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  • Differential cognitive substrates of verbal episodic memory performance in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Saskia DeVaughn; Kaitlin B. Casaletto; Adam M. Staffaroni; Amy A. Wolf; Gabe Marx; Joel H. Kramer

    Performance on neuropsychological measures of verbal memory requires cognitive abilities beyond memory. We examined the contribution of semantic knowledge in verbal episodic memory for semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD). 415 AD and 68 svPPA participants completed measures of episodic memory (visual and verbal) and semantic knowledge. A double dissociation existed visual recall predicted verbal recognition in AD, whereas semantic knowledge contributed to verbal recognition in svPPA.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Dissociation of the subjective and objective bodies: Out‐of‐body experiences following the development of a posterior cingulate lesion
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Kentaro Hiromitsu; Nobusada Shinoura; Ryoji Yamada; Akira Midorikawa

    An out‐of‐body experience (OBE) is a phenomenon whereby an individual views his/her body and the world from a location outside the physical body. Previous studies have suggested that the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), the brain region responsible for integrating multisensory signals, is responsible for OBE development. Here, however, we first present a case of OBE after brain tumour development in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The patient was a 46‐year‐old right‐handed female; she underwent brain surgery. She reported that she had experienced OBEs several times monthly (during daily life) before surgery but never after surgery. She defined her OBEs explicitly; she drew pictures. Her OBEs exhibited phenomenological, overt dissociation of the subjective and objective bodies. We discuss the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and the relationship between OBEs and the PCC in terms of anatomical and functional brain connectivity. Our case sheds some light on the mechanism involved in creating spatial (dis)unity between the self and the body.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Executive functioning affects verbal learning process in multiple sclerosis patients: Behavioural and imaging results
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Marco Pitteri, Caterina Dapor, Anna Isabella Pisani, Marco Castellaro, John DeLuca, Nancy Chiaravalloti, Maddalena Guandalini, Stefano Ziccardi, Massimiliano Calabrese

    Verbal learning and memory deficits are among the most frequent in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) and have been shown to be affected by deficits in other cognitive domains, such as information processing speed and executive functioning (EF). In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the differential impact that EF may exert on verbal learning and memory on both behavioural and neural levels. Seventy pwMS were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, including tests of verbal memory (Selective Reminding Test; SRT) and EF (Stroop test; Phonemic and Alternate Verbal Fluency; Modified Five‐Point Test). Structural 3Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were available for 68 patients; cortical thickness of several frontal, pre‐frontal, and hippocampal regions was calculated. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that patients' performance on Alternate Fluency Test predicted both their immediate (SRT‐LTS: R2 = .38; p < .001; SRT‐CLTR: R2 = .42; p < .001) and delayed (SRT‐D: R2 = .39; p < .001) verbal memory performance. In addition, we found a significant relationship between the cortical thickness of the hippocampus and several bilateral frontal areas (i.e., anterior cingulate gyrus, superior and inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and frontal pole) with verbal memory tests scores (SRT‐LTS: R2 = .45; p < .001; SRT‐CLTR: R2 = .52; p < .001; SRT‐D: R2 = .49; p < .001). These behavioural and MRI results suggest that EF significantly impacts verbal memory performance in pwMS. The understanding of the complex interaction between these distinct cognitive domains can help foster the development of memory rehabilitation paradigms that take into account also the role of executive functioning.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Deficient allo‐centric visuospatial processing contributes to apraxic deficits in sub‐acute right hemisphere stroke
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    Simon D. Ubben, Gereon R. Fink, Stephanie Kaesberg, Elke Kalbe, Josef Kessler, Simone Vossel, Peter H. Weiss

    While visuospatial deficits are well‐characterized cognitive sequelae of right hemisphere (RH) stroke, apraxic deficits in RH stroke remain poorly understood. Likewise, very little is known about the association between apraxic and visuospatial deficits in RH stroke or about the putative common or differential pathophysiology underlying these deficits. Therefore, we examined the behavioural and lesion patterns of apraxic deficits (pantomime of object use and bucco‐facial imitation) and visuospatial deficits (line bisection and letter cancellation tasks) in 50 sub‐acute RH stroke patients. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we characterized the relationship between the two deficits. We hypothesized that any interaction of these neuropsychological measures may be influenced by the demands of ego‐centric/space‐based and/or allo‐centric/object‐based processing. Contralesional visuospatial deficits were common in our clinically representative patient sample, affecting more than half of RH stroke patients. Furthermore, about one‐third of all patients demonstrated apraxic deficits. PCA revealed that pantomiming and the imitation of bucco‐facial gestures loaded clearly on a first component (PCA1), while letter cancellation loaded heavily on a second component (PCA2). For line bisection, overall mean deviation loaded on PCA1, while the difference between the mean deviations in contra‐ versus ipsilesional space loaded on PCA2. These results suggest that PCA1 represents allo‐centric/object‐based processing and PCA2 ego‐centric/space‐based processing. This interpretation was corroborated by the statistical lesion analyses with the component scores. Data suggest that disturbed allo‐centric/object‐based processing contributes to apraxic pantomime and imitation deficits in (sub‐acute) RH stroke.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Impaired processing of response conflicts in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    Markus Ramm, Gabriel Möddel, Benedikt Sundermann, Annegret Last, Lisa Langenbruch, Johannes Jungilligens, Jörg Wellmer, Peter Young, Nikolai Axmacher

    Increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies points towards a hippocampal role in resolving approach‐avoidance goal conflicts. Furthermore, previous neuroimaging findings suggest that the hippocampus (HC) contributes to successful conflict resolution as it is measured, for example, in a Stroop paradigm. However, it is still an open question whether the hippocampus is indeed causally relevant for resolving cognitive conflicts. Here, we investigated whether conflict resolution performance is affected by hippocampal pathology. N = 30 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), almost exclusively showing MRI signs of hippocampal sclerosis, and an equal number of age‐matched healthy controls performed an auditory Stroop paradigm. Participants listened to the words ‘high’ and ‘low’, spoken in either a high or a low pitch. Subjects’ response time and accuracy to the phonetic information in the presence of incongruent (conflict trials) or congruent (non‐conflict trials) semantic information were assessed. In addition, patients’ regional grey matter (GM) brain volumes were analysed. We observed an increased effect of conflict on accuracy in patients with MTLE compared to healthy controls. This effect was negatively correlated with right HC volume. The results suggest that the impairment in the resolution of a response conflict is related to hippocampal structural integrity and thus add further support to the notion that the HC is not only involved but even causally relevant for successful cognitive conflict processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Relationship between social cognition and fatigue, depressive symptoms, and anxiety in multiple sclerosis
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-06-01
    Helen M. Genova, Katie Lancaster, Jean Lengenfelder, Christopher P. Bober, John DeLuca, Nancy D. Chiaravalloti

    Emerging research indicates that in addition to physical and cognitive deficits, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) may also have impairments in social cognition, such as facial affect recognition and Theory of Mind (ToM). However, there is little research into how social cognition impairments relate to other domains in MS, such as mood and fatigue levels. The current study investigated whether social cognitive ability is associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms and anxiety in MS. Twenty‐eight individuals with MS completed questionnaires assessing fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxiety (State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory), as well as tasks of facial affect recognition and ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes; Strange Stories). Bivariate correlations were run to examine relationships between variables; partial correlations were subsequently used to ascertain whether these relationships persisted after controlling for cognitive ability (measured with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test). The results indicated that worse performance in both facial affect recognition and ToM were associated with higher rates of psychosocial fatigue, depressive symptoms, and anxiety levels; furthermore, these relationships were not explained by participants’ cognitive ability. These preliminary results help us better understand the association between social cognitive abilities and other symptoms in MS, including depressive symptomatology, anxiety and fatigue.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Amygdala functioning during threat acquisition and extinction differentiates antisocial subtypes
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Kostas A. Fanti, Katerina Konikou, Moran Cohn, Arne Popma, Inti A. Brazil

    Extensive work implicates abnormal amygdala response during threatening stimuli in youth with antisocial behaviour. However, no research has examined whether youth identified in Primary and Secondary psychopathy subtypes would show differences in amygdala activity in response to threat acquisition and extinction. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to identify distinct antisocial groups based on participants’ scores on callous–unemotional (CU) traits, anxiety, and familial abuse in a sample of 136 high‐risk adolescents (mean age = 17.7, SD = 1.6; 86% male). Functional MRI was then used to assess amygdala activation patterns during a classical differential delay threat‐conditioning task. In addition to the Primary and Secondary subtypes, we identified groups mainly high on anxiety and others who were mainly high on abuse. Participants in the Primary group showed lower right amygdala activity in response to neutral male faces compared to the low, Anxious, and Secondary groups, whereas participants in the group with history of abuse exhibited higher right amygdala activity during threat acquisition compared to the rest of the groups. During threat extinction, the Primary group showed lower right amygdala activity compared to the Secondary and abuse groups. This is the first study to reveal amygdala activation in identified psychopathy‐related variants during threat conditioning. We found that stratifying the sample based on the identified variants revealed amygdala functioning patterns that furthered our understanding of emotion‐based deficits among high‐risk adolescents.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Morphometric correlates of anomia in patients with small left temporopolar lesions
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Yasser Alemán‐Gómez, Claudia Poch, Rafael Toledano, Adolfo Jiménez‐Huete, Irene García‐Morales, Antonio Gil‐Nagel, Pablo Campo

    Visual object naming is a complex cognitive process that engages an interconnected network of cortical regions moving from occipitotemporal to anterior–inferior temporal cortices, and extending into the inferior frontal cortex. Naming can fail for diverse reasons, and different stages of the naming multi‐step process appear to be reliant upon the integrity of different neuroanatomical locations. While the neural correlates of semantic errors have been extensively studied, the neural basis of omission errors remains relatively unspecified. Although a strong line of evidence supports an association between anterior temporal lobe damage and semantic errors, there are some studies suggesting that the anterior temporal lobe could be also associated with omissions. However, support for this hypothesis comes from studies with patients in whom damage affected extensive brain regions, sometimes bilaterally. Here, we availed of a group of 12 patients with epilepsy associated with a small lesion at the tip of the left temporal pole. Using an unbiased surface‐based morphometry methodology, we correlated two morphological features with errors observed during visual naming. Analyses revealed a correlation between omission errors and reduced local gyrification index in three cortical clusters: one in the left anteromedial temporal lobe region (AMTL) and two in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our findings support the view that regions in ACC and AMTL are critical structures within a network engaged in word selection from semantics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Does synaesthesia protect against age‐related memory loss?
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-03-30
    Andy D. Mealor, Julia Simner, Jamie Ward

    Synaesthesia is known to be linked to enhanced episodic memory abilities, across a variety of stimuli and tests, but the evidence has tended to come from younger adults. This enhanced cognitive ability in early adult life, together with the known brain‐related differences linked to synaesthesia (e.g., in both grey and white matter structure), makes it an ideal candidate for exploring the notion of ‘reserve’. That is, synaesthetes may be able to utilize additional cognitive and/or neural resources to mitigate against the effects of age‐related decline. This was explored in a 2 × 2 design contrasting age (young, old) against the presence/absence of synaesthesia in two different studies: recognition memory for digits, snowflakes, and music; and visual associative learning. Synaesthesia and age had independent, non‐interacting, effects on memory ability suggesting that, while synaesthetes show a memory advantage and maintain this advantage in later life, the presence of synaesthesia is not able to act as a reserve to protect against the effects of ageing. On our tasks, the benefit of having synaesthesia (enhancing memory) was of a similar magnitude to the effects of age (impairing memory); in other words, elderly synaesthetes present with ‘youthful’ memory abilities. It is important for future research on elderly cohorts to consider the presence of synaesthesia as an individual difference.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Motion‐induced position mis‐localization predicts the severity of Alzheimer's disease
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Yamin Song, Huiting Wang

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit motion processing deficits. It is unclear whether the localization of moving objects – a perceptual process tightly linked to motion – is impaired or intact in AD. In this study, we used the phenomenon of illusory shift of position induced by motion as a behavioural paradigm to probe how the spatial representation differs between AD patients and healthy elderly controls. We measured the magnitudes of motion‐induced position shift in a group of AD participants (N = 24) and age‐matched elderly observers (N = 24). We found that AD patients showed weakened position mis‐localization, but only for motion stimuli of slow speeds. For fast motion, the position mis‐localization did not differ significantly between groups. Furthermore, we showed that the magnitudes of position mis‐localization can predict the severity of AD; that is, patients with more severe symptoms had less preserved position mis‐localization. Our results suggest that AD pathology impacts not only motion processing per se, but also the perceptual process related to motion such as the localization of moving objects.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Factors contributing to parent–child interaction quality following mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-02-19
    Gabrielle Lalonde, Annie Bernier, Cindy Beaudoin, Jocelyn Gravel, Miriam H. Beauchamp

    There is emerging evidence that parent–child interactions are affected by early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). These findings are of functional importance when considering the high prevalence of TBI in early childhood alongside evidence that young children exposed to positive relationships with their parents early in life exhibit better social functioning concurrently and longitudinally. Given that the overall quality of parent–child interactions is the result of both parent and child emotional and behavioural dispositions, it remains unclear which parental or child‐related factors contribute to the quality of interactions post‐TBI. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the quality of parent–child interactions following early childhood TBI. The sample included 68 children (18–60 months at recruitment) with accidental, uncomplicated mild TBI (mTBI). The quality of parent–child interactions was assessed 6 months post‐injury using the Mutually Responsive Orientation scale, an observational measure of the dyadic quality of parent–child exchanges. Potential contributing factors were assessed among parental factors (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, family burden, parental stress, marital satisfaction) and child‐related factors (e.g., age, sex, symptoms, fatigue, adaptive/behavioural skills). Socioeconomic status, child post‐concussive symptoms, and child sleep problems were found to be significant independent contributing factors to parent–child interactions six months post‐injury. This study provides the first evidence that both parental and child factors relate to the quality of parent–child interactions following mTBI, thus contributing to a better understanding of the scope and complexity of factors that play a role in childrens' recovery.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Plasticity versus chronicity: Stable performance on category fluency 40 years post‐onset
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-02-15
    Edward H. F. de Haan, Noor Seijdel, Robert W. Kentridge, Charles A. Heywood

    What is the long‐term trajectory of semantic memory deficits in patients who have suffered structural brain damage? Memory is, per definition, a changing faculty. The traditional view is that after an initial recovery period, the mature human brain has little capacity to repair or reorganize. More recently, it has been suggested that the central nervous system may be more plastic with the ability to change in neural structure, connectivity, and function. The latter observations are, however, largely based on normal learning in healthy subjects. Here, we report a patient who suffered bilateral ventro‐medial damage after presumed herpes encephalitis in 1971. He was seen regularly in the eighties, and we recently had the opportunity to re‐assess his semantic memory deficits. On semantic category fluency, he showed a very clear category‐specific deficit performing better that control data on non‐living categories and significantly worse on living items. Recent testing showed that his impairments have remained unchanged for more than 40 years. We suggest cautiousness when extrapolating the concept of brain plasticity, as observed during normal learning, to plasticity in the context of structural brain damage.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Fear‐specific enhancement of tactile perception is disrupted after amygdala lesion
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
    Caterina Bertini, Francesca Starita, Claudia Passamonti, Francesca Santoro, Nelia Zamponi, Roberto Michelucci, Cristina Scarpazza

    Tactile perception on one's own face is enhanced when viewing a fearful face being touched – as opposed to just approached – by fingers, compared to viewing other expressions, a phenomenon known as the emotional modulation of Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT). This effect seems to be related to a preferential activation of the somatosensory system in response to threat. To test the contribution of the amygdala to this mechanism, a group of patients with unilateral lesions to the amygdala, a control group of patients with lesions in the extra‐temporal regions, and a group of healthy participants completed an eVRT paradigm. They were required to detect bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks, while viewing fearful, happy, or neutral faces being touched or just approached by fingers. Healthy participants and control patients confirmed that viewing a neutral face being touched – as opposed to just approached – by fingers increases tactile detection on one's own face (i.e., the typical VRT effect) and that this effect is enhanced for fearful faces, compared to neutral and happy faces. However, in patients with amygdala lesion, although the standard VRT effect was preserved for neutral faces, this was disrupted for fearful faces. This result indicates that the preferential activation of the somatosensory cortices in response to threat relies on structural integrity of the amygdala.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Quantifying egocentric spatial neglect with cancellation tasks: A theoretical validation
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    Hanne Huygelier, Céline R. Gillebert

    Spatial neglect is characterized by a spatial bias in response to stimuli. The disorder is often assessed with a cancellation task, where several measures can be used to quantify the spatial bias of cancellation responses (e.g., the difference between cancellations on the left and right side, the average location of cancelled targets, and the total number of omissions). Typically, measures of cancellation performance are validated by studying the correlation with measures derived from other tasks to assess neglect (e.g., the directional bisection error derived from performance on the line bisection task). However, the foundation of cancellation performance measures is often more intuitive than theoretical. For instance, it is assumed that measures of cancellation performance isolate the spatial (e.g., the ipsilesional preference typical of spatial neglect) from the non‐spatial (e.g., deficits in working memory or sustained attention) sources of error, but this assumption has not been tested yet. Here we formulated a simple model with conceptually meaningful parameters to predict cancellation performance. Our model parameterizes the spatial and non‐spatial components of cancellation responses. This model allowed us to study the construct representation of commonly used measures of spatial neglect through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. The results showed that most of the cancellation performance measures are also dependent on non‐spatial error sources. The results deepen our understanding of the construct representation of cancellation performance measures, while also having implications for studies focused on the relationship between the spatial and non‐spatial attention deficits in spatial neglect.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • We see the orange not the lemon: typicality effects in ultra‐rapid categorization in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
    Joana C. Carmo, Fábio Martins, Sandra Pinho, Bernardo Barahona‐Correa, Paulo Ventura, Carlos N. Filipe

    Semantic meaning can be extracted from pictures presented very briefly, in the order of tens of milliseconds. This ultra‐rapid categorization processing appears to respect a coarse‐to‐fine path where lower level representations of concepts, or more detailed information, need additional time. We question whether variations in the levels of typicality of the target‐item would implicate additional processing for correct classification, both in neurotypical (NT) individuals and with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research in ASD points out that atypical exemplars of a category might be abnormally processed (e.g., longer times in identifying a penguin as a bird), an observation that we further tested with a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. In this study, we applied a RSVP task, with four different presentation times (13, 27, 50, and 80 ms) and with typical and atypical exemplars to a group of NT individuals and a sample of individuals with ASD. We found, overall, a strong effect of typicality with a higher detection rate for typical items. In addition, we observed a group × typicality × duration interaction. We interpret these findings in the light of the competences of the feedforward sweep of information through our visual system.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The role of hippocampus in the retrieval of autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Alzheimer's disease
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-11-19
    Laura Serra, Marco Bozzali, Lucia Fadda, Maria Stefania De Simone, Michela Bruschini, Roberta Perri, Carlo Caltagirone, Giovanni A. Carlesimo

    The role of the hippocampus and neocortical areas in the retrieval of past memories in pre‐dementia Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients was investigated. The aim was to assess whether the hippocampus has a temporary role in memory trace formation, according to the Cortical Reallocation Theory (CRT), or whether it continuously updates and enriches memories, according to the Multiple Trace Theory. According to the former theory, hippocampal damage should affect more recent memories, whereas the association cortex is expected to affect memories of the entire lifespan. In the second case, damage to either the hippocampus or the association cortices should affect memories of the entire lifespan. Seventeen patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment due to AD were submitted to autobiographical (i.e., episodic and semantic personal) memory assessment. Patients underwent MRI for the acquisition of T1‐weighted brain volumes. Voxel‐based morphometry was used to assess correlations between grey matter (GM) volumes and autobiographical memory. Correlation analyses revealed a strict association between GM volumes in the hippocampus and patients’ ability to retrieve the most recent but not the oldest autobiographical memories in both aspects, episodic and semantic. Moreover, patients’ GM volumes in the pre‐frontal and temporal polar areas were associated with recollection of episodic and semantic events, respectively. Finally, GM volumes in the precuneus and occipital cortex were associated with retrieval of the most recent episodic events. These findings indicate that the hippocampus has a specific time‐dependent role; thus, they support the CRT.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Simulated driving: The added value of dynamic testing in the assessment of visuo‐spatial neglect after stroke
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-10-16
    Lauriane A. Spreij, Antonia F. Ten Brink, Johanna M. A. Visser‐Meily, Tanja C. W. Nijboer

    Visuo‐spatial neglect (VSN) is generally assessed with neuropsychological paper‐and‐pencil tasks, which are often not sensitive enough to detect mild and/or well‐compensated VSN. It is of utmost importance to develop dynamic tasks, resembling the dynamics of daily living.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Assessment of cognitive‐driven activity of daily living impairment in non‐demented Parkinson's patients
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Sara Becker, Alena Bäumer, Walter Maetzler, Susanne Nussbaum, Maarten Timmers, Luc Van Nueten, Giacomo Salvadore, Detlev Zaunbrecher, Benjamin Roeben, Kathrin Brockmann, Johannes Streffer, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt‐Scarfone

    The core criterion for Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) function primarily caused by cognitive, not motor symptoms. There is evidence to assume that mild ADL impairments in mild cognitive impairment (PD‐MCI) characterize those patients at high risk for dementia. Data of 216 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients assessed with comprehensive motor and neuropsychological assessments were analysed. Based on linear regression models, subscores of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) primarily reflecting patients’ global cognitive status (FAQC) or PD‐related motor severity (FAQM) were developed. A quotient (FAQQ) of both scores was calculated, with values >1 indicating more cognitive‐ compared to motor‐driven ADL impairment. Both FAQC and FAQM scores were higher in PD‐MCI than cognitively normal (PD‐CN) patients, indicating more severe cognitive‐ and motor‐driven ADL impairments in this group. One third (31.6%) of the PD‐MCI group had a FAQQ score >1, which was significantly different from patients with PD‐CN (p = .02). PD‐MCI patients with an FAQQ score >1 were more impaired on tests assessing attention (p = .019) and language (p = .033) compared to PD‐MCI patients with lower FAQQ values. The differentiation between cognitive‐ and motor‐driven ADL is important, as the loss of functional capacity is the defining factor for a diagnosis of PDD. We were able to differentiate the cognitive‐driven from the motor‐driven ADL impairments for the FAQ. PD‐MCI patients with more cognitive‐ compared to motor‐driven ADL impairments may pose a risk group for conversion to PDD and can be targeted for early treatments.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Retrospective time estimation following damage to the prefrontal cortex
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Yoshiko Kurosaki, Yuri Terasawa, Yukiro Ibata, Ryusaku Hashimoto, Satoshi Umeda

    Time estimation in patients with prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage is often inaccurate. The relationship between PFC and estimation of short time intervals has been examined. However, it remains unclear whether PFC damage affects estimation of longer time intervals. Here, we investigated the ability of patients and healthy subjects to verbally estimate a period of 30 min, using a method easily applied in clinical settings. In 99 patients with brain damage, we compared under and normal ranges of time in patients with PFC damage or damage to other brain areas with the chi‐squared test. Subsequently, we conducted a discriminant analysis and a multiple linear regression analysis to identify specific brain areas affecting time estimation. We observed a significantly larger number of patients who overestimated 30 min in the group with bilateral PFC damage compared to patients with damage to other regions. Discriminant analysis revealed that damage of right lateral PFC and left medial PFC contributed to discrimination between the normal range and overestimation groups. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that right lateral PFC damage strongly affected overestimation of a 30‐min interval. Neuropsychological test results revealed lower general cognitive function scores and orientation scores in overestimation group. The length of estimated time and the score of delayed word recall were negatively correlated. We propose that these may require encoding, maintenance, and updating of memory and are indirectly related to contextual memory. We discuss hypotheses on contextual memory segmentation and reconstruction to clarify the mechanism of impaired time overestimation in PFC‐damaged patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Executive function but not episodic memory decline associated with visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2018-07-23
    Byron Creese, Christopher P. Albertyn, Sasha Dworkin, Rebecca S. Thomas, Yi Min Wan, Clive Ballard

    Visual hallucinations (VH) have a significant impact on quality of life for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A major reason for this is the well‐established link with cognitive impairment, but there is still a need for more longitudinal studies examining the specific cognitive domains which may be affected. The aim of this study was to profile decline in cognition associated with VH in a cohort of 69 individuals with PD over 1 year.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cognitive fatigability is a quantifiable distinct phenomenon in multiple sclerosis
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Silvia Tommasin, Francesca De Luca, Ilaria Ferrante, Flavia Gurreri, Letizia Castelli, Serena Ruggieri, Luca Prosperini, Patrizia Pantano, Carlo Pozzilli, Laura De Giglio

    Cognitive fatigability in multiple sclerosis represents the decrease in cognitive performance over time. It is a frequent symptom that negatively affects quality of life and ability to work. There are no objective measures of cognitive fatigability. This study aimed at quantifying cognitive fatigability despite the learning effect and to clarify whether cognitive fatigability represents a free‐standing phenomenon rather than an aspect of cognitive impairment. We measured information processing speed with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and the number of right answers was recorded every 30 s for 180 s. We approximated the number of right answers as function of time with two logarithmic models, one including a first‐order term alone and the other adding also a second‐order term. The coefficient of the latter (B) may quantify performance deflection and may represent cognitive fatigability. We tested 173 patients with multiple sclerosis, including 119 cognitively impaired and 54 cognitively preserved patients, and 35 healthy subjects. The performance of cognitively preserved patients showed a deflection at the end of task that was detected neither in controls nor in cognitively impaired patients and needed a second‐order term to be approximated (p < .03, F = 14.02). B was explained neither by depression nor fatigue. We proposed for the first time a method to quantify cognitive fatigue via a second‐order least square fit model, easily usable in the clinical practice. By using this novel approach, cognitive fatigability results to be a free‐standing phenomenon that is more evident in cognitively preserved than in cognitive impaired patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Relational processing in the semantic domain is impaired in medial temporal lobe amnesia
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Margaret M. Keane, Kathryn Bousquet, Aubrey Wank, Mieke Verfaellie

    It has been argued that the hippocampus supports cognition by virtue of its role in flexibly binding together distinct elements of experience. Such ‘relational processing’ enables us to (re)construct episodic representations of real or imagined events. The present study examined whether hippocampally mediated relational processing also contributes to the construction of semantic representations. To do so, we asked amnesic individuals with medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions including the hippocampus to generate hypothetical meanings for novel word compounds (e.g., cactus carpet), a task that requires existing concepts to be flexibly linked. The quality of definitions and number of features generated for the novel compounds were lower in patients with MTL lesions than in control participants. Whereas the subset of patients with lesions extending into lateral temporal cortex had additional difficulty generating meanings for pre‐existing compounds (e.g., bus station), patients with lesions limited to the MTL showed no such deficit, indicating that their impairment in the novel compound condition was not due to reduced access to semantic information. These findings suggest that the role of hippocampally mediated relational processing extends beyond the episodic domain to include the generation of novel semantic representations.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Retrieval-induced forgetting in normal ageing.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Michaël Hogge,Stéphane Adam,Fabienne Collette

    The retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) paradigm was used to assess the integrity of Unintentional inhibitory functioning in normal ageing. The paradigm was adapted to explore the RIF effect under conditions that allow us to differentiate the contribution of intentional and automatic retrieval processes to performance. The results showed the presence of equivalent and significant RIF effects in young and older adults, for both the intentional and automatic retrieval performance. These results suggest that unintentional inhibitory processes are spared in normal ageing and confirm that RIF effect is independent of the kind of memory processes involved in task performance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • When the whole is more than the sum of the parts: evidence from visuospatial neglect.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    A Gallace,E Imbornone,G Vallar

    One possible pathological mechanism underlying the rightward bisection error of right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect is a leftward relaxation of the spatial representational medium. This view was originally based on the finding that patients with left neglect, required to extend horizontal segments, in order to double their original length, may exhibit a relative left overextension of the drawn lines (Bisiach et al., 1994). We investigated this putative distortion of representational space using a 16 cm 'line segmentation' task (Experiment I). Were the representation of space relaxed contralesionally, a progressive increase from right to left of the size of the drawn segments would be expected. Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral neglect (N=12) performed the segmentation task with no left versus right differences, as right-brain-damaged patients without neglect (N=8), and neurologically unimpaired control subjects (N=10), did. Experiments 2 and 3 explored the effects of sample length (1, 2, 4, and 8cm), by which the 16cm lines had to be segmented. Neglect patients produced longer left-sided segments only for the 8 cm sample (i.e. half of the length of the segment). This set of experiments suggests an impairment in the segmentation task only with the larger (8 cm) sample, when a more global level of processing may be involved. Experiment 4 assessed this hypothesis by a 'part/whole' bisection task, using 8 cm lines, presented either embedded in a longer 16 cm line or in isolation. Neglect patients made a larger rightward bisection error when the segment was not embedded. The suggestion is made that the lateral distortion of the representation of space in neglect patients (i.e., a leftward relaxation of the spatial medium) concerns tasks where a more 'global' representation of the visual stimulus has to be set up. The different demands of the segmentation and bisection tasks are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neurocognitive and functional outcomes in persons recovering from West Nile virus illness.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    James J Sejvar,Aaron T Curns,Leonie Welburg,James F Jones,Louisa M Lundgren,Lucile Capuron,John Pape,William C Reeves,Grant L Campbel

    Long-term neurocognitive and functional impairments following West Nile virus (WNV) disease are poorly understood. We assessed quality-of-life indices and neurocognitive performance in a cohort of 54 persons recovering from one of three WNV disease syndromes (fever [WNF], meningitis [WNM], or encephalitis [WNE]) approximately 1.5 years following acute illness. We compared findings between the three syndromic groups; the study cohort and a demographically similar group of 55 controls from a study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and the study cohort and a 'normative' control population based on cognitive test data. Persistent symptoms, diminished quality of life, and functional impairment were reported by 50% of WNF patients, and 75% each of WNM and WNE patients. Overall, objective neurocognitive performance did not differ significantly between the three syndromic groups, or between the study cohort and the CFS controls or the normative controls. In some neurocognitive subtests, the study cohort scored below the 15th percentile when compared with normative control data. Most persons who returned to independent living following hospitalization for WNV illness had persistent subjective complaints, but had normal cognitive function. However, a minority displayed subtle neurocognitive deficits more than 18 months following acute disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding speaker attitudes from prosody by adults with Parkinson's disease.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Laura Monetta,Henry S Cheang,Marc D Pell

    The ability to interpret vocal (prosodic) cues during social interactions can be disrupted by Parkinson's disease, with notable effects on how emotions are understood from speech. This study investigated whether PD patients who have emotional prosody deficits exhibit further difficulties decoding the attitude of a speaker from prosody. Vocally inflected but semantically nonsensical 'pseudo-utterances' were presented to listener groups with and without PD in two separate rating tasks. Task I required participants to rate how confident a speaker sounded from their voice and Task 2 required listeners to rate how polite the speaker sounded for a comparable set of pseudo-utterances. The results showed that PD patients were significantly less able than HC participants to use prosodic cues to differentiate intended levels of speaker confidence in speech, although the patients could accurately detect the politelimpolite attitude of the speaker from prosody in most cases. Our data suggest that many PD patients fail to use vocal cues to effectively infer a speaker's emotions as well as certain attitudes in speech such as confidence, consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia play a role in the meaningful processing of prosodic sequences in spoken language (Pell & Leonard, 2003).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Face processing in different brain areas, and critical band masking.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Edmund T Rolls

    Neurophysiological evidence is described showing that some neurons in the macaque inferior temporal visual cortex have responses that are invariant with respect to the position, size, view, and spatial frequency of faces and objects, and that these neurons show rapid processing and rapid learning. Critical band spatial frequency masking is shown to be a property of these face-selective neurons and of the human visual perception of faces. Which face or object is present is encoded using a distributed representation in which each neuron conveys independent information in its firing rate, with little information evident in the relative time of firing of different neurons. This ensemble encoding has the advantages of maximizing the information in the representation useful for discrimination between stimuli using a simple weighted sum of the neuronal firing by the receiving neurons, generalization, and graceful degradation. These invariant representations are ideally suited to provide the inputs to brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that learn the reinforcement associations of an individual's face, for then the learning, and the appropriate social and emotional responses generalize to other views of the same face. A theory is described of how such invariant representations may be produced by self-organizing learning in a hierarchically organized set of visual cortical areas with convergent connectivity. The theory utilizes either temporal or spatial continuity with an associative synaptic modification rule. Another population of neurons in the cortex in the superior temporal sulcus encodes other aspects of faces such as face expression, eye-gaze, face view, and whether the head is moving. These neurons thus provide important additional inputs to parts of the brain such as the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala that are involved in social communication and emotional behaviour. Outputs of these systems reach the amygdala, in which face-selective neurons are found, and also the orbitofrontal cortex, in which some neurons are tuned to face identity and others to face expression. In humans, activation of the orbitofrontal cortex is found when a change of face expression acts as a social signal that behaviour should change; and damage to the human orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex can impair face and voice expression identification, and also the reversal of emotional behaviour that normally occurs when reinforcers are reversed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contralateral visual search deficits following TMS.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    I Schindler,A Ellison,A D Milner

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation of posterior parietal vs. superior temporal sites cause differential effects on conventional conjunction vs. feature search tasks, respectively. We now report that when a decision has to be made on the target's left/right location, different lateralized deficits emerge in these two cases. With full-field arrays, we found a specific PPC search deficit for contralateral space. With smaller, structured arrays presented in left or right hemispace, we found a specific STG deficit for contralateral parts of the array.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Does the feedback from previous trials influence current decisions? A study on the role of feedback processing in making decisions under explicit risk conditions.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Matthias Brand

    UNLABELLED Decision situations frequently provide information about the amount of gains and losses and winning probabilities. In decisions under these conditions, also called risk conditions, both the use of feedback and executive functions have been shown to influence the decision-making process, as revealed in different patient populations. However, the influence of offering feedback in tasks examining decisions under risk conditions has not been investigated experimentally, so far. This was the aim of the present study. For this purpose, a sample of healthy individuals was examined with the Game of Dice Task, a decision-making task that explicitly provides the rules for gains and losses and in which participants receive feedback after each trial. In addition, a modified version of this task was performed, in which the feedback after each trial and all associated feedback components were removed. Results indicate that participants had a lower performance in the modified Dice Task without feedback. They selected the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently, when they did not receive feedback following their choices. Task performance in either version was correlated with executive functioning. CONCLUSION In decisions under risk conditions, both executive functions as well as the use of feedback following previous trials are important components for optimal performance. Results have implications for the interpretation of deficient decision making in patients with neuropsychological impairments as both disturbances in categorization and other cognitive processes as well as emotional dysfunctions can compromise decision making in risky situations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Memory profiling in mild cognitive impairment: can we determine risk for Alzheimer's disease?
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Kerryn E Pike,Greg Savage

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not all MCI cases progress to AD and there has been limited focus on how to identify who will progress. Given claims for a characteristic kind of memory impairment in AD involving deficits in encoding and consolidation of information, we propose that 'memory profiling' of individuals with MCI may help identify which individuals will progress. We initially set out to establish whether the same characteristic memory profile was present prior to the onset of AD (preAD). Very few studies provided data that allowed us to examine this, but results tentatively supported an encoding/consolidation profile in preAD. A single study tested the clinically important contrast of preAD versus non-preAD MCI cases and found no difference under any condition or in memory profiles, but interpretation of the findings is limited by short duration of follow-up, ceiling effects, and task limitations in assessing more complex and qualitative aspects of memory. Although existing data lead to equivocal conclusions, we believe that memory profiling is an endeavour worth pursuing, particularly given the increasing number of people with MCI presenting for clinical assessment. We propose that tests designed specifically to measure memory processes should be sensitive to preAD and are required in prospective longitudinal designs to identify these clinically crucial MCI cases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social problem-solving skills as a mediator between executive function and long-term social outcome following paediatric traumatic brain injury.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Frank Muscara,Cathy Catroppa,Vicki Anderson

    There is debate regarding the relationship between executive function and social outcome following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), due to inconsistent findings in the literature. It has been suggested that these contradictory results may reflect the absence of an established mechanism to explain this relationship. Yeates and colleagues (2004) proposed a possible model in which the maturity of social problem-solving skills mediates the relationship between executive function and social outcome. The current study aimed to explore this model and determine whether social problem solving mediates the relationship between executive function and social outcome in a TBI population. The sample consisted of 36 adolescents and young adults who sustained a TBI between 8 and 12 years of age. They ranged between 16 and 22 years of age and were 7-10 years post-injury. Findings indicated that a higher level of executive dysfunction was associated with less sophisticated social problem-solving skills and poorer social outcome. Further, the maturity of social problem-solving skills was found to mediate the relationship between executive function and social outcome in this group.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Individuals with first-ever clinical presentation of a lacunar infarction syndrome: Is there an increased likelihood of developing mild cognitive impairment in the first 12 months after stroke?
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-10-14
    Jacqueline F I Anderson,Michael M Saling,Velandai K Srikanth,Amanda G Thrift,Geoffrey A Donnan

    Patients who have suffered a single clinical lacunar syndrome, in the absence of any previous clinical stroke, have a varying neuroradiological profile. We examined general cognition in 30 nonaphasic first-ever lacunar syndrome participants, using a battery of standard clinical neuropsychological measures. At a group level, stroke participants did not demonstrate any cognitive impairment relative to well-matched community-based controls up to 12 months after stroke. There was also no evidence of increased frequencies of mild cognitive impairment after a single clinical lacunar syndrome relative to matched control participants within the first year post-stroke. The current findings represent the first investigation of the cognitive outcome of nonaphasic individuals who have a first-ever clinical lacunar syndrome. It was concluded that a clinically diagnosed first ever stroke event, presenting as a lacunar syndrome, was not associated with an elevated risk of developing mild cognitive impairment 12 months post-stroke.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Further lesion evidence for the neural basis of conceptual knowledge for persons and other concrete entities.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Daniel Tranel,Justin Feinstein,Kenneth Manzel

    The neural underpinnings of conceptual knowledge have been studied intensively, but many unanswered questions remain. In a previous study examining recognition of persons, animals, and tools in 116 participants with unilateral brain lesions, we found no instance of a patient who manifested defective recognition in all three categories. We reasoned that the spatial distribution of the lesion loci critical for the appearance of recognition defects for these different categories explained why this 'three-way' defect could not be found in patients with unilateral lesions, and we proposed that only a suitable bilateral lesion would be likely to produce such a combined defect. In the study reported here, we tested this hypothesis by investigating recognition performances in 55 participants with bilateral cortical lesions. In support of the hypothesis, nine patients, all of whose lesions included bilateral occipitotemporal and/or temporal cortices, had a three-way recognition impairment (persons, M = 18.3%; animals, M = 35.7%; tools, M = 71.3%; all scores >2 SDs below normal). As expected, bilateral lesions to other neural sectors, for example prefrontal cortices, did not lead to recognition impairments. These findings provide further support for the notion that retrieval of knowledge for concrete entities from different conceptual categories depends on partially segregated neural systems, located in different sectors of occipitotemporal and temporal regions in right and left hemisphere.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of Funktionswandel in metamorphopsia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Tanja C W Nijboer,Carla Ruis,H Bart van der Worp,Edward H F De Haan

    Patients with metamorphopsia perceive objects or faces as being distorted and/or different in size. In most cases, recognition is not impaired. The stimulus specificity, particularly in the case of face perception, has led to the suggestion that metamorphopsia is a deficit at the entry level of category-specific recognition systems; in this case, the face processing system. An explanation in terms of a visuosensory deficit (i.e., Funktionswandel) that affects the perception of specific stimulus categories has not been systematically evaluated. In this study, we report two patients (MZ and CM) who experienced hemi-metamorphopsia for faces after a stroke in the posterior part of the brain. Despite the distortions, they could still match and recognize faces. We carried out a detailed evaluation of their visual-sensory status and found that both MZ and CM had specific problems with discriminating and estimating sizes and shapes, especially in the contralesional visual field. It was concluded that these cases, metamorphopsia was not due to a higher-order perception impairment specific for faces, but rather of a specific impairment in shape perception in the contralesional visual field that proportionally affects the perception of faces.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Voice recognition and the posterior cingulate: an fMRI study of prosopagnosia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Stephen R Arnott,Charles A Heywood,Robert W Kentridge,Melvyn A Goodale

    Voices, in addition to faces, enable person identification. Voice recognition has been shown to evoke a distributed network of brain regions that includes, in addition to the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the anterior temporal pole, fusiform face area (FFA), and posterior cingulate gyrus (pCG). Here we report an individual (MS) with acquired prosopagnosia who, despite bilateral damage to much of this network, demonstrates the ability to distinguish voices of several well-known acquaintances from voices of people that he has never heard before. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that, relative to speech-modulated noise, voices rated as familiar and unfamiliar by MS elicited enhanced haemodynamic activity in the left angular gyrus, left posterior STS, and posterior midline brain regions, including the retrosplenial cortex and the dorsal pCG. More interestingly, relative to noise and unfamiliar voices, the familiar voices elicited greater haemodynamic activity in the left angular gyrus and medial parietal regions including the dorsal pCG and precuneus. The findings are consistent with theories implicating the pCG in recognizing people who are personally familiar, and furthermore suggest that the pCG region of the voice identification network is able to make functional contributions to voice recognition even though other areas of the network, namely the anterior temporal poles, FFA, and the right parietal lobe, may be compromised.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reduced fixation on the upper area of personally familiar faces following acquired prosopagnosia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Jean-Jacques Orban de Xivry,Meike Ramon,Philippe Lefèvre,Bruno Rossion

    Selective impairment of face recognition following brain damage, as in acquired prosopagnosia, may cause a dramatic loss of diagnosticity of the eye area of the face and an increased reliance on the mouth for identification (Caldara et al., 2005). To clarify the nature of this phenomenon, we measured eye fixation patterns in a case of pure prosopagnosia (PS, Rossion et al., 2003) during her identification of photographs of personally familiar faces (27 children of her kindergarten). Her age-matched colleague served as a control. Consistent with previous evidence, the normal control identified the faces within two fixations located just below the eyes (central upper nose). This pattern (location and duration) of fixations remained unchanged even by increasing difficulty by presenting anti-caricatures of the faces. In contrast, the great majority of the patient's fixations, irrespective of her accuracy, were located on the mouth. Overall, these observations confirm the abnormally reduced processing of the upper area of the face in acquired prosopagnosia. Most importantly, the prosopagnosic patient also fixated the area of the eyes spontaneously in between the first and last fixation, ruling out alternative accounts of her behaviour such as, for example, avoidance or failure to orient attention to the eyes, as observed in autistic or bilateral amygdala patients. Rather, they reinforce our proposal of a high-level perceptual account (Caldara et al., 2005), according to which acquired prosopagnosic patients have lost the ability to represent multiple elements of an individual face as a perceptual unit (holistic face perception). To identify a given face, they focus very precisely on local features rather than seeing the whole of a face from its diagnostic centre (i.e., just below the eyes). The upper area of the face is particularly less attended to and less relevant for the prosopagnosic patient because it contains multiple features that require normal holistic perception in order to be the most diagnostic region. Consequently, prosopagnosic patients develop a more robust representation of the mouth, a relatively isolated feature in the face that may contain more information than any single element of the upper face area, and is thus sampled repeatedly for resolving ambiguity in the process of identification.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preservation of mouth region processing in two cases of prosopagnosia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Cindy M Bukach,Richard Le Grand,Martha D Kaiser,Daniel N Bub,James W Tanaka

    Although most adults are considered experts in face recognition, brain trauma can produce a selective loss in this ability, a condition referred to as prosopagnosia. This study examined the processing strategies of prosopagnosic patients LR and HH using the Face Dimensions Test. In this test, featural and configural information in the upper and lower halves of the face was parametrically varied and sensitivity to these changes measured. We found that relative to age-matched control participants, LR and HH exhibited an impaired ability to discriminate differences in the eye region, but a preserved ability to detect featural and configural differences in the mouth region. This pattern of impairment and sparing was demonstrated in tests of direct perception and immediate memory. The obtained findings demonstrate that prosopagnosia does not necessarily cause a global impairment to face perception, but a selective impairment to the perception of information in the upper half of the face.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structure and function in acquired prosopagnosia: lessons from a series of 10 patients with brain damage.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Jason J S Barton

    Acquired prosopagnosia varies in both behavioural manifestations and the location and extent of underlying lesions. We studied 10 patients with adult-onset lesions on a battery of face-processing tests. Using signal detection methods, we found that discriminative power for the familiarity of famous faces was most reduced by bilateral occipitotemporal lesions that involved the fusiform gyri, and better preserved with unilateral right-sided lesions. Tests of perception of facial structural configuration showed severe deficits with lesions that included the right fusiform gyrus, whether unilateral or bilateral. This deficit was most consistent for eye configuration, with some patients performing normally for mouth configuration. Patients with anterior temporal lesions had better configuration perception, though at least one patient showed a more subtle failure to integrate configural data from different facial regions. Facial imagery, an index of facial memories, was severely impaired by bilateral lesions that included the right anterior temporal lobe and marginally impaired by fusiform lesions alone; unilateral right fusiform lesions tended to spare imagery for facial features. These findings suggest that (I) prosopagnosia is more severe with bilateral than unilateral lesions, indicating a minor contribution of the left hemisphere to face recognition, (2) perception of facial configuration critically involves the right fusiform gyrus and (3) access to facial memories is most disrupted by bilateral lesions that also include the right anterior temporal lobe. This supports assertions that more apperceptive variants of prosopagnosia are linked to fusiform damage, whereas more associative variants are linked to anterior temporal damage. Next, we found that behavioural indices of covert recognition correlated with measures of overt familiarity, consistent with theories that covert behaviour emerges from the output of damaged neural networks, rather than alternative pathways. Finally, to probe the face specificity of the prosopagnosic defect, we tested recognition of fruits and vegetables: While face specificity was not found in most of our patients, the data of one patient suggested that this may be possible with more focal lesions of the right fusiform gyrus.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Holistic face processing can be independent of gaze behaviour: evidence from the composite face illusion.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Adéläide de Heering,Bruno Rossion,Chiara Turati,Francesca Simion

    People tend to perceive identical top halves (i.e., above the nose) of two face stimuli as being different when they are aligned with distinct bottom halves. This composite face illusion is generally considered as the most compelling evidence that facial features are integrated into a holistic representation. Here, we recorded eye-movements during the composite face illusion in a delayed matching task of top halves of faces. Behavioural results showed a strong composite face effect, participants making more mistakes and taking longer time to match two identical top halves of faces when they were aligned (vs. misaligned) with different bottom halves. Importantly, fixation sites and eye-movements were virtually identical when the top and bottom parts were aligned (composite illusion) or misaligned (no illusion), indicating that holistic face processing can be independent of gaze behaviour. These findings reinforce the view that holistic representations of individual faces can be extracted early on from information at a relatively coarse scale, independently of overt attention.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Implicit familiarity processing in congenital prosopagnosia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Galia Avidan,Marlene Behrmann

    A particularly interesting and somewhat puzzling finding in the face-processing literature is that, despite the absence of overt recognition of most faces, many patients with acquired prosopagnosia (AP) exhibit evidence of intact covert face recognition of the very same faces. This phenomenon has important implications for the understanding of the mechanism underlying AP and, by extension, the mechanism underlying normal face processing. Here, we set out to examine whether individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) exhibit a similar dissociation between overt and covert face recognition. We first confirmed that all six of our CP individuals were significantly impaired in face recognition in comparison with controls. Participants then completed a matching task with both famous and unknown faces in which they decided whether two consecutive images have the same identity or not. Critically, the level of face familiarity was orthogonal to the task at hand and this enabled us to examine whether the familiarity of a face enhanced identity matching, a finding which would implicate implicit face processing. As expected, the CP individuals were slower and less accurate than the control participants. More importantly, like the controls, the CP individuals were faster and more accurate at matching famous compared with unknown faces. Also, for both groups, matching performance on unrecognized famous faces fell at an intermediate level between performance on explicitly recognized famous faces and faces which are unknown. These results provide the first solid evidence for the existence of implicit familiarity processing in CP and suggest that, despite the marked impairment in explicit face recognition, these individuals still have some familiarity representation which manifests in the form of covert recognition. We discuss possible models to account for the apparent dissociation of overt and covert face processing in CPR.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Face detection in normal and prosopagnosic individuals.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Lúcia Garrido,Brad Duchaine,Ken Nakayama

    Face detection, the process of finding a face in a visual scene, is a critical step in face processing, yet it has received relatively little attention compared with other face processes. The present study addresses this crucial first stage by investigating the effect of inversion on face detection and by examining how individuals with developmental prosopagnosia perform on face detection tasks. Fourteen control participants and fourteen individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DPs) were tested with two face detection tasks: (I) Face versus Non-Face, where arrays of small images were presented, one of which could contain a face and (2) Face versus Face Parts, where a two-tone face could be embedded in a larger array of similar two-tone face parts. On each trial, participants made a speeded response if a face was present in the visual display. On almost all measures both normal and prosopagnosic individuals showed strong inversion effects with significantly worse performance with inverted faces. This shows that the simple task of detection can show inversion effects comparable to those seen for other face tasks, including recognition. Finally, while there were prosopagnosics who were well within the normal range for detection, there were significant group differences, particularly for the case of the Face versus Face Parts, where prosopagnosics were worse than controls on upright but not on inverted face detection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognitive heterogeneity in genetically based prosopagnosia: a family study.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Laura Schmalzl,Romina Palermo,Max Coltheart

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a selective difficulty in recognizing familiar faces that is present from birth. There is mounting evidence for a familial factor in CP, possibly due to a simple autosomal inheritance pattern. However, potential candidate genes remain to be established, and the question whether genetically based CP is a single trait, or a cluster of related subtypes differing in the pattern of impairments to specific components of the face-processing system, remains unanswered. In addition, since the great majority of so far described cases with CP were adult at the time of investigation, it remains unknown which specific aspects of face processing are impaired in small children with CP. Here we present the first study that specifically addresses these questions by elucidating the specific mechanisms underlying face-recognition impairments in seven individuals with CP (aged 4-87 years) belonging to four generations of the same family. Our results indicate that genetically based CP is not a single trait but a cluster of related subtypes, since the pattern of impairments to specific components of the face-processing system varies in individuals belonging to the same family. In addition, we show that the heterogeneity of the cognitive profile in CP with respect to specific aspects of face processing is apparent from early childhood.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural and genetic foundations of face recognition and prosopagnosia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Thomas Grüter,Martina Grüter,Claus-Christian Carbon

    Faces are of essential importance for human social life. They provide valuable information about the identity, expression, gaze, health, and age of a person. Recent face-processing models assume highly interconnected neural structures between different temporal, occipital, and frontal brain areas with several feedback loops. A selective deficit in the visual learning and recognition of faces is known as prosopagnosia, which can be found both in acquired and congenital form. Recently, a hereditary sub-type of congenital prosopagnosia with a very high prevalence rate of 2.5% has been identified. Recent research results show that hereditary prosopagnosia is a clearly circumscribed face-processing deficit with a characteristic set of clinical symptoms. Comparing face processing of people of prosopagnosia with that of controls can help to develop a more conclusive and integrated model of face processing. Here, we provide a summary of the current state of face processing research. We also describe the different types of prosopagnosia and present the set of typical symptoms found in the hereditary type. Finally, we will discuss the implications for future face recognition research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Face and gaze processing in Prader-Willi syndrome.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    H Halit,S J Grice,R Bolton,M H Johnson

    A number of developmental disorders of genetic origin show atypical aspects of face processing. However, little is known about face processing in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). PWS is of specific interest because it has two modes of inheritance (paternally derived deletion, DEL; maternal uniparental disomy, UPD) only one of which (UPD) is associated with an increased risk of autistic symptomology. We conducted electrophysiological (ERP) and behavioural measurements of face and eye-gaze processing in individuals with PWS derived from both modes of inheritance. Our hypothesis that UPD PWS would show a pattern of deficits resembling those seen in autism was only partially confirmed. Although some individuals from both groups showed deficits, as a whole the UPD group (N=8) and the DEL group (N=8) did not differ on behavioural measures of face processing or autistic symptoms. In contrast, the effect of face orientation and gaze direction on the amplitude of the N170 ERP component differed between the two PWS sub-types. Thus, while the behavioural tests did not discriminate between the UPD and deletion forms of the syndrome, electrophysiological measures of face processing did differentiate the groups.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exploring face perception in disorders of development: evidence from Williams syndrome and autism.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Deborah M Riby,Gwyneth Doherty-Sneddon,Vicki Bruce

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and autism are characterized by different social phenotypes but have been said to show similar atypicalities of face-processing style. Although the structural encoding of faces may be similarly atypical in these two developmental disorders, there are clear differences in overall face skills. The inclusion of both populations in the same study can address how the profile of face skills varies across disorders. The current paper explored the processing of identity, eye-gaze, lipreading, and expressions of emotion using the same participants across face domains. The tasks had previously been used to make claims of a modular structure to face perception in typical development. Participants with WS (N=15) and autism (N=20) could be dissociated from each other, and from individuals with general developmental delay, in the domains of eye-gaze and expression processing. Individuals with WS were stronger at these skills than individuals with autism. Even if the structural encoding of faces appears similarly atypical in these groups, the overall profile of face skills, as well as the underlying architecture of face perception, varies greatly. The research provides insights into typical and atypical models of face perception in WS and autism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Changing abilities in recognition of unfamiliar face photographs through childhood and adolescence: performance on a test of non-verbal immediate memory (Warrington RMF) from 6 to 16 years.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    K Lawrence,D Bernstein,R Pearson,W Mandy,R Campbell,D Skuse

    A commonly used test of non-verbal memory, which measures recognition for unfamiliar face pictures, was developed by Warrington (1984), the Recognition Memory for Faces (RMF) test. The task has been widely used in adults in relation to neurological impairment of face recognition. We examined the relationship of RMF scores to age in 500 young people aged between 6 and 16 years. A.linear relationship obtained between 6 and 10 years, followed by a 'plateau' between the ages of 10 and 13, followed by further improvement. Abilities on the test correlated with both verbal and non-verbal intelligence, but the nonlinear function relating age and RMF survived partialling for intelligence in the younger age groups. The improvement of the adolescents compared with older children also survived partialling for IQ. We found no significant influence of gender or reported pubertal status (which was not obtained for all participants) on RMF once age was taken into account. Performance on other face-processing tasks (emotion classification and accuracy in line of sight detection) correlated significantly, if moderately, with RMF scores. Despite its age and imperfections, RMF test may nevertheless be a useful indicator of 'face expertise' in a developmental context.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Infant preference for female faces occurs for same- but not other-race faces.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Paul C Quinn,Lesley Uttley,Kang Lee,Alan Gibson,Michael Smith,Alan M Slater,Olivier Pascalis

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the question of how infants respond to the social attributes of race and gender information in faces. This work has demonstrated that by 3 months of age, infants will respond preferentially to same-race faces and faces depicting the gender of the primary caregiver. In the current study, we investigated emergence of the female face preference for same- versus other-race faces to examine whether the determinants of preference for face gender and race are independent or interactive in young infants. In Expt I, 3-month-old Caucasian infants displayed a preference for female over male faces when the faces were Caucasian, but not when the faces were Asian. In Expt 2, new-born Caucasian infants did not demonstrate a preference for female over male faces for Caucasian faces. The results are discussed in terms of a face prototype that becomes progressively tuned as it is structured by the interaction of the gender and race of faces that are experienced during early development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Face perception: a very special issue.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Andrew W Young,Edward H F De Haan,Russell M Bauer

    The perception of a face allows us to recognize the person, infer his or her emotional state, better understand what the person is saying, and derive general information, such as age and gender. This unique visual stimulus has generated a wealth of research, and subsequently theoretical and methodological debate. This special issue brings together 16 original papers that show the extraordinary diversity and fruitfulness of the approaches now being pursued. They are aimed at understanding different aspects of face perception in populations ranging from healthy children to adults with brain lesions and with techniques covering the entire spectrum from paper-and-pencil tests to functional brain imaging. Together, these contributions provide an insightful overview of the current state of research on face perception and exemplify the questions that dominate the field. To one such question, whether 'face perception' is a special issue in the broad field of the cognitive neurosciences, the answer is clearly yes!

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is short-term memory involved in decision making? Evidence from a short-term memory patient.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Marta Gozzi,Costanza Papagno

    It is reasonable to suggest that working memory (WM; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) is involved in decision making, as decision making is dependent on the ability to remember and update past choices and outcomes. However, contradictory results have been reported in the literature concerning the role of two of its components, namely the central executive and the phonological loop. In order to investigate the role of these components in the decision-making process, we tested a patient with intact central executive but impaired phonological loop on a laboratory decision-making task involving hypothetical gambles (gambling task, GT). When tested in a no-load condition (simple keypress task), her performance was not significantly different from that of matched controls. We also verified whether her performance would be affected differently by memory-load when compared with control subjects. The memory task (holding a string of letters in memory) loaded WM without incurring number-number interference. When the memory-load was imposed during the GT, both the patient and the controls showed a decline in performance, but the strategy they adopted differed. Possible explanations are discussed. In conclusion, our results suggest that the phonological loop is not directly involved in decision making.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamic size-change of peri-hand space through tool-use: spatial extension or shift of the multi-sensory area.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    S Bonifazi,A Farnè,L Rinaldesi,E Làdavas

    Several studies in humans and non-human primates have shown that tool-use can expand near peripersonal space (Farnè & Làdavas, 2000; Iriki, Tanaka, & Iwamura, 1996). In humans, the extension of the near peripersonal space is revealed by an increase in the severity of cross-modal extinction caused by visual stimulation at the distal edge of a rake after its use as a reaching tool. The crucial question addressed here concerns whether the dynamic re-sizing of the peri-hand space in humans constitutes a real spatial expansion of visual-tactile peri-hand area along the tool axis. Alternatively, it could constitute a shift of the integrative area from the hand towards the distal edge of the tool, or the formation of a novel visual-tactile integrative area at the same distal location (Holmes, Calvert, & Spence, 2004). We contrasted the alternative predictions made by these hypotheses in a group of RBD patients by probing, at different locations along the tool axis, the changes induced by tool-use on cross-modal extinction. By assessing the visual-tactile extinction near the hand, midway along the tool, and at the distal edge of the tool we found an increase in visual-tactile extinction after tool-use both at the middle and the distal location along the tool axis. In contrast, no change intervened at the hand proximity. These findings support the view that the tool-use dependent re-mapping of peri-hand space in humans consists of a continuous elongation of visual-tactile peri-hand area from the hand towards the tip of the tool.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fitness to drive following cerebral pathology: the Rookwood Driving Battery as a tool for predicting on-road driving performance.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Pat McKenna,Vaughan Bell

    The use of neuropsychological testing to determine fitness to drive in people with neuropathology is likely to be an increasingly attractive alternative to on-road testing for many candidates for assessment. The Rookwood Driving Battery has been shown to have good predictive value for determining some who are likely to fail an on-road test in early studies. This study replicated earlier research by examining the predictive value and theoretical validity of the battery on a larger sample of 391 participants, as well as extending earlier analysis by examining the effect of older age (over 70 years) and the interaction between age and pathology on battery and on-road performance. The battery demonstrated good positive and negative predictive values for predicting on-road performance. There were significant effects of older age on both the Rookwood Battery performance and the on-road test, with older adults performing significantly poorer on both. There was no interaction between age and pathology on the Rookwood Battery but on-road age interacted with some pathologies to produce significantly poorer performances. Furthermore, correlation and regression analysis indicate that the battery is a powerful instrument that encompasses tests of core neuropsychological functions needed for driving.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Inhibitory control and affective valence processing in dementia of the Alzheimer type.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Nicholas A Doninger,Frederick W Bylsma

    Emotional and traditional Stroop effects were contrasted in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-equated, non-demented individuals to examine (a) differences in the speed of processing emotional versus neutral words; and (b) the extent to which the emotional valence influences interference effects. Individuals with moderate AD experienced larger traditional Stroop interference effects than did healthy elderly or individuals with mild AD. Emotional Stroop effects were evident among individuals with moderate AD and significantly greater than elderly and individuals with mild AD who exhibited minimal effects. For negative words, significant differences were only observed between individuals with moderate AD and healthy elderly. Emotional Stroop effects among individuals with AD were not statistically different for positive and negative words. The impact of stimulus intensity level and AD-associated changes to the prefrontal cortex and amygdala on emotional Stroop effects requires further investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emotion and consciousness in adolescent psychogenic amnesia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Nadine Reinhold,Hans J Markowitsch

    Psychogenic amnesia is characterized by an impaired retrieval process of stored information, while the acquisition of new information is conserved. In addition, patients with this condition may display a state of belle indifference towards their own situation and may manifest deficits in emotional processing. So far, these conditions were noted cursorily in previous case descriptions, but have not been investigated thoroughly. We report data on two female juvenile patients that were examined with neuropsychological, including remote memory tests. No impairments in cognitive or anterograde mnestic functions but, as expected, severe disturbances in remote memory tests were found. Additionally, we administered tests to assess basic and higher emotional processing functions. Both patients showed evidence of impaired higher and, though to a lesser extent, basic emotional processing skills. Finally, we discuss the contribution of (self-)consiousness, the current emotional state and emotional processing skills as possible factors, maintaining the condition of psychogenic amnesia.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychometrics of a simple method for scoring organizational approach on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Steven R Smith,Jenss Chang,Katrina J Schnoebelen,Jordan W Edwards,Amanda M Servesko,Sara J Walker

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) is a commonly used neuropsychological measure that assesses visuospatial processing, planning and visuomotor integration. Using samples of clinically referred (N = 20) and non-clinical (N = 44) adults, the present study examines the psychometric properties of a simple method of scoring organizational approach to the ROCF. Developed by Savage et al. (1999) and refined by Deckersbach et al. (2000), this simple 5-point organizational scoring system allows for the quick and accurate assessment of organizational quality. Results suggest that this system is internally consistent and can be scored reliably. Correlations with measures of visuomotor integration and accuracy of rendition after a delay provide evidence of convergent validity. Organization scores were independent of both Verbal and Performance IQ estimates. However, discriminant validity analyses found that high-functioning patients referred for a neuropsychological assessment did not score significantly different from a non-clinical sample, raising questions about the diagnostic utility of this measure with less impaired populations. Implications for clinical practice are discussed, as are directions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Elevated emotional reactivity in affective but not cognitive components of theory of mind: a psychophysiological study.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    E Kalbe,F Grabenhorst,M Brand,J Kessler,R Hilker,H J Markowitsch

    Recent research proposes that theory of mind (ToM), that is the ability to infer other people's mental state, is a multidimensional construct and that a distinction may be made between affective and cognitive ToM. We examined whether these two subcomponents of ToM correspond to different levels in skin conductance responses (SCRs). Seventeen healthy adults listened to ten affective (faux pas) ToM stories, ten cognitive ToM stories and ten non-ToM stories. Results demonstrated significantly elevated SCR for affective ToM as compared with cognitive ToM and control stories, with no differences in SCR levels in the latter two story types. We discuss the possible underlying mechanisms for these differential psychophysiological correlates of affective and cognitive ToM processing, and suggest further investigations especially in clinical populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 'Directional apraxia': a unitary account of mirror writing following brain injury or as found in normal young children.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-03-01
    Sergio Della Sala,Roberto Cubelli

    Mirror writing refers to the production of individual letters, whole words or sentences in reverse direction. Unintentional mirror writing has been observed in young children and brain-damaged people and interpreted as the manifestation of different cognitive impairments. We report on a mirror writing patient following left hemisphere stroke and the mirror writing phenomena in one sample of children learning to write. We propose a unitary account of mirror writing as the unavailability of the appropriate movement direction representation, either because the right configuration has yet to be specified fully (children learning to write) or because of its damage (acquired brain injury). For this reason, we propose that the lack of directional information relevant to writing be labelled 'directional apraxia'.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Event-related oscillations (EROs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) comparison in facial expression recognition.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-09-01
    Michela Balconi,Uberto Pozzoli

    The study aims to explore the significance of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related brain oscillations (EROs) (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma power) in response to emotional (fear, happiness, sadness) when compared with neutral faces during 180-250 post-stimulus time interval. The ERP results demonstrated that the emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N2). Moreover, EEG measures showed that motivational significance of face (emotional vs. neutral) could modulate the amplitude of EROs, but only for some frequency bands (i.e. theta and gamma bands). In a second phase, we considered the resemblance of the two EEG measures by a regression analysis. It revealed that theta and gamma oscillations mainly effect as oscillation activity at the N2 latency. Finally, a posterior increased power of theta was found for emotional faces.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bimanual circling in deafferented patients: evidence for a role of visual forward models.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-09-01
    Franz Mechsner,Prisca Stenneken,Jonathan Cole,Gisa Aschersleben,Wolfgang Prinz

    The present study investigated the role of ideation and visual feedback, and their interaction in movement control in the absence of somatosensory feedback, with the hypothesis that visual imagery and internal visual models may play a crucial role in performance even without feedback. Two chronically deafferented participants, GL and IW, circled bimanually two occluded cranks first without vision and then with hand-congruent and hand-incongruent visual feedback provided by visible flags. Without vision, GL was unable to circle the cranks. In contrast, IW performed spontaneously a symmetric pattern. Again without feedback, IW performed an instructed symmetric crank pattern well, but was unable to perform anti-phase cranking. With hand-congruent visual feedback, GL and IW were able to perform both symmetric and anti-phase movements, with symmetry being more accurate. Visual feedback during preceding trials made possible trials without visual feedback in GL and improved anti-phase trials in IW. Frequency-transformed incongruent visual feedback resulted in poor performance in part due to unsuitable hand-related strategies. However, IW improved in the latter task after detailed explanations of the condition. In conclusion, we suggest that both participants use visual imagery and visual forward models to control their hand movements. Visual updating of the forward model also improves performance with no vision. In addition, IW seemed to have been able to move from a focus on hand position to one on the transformed visual feedback to improve movement control in the incongruent feedback/movement condition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A novel technique for the quantitative assessment of apraxic deficits: application to individuals with mild cognitive impairment.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-09-01
    Sebastian J Crutch,Martin N Rossor,Elizabeth K Warrington

    The purpose of this study was to apply two novel quantitative assessments of apraxia to issues surrounding the cognitive profile of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, it was wished to determine whether such quantitative assessment techniques can detect minor degrees of impairment at a stage in the putative disease process before apraxia has become clinically obvious. A total of 23 individuals with MCI and 75 healthy controls were assessed on two 3-item sequential movement tasks involving either meaningful or meaningless actions. A traditional rating scale assessment of gesture-to-command was also administered. MCI patients took significantly longer than control subjects to complete the sequential movement tasks despite unimpaired performance on the traditional gesture production tasks. Furthermore, retrospective analyses revealed that, at the group level, only MCI patients who subsequently proceeded to a clinical diagnosis of AD were significantly slower than controls at the initial assessment. These findings provide the first evidence that the neuropsychological deficits associated with MCI may extend to the domain of praxic functions. Consequently, this work contributes to the growing literature questioning the clinical usefulness of the concept of MCI and the appropriateness of current diagnostic criteria for distinguishing this condition from mild AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developmental letter position dyslexia.
    J. Neuropsychol. (IF 2.468) Pub Date : 2007-09-01
    Naama Friedmann,Einav Rahamim

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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