarding empirical findings. We provide a critical assessment of the literature and conclude with a discussion of future research agendas and practical implications for service managers.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Goal Orientation: A Review of the Miles Traveled and the Miles to Go
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Don Vandewalle, Christina G.L. Nerstad, Anders Dysvik

    Goal orientation, a theory that originated primarily in the educational and social psychology fields, has emerged in the past two decades as a prominent theory in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. We review the state of affairs for goal orientation research with the following roadmap. First, we discuss the historical roots of goal orientation. Next, we summarize the nomological network of goal orientation and describe the processing frameworks associated with goal orientation factors. We then discuss the crucial role of moderator variables to explain the notable variance found in goal orientation–outcome variable relationships. We next summarize the research findings on the relationship of goal orientation with the proximal mediator and distal outcome variables. We conclude the review with a miles-to-go discussion of several major issues currently faced in goal orientation research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Psychological Contracts: Past, Present, and Future
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Jacqueline A.-M. Coyle-Shapiro, Sandra Pereira Costa, Wiebke Doden, Chiachi Chang

    We provide a review of psychological contract research, beginning with past conceptualizations and empirical evidence. We tailor this retrospective look by reviewing the antecedents and outcomes associated with psychological contract breach and discussing the dominant theoretical explanations for the breach-outcome relationship. This synthesis of past evidence provides the foundation for reviewing the present emerging and developing themes in psychological contract research. This discussion is organized around the expansion of resources exchanged and the antecedents of contract breach and outcomes, moving beyond reciprocity as an underpinning explanation. We highlight the practical implications of research to date on psychological contracts and end with directions for future research to include the need for greater attention given to ideological currency, employee health, polycontextual approaches, the role of psychological needs, and post-breach/violation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Selection for Fit
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Murray R. Barrick, Laura Parks-Leduc

    We review person-organization fit theory and research on selection and recruitment, and also highlight practical recommendations. The article is framed around explaining how and why people who are well matched to their organization experience optimal psychological reactions and performance. We address five key challenges to person-organization fit research and provide a brief overview of the critical distinction between “fitting in” decisions linked to the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model and day-to-day forces linked to “doing well” at work. Additionally, we organize the “fit on” domain into a parsimonious set of fundamental motivational constructs, highlighting a taxonomic perspective that broadly captures the “fit on” purposeful work goals (e.g., achievement, autonomy, communion, and status; Barrick et al. 2013) to enhance our understanding as to the nature of the joint nonlinear person-organization effects. We conclude by reviewing research findings using this organizing framework to systematically build knowledge to advance theory, concluding with practical implications for best management practices.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Changing Nature of Employee and Labor-Management Relationships
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Thomas A. Kochan, Christine A. Riordan, Alexander M. Kowalski, Mahreen Khan, Duanyi Yang

    This article reviews work and employment research, paying particular attention to theory and applications by scholars in organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OP/OB) and employment or industrial relations (ER), with the objective of better understanding employee and labor-management relationships. Our animating premise is that juxtaposing these two research traditions provides a stronger basis for analyzing these relationships today. OP/OB offer micro- and meso-level focuses, whereas ER focuses on organizations, collective actors, and labor markets, with an emphasis on historical context. We hope this review motivates efforts to think about and build new social and psychological contracts that are attuned to the evolving dynamics present in the economy, workforce, and society. To this end, we look to the future and propose ways of deepening, broadening, and accelerating the pace of research that might lead to useful changes in practices, institutions, and public policies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • When Is Proactivity Wise? A Review of Factors That Influence the Individual Outcomes of Proactive Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Sharon K. Parker, Ying Wang, Jenny Liao

    There is solid evidence that proactivity, defined as self-initiated and future-focused action to change oneself or the situation, can positively benefit individuals and organizations. However, this way of behaving can sometimes be ineffective or have negative consequences. We seek to understand what factors shape the effect of proactivity on individual-level outcomes. On the basis of a review of 95 articles, we identify three categories of factors that mitigate or exacerbate the effectiveness of proactive behavior: task and strategic considerations (e.g., situational judgment), social and relational considerations (e.g., having an open leader), and self-regulatory considerations (e.g., learning orientation). We then extrapolate from this review, and draw on psychological theories of wisdom, to suggest that individuals can be more or less “wise” in the proactive goals they set, and in how they pursue those goals. In closing, we identify further research directions that flow from the notion of wise proactivity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Evolution of Performance Management: Searching for Value
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Elaine D. Pulakos, Rose Mueller-Hanson, Sharon Arad

    This article reviews the history of performance management (PM), beginning with performance evaluation. We discuss various strategies that have been used to enable accurate ratings as well as cognitive processes and contextual factors that have been shown to significantly impact ratings. We raise questions about the concept of true performance and whether raters can be enabled and motivated to make accurate ratings. We progress to discussing more structured and comprehensive PM processes that typically involve cascading goals, goal setting, competency modeling, evaluation of behavior and results, and implementation. These systems have proven to be tedious and low-value, resulting in unprecedented, wide-spread experimentation with innovative practices to move companies away from heavy PM processes to simpler, cost-effective strategies that actually drive performance. These have ranged from abandoning ratings to implementing innovations in goal-setting, real-time feedback, coaching, and PM behavior change. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Employee Psychoactive Substance Involvement: Historical Context, Key Findings, and Future Directions
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Michael R. Frone

    Humans have consumed psychoactive substances for millennia, and these substances have played an important role in human culture and human labor. This article investigates our current understanding of the general association between the workplace and employee involvement with psychoactive substances. I begin by briefly exploring the broad evolutionary and historical intersection of psychoactive substances, human culture, and human labor. I then outline the multidimensional nature of employee psychoactive substance involvement and look at its prevalence. Next, I summarize recent research on workplace antecedents, such as work stressors, substance availability, norms, and social control. I then summarize research on the adverse workplace outcomes experienced by employees who use psychoactive substances as well as the collateral effects of such use on coworkers. Throughout the article, I identify directions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Reorganizing Organizational Politics Research: A Review of the Literature and Identification of Future Research Directions
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Gerald R. Ferris, B. Parker Ellen III, Charn P. McAllister, Liam P. Maher

    Organizational politics has been an oft-studied phenomenon for nearly four decades. Prior reviews have described research in this stream as aligning with one of three categories: perceptions of organizational politics (POPs), political behavior, or political skill. We suggest that because these categories are at the construct level research on organizational politics has been artificially constrained. Thus, we suggest a new framework with higher-level categories within which to classify organizational politics research: political characteristics, political actions, and political outcomes. We then provide a broad review of the literature applicable to these new categories and discuss the possibilities for future research within each expanded category. Finally, we close with a discussion of future directions for organizational politics research across the categories.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Team-Level Constructs
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    David Chan

    Studies of team-level constructs can produce new insights when researchers explicitly take into account several critical conceptual and methodological issues. This article explicates the conceptual bases for multilevel research on team constructs and discusses specific issues relating to conceptual frameworks, measurement, and data analysis. To advance programmatic research involving team-level constructs, several future research directions concerning issues of substantive content (i.e., changes in the nature of work and teams, member-team fit, linking team-level constructs to higher-level constructs) and strategic approaches (i.e., the construct's theoretical roles, dimensionality and specificity, malleability and changes over time, relationships with Big Data) are proposed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Toward a Better Understanding of Assessment Centers: A Conceptual Review
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Martin Kleinmann, Pia V. Ingold

    Assessment centers (ACs) are employed for selecting and developing employees and leaders. They are interpersonal at their core because they consist of interactive exercises. Minding this perspective, this review focuses on the role of the assessee, the assessor, and the AC design, as well as their interplay in the interpersonal situation of the AC. Therefore, it addresses which conceptual perspectives have increased our understanding of ACs in this context. Building on this, we review relevant empirical findings. On this basis, the review contributes to an empirically driven understanding of the interpersonal nature of ACs and provides directions for practice and future research avenues on this topic as well as on technology in ACs and cross-cultural applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Emotional Energy, Relational Energy, and Organizational Energy: Toward a Multilevel Model
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Wayne E. Baker

    The concept of emotional energy generates increasing scholarly and popular interest. Research spans multiple disciplines (psychology, sociology, organization behavior, network science) and levels of analysis: micro (individual-level emotional energy), meso (dyadic or relational energy), and macro (group emotion, energy networks). I impose order on this sprawling and disparate literature by defining core concepts and conducting a broad but selective review with a focus on mechanisms. This review identifies key empirical findings but also reveals critical ambiguities and disagreements in the conceptualization (and therefore measurement) of energy. Theorizing has outpaced empirical testing. One implication is that practice may be unmoored from a solid empirical grounding. I offer a critique that points to several promising areas of empirical research. I conclude with practical implications for individuals and organizations, summary points, and future issues.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Toward Reviving an Occupation with Occupations
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Erich C. Dierdorff

    The notion of occupation has long played a vital role in understanding the psychology of individual behavior, choice, perceptions, and attitudes in work contexts. However, the centrality of occupation to research found within the broader organizational psychology and behavior literature has been largely supplanted in favor of a more organization-centric lens. The primary goal of this review is to build a case for renewing direct efforts to more meaningfully integrate occupation into organizational psychology and behavior scholarship. In doing so, this review outlines what it means, and why it matters, to once again take occupations more seriously in our theory and research. I discuss five essential ways occupations influence important organizational psychology and behavior phenomena and exemplifying evidence from previous research. The review concludes with illustrations of occupationally focused questions that could be investigated across several specific organizational psychology and behavior topics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Research on Work as a Calling…and How to Make It Matter
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2019-01-21
    Jeffery A. Thompson, J. Stuart Bunderson

    The concept of work as a calling has the potential to provide unique and powerful insights into how individuals relate to their work and organizations. However, although this concept may be one of the oldest in the study of work—harking back to the Protestant Reformation—its impact on mainstream OP and OB research has been limited. We review the research literature on work as a calling, and identify several issues that are preventing research in this area from reaching its potential—issues of definition, differentiation, generalizability, and relevance. We consider each of these questions and propose a path forward. Central to that path forward is an integrated conceptualization of calling—what we call a transcendent calling—that puts dual emphasis on the inner requiredness of passion and enjoyment and the outer requiredness of duty and destiny.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Dynamic, Inclusive, and Affective Evolutionary View of Organizational Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Terence R. Mitchell

    This article reflects my observations about major changes in organizational behavior (OB) during my 50 years working in the field. I begin with a brief description of my personal journey as foundational for my perspective. I then discuss how the field has changed structurally and focus on the contributions of the Academy of Management (AoM) and the increasing diversity of our members, especially the increasing number of women, minorities, and people from countries other than the United States. The next section covers major research content changes in the field including positive scholarship, leadership, affective constructs, ethics, and the general well-being of those who toil in the organizational trenches. Additionally, there is a section on how the utilization of new statistical procedures and research methods has greatly expanded our ability to investigate and test complex theories and hypotheses about behavior in organizations. The discussion section highlights both the positive aspects of these developments along with some concerns about the future.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Advances in the Treatment of Context in Organizational Research
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Gary Johns

    Although scholars in the field of organizational behavior have raised concerns about a lack of contextual appreciation, there has been a recent embrace of contextual thinking in the organizational sciences. In this review, I discuss several recent theories and measures of context. The added value of a contextual approach is illustrated by how context can shape personality, how it affects the emergence of work designs, and how it benefits the study of organizational demography. Future research topics include context cue sensitivity, the way context is shaped, the mediators of context effects, and the breadth and limits of contextual impact. A recurrent theme is that although context enables a demarcation of what is distinctive about situations, it also permits integration across research areas and levels of analysis, identifying what they have in common as settings for organizational behavior.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Diversity and Inequality in Management Teams: A Review and Integration of Research on Vertical and Horizontal Member Differences
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    J. Stuart Bunderson, Gerben S. Van der Vegt

    The promise and perils of heterogeneity in team member characteristics has been and continues to be one of the central questions in research on management teams. We review the literature on member heterogeneity within management teams, with a focus on summarizing and integrating research on both horizontal member differences (i.e., diversity) and vertical member differences (i.e., inequality)—two streams of research that have been largely separate in past research. We find that the overwhelming majority of research on management team heterogeneity has focused on horizontal differences, though there are few clear and consistent themes in empirical findings within either stream. We also find that horizontal and vertical differences are inter-related, such that the effects of diversity can depend critically on the degree of inequality within a team, and vice versa. Moreover, we find that our ability to clearly account for the effects of vertical and horizontal differences in management teams has been limited by a confusion of definitions and conceptualizations that hamper our ability to compare theoretical arguments and empirical findings across studies. We organize various conceptualizations of heterogeneity into six types based on whether a given conceptualization is concerned with horizontal or vertical differences (diversity or inequality) and whether it is focused on the differentiation, dispersion, or concentration of member differences. The result is a framework with three types of diversity (separation, variety, and skew) and three types of inequality (stratification, steepness, and centralization). Finally, we summarize different approaches to operationalizing each of these types. The conclusions and recommendations of this review can help to bring clarity and focus to research on member heterogeneity within management teams, or groups and teams of any sort.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Person–Environment Fit: A Review of Its Basic Tenets
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Annelies E.M. van Vianen

    This review addresses the three basic principles of person–environment fit theory: (a) The person and the environment together predict human behavior better than each of them does separately; (b) outcomes are most optimal when personal attributes (e.g., needs, values) and environmental attributes (e.g., supplies, values) are compatible, irrespective of whether these attributes are rated as low, medium, or high; and (c) the direction of misfit between the person and the environment does not matter. My review of person–job and person–organization fit research that used polynomial regression to establish fit effects provides mixed support for the explanatory power of fit. Individuals report most optimal outcomes when there is fit on attributes they rate as highest, and they report lowest outcomes when the environment offers less than they need or desire. Linking these findings to individuals' abilities and opportunities to adapt, I reconsider fit theory and outline options for future research and practice.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Conservation of Resources in the Organizational Context: The Reality of Resources and Their Consequences
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Stevan E. Hobfoll, Jonathon Halbesleben, Jean-Pierre Neveu, Mina Westman

    Over the past 30 years, conservation of resources (COR) theory has become one of the most widely cited theories in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. COR theory has been adopted across the many areas of the stress spectrum, from burnout to traumatic stress. Further attesting to the theory's centrality, COR theory is largely the basis for the more work-specific leading theory of organizational stress, namely the job demands-resources model. One of the major advantages of COR theory is its ability to make a wide range of specific hypotheses that are much broader than those offered by theories that focus on a single central resource, such as control, or that speak about resources in general. In this article, we will revisit the principles and corollaries of COR theory that inform those more specific hypotheses and will review research in organizational behavior that has relied on the theory.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Protean Careers at Work: Self-Direction and Values Orientation in Psychological Success
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Douglas T. (Tim) Hall, Jeffrey Yip, Kathryn Doiron

    How do self-direction and personal values influence career outcomes? Such questions have been central in research on the protean career—a career process characterized by the exercise of self-direction and an intrinsic values orientation in the pursuit of psychological success. This article provides an integrative review, with a focus on three empirically supported protean processes—identity awareness, adaptability, and agency. In addition, we discuss the role of protean careers in the contemporary work environment, clarify definitional and measurement issues, recommend research directions, and provide practical implications for organizations. Our underlying assumption throughout this discussion is that the elements of a protean career orientation (PCO) are basic elements of human needs for growth and meaning. In addition, we discuss how protean careers can be beneficial for organizations. In particular, we identify the “Protean Paradox” as a phenomenon that merits further investigation. More specifically, the protean paradox is a process by which greater levels of individual self-direction and values orientation, thus serving the purpose and interests of the individual, can also have a positive influence on the groups and organizations in which they work. Our recommendations for future research and practice promote these qualities in the contemporary world of work.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • The Legal Context of the Management of Human Resources
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Kevin R. Murphy

    Laws designed to reduce employment discrimination and to regulate labor standards have a strong impact on the management of human resources in organizations. This article examines in detail the development and enforcement of antidiscrimination laws in the United States; it also considers comparable laws and policies in the European Union (EU). A significant body of research focuses on the standards that are used to determine whether particular policies or practices are discriminatory, and if so, whether they are sufficiently job-related to be legally permissible; here, I examine key themes in this research. This article also examines emerging issues, such as determining who is an applicant and who is an employee, and it explores the role of the legal environment in impeding the application of scientific knowledge to advance the practice of human resource management (HRM).

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Status Dynamics
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Corinne Bendersky, Jieun Pai

    Despite an extensive history of research on status (the prestige, respect, and esteem that a party has in the eyes of others), the time is ripe for a new review of the status literature given a fairly recent trend to study the dynamic nature of status, that is, not just how individuals acquire status, but also how they maintain or lose it over time. Greater understanding of dynamic status processes better informs our predictions about individuals' behavior and group outcomes as a function of the kinds of status interactions that play out over time.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Transfer of Training: The Known and the Unknown
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    J. Kevin Ford, Timothy T. Baldwin, Joshua Prasad

    Transfer of training is one of the oldest topics of interest to industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists. Drawing on several meta-analytic studies and recent empirical work, we first synthesize what is now reliably known with respect to the generalization and retention of learned knowledge and skills to work contexts. The second part of our review focuses on what is unknown—the significant gaps in our knowledge where we believe new directions in our research strategies are warranted. We offer three prescriptions: (a) going one step beyond most existing studies to offer greater precision in our specification and measurement of variables and interventions, (b) connecting the dots by focusing on transfer criteria and transfer trajectories, and (c) shifting the operative paradigm of research to examine contemporary learning from a problem-centered perspective. There is ample opportunity to increase the yield on enormous organizational investments in training if transfer scholars and practitioners are fully informed of what is known and prepared to systematically confront the unknown in new and innovative ways.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Women and Leadership in the United States: Are We Closing the Gender Gap?
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Karen S. Lyness, Angela R. Grotto

    Women in the United States are making historic progress in business leadership, with research linking women's leadership representation to positive outcomes. However, men still dominate US leadership, raising several key questions. Is the United States closing the leadership gender gap? What organizational barriers perpetuate the gap? What facilitates women's leadership? We synthesized and extended US literature to develop a multilevel organizational model of Barriers And Facilitators of Female Leader Empowerment, called the “BAFFLE” Female Leadership Model to highlight the baffling complexities and limited success in solving the US leadership gender gap. The review found that literature narrowly focuses on barriers and offers limited insights about how to facilitate female leader empowerment while simultaneously addressing systemic, entrenched organizational barriers. We also used the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Gender Gap Index to provide global perspective on the US leadership gender gap. Finally, we summarize findings and implications for practice and scholarship.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Physiological Measurement in the Organizational Sciences: A Review and Recommendations for Future Use
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Daniel C. Ganster, Tori L. Crain, Rebecca M. Brossoit

    We review recent literature in the organizational sciences that uses some form of physiological measurement. We organize our review in terms of the underlying constructs that physiological measures were intended to assess. The majority of such constructs represents stress, health, or arousal, although these constructs are often studied in an attempt to understand a diverse set of other phenomena. The majority of the studies we discuss use peripheral measures of the autonomic nervous system or biological indicators of various physiological subsystems, such as the cardiovascular, metabolic, or immunological. Advances in instrumentation and biological assaying methods have made the use of physiological measures more feasible, and in some cases, affordable for researchers without specialized training in physiology. The significant challenges we discuss mostly concern issues of sampling and timing, as well as the careful selection of physiological indicators to fit the theoretical demands of the research.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Recent Trends and Developments
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Dennis W. Organ

    For decades, the accepted view in organizational psychology was that job satisfaction and job performance were unrelated. However, recent years have found increasing evidence that satisfaction, while not strongly related to task productivity by individuals, is more closely related to a different kind of contribution, which is referred to as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Furthermore, research in the past two decades has enriched the theoretical and empirical knowledge base of OCB, examining its relationship to culture, attitudes, personality, mood state, stress, and organizational performance.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Cross-Cultural Interaction: What We Know and What We Need to Know
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Nancy J. Adler, Zeynep Aycan

    Pervasive forms of worldwide communication now connect us instantly and constantly, and yet we all too often fail to understand each other. Rather than benefiting from our globally interconnected reality, the world continues to fall back on divisiveness, a widening schism exacerbated by some of the most pronounced divisions in history along lines of wealth, culture, religion, ideology, class, gender, and race. Cross-cultural dynamics are rife within multinational organizations and among people who regularly work with people from other cultures. This article reviews what we know from our scholarship on cross-cultural interaction among expatriates, negotiators, and teams that work in international contexts. Perhaps more important, this article outlines what we need to learn—and to unlearn—to be able to see diversity as an asset in helping individuals, organizations, and society to succeed rather than continuing to understand it primarily as a source of problems.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Job Insecurity and the Changing Workplace: Recent Developments and the Future Trends in Job Insecurity Research
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Cynthia Lee, Guo-Hua Huang, Susan J. Ashford

    This article updates our understanding of the field of job insecurity (JI) by incorporating studies across the globe since 2003, analyzes what we know, and offers ideas on how to move forward. We begin by reviewing the conceptualization and operationalization of job insecurity. We then review empirical studies of the antecedents, consequences, and moderators of JI effects, as well as the various theoretical perspectives used to explain the relationship of JI to various outcomes. Our analyses also consider JI research in different regions of the world, highlighting the cross-cultural differences. We conclude by identifying areas in need of future research. We propose that JI is and will continue to be a predominant employment issue, such that research into it will only increase in importance and relevance. In particular, we call for in-depth research that carefully considers the rapid changes in the workplace today and in the future.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • A Structural-Emergence Model of Diversity in Teams
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Aparna Joshi, Brett H. Neely

    The study of diversity in work groups and organizations has become a significant domain of inquiry. However, the overall consensus in this literature seems to be that a direct relationship between diversity and performance-based outcomes is tenuous at best. To break this impasse, we propose a structural-emergence model that emphasizes how the embedding structural context has substantial implications for the very meaning, salience, and content of diversity in teams. We then discuss how emergent processes that are a function of the structural context can take symmetric and asymmetric forms at the level of dyads within the team. In this way we provide a framework that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up effects of diversity in teams. The structural-emergence model also has important implications for how teams may be led and team tasks designed, and it provides avenues to build an actionable agenda for theory and research.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • The Dark Triad and Workplace Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    James M. LeBreton, Levi K. Shiverdecker, Elizabeth M. Grimaldi

    Over the last 15 years, there has been growing fascination among scholars in studying “dark behaviors” and “dark traits,” especially as they are expressed in organizational contexts. One taxonomy of dark traits that has garnered special interest is the dark triad (DT), which is comprised of three toxic and malevolent traits: psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism. This chapter offers a review of DT research, with a particular focus on research relevant to the organizational sciences. We begin with a definition of personality in general and the traits of the DT in particular, including a discussion of the clinical and subclinical variants of these traits. We then review literature linking the DT traits to an array of organizational outcomes, discuss how the DT traits may be assessed, and conclude with recommendations for future work.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • More Than Words? Computer-Aided Text Analysis in Organizational Behavior and Psychology Research
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Jeremy C. Short, Aaron F. McKenny, Shane W. Reid

    Computer-aided text analysis (CATA) offers great promise for scholars who aspire to capture the beliefs, cognitions, and emotions of individuals as reflected in their narratives and written texts. We review advancements in the use of CATA in organizational studies and highlight the increased momentum towards incorporating rigor when using CATA. We review key CATA software and note the variance in possibilities of approaches when extracting meaning from languages. We then outline the potential for this technique to build knowledge surrounding organizational psychology and organizational behavior. Specifically, we highlight specific research streams that might benefit from the use of CATA and highlight cross-cultural perspectives that might further advance the use of this technique.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Negotiation: Individual, Dyadic, and Group Processes
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2018-01-22
    Gerben A. van Kleef, Stéphane Côté

    Conflict is an emotional enterprise. We provide an integrative synthesis of theory and research on emotional dynamics in conflict and negotiation at three levels of analysis: the individual, the dyad, and the group. At the individual level, experienced moods and emotions shape negotiators' cognition and behavior. At the dyadic level, emotional expressions influence counterparts' cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. At the group level, patterns of emotional experience and/or expression can instigate cooperation, coordination, and conformity, or competition, conflict, and deviance. Intrapersonal (individual-level) effects of diffuse moods can be explained by affect priming and affect-as-information models, whereas effects of discrete emotions are better explained by the appraisal-tendency framework. Interpersonal (dyadic- and group-level) effects of emotions are mediated by affective (e.g., emotional contagion) and inferential (e.g., reverse appraisal) responses, whose relative predictive power can be understood through the lens of emotions as social information (EASI) theory. We offer a critical assessment of the current literature, discuss practical implications for negotiation and conflict management, and sketch an agenda for future research.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Perspective Construction in Organizational Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Karl E. Weick

    The study of organizational behavior involves constrained comprehension of constrained acting. Perspectives on organizational behavior gain and lose their breadth, substance, and credibility as the person doing the explaining is modified by ongoing experience. These ongoing modifications shape the interpretations that are summarized in a perspective. These dual constraints on comprehension and action form a “career-long voice.” This article explores conceptually, biographically, and prescriptively the ways in which perspectives develop, to suggest tacit means by which the study of organizational behavior can continue to develop.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Self-Determination Theory in Work Organizations: The State of a Science
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Edward L. Deci, Anja H. Olafsen, Richard M. Ryan

    Self-determination theory (SDT) is a macro theory of human motivation that evolved from research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and expanded to include research on work organizations and other domains of life. We discuss SDT research relevant to the workplace, focusing on (a) the distinction between autonomous motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation and fully internalized extrinsic motivation) and controlled motivation (i.e., externally and internally controlled extrinsic motivation), as well as (b) the postulate that all employees have three basic psychological needs—for competence, autonomy, and relatedness—the satisfaction of which promotes autonomous motivation, high-quality performance, and wellness. Research in work organizations has tended to take the perspectives of either the employees (i.e., their well-being) or the owners (i.e., their profits). SDT provides the concepts that guide the creation of policies, practices, and environments that promote both wellness and high-quality performance. We examine the relations of SDT to transformational leadership, job characteristics, justice, and compensation approaches.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • A Road Well Traveled: The Past, Present, and Future Journey of Strategic Human Resource Management
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Patrick M. Wright, Michael D. Ulrich

    This article provides an overview of the field of strategic human resource management (SHRM) by tracing its roots, describing its current state, and predicting its future directions. We discuss some past stages in the evolution of the field, including eras of conceptual models, empirical examinations, and empirical critiques. We then discuss the present state regarding theory, the human resources (HR) system–performance relationship, multilevel analyses, fit and flexibility, and international HR research. Finally, we propose that future research needs to be more rigorous, more multilevel, more global, more focused on human capital, more integrated with strategy, and more integrated with practice.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Emotions in the Workplace
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Neal M. Ashkanasy, Alana D. Dorris

    Beginning in the 1990s and following decades of neglect, what came to be referred to as the Affective Revolution has radically transformed our understanding of the role played by emotion in organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OPOB). In this article, we review the field of emotion in the workplace from different perspectives, corresponding to five discrete levels of analysis: (a) within-person temporal effects, (b) between-person (personality and attitudes) factors, (c) interpersonal behaviors (perception and communication of emotion), (d) group level (leadership and teams), and (e) organizational level (culture and climate). Within these perspectives, we address the importance of affective events theory (AET) and its interaction with emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and emotional contagion, as well as the role of emotion in leadership and organizational culture and climate. We conclude by presenting an integrative model that shows how the five levels are linked, followed by discussion of measurement issues, ideas and areas for future research, and suggestions for practice.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Field Experiments in Organizations
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Dov Eden

    Field experimentation, although rare, is the sterling-gold standard of organizational research methods. It yields the best internally valid and generalizable findings compared to more fallible methods. Reviewers in many psychology specialties, including organizational psychology, synthesize largely nonexperimental research, warn of causal ambiguity, and call for experimental replication. These calls go mostly unheeded. Practical application is a raison d'être for much organizational research. With the emergence of evidence-based management, field experiments enable us to deliver the most actionable tools to practitioners. This review explicates the role of experimental control and randomization and enumerates some of the factors that mitigate field experimentation. It describes, instantiates, and evaluates true field experiments, quasi-experiments, quasi-fields, combo designs, and triangulation. It also provides practical tips for overcoming deterrents to field experimentation. The review ends describing the merging of new technologies with classical experimental design and prophesying the bright future of organizational field experimentation.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Abusive Supervision
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Bennett J. Tepper, Lauren Simon, Hee Man Park

    The overarching purpose of this article is to review and synthesize the accumulated evidence that explores the causes and consequences of abusive supervision in work organizations. Our review is organized in three sections. In the first section, we discuss research trends and provide clarification regarding the pressing and not-so-pressing problems with the way that abusive supervision is ordinarily conceptualized and studied. In the second section, we highlight problems and prospects in research on the consequences of abusive supervision. In the third section, we turn our attention to the growing body of research that explores the antecedent conditions and processes that explain when abusive supervision is more or less likely to occur. Throughout the article, we offer an overview of what has been learned over the past 15-plus years and highlight unanswered questions that warrant examination in future studies.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Recruitment and Retention Across Cultures
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    David G. Allen, James M. Vardaman

    The flow of human capital into and out of organizations is a crucial aspect of organizational functioning. Recruitment is the primary mechanism for attracting human capital to the organization, whereas retention involves keeping desired employees in the fold once they are employed. Although extensive research explores and informs recruitment and retention, the bulk of the theory and research in major organizational psychology and organizational behavior journals adopts a US-centric perspective. This narrow perspective may be misleading, particularly in an increasingly globalized work context. We systematically analyze studies on the flow of people into and out of organizations in a variety of cultural contexts and especially in organizations managing talent across national borders. In so doing, we seek to create a coherent platform for future research by identifying key themes in the literature and using these themes to summarize what we know and indicate where we need to go in studying recruitment and retention across cultures.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Multilevel Modeling: Research-Based Lessons for Substantive Researchers
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Vicente González-Romá, Ana Hernández

    Organizations are multilevel systems. Most organizational phenomena are multilevel in nature, and their understanding involves variables (e.g., antecedents and consequences) that reside at different levels. The investigation of these phenomena requires appropriate analytical methods: multilevel modeling. These techniques are becoming increasingly popular among organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OPOB) researchers. In this article we review the literature that has evaluated the performance of multilevel modeling techniques to test multilevel direct and indirect effects and cross-level interactions. We also provide guidelines for OPOB researchers about the appropriate use of these techniques, and we suggest ways these techniques can contribute to theoretical advancement and research development in OPOB.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Team Innovation
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Daan van Knippenberg

    Team innovation is of growing importance in research in organizational psychology and organizational behavior as well as organizational practice. I review the empirical literature in team innovation to draw integrative conclusions about the state of the science and to provide a research agenda to move the field forward. The review identifies two main perspectives in team innovation research, the knowledge integration perspective and the team climate perspective. Key conclusions focus on the need to integrate these perspectives to develop an integrative contingency model of the factors providing teams with diverse informational resources and the factors influencing the extent to which teams integrate these resources in a process of information exchange and integration. As part of these integrative efforts, construct consolidation efforts are important to reverse the tendency for proliferation of substantially overlapping moderators and mediators proposed. The review also identifies the contingencies of the relationship between idea development and idea implementation as the most important understudied issue in team innovation research.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Evidence-Based Management: Foundations, Development, Controversies and Future
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Sara L. Rynes, Jean M. Bartunek

    We review the recent development of evidence-based management (EBMgt), tracing its origins to longstanding gaps between research and practice, discrepant findings across studies, and the emergence of evidence-based medicine (EBMed). We provide a definition of EBMgt and review four foundational articles advocating its use. We then review categories of articles that comprise the EBMgt canon: advocacy articles, essays or perspectives, teaching-related, empirical, reviews, and critiques and responses. Critiques include political, epistemological, and methodological issues directly pertinent to EBMgt as well as broader concerns about the scholarly research base on which EBMgt depends. Our suggestions for future research emphasize, first and foremost, increasing the production of high-quality empirical studies in EBMgt. Topics of particular interest include research co-creation by academics and practitioners, process and outcome studies of EBMgt implementations, and practitioners’ use of evidence in their working environments. We also call for broader types of systematic reviews (SRs) than have generally been conducted in the organization sciences.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Transition Processes: A Review and Synthesis Integrating Methods and Theory
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Paul D. Bliese, Amy B. Adler, Patrick J. Flynn

    In this review, we outline how a methodologically based framework, the discontinuous growth model (DGM), can be used to advance research and theory on transitions. Our review focuses on identifying the types of hypotheses and research questions that can be specified and tested using this framework. Three parameters of the DGM are described: the pre-event covariate (TIMEpre), a transition covariate (TRANS), and a recovery covariate (RECOV). We discuss relevant parameters by analyzing the relative and absolute changes following a transition event. We illustrate the framework with a variety of studies from different contexts and address the difficulty of interpreting responses to events without TIMEpre data. In addition, we discuss the role of large longitudinal databases as sources for advancing research and theory surrounding transitions, particularly for rare and unexpected events. Finally, we discuss ways in which transition research can inform our understanding of individual, team, and organizational resilience and adaptation.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Trust Repair
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Roy J. Lewicki, Chad Brinsfield

    Trust is critical for building and maintaining relationships and for effectively working together. When trust is broken, it has serious consequences for both individuals and organizations. In this review we examine the research on how to repair broken trust. We begin by defining trust, how it is broken, how the actor's violation is attributed, and what it means to repair it. We then discuss two dominant trust repair strategies: short-term and long-term. Short-term strategies include verbal statements such as excuses, apologies, and denials, and compensatory arrangements such as repayment for a loss. Longer-term strategies include structural rearrangements of the relationship (e.g., contracts, monitoring), reframing the violation (e.g., attempts to shift blame, mitigate perceptions of harm), granting forgiveness, and remaining silent. Lastly, we discuss concerns for the future of trust research such as construct clarity, measurement, and contextual considerations.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Comparing and Contrasting Workplace Ostracism and Incivility
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    D. Lance Ferris, Meng Chen, Sandy Lim

    Despite their shared characteristics, the literatures on workplace ostracism and incivility have evolved in different directions. In this review, we discuss the similarities and differences in the conceptualizations of the two constructs and trace the different measures, histories, theories, and topics covered in the two literatures. Although small, we also review the subset of studies that have directly contrasted the effects of ostracism and incivility within the same study. Subsequently, we outline future research areas for both literatures, with a particular focus on research areas that may produce results that help further differentiate the two constructs.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Psychological Capital: An Evidence-Based Positive Approach
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Fred Luthans, Carolyn M. Youssef-Morgan

    The now recognized core construct of psychological capital, or simply PsyCap, draws from positive psychology in general and positive organizational behavior (POB) in particular. The first-order positive psychological resources that make up PsyCap include hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, or the HERO within. These four best meet the inclusion criteria of being theory- and research-based, positive, validly measurable, state-like, and having impact on attitudes, behaviors, performance and well-being. The article first provides the background and precise meaning of PsyCap and then comprehensively reviews its measures, theoretical mechanisms, antecedents and outcomes, levels of analysis, current status and needed research, and finally application. Particular emphasis is given to practical implications, which focuses on PsyCap development, positive leadership, and novel applications such as the use of video games and gamification techniques. The overriding theme throughout is that PsyCap has both scientific, evidence-based rigor and practical relevance.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Construal Level Theory in Organizational Research
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Batia M. Wiesenfeld, Jean-Nicolas Reyt, Joel Brockner, Yaacov Trope

    Construal level theory (CLT) offers a rich and rigorous conceptual model of how the context shapes mental representations and subsequent outcomes. The theory has generated new understanding of cognitions and behaviors such as prediction, evaluation, and decision making in the fields of psychology and consumer behavior. Recently, management and organizational scholars have begun to leverage CLT to derive novel insights regarding organizational phenomena. This article describes CLT and its theoretical underpinnings, provides a focused and integrated review of organizational research incorporating CLT, and offers an agenda for future work in which CLT opens the door to new avenues of inquiry in organizational research and reinvigorates scholarly interest in cognition in organizations.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Dynamic Self-Regulation and Multiple-Goal Pursuit
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Andrew Neal, Timothy Ballard, Jeffrey B. Vancouver

    Self-regulation is the dynamic process by which people manage competing demands on their time and resources as they strive to achieve desired outcomes, while simultaneously preventing or avoiding undesired outcomes. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the process by which people manage these types of demands. We review studies in the organizational, cognitive, social psychology, and human factors literatures that have examined the process by which people (a) manage task demands when working on a single task or goal; (b) select which tasks or goals they work on, and the timing and order in which they work on them; and (c) make adjustments to the goals that they are pursuing. We review formal theories that have been developed to account for these phenomena and examine the prospects for an integrative account of self-regulation that can explain the broad range of empirical phenomena examined across different subdisciplines within psychology.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Neuroscience in Organizational Behavior
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    David A. Waldman, M.K. Ward, William J. Becker

    In this review, we consider the advent of neuroscience in management and organizational research. We organize our review around two general themes pertaining to how areas of the brain may be relevant to management and organizational behavior. First, intrinsic, at-rest activity in the brain provides trait-like information that can be used to better understand individuals in terms of cognition, emotions, and behaviors. Second, reflexive activity involves an understanding of the brain in terms of its state-like responses to stimuli. In our review, we identify several research challenges and opportunities, such as the need to consider the theoretical basis of neural concepts and measures and the use of team-based neuroscience technologies. In addition, although research in organizational neuroscience is relatively new, some interesting practical implications are raised here. We conclude with a consideration of key limitations, specifically the possibility of excessive reductionism, as well as ethical and professional issues.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Retaking Employment Tests: What We Know and What We Still Need to Know
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Chad H. Van Iddekinge, John D. Arnold

    The extent to which test scores change upon retesting has important implications for both organizations and individuals who apply to those organizations. We review research on retesting and score changes that dates back nearly 100 years. Our findings suggest that compared to initial test scores, retest scores tend to be higher, more varied, and more reliable and tend to demonstrate somewhat stronger relations with criteria such as academic and job performance. There also is some evidence that retesting can change the constructs test scores reflect. However, empirical research has yet to clearly delineate factors that underlie such differences between initial and retest scores. We discuss implications of these findings for organizations and applicants. We also identify key unanswered questions about retesting that future research should address.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Alternative Work Arrangements: Two Images of the New World of Work
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Gretchen M. Spreitzer, Lindsey Cameron, Lyndon Garrett

    Alternative work arrangements continue to increase in number and variety. We review the literature on alternative work arrangements published since the most recent major review of nonstandard work by Ashford et al. (2007). We look across the research findings to identify three dimensions of flexibility that undergird alternative work arrangements: (a) flexibility in the employment relationship, (b) flexibility in the scheduling of work, and (c) flexibility in where work is accomplished. We identify two images of the new world of work—one for high-skill workers who choose alternative work arrangements and the other for low-skill workers who struggle to make a living and are beholden to the needs of the organization. We close with future directions for research and practice for tending to the first image and moving away from the second image of the new world of work.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Communication in Organizations
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Joann Keyton

    This article focuses on the study of organizational communication, which is a dominant subarea of communication scholarship as recognized by the National Communication Association (NCA) and the International Communication Association (ICA). Because communication, and organizational communication as a subarea, is multiperspectival, this article first defines communication and then organizational communication. Next, the article describes the philosophical perspectives of organizational communication. The next section points to specific areas of individual-, dyadic-, group-, and organizational-level communication research in which communication and organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OPOB) share similar interests. The article concludes by describing practical implications of this area of scholarship (i.e., what can organizations and individuals do with the findings of organizational communication scholarship) and by identifying promising areas of organizational communication study.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
  • Collective Turnover
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    John P. Hausknecht

    This review builds from the last major narrative review of collective turnover (Hausknecht & Trevor 2011) to identify theoretical and empirical advancements in understanding the causes and consequences of turnover rates at the team, group, work unit, and organizational levels. I discuss important developments in collective-level theorizing [including context-emergent turnover (CET) and turnover capacity theory], meta-analytic summaries, longitudinal investigations, and more. The review concludes with recommendations for future collective turnover research.

    更新日期:2017-12-14
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