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  • Processing of Real‐World, Dynamic Natural Stimuli in Autism is Linked to Corticobasal Function
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Paula J. Webster; Chris Frum; Amy Kurowski‐Burt; Christopher E. Bauer; Sijin Wen; Jad H. Ramadan; Kathryn A. Baker; James W. Lewis

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been shown to perceive everyday sensory information differently compared to peers without autism. Research examining these sensory differences has primarily utilized nonnatural stimuli or natural stimuli using static photos with few having utilized dynamic, real‐world nonverbal stimuli. Therefore, in this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain activation of individuals with high‐functioning autism when viewing and listening to a video of a real‐world scene (a person bouncing a ball) and anticipating the bounce. We investigated both multisensory and unisensory processing and hypothesized that individuals with ASD would show differential activation in (a) primary auditory and visual sensory cortical and association areas, and in (b) cortical and subcortical regions where auditory and visual information is integrated (e.g. temporal‐parietal junction, pulvinar, superior colliculus). Contrary to our hypotheses, the whole‐brain analysis revealed similar activation between the groups in these brain regions. However, compared to controls the ASD group showed significant hypoactivation in the left intraparietal sulcus and left putamen/globus pallidus. We theorize that this hypoactivation reflected underconnectivity for mediating spatiotemporal processing of the visual biological motion stimuli with the task demands of anticipating the timing of the bounce event. The paradigm thus may have tapped into a specific left‐lateralized aberrant corticobasal circuit or loop involved in initiating or inhibiting motor responses. This was consistent with a dual “when versus where” psychophysical model of corticobasal function, which may reflect core differences in sensory processing of real‐world, nonverbal natural stimuli in ASD. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Treatment of Adults with Autism and Major Depressive Disorder Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An Open Label Pilot Study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    McLeod Frampton Gwynette; Danielle W. Lowe; Erin A. Henneberry; Gregory L. Sahlem; Melanie Gail Wiley; Hussam Alsarraf; Sarah Brice Russo; Jane E. Joseph; Philipp M. Summers; Laura Lohnes; Mark S. George

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), which can severely impair functioning and quality of life. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, which is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared for the treatment of MDD in adults. Despite demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of depression, there are limited data on the use of rTMS in patients with ASD and comorbid MDD. We hypothesized that a standard rTMS protocol for MDD would reduce depressive symptoms for adults with ASD and MDD. Secondarily, we investigated whether this treatment would also reduce core ASD symptoms. Participants of 18–65 years old with ASD and MDD without any medication changes in the last month were eligible for this open‐label trial. Participants underwent 25 sessions of rTMS (figure‐of‐eight coil, 100–120% resting motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 pulses per session) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thirteen participants enrolled in the study, with two withdrawing due to tolerability, and one excluded from analysis. Overall, side effects were mild and rTMS was well tolerated. The Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM‐D17) improved 13.5 points (IQR 5–15), and 40% of participants achieved remission (HAM‐D17 ≤ 7) after rTMS treatment. Informant clinical scales of core symptoms of autism also suggested improvement with rTMS, though no change was observed by the participants themselves. Thus, this open‐label trial suggests that high‐frequency rTMS is well tolerated by adults with autism and MDD, with improvement in depressive symptoms and possible effects on core autism symptoms. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Beyond intervention into daily life: A systematic review of generalisation following social communication interventions for young children with autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Sophie Carruthers; Andrew Pickles; Vicky Slonims; Patricia Howlin; Tony Charman

    Researchers have generally considered autistic individuals to have difficulties generalising learned skills across novel contexts. Successful generalisation is necessary for an intervention to have benefits in everyday life beyond the original learning environment. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of early social communication interventions for children with autism in order to explore generalisation and its measurement. We identified nine RCTs that provided evidence of initial target learning and measured generalisation, of which eight demonstrated at least some successful generalisation across people, settings, and/or activities. The findings did not support the widely reported generalisation ‘difficulties’ associated with autism. However, generalisation was not consistent across all skills within studies, and one study found no generalisation despite evidence for initial target learning within the intervention context. In general, there are few methodologically sound social communication intervention studies exploring generalisation in autism and no consensus on how it should be measured. In particular, failure to demonstrate initial learning of target skills within the intervention setting and an absence of formal mediation analyses of the hypothesised mechanisms limit current research. We outline a framework within which measurement of generalisation can be considered for use in future trials. To maximise the effectiveness of interventions, the field needs to gain a better understanding of the nature of generalisation among autistic individuals and what additional strategies may further enhance learning. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–17. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Racial Disparities in a Sample of Inpatient Youth with ASD
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Helen M. Nichols; Sarah Dababnah; Brittany Troen; Jessica Vezzoli; Rajneesh Mahajan; Carla A. Mazefsky

    Although more than one in 10 youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is admitted to a psychiatric facility before they reach adulthood, the inpatient population is underrepresented in research. Furthermore, Black youth are more likely to be psychiatrically hospitalized, compared to their White counterparts. Yet, prior research has been inconsistent in potential racial differences in ASD symptoms and severity. This study examined differences in the symptom presentation of psychiatrically hospitalized Black and White youth with ASD. Researchers collected data as part of a larger study of youth admitted to one of six US specialized inpatient psychiatric units between 2013 and 2017. We used bivariate and multivariate models to analyze the data. The study included 654 youth diagnosed with ASD, with an average age of 13 years. While bivariate analyses found that Black youth had lower written language and daily living skills and more impaired social affect and inappropriate speech, multivariate regression models suggested that overall ability level and age may be driving these differences. Specifically, the only variables that significantly predicted adaptive functioning (written language, daily living) and behavioral profiles (social affect, inappropriate speech) were verbal ability, IQ, and age. Race was not a significant predictor in any of the models. Cultural diversity and competency are vital to the identification and treatment of ASD clinical care. Thus, understanding the role race may play in early detection and accurate diagnosis is important to improving ASD identification, diagnosis, and treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Birth weight and autism spectrum disorder: A population‐based nested case–control study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ziv Talmi; David Mankuta; Raanan Raz

    Low birth weight (<2,500 g) and preterm birth (<37 weeks) were found to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however, the data regarding the entire birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) range are inconclusive. In this population nested case–control study, based on the Israeli National Insurance Institute records, we aimed to estimate the associations in the Israeli population. The study population included all children born between 2000 and 2012 and diagnosed with ASD (N = 12,635 cases), and a random 20% sample of children born in the same period who were not diagnosed with ASD (N = 369,548 controls). We used multiple logistic regression models to calculate the risk of ASD for each BW and GA category, adjusted for covariates (child sex, maternal age, paternal age, population group, maternal wage, paternal wage, having a sibling with ASD, multiple gestation and socioeconomic status). BW < 3,000 g and GA < 39 weeks were associated with higher risk of ASD, including BW of 2,500–3,000 g (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12–1.24, in comparison to the 3,000–3,500 g category) and GA of 37 & 38 weeks (AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.25–1.45 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI 1.06–1.20, respectively; in comparison to GA of 40 weeks). To account for the high correlation between GA and BW, we modeled BW percentiles for gestational age and found that the BW < 20th percentile was associated with an increased risk of ASD (AOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.19). These results demonstrate that associations of ASD with BW and GA are not limited to commonly used clinical cutoffs. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Exploring Developmental and Behavioral Heterogeneity among Preschoolers with ASD: A Cluster Analysis on Principal Components
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Shuting Zheng; Kara A. Hume; Harriet Able; Somer L. Bishop; Brian A. Boyd

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with heterogeneous levels of abilities and deficits. The identification of subgroups within a specific age range could be useful for understanding prognosis and treatment planning. We applied Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) with a sample of 188 preschoolers with ASD and identified three distinct subgroups based on multiple developmental and behavioral domains. Cluster 1 was characterized by relatively high cognitive, language and adaptive abilities, and relatively low levels of social symptoms, repetitive behaviors, and sensory issues within the sample. Cluster 2 was characterized by similarly high cognitive, language and adaptive abilities compared to Cluster 1, but more severe social deficits as well as repetitive and sensory behaviors. Finally, Cluster 3 was characterized by lower cognitive, language and adaptive abilities, and more severe social, repetitive, and sensory symptoms. These findings provide insights into how considering multiple developmental and behavioral domains and core autism symptoms simultaneously can distinguish subgroups of young children with ASD and provide more comprehensive developmental profiles. Moreover, the unique profile of children in Cluster 2 highlighted the usefulness of including different measures and informants when evaluating the abilities and deficits of preschoolers with ASD and the importance of understanding the relationships among different developmental and behavioral factors in this specific population. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Superior Visual Search Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    David A. Edmondson; Pingyu Xia; Rebecca McNally Keehn; Ulrike Dydak; Brandon Keehn

    Although diagnosed on the basis of deficits in social communication and interaction, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is also characterized by superior performance on a variety of visuospatial tasks, including visual search. In neurotypical individuals, region‐specific concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) are associated with individual differences in attention and perception. While it has been hypothesized that ASD may be associated with an excitatory–inhibitory imbalance, it remains unclear how this may contribute to accelerated visual search performance in individuals with ASD. To investigate this, 21 children with ASD and 20 typically developing children participated in a visual search task and a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study to detect neurochemical concentrations, including GABA. Region‐specific neurochemicals were examined in the right frontal eye fields, right temporal–parietal junction (rTPJ), and bilateral visual cortex (VIS). GABA concentrations did not differ between groups; however, in children with ASD, greater GABA concentration in the VIS was related to more efficient search. Additionally, lower VIS GABA levels were also associated with increased social impairment. Finally, we found reduced N‐acetyl aspartate, total creatine, glutamate and glutamine (Glx), GABA/Glx in the rTPJ, suggestive of neuronal dysfunction in a critical network hub. Our results show that GABA concentrations in the VIS are related to efficient search in ASD, thus providing further evidence of enhanced discrimination in ASD. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–13. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The Relationship Between Sensory Reactivity Differences and Anxiety Subtypes in Autistic Children
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Keren MacLennan; Lauren Roach; Teresa Tavassoli

    Autistic children are at greater risk of developing anxiety than their nonautistic peers. Sensory reactivity differences have been implicated as one of the risk factors. Specifically, sensory hyperreactivity has previously been linked to anxiety, including separation anxiety and specific phobia; however, minimal research has explored the influence of sensory hyporeactivity and seeking. Therefore, the present study examined the correlational relationship between sensory reactivity differences and anxiety subtypes in 41 autistic children aged between 3 and 14 years, using parent‐ and self‐reported measures. We found positive correlations between sensory hyperreactivity and total anxiety, separation anxiety and physical injury fears. However, when controlling for autism traits, we found sensory hyperreactivity to be related to physical injury fears and specific phobia, and sensory hyporeactivity to be related to lower total and social anxiety. We found no significant relationships between sensory seeking and anxiety. These results indicate that sensory hyperreactivity and hyporeactivity might be implicated in specific anxiety symptomology. Our results also indicate minimal agreement between parent‐ and self‐reported anxieties, which highlights the limitations of informant reports for anxiety and the pressing need for objective anxiety assessments for autistic children to be developed. Our findings have important implications for limiting the development of anxiety in autistic children and suggest that sensory reactivity differences should be considered when developing targeted interventions for certain anxiety disorders. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–11. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Development of the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Luc Lecavalier; James Bodfish; Clare Harrop; Allison Whitten; Desiree Jones; Jill Pritchett; Richard Faldowski; Brian Boyd

    Behavior inflexibility (BI) refers to rigid patterns of behavior that contrast with the need to be adaptable to changing environmental demands. We developed a parent‐reported outcome measure of BI for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities with a multi‐step iterative process. A pool of 62 candidate items was generated through expert panel feedback, review of existing scales and focus groups. A consensus process was used to generate the final 38 items. Parents of 943 children (age range, 3–18 years; average, 11.4 years; 79% boys) with ASD completed an online survey. One hundred thirty‐three parents rated their child twice within 3 weeks (average = 16.5 days). A series of factor analyses suggested that the 38 items measured a single construct. Scores had a weak correlation with level of functioning (−0.12) and did not differ based on sex. Scores had a negligible correlation with age (−0.07), although measurement invariance was not supported. The mean total score for the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale (BIS) was normally distributed. Internal consistency was α = 0.97 and temporal stability was r = 0.92. Correlations with parent ratings on the subscales of the Repetitive Behavior Scale—Revised varied from 0.48 to 0.89. The correlation with parent ratings on the Social Communication Questionnaire total score was 0.52. Our data show that BI in children with ASD ranges significantly from mild to severe and that the 38‐item BIS is valid and reliable. Autism Res 2020, 00: 1–11. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research,Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Learning of skilled movements via imitation in ASD
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Danielle McAuliffe; Yi Zhao; Ajay S. Pillai; Katarina Ament; Jack Adamek; Brian S. Caffo; Stewart H. Mostofsky; Joshua B. Ewen

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of altered performance of a range of skills, including social/communicative and motor skills. It is unclear whether this altered performance results from atypical acquisition or learning of the skills or from atypical “online” performance of the skills. Atypicalities of skilled actions that require both motor and cognitive resources, such as abnormal gesturing, are highly prevalent in ASD and are easier to study in a laboratory context than are social/communicative skills. Imitation has long been known to be impaired in ASD; because learning via imitation is a prime method by which humans acquire skills, we tested the hypothesis that children with ASD show alterations in learning novel gestures via imitation. Eighteen participants with ASD and IQ > 80, ages 8–12.9 years, and 19 typically developing peers performed a task in which they watched a video of a model performing a novel, meaningless arm/hand gesture and copied the gesture. Each gesture video/copy sequence was repeated 4–6 times. Eight gestures were analyzed. Examination of learning trajectories revealed that while children with ASD made nearly as much progress in learning from repetition 1 to repetition 4, the shape of the learning curves differed. Causal modeling demonstrated the shape of the learning curve influenced both the performance of overlearned gestures and autism severity, suggesting that it is in the index of learning mechanisms relevant both to motor skills and to autism core features. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Disparities in Documented Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based on Demographic, Individual, and Service Factors
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Lisa D. Wiggins; Maureen Durkin; Amy Esler; Li‐Ching Lee; Walter Zahorodny; Catherine Rice; Marshalyn Yeargin‐Allsopp; Nicole F. Dowling; Jennifer Hall‐Lande; Michael J. Morrier; Deborah Christensen; Josephine Shenouda; Jon Baio

    The objectives of our study were to (a) report how many children met an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) surveillance definition but had no clinical diagnosis of ASD in health or education records and (b) evaluate differences in demographic, individual, and service factors between children with and without a documented ASD diagnosis. ASD surveillance was conducted in selected areas of Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin. Children were defined as having ASD if sufficient social and behavioral deficits and/or an ASD diagnosis were noted in health and/or education records. Among 4,498 children, 1,135 (25%) had ASD indicators without having an ASD diagnosis. Of those 1,135 children without a documented ASD diagnosis, 628 (55%) were not known to receive ASD services in public school. Factors associated with not having a clinical diagnosis of ASD were non‐White race, no intellectual disability, older age at first developmental concern, older age at first developmental evaluation, special education eligibility other than ASD, and need for fewer supports. These results highlight the importance of reducing disparities in the diagnosis of children with ASD characteristics so that appropriate interventions can be promoted across communities. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–10. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research,Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Efficacy of Social Story Intervention in Training Toothbrushing Skills Among Special‐Care Children With and Without Autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ni Zhou; Hai Ming Wong; Colman McGrath

    Toothbrushing is a routine practice for oral hygiene maintenance. It is also a challenging task for young children with special care needs. In this study, social stories were employed to teach toothbrushing skills for preschool children with special needs. Those children were recruited from the Special Child Care Centers, including 87 children with autism and 94 children without autism. A validated toothbrushing social story was used to demonstrate the toothbrushing procedure for all the recruited children. Parents were encouraged to show the stories to their children before or during their daily toothbrushing. Children's toothbrushing performance, oral hygiene status, and gingival health status were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Toothbrushing performance, oral hygiene, and gingival status of the recruited children were significantly improved after using social stories. Moreover, children with autism showed better oral hygiene status (P = 0.01) and better gingival status (P < 0.001) than their peers without autism. However, there were no significant differences in the toothbrushing performance among children with and without autism. The regression models indicated that the improvement of children's toothbrushing performance and oral health status were associated with children's intellectual functioning and parents' attitudes toward the usefulness of social story intervention. The principal findings suggested that social story intervention could be used to improve toothbrushing skills among children with or without autism, while it was more efficient in improving the oral hygiene status among children with autism. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–9. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • A Physiological Marker of Recognition Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder? ‐ The Pupil Old/New Effect
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Melanie Ring; Dermot M. Bowler; Sebastian B. Gaigg

    This study investigated the pupil Old/New effect in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typical development (TD). Participants studied verbal and visual meaningful and meaningless materials in black and white on a computer screen. Pupil sizes were measured while participants performed a Remember (episodic memory with context)/Know (semantic memory, no context) recognition memory test. ASD compared to TD individuals showed significantly reduced recognition rates for all materials. Both groups showed better memory for visual compared to verbal (picture superiority effect) and meaningful compared to meaningless materials. A pupil size ratio (pupil size for test item divided by baseline) for old (studied) and new (unstudied) materials indicated larger pupils for old compared to new materials only for the TD but not the ASD group. Pupil size in response to old versus new items was positively related to recognition accuracy, confirming that the pupil Old/New effect reflects a memory phenomenon in the ASD group. In addition, this study suggests an involvement of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system in the abnormal hippocampal functioning in ASD. Implications of these findings, as well as their underlying neurophysiology, will be discussed in relation to current theories of memory in ASD. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–14. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Subsequent Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Jennifer L. Ames, Gayle C. Windham, Kristen Lyall, Michelle Pearl, Martin Kharrazi, Cathleen K. Yoshida, Judy Van de Water, Paul Ashwood, Lisa A. Croen

    Hypothyroid conditions in early life, if left untreated, are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including intellectual disability (ID). However, evidence addressing the role of neonatal thyroid hormone insufficiencies in the altered neurobiology underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly among its subphenotypes, is limited. We conducted a population‐based, case–control study among a sample of children born during 2000–2003 in Southern California. We examined neonatal thyroid‐stimulating hormone (TSH) measured during routine newborn screening among children later diagnosed with ASD (n = 518) or ID (n = 145) and general population (GP) controls (n = 399). TSH was further analyzed in relation to ASD subgroups of intellectual ability and onset type (early‐onset ASD vs. ASD with regression) ascertained by expert review of developmental services records. Odds ratios (ORs) of the differences in TSH between groups were obtained from multivariate logistic regression. We examined neonatal TSH as continuous (ln‐transformed) and as quartiles. We found no association between continuous neonatal TSH levels and ASD (adj‐OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.79–1.26) nor ID (adj‐OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.73–1.40). Among ASD subphenotypes, we observed a suggestive inverse trend between ASD with regression and TSH, though the association only reached statistical significance in the highest TSH quartile (adj‐OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26–0.98). While there was little evidence that neonatal TSH is related to overall ASD risk, more work is needed to understand the influence of thyroid hormones on ASD subphenotypes. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Audiovisual temporal integration and rapid temporal recalibration in adolescents and adults: Age‐related changes and its correlation with autistic traits
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Han‐yu Zhou, Li‐juan Shi, Han‐xue Yang, Eric F. C. Cheung, Raymond C. K. Chan

    Temporal structure is a key factor in determining the relatedness of multisensory stimuli. Stimuli that are close in time are more likely to be integrated into a unified perceptual representation. To investigate the age‐related developmental differences in audiovisual temporal integration and rapid temporal recalibration, we administered simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks to a group of adolescents (11–14 years) and young adults (18–28 years). No age‐related changes were found in the width of the temporal binding window within which participants are highly likely to combine multisensory stimuli. The main distinction between adolescents and adults was audiovisual temporal recalibration. Although participants of both age groups could rapidly recalibrate based on the previous trial for speech stimuli (i.e., syllable utterances), only adults but not adolescents showed short‐term recalibration for simple and non‐speech stimuli. In both adolescents and adults, no significant correlation was found between audiovisual temporal integration ability and autistic or schizotypal traits. These findings provide new information on the developmental trajectory of basic multisensory function and may have implications for neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism) with altered audiovisual temporal integration. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • The relation between preference for predictability and autistic traits
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Judith Goris, Marcel Brass, Charlotte Cambier, Jeroen Delplanque, Jan R. Wiersema, Senne Braem

    A common idea about individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is that they have an above‐average preference for predictability and sameness. However, surprisingly little research has gone toward this core symptom, and some studies suggest the preference for predictability in ASD might be less general than commonly assumed. Here, we investigated this important symptom of ASD using three different paradigms, which allowed us to measure preference for predictability under well‐controlled experimental conditions. Specifically, we used a dimensional approach by investigating correlations between autistic traits (as measured with the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient and Social Responsiveness Scale in a neurotypical population) and the scores on three different tasks. The “music preference” task assessed preferences for tone sequences that varied in predictability. The “perceptual fluency” task required participants to evaluate stimuli that were preceded by a similar versus dissimilar subliminally presented prime. The “gambling” task presented four decks of cards that had equal outcome probabilities but varied in predictability. We observed positive correlations between autistic traits and a preference for predictability in both the music preference and perceptual fluency task. We did not find our hypothesized correlation with gambling behavior but did observe a post hoc correlation showing that participants with more autistic traits were faster to choose the predictable deck. Together, these findings show that a relation between autistic traits and preference for predictability can be observed in a standardized lab environment, and should be considered an important first step toward a better, more mechanistic understanding of insistence on sameness in ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Identification of Pediatric Autism Spectrum Disorder Cases Using Health Administrative Data
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Celeste D. Bickford, Tim F. Oberlander, Nancy E. Lanphear, Whitney M. Weikum, Patricia A. Janssen, Helene Ouellette‐Kuntz, Gillian E. Hanley

    Administrative data are frequently used to identify Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cases in epidemiological studies. However, validation studies on this mode of case ascertainment have lacked access to high‐quality clinical diagnostic data and have not followed published reporting guidelines. We report on the diagnostic accuracy of using readily available health administrative data for pediatric ASD case ascertainment. The validation cohort included almost all the ASD‐positive children born in British Columbia, Canada from April 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009 and consisted of 8,670 children in total. 4,079 ASD‐positive and 2,787 ASD‐negative children were identified using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview‐Revised (ADI‐R) assessments done through the British Columbia Autism Assessment Network (BCAAN). An additional 1,804 ADOS/ADI‐R assessed ASD‐positive children were identified using Ministry of Education records. This prospectively collected clinical data (the diagnostic gold standard) was then linked to each child's physician billing and hospital discharge data. The diagnostic accuracy of 11 algorithms that used the administrative data to assign ASD case status was assessed. For all algorithms, high positive predictive values (PPVs) were observed alongside low values for other measures of diagnostic accuracy illustrating that PPVs alone are not an adequate measure of diagnostic accuracy. We show that British Columbia's health administrative data cannot reliably be used to discriminate between children with ASD and children with other developmental disorders. Utilizing these data may result in misclassification bias. Methodologically sound, region‐specific validation studies are needed to support the use of administrative data for ASD case ascertainment. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Social and Object Attention Is Influenced by Biological Sex and Toy Gender‐Congruence in Children With and Without Autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Clare Harrop, Desiree R. Jones, Noah J. Sasson, Shuting Zheng, Sallie W. Nowell, Julia Parish‐Morris

    Emerging research suggests social attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) girls is enhanced relative to ASD boys but may also be affected by the type of social and nonsocial content presented. This study examined how biological sex and gender norms interact to influence visual attention in 79 school‐aged children observing scenes that included gender‐associated toys and actors of both sexes. Attention to social (faces) and object activity (hands with toys) stimuli was measured. Previously described distinctions between social attention in ASD boys and girls were replicated, with ASD girls looking more at faces than ASD boys. Irrespective of diagnosis, males and females attended more to actors that shared their same sex, and attended more to toys with gender‐associations that were consistent with their own sex, suggesting that social and object salience increases for children under sex‐consistent conditions. Importantly, ASD and typically developing (TD) children increased their gaze to faces when male actors were shown playing with female‐associated toys, suggesting that both groups of children are sensitive to societal messages about the acceptability of males playing with female‐associated toys. Our findings provide further evidence of heightened attention to faces in ASD girls relative to ASD boys, and indicate that social attention in ASD and TD children is influenced by who (male or female actor) and what (male‐ or female‐associated toy) is being observed. Collectively, these results present a nuanced profile of attention in ASD that adds to a growing body of research indicating subtle phenotypic differences in ASD girls that may impact identification, assessment, and intervention. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • The Self‐Construal Scale: A Potential Tool for Predicting Subjective Well‐Being of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Sachie Kaneko, Takahiro A. Kato, Manabu Makinodan, Takashi Komori, Rio Ishida, Naoko Kishimoto, Masato Takahashi, Yuka Yasuda, Ryota Hashimoto, Hidemi Iwasaka, Ayumi Tanaka, Yukiko Uchida, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshifumi Kishimoto

    Despite accumulating evidence that culture shapes the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no studies have yet applied the Self‐Construal Scale to individuals with ASD. We compared the self‐construals (measured using the Self‐Construal Scale) of 31 high‐functioning Japanese individuals with ASD with those of 60 typically developing (TD) individuals. We also examined how the self‐construals of individuals with ASD related to their intelligence quotient, adverse childhood experiences, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD symptoms during adulthood and preschool years, and subjective well‐being. Individuals with ASD were more likely to display independent self‐construals than were TD individuals; unexpectedly, however, a substantial proportion of individuals with ASD (43.8%) displayed relatively interdependent self‐construals. Among individuals with ASD, self‐construals were significantly associated with ASD symptoms during preschool years, and with satisfaction of the need for autonomy and frustration of the need for relatedness. Evaluating self‐construals can help predict the subjective well‐being of high‐functioning individuals with ASD. Moreover, the Self‐Construal Scale may be useful for understanding the heterogeneous phenotypes of ASD, based on its association with autistic symptoms during preschool years, suggesting that the scale is a potential tool to develop efficient interventions for high‐functioning individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Exploring Anxiety at Home, School, and in the Community Through Self‐Report From Children on the Autism Spectrum
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Dawn Adams, Kate Simpson, Deb Keen

    Research investigating anxiety in children on the autism spectrum usually reports caregiver rather than self‐report perspectives. This study aimed to document children's own descriptions of their anxiety symptomatology by combining profiles on a standardized autism‐specific self‐report measure of anxiety (ASC‐ASD‐C) with the answers from closed‐ and open‐answer questions about anxiety across home, school, and community settings. Across the sample of 113 children on the spectrum aged 6–14 years, the two most frequently endorsed items on the ASC‐ASD‐C were from the Uncertainty and Performance Anxiety subscales, and the least endorsed were both from the Anxious Arousal subscale. Almost all (96.5%) of the children on the spectrum reported experiencing anxiety in at least one setting, with 40.7% reporting anxiety in all three contexts (home, school, and community). Approximately half of the sample felt their anxiety goes unrecognized by others at school and almost 60% felt it was unrecognized by others when out in the community. The proportion of children reporting having someone to help reduce their anxiety differed across home (86%), school (76%), and community (45%) settings. This highlights the importance of understanding anxiety and its impact, not only within the context of autism but also for each particular child. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Person‐reference in autism spectrum disorder: Developmental trends and the role of linguistic input
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Mihaela Barokova, Helen Tager‐Flusberg

    Past research has provided mixed evidence of the nature and difficulty with personal pronouns of children with autism spectrum disorder. No study to date has examined the nature of person‐reference in autism, more broadly, by looking at referential language both in terms of who is being referred to (self vs. other) and how (words with shifting reference: personal pronouns, vs. fixed reference: names and nouns). Furthermore, the role of linguistic input specifically in the domain of referential language in autism has not been investigated before. We collected natural language samples from parent–child interactions from children with autism (N = 38; 7 female) at three time points (age 2, 3, and 4 years) and administered a battery of standardized assessments to evaluate their language ability. The samples were transcribed and coded for person‐referential language. Children with autism used increasingly more pronouns both when referring to themselves and to their parent, but pronoun reversals were extremely rare. Their person‐reference use was associated with language ability only at age 2. Parental input was also characterized by an increase in pronoun use but only when referring to their child. Parents' and children's person‐reference were not associated across time, but they were concurrently related at age 3. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • ASD Symptoms in Toddlers and Preschoolers: An Examination of Sex Differences
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Rosmary Ros‐Demarize, Catherine Bradley, Stephen M. Kanne, Zachary Warren, Andrea Boan, Clara Lajonchere, Justine Park, Laura Arnstein Carpenter

    Although considerable work has documented higher prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in boys, fewer studies have focused on sex differences within samples of young children at‐risk for ASD. This study examined sex differences in ASD symptom domains and ASD screening outcomes among toddlers (18–35 months) and preschoolers (36–72 months) with ASD‐related concerns. Participants included 480 children between 18 and 72 months evaluated by university‐based ASD specialty clinics. Results revealed significant sex differences in severity of social communication (SC) deficits across age groups. Within the toddler group, girls diagnosed with ASD displayed greater SC deficits according to standardized observation and clinician severity ratings. Within the preschool group, girls diagnosed with ASD were rated by parents as having more severe SC deficits, but these differences were not corroborated by standardized observations or clinician ratings. No sex differences emerged for severity of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) for either age group. Across the entire referred sample, boys and girls did not differ in terms of scores on commonly used screening instruments. Importantly, results suggest that two of the most commonly used ASD screeners (i.e., Modified‐Checklist for Autism in Toddlers‐Revised with Follow‐up and Social Communication Questionnaire ) may underidentify RRBs in toddler and preschool‐aged girls as screening scores were only influenced by severity of SC deficits. Greater SC deficits in young girls with ASD along with its impact on screening status suggests greater attention be placed on the under‐identification of ASD in girls as well as current screening measures' ability to tap into the topography of ASD symptoms across genders. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Integrated Transcriptome Analyses Revealed Key Target Genes in Mouse Models of Autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Weicheng Duan, Kang Wang, Yijie Duan, Xufeng Chu, Ruoyun Ma, Ping Hu, Bo Xiong

    Genetic mutations are the major pathogenic factor of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In recent years, more and more ASD risk genes have been revealed, among which there are a group of transcriptional regulators. Considering the similarity of the core clinical phenotypes, it is possible that these different factors may regulate the expression levels of certain key targets. Identification of these targets could facilitate the understanding of the etiology and developing of novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Therefore, we performed integrated transcriptome analyses of RNA‐Seq and microarray data in multiple ASD mouse models and identified a number of common downstream genes in various brain regions, many of which are related to the structure and function of the synapse components or drug addiction. We then established protein–protein interaction networks of the overlapped targets and isolated the hub genes by 11 algorithms based on the topological structure of the networks, including Sdc4, Vegfa, and Cp in the Cortex‐Adult subgroup, Gria1 in the Cortex‐Juvenile subgroup, and Kdr, S1pr1, Ubc, Grm2, Grin2b, Nrxn1, Pdyn, Grin3a, Itgam, Grin2a, Gabra2, and Camk4 in the Hippocampus‐Adult subgroup, many of which have been associated with ASD in previous studies. Finally, we cross compared our results with human brain transcriptional data sets and verified several key candidates, which may play important role in the pathology process of ASD, including SDC4, CP, S1PR1, UBC, PDYN, GRIN2A, GABRA2, and CAMK4. In summary, by integrated bioinformatics analysis, we have identified a series of potentially important molecules for future ASD research. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Spontaneous helping behavior of autistic and non‐autistic (Pre‐)adolescents: A matter of motivation?
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Rachel A. G. O'Connor, Lex Stockmann, Carolien Rieffe

    Young autistic people have a range of social difficulties, but it is not yet clear how these difficulties can be explained. In addition, emerging research is suggesting that autistic girls may differ from boys in terms of their social behaviors, but yet unknown is if they differ in terms of their pro‐social behavior, such as helping. The present study investigated spontaneous helping behavior using an in vivo paradigm and related this to participants' levels of social motivation (based on parent reports). Participants were 233 autistic and non‐autistic (pre‐)adolescents (M = 12.46 years, SD = 15.54 months). Our results demonstrated that autistic girls and boys have lower levels of social motivation compared to their non‐autistic peers, but social motivation was unrelated to helping behavior in both groups. Furthermore, when the experimenter needed help, the autistic boys and girls looked and smiled to the same extent as their peers of the same gender, but they actually helped significantly less than their non‐autistic peers. However, most autistic youngsters did help, highlighting the great individual differences in autistic individuals. We discuss the possibility that lower levels of helping behavior are due to difficulty initiating action in a social context, rather than lower social motivation. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–9. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Early language exposure supports later language skills in infants with and without autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Meghan R. Swanson, Kevin Donovan, Sarah Paterson, Jason J. Wolff, Julia Parish‐Morris, Shoba S. Meera, Linda R. Watson, Annette M. Estes, Natasha Marrus, Jed T. Elison, Mark D. Shen, Heidi B. McNeilly, Leigh MacIntyre, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Tanya St. John, Kelly Botteron, Stephen Dager, Joseph Piven,

    The way that parents communicate with their typically developing infants is associated with later infant language development. Here we aim to show that these associations are observed in infants subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study had three groups: high‐familial‐risk infants who did not have ASD (n = 46); high‐familial‐risk infants who had ASD (n = 14); and low‐familial‐risk infants who exhibited typical development (n = 36). All‐day home language recordings were collected at 9 and 15 months, and language skills were assessed at 24 months. Across all infants in the study, including those with ASD, a richer home language environment (e.g., hearing more adult words and experiencing more conversational turns) at 9 and 15 months was associated with better language skills. Higher parental educational attainment was associated with a richer home language environment. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of education on child language skills was explained by the richness of the home language environment. Exploratory analyses revealed that typically developing infants experience an increase in caregiver–child conversational turns across 9–15 months, a pattern not seen in children with ASD. The current study shows that parent behavior during the earliest stages of life can have a significant impact on later development, highlighting the home language environment as means to support development in infants with ASD. Autism Res 2019, © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Increased facial asymmetry in autism spectrum conditions is associated with symptom presentation
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Maryam Boutrus, Syed Zulqarnain Gilani, Gail A. Alvares, Murray T. Maybery, Diana Weiting Tan, Ajmal Mian, Andrew J. O. Whitehouse

    A key research priority in the study of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is the discovery of biological markers that may help to identify and elucidate etiologically distinct subgroups. One physical marker that has received increasing research attention is facial structure. Although there remains little consensus in the field, findings relating to greater facial asymmetry (FA) in ASC exhibit some consistency. As there is growing recognition of the importance of replicatory studies in ASC research, the aim of this study was to investigate the replicability of increased FA in autistic children compared to nonautistic peers. Using three‐dimensional photogrammetry, this study examined FA in 84 autistic children, 110 typically developing children with no family history of the condition, and 49 full siblings of autistic children. In support of previous literature, significantly greater depth‐wise FA was identified in autistic children relative to the two comparison groups. As a further investigation, increased lateral FA in autistic children was found to be associated with greater severity of ASC symptoms on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, second edition, specifically related to repetitive and restrictive behaviors. These outcomes provide an important and independent replication of increased FA in ASC, as well as a novel contribution to the field. Having confirmed the direction and areas of increased FA in ASC, these findings could motivate a search for potential underlying brain dysmorphogenesis. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Colonic dilation and altered ex vivo gastrointestinal motility in the neuroligin‐3 knockout mouse
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Anita J. L. Leembruggen, Gayathri K. Balasuriya, Jinghong Zhang, Shana Schokman, Kristy Swiderski, Joel C. Bornstein, Jess Nithianantharajah, Elisa L. Hill‐Yardin

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is commonly reported by people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; autism) but the cause is unknown. Mutations in genes encoding synaptic proteins including Neuroligin‐3 are associated with autism. Mice lacking Neuroligin‐3 (Nlgn3−/−) have altered brain function, but whether the enteric nervous system (ENS) is altered remains unknown. We assessed for changes in GI structure and function in Nlgn3−/− mice. We found no significant morphological differences in villus height or crypt depth in the jejunum or colon between wildtype (WT) and Nlgn3−/− mice. To determine whether deletion of Nlgn3 affects enteric neurons, we stained for neural markers in the myenteric plexus. Nlgn3−/− mice had similar numbers of neurons expressing the pan‐neuronal marker Hu in the jejunum, proximal mid, and distal colon regions. We also found no differences in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+) or calretinin (CalR+) motor neurons and interneurons between WT and Nlgn3−/− mice. We used ex vivo video imaging analysis to assess colonic motility under baseline conditions and observed faster colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and an increased colonic diameter in Nlgn3−/− mice, although CMMC frequency was unchanged. At baseline, CMMCs were faster in Nlgn3−/− mice compared to WT. Although the numbers of neuronal subsets are conserved in Nlgn3−/− mice, these findings suggest that Neuroligin‐3 modulates inhibitory neural pathways in the ENS and may contribute to mechanisms underlying GI disorders in autism. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published byWiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Sequence Learning in Minimally Verbal Children With ASD and the Beneficial Effect of Vestibular Stimulation
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Gili Katz‐Nave, Yael Adini, Orit E. Hetzroni, Yoram S. Bonneh

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and especially the minimally verbal, often fail to learn basic perceptual and motor skills. This deficit has been demonstrated in several studies, but the findings could have been due to the nonoptimal adaptation of the paradigms. In the current study, we sought to characterize the skill learning deficit in young minimally verbal children with ASD and explore ways for improvement. For this purpose, we used vestibular stimulation (VS) whose beneficial effects have been demonstrated in the typical population, but the data regarding ASD are limited. We trained 36 children ages 6–13 years, ASD (N = 18, 15 of them minimally verbal) and typical development (TD, N = 18), on a touch version of the visual‐motor Serial‐Reaction‐Time sequence‐learning task, in 10 short (few minutes) weekly practice sessions. A subgroup of children received VS prior to each training block. All the participants but two ASD children showed gradual median reaction time improvement with significant speed gains across the training period. The ASD children were overall slower (by ~250 msec). Importantly, those who received VS (n = 10) showed speed gains comparable to TD, which were larger (by ~100%) than the ASD controls, and partially sequence‐specific. VS had no effect on the TD group. These results suggest that VS has a positive effect on learning in minimally verbal ASD children, which may have important therapeutic implications. Furthermore, contrary to some previous findings, minimally verbal children with ASD can acquire, in optimal conditions, procedural skills with few short training sessions, spread over weeks, and with a similar time course as non‐ASD controls. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Specific Functional Connectivity Patterns of Middle Temporal Gyrus Subregions in Children and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Jinping Xu, Chao Wang, Ziyun Xu, Tian Li, Fangfang Chen, Kai Chen, Jingjing Gao, Jiaojian Wang, Qingmao Hu

    As one of the key regions in the “social brain” network, the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) has been widely reported to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but there have been contradictory results in terms of whether it shows hyperconnectivity or hypoconnectivity. Delineating roles of MTG at the subregional level may eliminate the observed inconsistencies and provide a new avenue to reveal the neurophysiologic mechanism of ASD. Thus, we first performed connectivity‐based parcellation using the BrainMap database to identify fine‐grained functional topography of the MTG. Then, the MTG subregions were used to investigate differences in the functional connectivity in children and adults with ASD using two data sets from Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange database. Four distinct subregions in the human left and right MTG were identified, including the anterior MTG (aMTG), middle‐anterior MTG (maMTG), middle‐posterior MTG, and posterior MTG (pMTG). The bilateral pMTG was more vulnerable in both children and adults with ASD than in the typically developing (TD) group, mainly showing hypoconnectivity with different brain regions. In addition, the bilateral aMTG and right maMTG also showed altered functional connectivity in adults with ASD compared to the TD group. Moreover, all these altered MTG subregions were mainly associated with social cognition and language, as revealed by functional characterization. Further correlation analyses also showed trends of association between altered connectivity of the left aMTG and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores in adults with ASD. Together, these results suggest a potential objective way to explore sub‐regional differences associated with such disorders. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Psychotic symptoms in 16p11.2 copy‐number variant carriers
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Amandeep Jutla, J. Blake Turner, LeeAnne Green Snyder, Wendy K. Chung, Jeremy Veenstra‐VanderWeele

    16p11.2 copy‐number variation (CNV) is implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, with the duplication and deletion associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the duplication associated with schizophrenia (SCZ). The 16p11.2 CNV may therefore provide insight into the relationship between ASD and SCZ, distinct disorders that co‐occur at an elevated rate, and are difficult to distinguish from each other and from common co‐occurring diagnoses such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), itself a potential risk factor for SCZ. As psychotic symptoms are core to SCZ but distinct from ASD, we sought to examine their predictors in a population (n = 546) of 16p11.2 CNV carriers and their noncarrier siblings recruited by the Simons Variation in Individuals Project. We hypothesized that psychotic symptoms would be most common in duplication carriers followed by deletion carriers and noncarriers, that an ASD diagnosis would predict psychotic symptoms among CNV carriers, and that OCD symptoms would predict psychotic symptoms among all participants. Using data collected across multiple measures, we identified 19 participants with psychotic symptoms. Logistic regression models adjusting for biological sex, age, and IQ found that 16p11.2 duplication and ASD diagnosis predicted psychotic symptom presence. Our findings suggest that the association between 16p11.2 duplication and psychotic symptoms is independent of ASD diagnosis and that ASD diagnosis and psychotic symptoms may be associated in 16p11.2 CNV carriers. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • VariCarta: A Comprehensive Database of Harmonized Genomic Variants Found in Autism Spectrum Disorder Sequencing Studies
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Manuel Belmadani, Matthew Jacobson, Nathan Holmes, Minh Phan, Tue Nguyen, Paul Pavlidis, Sanja Rogic

    Recent years have seen a boom in the application of the next‐generation sequencing technology to the study of human disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), where the focus has been on identifying rare, possibly causative genomic variants in ASD individuals. Because of the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD, a large number of subjects is needed to establish evidence for a variant or gene ASD‐association, thus aggregating data across cohorts and studies is necessary. However, methodological inconsistencies and subject overlap across studies complicate data aggregation. Here we present VariCarta, a web‐based database developed to address these challenges by collecting, reconciling, and consistently cataloging literature‐derived genomic variants found in ASD subjects using ongoing semi‐manual curation. The careful manual curation combined with a robust data import pipeline rectifies errors, converts variants into a standardized format, identifies and harmonizes cohort overlaps, and documents data provenance. The harmonization aspect is especially important since it prevents the potential double counting of variants, which can lead to inflation of gene‐based evidence for ASD‐association. The database currently contains 170,416 variant events from 10,893 subjects, collected across 61 publications, and reconciles 16,202 variants that have been reported in literature multiple times. VariCarta is freely accessible at http://varicarta.msl.ubc.ca. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Dysregulation of Temporal Dynamics of Synchronous Neural Activity in Adolescents on Autism Spectrum
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Evie A. Malaia, Sungwoo Ahn, Leonid L. Rubchinsky

    Autism spectrum disorder is increasingly understood to be based on atypical signal transfer among multiple interconnected networks in the brain. Relative temporal patterns of neural activity have been shown to underlie both the altered neurophysiology and the altered behaviors in a variety of neurogenic disorders. We assessed brain network dynamics variability in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using measures of synchronization (phase‐locking) strength, and timing of synchronization and desynchronization of neural activity (desynchronization ratio) across frequency bands of resting‐state electroencephalography (EEG). Our analysis indicated that frontoparietal synchronization is higher in ASD but with more short periods of desynchronization. It also indicates that the relationship between the properties of neural synchronization and behavior is different in ASD and typically developing populations. Recent theoretical studies suggest that neural networks with a high desynchronization ratio have increased sensitivity to inputs. Our results point to the potential significance of this phenomenon to the autistic brain. This sensitivity may disrupt the production of an appropriate neural and behavioral responses to external stimuli. Cognitive processes dependent on the integration of activity from multiple networks maybe, as a result, particularly vulnerable to disruption. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Meta‐Analyses Support Previous and Novel Autism Candidate Genes: Outcomes of an Unexplored Brazilian Cohort
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Eduarda Morgana da Silva Montenegro, Claudia Samogy Costa, Gabriele Campos, Marília Scliar, Tatiana Ferreira de Almeida, Elaine Cristina Zachi, Isabela Maya Wahys Silva, Ada J. S. Chan, Mehdi Zarrei, Naila C. V. Lourenço, Guilherme Lopes Yamamoto, Stephen Scherer, Maria Rita Passos‐Bueno

    Large genomic databases of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are helpful resources of genomic variations in complex and heterogeneous conditions, as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We evaluated the role of rare copy number variations (CNVs) and exonic de novo variants, in a molecularly unexplored Brazilian cohort of 30 ASD trios (n = 90), by performing a meta‐analysis of our findings in more than 20,000 patients from NDD cohorts. We identified three pathogenic CNVs: two duplications on 1q21 and 17p13, and one deletion on 4q35. CNVs meta‐analysis (n = 8,688 cases and n = 3,591 controls) confirmed 1q21 relevance by identifying duplications in other 16 ASD patients. Exome analysis led the identification of seven de novo variants in ASD genes (SFARI list): three loss‐of‐function pathogenic variants in CUL3, CACNA1H, and SHANK3; one missense pathogenic variant in KCNB1; and three deleterious missense variants in ATP10A, ANKS1B, and DOCK1. From the remaining 12 de novo variants in non‐previous ASD genes, we prioritized PRPF8 and RBM14. Meta‐analysis (n = 13,754 probands; n = 2,299 controls) identified six and two additional patients with validated de novo variants in PRPF8 and RBM14, respectively. By comparing the de novo variants with a previously established mutational rate model, PRPF8 showed nominal significance before multiple test correction (P = 0.039, P‐value adjusted = 0.079, binomial test), suggesting its relevance to ASD. Approximately 60% of our patients presented comorbidities, and the diagnostic yield was estimated in 23% (7/30: three pathogenic CNVs and four pathogenic de novo variants). Our uncharacterized Brazilian cohort with tetra‐hybrid ethnic composition was a valuable resource to validate and identify possible novel candidate loci. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Getting Off to a Shaky Start: Specificity in Planning and Feedforward Control During Sensorimotor Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Nathan C. Foster, Simon J. Bennett, Joe Causer, Digby Elliott, Geoffrey Bird, Spencer J. Hayes

    Whilst autistic individuals develop new internal action models during sensorimotor learning, the acquired movements are executed less accurately and with greater variability. Such movement profiles are related to differences in sensorimotor integration and/or altered feedforward/feedback sensorimotor control. We investigated the processes underlying sensorimotor learning in autism by quantifying accuracy and variability, relative timing, and feedforward and feedback control. Although autistic individuals demonstrated significant sensorimotor learning across trials, which was facilitated by processing knowledge‐of‐results feedback, motor execution was less accurate than non‐autistic individuals. Kinematic analysis indicated that autistic individuals showed significantly greater spatial variability at peak acceleration, but comparable spatial variability at peak velocity. These kinematic markers suggest that autistic movement profiles are driven by specific differences in sensorimotor control processes (i.e., internal action models) associated with planning and regulating the forces required to execute the movement. The reduction of variability at peak velocity indicates intact early feedback‐based sensorimotor control in autism. Understanding how feedforward and feedback‐based control processes operate provides an opportunity to explore how these control processes influence the acquisition of socio‐motor actions in autism. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-29
  • Differential profiles of response inhibition deficit between male children with autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-27
    Li‐juan Shi, Han‐yu Zhou, Yan‐mei Shen, Ya Wang, Yu‐min Fang, Yu‐qiong He, Jian‐jun Ou, Xue‐rong Luo, Eric F. C. Cheung, Raymond C. K. Chan

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both associated with response inhibition impairment. However, the relative pattern of deficits in these two disorders remains unclear. Twenty‐three male children with ASD, 23 male children with SZ, and 32 typically developing male controls were recruited to complete a set of tasks measuring response inhibition in the visual, auditory, and verbal domains. We found that visual, auditory, and verbal response inhibitions were impaired in both children with ASD and children with SZ. Compared with typically developing controls, children with ASD made more commission errors whereas children with SZ responded much slower in the visual response inhibition task. Both clinical groups showed comparable impairment in verbal response inhibition, but children with SZ were more impaired in auditory response inhibition than children with ASD. These different patterns of response inhibition deficit between male children with ASD and SZ may help to differentiate between these two disorders and may be potential targets for intervention. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–8. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Investigating the factor structure of the child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-27
    Amy Keefer, Vini Singh, Luther G. Kalb, Carla A. Mazefsky, Roma A. Vasa

    Dysregulation has been identified as an important risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, it is necessary to empirically characterize dysregulation and identify psychometrically sound and readily available assessment methods in the ASD population. We sought to evaluate the factor structure of the Child Behavior Checklist‐Dysregulation Profile (CBCL‐DP), an established dysregulation measure in neurotypical children that is derived from the CBCL, in a large, clinically referred sample of children, ages 6–18 years, with ASD (n = 727). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to characterize dysregulation and assess the validity of the CBCL‐DP in children with ASD. Our findings support a bi‐factor model of dysregulation in which dysregulation is a broad and distinct syndrome that is associated with the three subdomains of the CBCL‐DP, anxiety/depression (AD), attention problems (AP), and aggressive behavior (AGG). Dysregulation was associated with most items in the AD and AGG domains and few items in the AP domain. This association with AD and AGG indicates that dysregulation in ASD may be conceptualized as the combined experience of internalized, negative mood states and externalized, reactive behaviors. These findings provide support as well as important caveats for the use of the CBCL‐DP as a measure of dysregulation in the ASD population. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–8. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Effective connectivity in autism
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-27
    Edmund T. Rolls, Yunyi Zhou, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Gustavo Deco, Jianfeng Feng

    The aim was to go beyond functional connectivity, by measuring in the first large‐scale study differences in effective, that is directed, connectivity between brain areas in autism compared to controls. Resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) data set in 394 people with autism spectrum disorder and 473 controls, and effective connectivity (EC) was measured between 94 brain areas. First, in autism, the middle temporal gyrus and other temporal areas had lower effective connectivities to the precuneus and cuneus, and these were correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule total, communication, and social scores. This lower EC from areas implicated in face expression analysis and theory of mind to the precuneus and cuneus implicated in the sense of self may relate to the poor understanding of the implications of face expression inputs for oneself in autism, and to the reduced theory of mind. Second, the hippocampus and amygdala had higher EC to the middle temporal gyrus in autism, and these are thought to be back projections based on anatomical evidence and are weaker than in the other direction. This may be related to increased retrieval of recent and emotional memories in autism. Third, some prefrontal cortex areas had higher EC with each other and with the precuneus and cuneus. Fourth, there was decreased EC from the temporal pole to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and there was evidence for lower activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a brain area implicated in emotion‐related decision‐making. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–13. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-28
  • Children with autism observe social interactions in an idiosyncratic manner
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Inbar Avni, Gal Meiri, Asif Bar‐Sinai, Doron Reboh, Liora Manelis, Hagit Flusser, Analya Michaelovski, Idan Menashe, Ilan Dinstein

    Previous eye‐tracking studies have reported that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) fixate less on faces in comparison to controls. To properly understand social interactions, however, children must gaze not only at faces but also at actions, gestures, body movements, contextual details, and objects, thereby creating specific gaze patterns when observing specific social interactions. We presented three different movies with social interactions to 111 children (71 with ASD) who watched each of the movies twice. Typically developing children viewed the movies in a remarkably predictable and reproducible manner, exhibiting gaze patterns that were similar to the mean gaze pattern of other controls, with strong correlations across individuals (intersubject correlations) and across movie presentations (intra‐subject correlations). In contrast, children with ASD exhibited significantly more variable/idiosyncratic gaze patterns that differed from the mean gaze pattern of controls and were weakly correlated across individuals and presentations. Most importantly, quantification of gaze idiosyncrasy in individual children enabled separation of ASD and control children with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional measures such as time gazing at faces. Individual magnitudes of gaze idiosyncrasy were also significantly correlated with ASD severity and cognitive scores and were significantly correlated across movies and movie presentations, demonstrating clinical sensitivity and reliability. These results suggest that gaze idiosyncrasy is a potent behavioral abnormality that characterizes a considerable number of children with ASD and may contribute to their impaired development. Quantification of gaze idiosyncrasy in individual children may aid in assessing symptom severity and their change in response to treatments. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–12. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-27
  • Investigating Mental Health Crisis in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Roma A. Vasa, Louis Hagopian, Luke G. Kalb

    Evidence suggests that youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for experiencing a mental health crisis. Yet, limited systematic research exists on this topic. This study examines the prevalence, phenomenology, and correlates of mental health crisis in children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD. Participants included 462 parents of individuals with ASD (83% male, 86% Caucasian, M = 13.7 years, SD = 4.7) who were enrolled in the Interactive Autism Network, a large online registry of families of individuals with ASD. Parents completed the Mental Health Crisis Assessment Scale, a psychometrically sound measure of mental health crisis for youth with ASD, as well as measures of parental depression, family quality of life, and mental health treatment history. Overall, 32% of parents reported that their child had experienced a mental health crisis during the last 3 months. In the younger group, elopement (88%) and self‐injury (81%) were the most frequent behaviors contributing to crisis; physical (60%) and verbal (42%) aggression were the most frequent crisis behaviors in the older group. Correlates of crisis included younger age, increased parental depressive symptoms, and lower family quality of life. Approximately 75% of individuals in crisis had seen a psychiatrist or behavioral therapist/psychologist within the last 3 months and 25% were not engaged in any mental health treatment. In summary, mental health crises were quite prevalent in this online sample of youth with ASD. Identification and treatment of these serious events is critical to reduce morbidity in this population. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–10. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Burden of major depressive disorder and quality of life among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder in urban bangladesh
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Aliya Naheed, Md. Saimul Islam, Saima Wazed Hossain, Helal Uddin Ahmed, M. M. Jalal Uddin, Fahmida Tofail, Jena Derakhshani Hamadani, A. H. M. Enayet Hussain, Kerim Munir

    This cross‐sectional study examined the burden of depression and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attending six schools offering special educational services for children with ASD in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. All consenting mothers were 18 years of age and older and met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) on the Structured Interview for DSM‐V‐TR Research Version‐non patient edition administered by trained raters. QoL was assessed by the EuroQol five‐dimensional standardized questionnaire. MDD was diagnosed in 45% of mothers and was proportionally higher among those who did not work outside the home, had no childcare support at home, expressed low level of satisfaction with the quality of providers when they had sought care for their children with ASD, and reported being recipient of negative attitudes from neighbors toward their children with ASD. QoL was negatively associated with MDD, mothers' illness, and low satisfaction with the health care providers for children with ASD, as well as experiencing a negative attitude by neighbors toward their children. QoL was positively associated with the reported family monthly income and improvement of the children with ASD on school attendance. The prevalence of MDD among mothers of children with ASD was high and associated with poor QoL. Integrating mental health services and supports for mothers in the ASD care of children is likely to address the high burden of depression they face, and improve their overall quality of life. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Genome‐wide association analysis of autism identified multiple loci that have been reported as strong signals for neuropsychiatric disorders
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Lu Xia, Jianjun Ou, Kuokuo Li, Hui Guo, Zhengmao Hu, Ting Bai, Jingping Zhao, Kun Xia, Fengyu Zhang

    Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a moderate to a high degree of heritability, but only a few common genetic variants that explain the heritability have been associated. We performed a genome‐wide transmission disequilibrium test analysis of a newly genotyped autism case–parent triad samples (127 trios) in Han Chinese, identified top association signals at multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs9839376 (OR = 2.59, P = 1.27 × 10−05) at KCNMB2, rs6044680 (OR = 0.319, P = 4.82 × 10−05) and rs7274133 (OR = 0.313, P = 3.22 × 10−05) at PCSK2, and rs310619 (OR = 2.40, P = 7.44 × 10−05) at EEF1A2. Furthermore, a genome‐wide combined P‐value of individual SNPs in two independent case–parent triad samples (total 402 triads, n = 1,206) identified SNPs at EGFLAM, ZDHHC2, AGBL1, and SNX29 as additional association signals for autism. While none of these signals achieved a genome‐wide significance in the two samples of our study, they have been reported in a previous genome‐wide association study of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the majority of these SNP have a significant cis‐regulatory association with mRNA in human tissues (False discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Our study warrants further study or replication with additional sample for association with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • A transdiagnostic model of psychiatric symptom co‐occurrence and autism spectrum disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Craig Rodriguez‐Seijas, Kenneth D. Gadow, Tamara E. Rosen, Hyunsik Kim, Matthew D. Lerner, Nicholas R. Eaton

    Understanding whether the co‐occurrence of psychiatric symptoms within autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are specific to the ASD diagnosis or reflect similar higher‐order patterns observed in both ASD and non‐ASD samples, or a confluence of the two, is of critical importance. If similar, it would suggest that comorbid psychiatric conditions among individuals with ASD are not symptoms of specific, non‐ASD psychiatric disorders per se, but reflect a general liability to psychopathology associated with ASD. To this end, the current study examined whether the higher‐order structure of co‐occurring psychiatric symptoms was the same within ASD and non‐ASD youth. Parents of clinic‐referred youth with (n = 280) and without (n = 943) ASD completed a DSM‐IV‐referenced psychiatric symptom rating scale. A confirmatory factor analytic framework was used to examine four levels of measurement invariance across groups to determine the extent to which transdiagnostic factors were comparable. Transdiagnostic factors were characterized by symptoms of the same disorders (configural invariance) and the same factor loadings across groups (metric invariance). Furthermore, both groups evidenced equivalent numbers of symptoms of most psychiatric conditions with the notable exceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social anxiety (partial strong invariance), which were higher in the ASD sample. It was concluded that disparities in the co‐occurrence of psychiatric symptoms between youth with and without ASD may be largely reflective of transdiagnostic factor level differences associated with ASD and not indicative of the ASD diagnosis per se. However, for ADHD and social anxiety, there appears to be some specific associations with the ASD diagnosis. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Screening for autism spectrum disorder in a naturalistic home setting using the systematic observation of red flags (SORF) at 18–24 months
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Deanna Dow, Taylor N. Day, Timothy J. Kutta, Charly Nottke, Amy M. Wetherby

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags (SORF; Dow et al., 2016) as a level 2 screener for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers during a naturalistic video‐recorded home observation. Psychometric properties of the SORF were examined in a sample of 228 toddlers—84 with ASD, 82 with developmental delay (DD), and 62 with typical development (TD). Trained undergraduate research assistants blind to diagnosis rated 22 red flags (RF) of ASD associated with DSM‐5 diagnostic criteria using a 4‐point scale. The following scores were computed: a total score summing all items, domain scores summing social communication and restricted, repetitive behavior items, and number of RF counting items with scores of 2 or 3 indicating clear symptom presence. The performance of the total, domain, and RF scores and individual items were examined. A composite score was formed with six items with the best psychometric performance: poor eye gaze directed to faces, limited showing and pointing, limited coordination of nonverbal communication, less interest in people than objects, repetitive use of objects, and excessive interest in particular objects, actions, or activities. The 6‐item composite provides a brief measure with optimal performance, while the RF may be instrumental for clinicians who are interested in characterizing the range of observed symptoms. The SORF shows promise as a practical alternative to currently available screening methods for implementation by nonexperts with the potential to increase feasibility and reduce common obstacles to access to care. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Discrepancies between parent and child ratings of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Carla B. Kalvin, Carolyn L. Marsh, Karim Ibrahim, Theresa R. Gladstone, Diana Woodward, Heidi Grantz, Pamela Ventola, Denis G. Sukhodolsky

    Co‐occurring anxiety is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, inconsistencies across parent and child reports of anxiety may complicate the assessment of anxiety in this population. The present study examined parent and child anxiety ratings in children with ASD with and without anxiety disorders and tested the association between parent–child anxiety rating discrepancy and ASD symptom severity. Participants included children aged 8–16 years in three diagnostic groups: ASD with co‐occurring anxiety disorders (ASD + Anxiety; n = 34), ASD without co‐occurring anxiety disorders (ASD; n = 18), and typically developing healthy controls (TD; n = 50). Parents and children completed ratings of child anxiety using the Multidimensional Anxiety Rating Scale. Patterns of parent and child anxiety ratings differed among the three groups, with parent ratings exceeding child ratings only in the ASD + Anxiety group. Parents reported higher levels of child anxiety in the ASD + Anxiety versus ASD group, whereas children reported comparable levels of anxiety in the two groups. Among children with ASD, ASD symptom severity was positively associated with the degree to which parent ratings exceeded child ratings. Results suggest that children with ASD and co‐occurring anxiety disorders endorse some anxiety symptoms but may underreport overall levels of anxiety. In addition, ASD symptom severity might increase discrepancies in parent–child anxiety ratings. These findings suggest a unique and valuable role of child anxiety ratings and suggest that both parent and child anxiety ratings should be considered in light of children's ASD symptom severity and used to guide further assessment. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-24
  • Dynamic lag analysis reveals atypical brain information flow in autism spectrum disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Ville Raatikainen, Vesa Korhonen, Viola Borchardt, Niko Huotari, Heta Helakari, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Leena Joskitt, Soile Loukusa, Tuula Hurtig, Hanna Ebeling, Lucina Q. Uddin, Vesa Kiviniemi

    This study investigated whole‐brain dynamic lag pattern variations between neurotypical (NT) individuals and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by applying a novel technique called dynamic lag analysis (DLA). The use of 3D magnetic resonance encephalography data with repetition time = 100 msec enables highly accurate analysis of the spread of activity between brain networks. Sixteen resting‐state networks (RSNs) with the highest spatial correlation between NT individuals (n = 20) and individuals with ASD (n = 20) were analyzed. The dynamic lag pattern variation between each RSN pair was investigated using DLA, which measures time lag variation between each RSN pair combination and statistically defines how these lag patterns are altered between ASD and NT groups. DLA analyses indicated that 10.8% of the 120 RSN pairs had statistically significant (P‐value <0.003) dynamic lag pattern differences that survived correction with surrogate data thresholding. Alterations in lag patterns were concentrated in salience, executive, visual, and default‐mode networks, supporting earlier findings of impaired brain connectivity in these regions in ASD. 92.3% and 84.6% of the significant RSN pairs revealed shorter mean and median temporal lags in ASD versus NT, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that altered lag patterns indicating atypical spread of activity between large‐scale functional brain networks may contribute to the ASD phenotype. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-23
  • A comparison of the ASD experience of low‐SES hispanic and non‐hispanic white parents
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Adriana Ferguson, Debra C. Vigil

    This study compared the experiences of Hispanic families, who were primarily of Mexican heritage, and non‐Hispanic White families from the United States both from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds having a child with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that Hispanic children are diagnosed with ASD 2 years later than non‐Hispanic White children [Baio et al., MMWR Surveillance Summaries 2018:67(SS‐6): 1–23]. However, there has been limited investigation in exploring how SES might impact both diagnosis and experience. A survey of basic demographic information and a qualitative survey were used for this study. Basic demographic information obtained included SES, parent educational level, age of diagnosis of the children, religious affiliation, and marital status. Hour‐long interviews were conducted to gather information about the personal experiences of these families relating to diagnoses and treatment. Comparative results of basic demographic information showed no difference in age of diagnosis between the two groups when SES was controlled. Although SES was controlled, the non‐Hispanic White families had a higher education level and were slightly wealthier. Qualitatively, similarities included family support, doctor response to parent concerns, and acceptance of diagnosis by family members and friends. Differences included religious views, acceptance of diagnosis, knowledge of developmental milestones, and finding resources. Most significantly, the findings indicate no difference in the age of diagnosis of ASD between the Hispanic and non‐Hispanic White children, which could be attributed to increased awareness and having access to a proactive parent organization. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–11. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-23
  • Prevalence of Motor Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Analysis of a Population‐Based Cohort
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Melissa K. Licari, Gail A. Alvares, Kandice Varcin, Kiah L. Evans, Dominique Cleary, Siobhan L. Reid, Emma J. Glasson, Keely Bebbington, Jess E. Reynolds, John Wray, Andrew J. O. Whitehouse

    Motor impairment is not currently included in the diagnostic criteria or evaluation of autism. This reflects the lack of large‐scale studies demonstrating its prominence to advocate for change. We examined the prevalence of motor difficulties at the time of diagnosis in a large sample of children with autism utilizing standardized assessment, and the relationship between motor difficulties, core autism symptomology, and other prominent clinical features. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were administered to children from the Western Australian Register for Autism Spectrum Disorders aged ≤6 years (N = 2,084; 81.2% males, 18.8% females). Prevalence of motor difficulties was quantified based on scores from the motor domain of the Vineland and then compared to other domains of functioning within the Vineland (communication, daily living, and socialization), the DSM criteria, intellectual level, age, and gender. Scores on the Vineland indicated that 35.4% of the sample met criteria for motor difficulties (standard score <70), a rate almost as common as intellectual impairment (37.7%). Motor difficulties were reported by diagnosing clinicians in only 1.34% of cases. Motor difficulties were common in those cases meeting diagnostic criteria for impairments in nonverbal behavior and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of motor difficulties also increased with increasing age of diagnosis (P < 0.001). Findings from the present study highlight the need for further consideration of motor difficulties as a distinct specifier within the diagnostic criteria for ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Temperament and Character as Risk Factor for Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Annelie A. T. Hooijer, Bram B. Sizoo

    Persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are suggested to have an increased risk for suicide ideation and suicide attempts, but this topic is largely understudied. Research indicates that temperament and character traits are associated with suicidal behavior in persons without ASD, with higher scores for novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and self‐transcedence (ST), and lower scores for self‐directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (CO). Usually persons with ASD have temperament and character profiles with high HA, and low NS, reward dependence (RD), SD, and CO. The aim is to investigate whether there is a relationship between temperament and character traits and suicide ideation and attempts in adults with ASD. Seventy‐four adults with ASD participated by completing self‐report measures on suicide thoughts and behavior, depression, and temperament. Independent sample t‐tests were conducted to compare scores between attempters versus nonattempters and between ideators versus nonideators. Regression analysis was performed to explore the predictive value of temperament and character. T‐tests showed lower NS and SD, and higher HA for ideators versus nonideators, but not for attempters versus nonattempters. Regression models showed no significant relation between suicide ideation and NS, SD, HA after the latter were controlled for the significant influence of depression. Temperament and character can probably not be used for predicting suicide ideation and attempts, based on results from the current sample. Clinicians must take note of the high prevalence and risk of depression among persons with ASD, which may be under‐reported. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-17
  • Comparing Automatic Eye Tracking and Manual Gaze Coding Methods in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Courtney E. Venker, Ron Pomper, Tristan Mahr, Jan Edwards, Jenny Saffran, Susan Ellis Weismer

    Eye‐gaze methods offer numerous advantages for studying cognitive processes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but data loss may threaten the validity and generalizability of results. Some eye‐gaze systems may be more vulnerable to data loss than others, but to our knowledge, this issue has not been empirically investigated. In the current study, we asked whether automatic eye‐tracking and manual gaze coding produce different rates of data loss or different results in a group of 51 toddlers with ASD. Data from both systems were gathered (from the same children) simultaneously, during the same experimental sessions. As predicted, manual gaze coding produced significantly less data loss than automatic eye tracking, as indicated by the number of usable trials and the proportion of looks to the images per trial. In addition, automatic eye‐tracking and manual gaze coding produced different patterns of results, suggesting that the eye‐gaze system used to address a particular research question could alter a study's findings and the scientific conclusions that follow. It is our hope that the information from this and future methodological studies will help researchers to select the eye‐gaze measurement system that best fits their research questions and target population, as well as help consumers of autism research to interpret the findings from studies that utilize eye‐gaze methods with children with ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-17
  • Dynamic Functional Connectivity Reveals Abnormal Variability and Hyper‐connected Pattern in Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Yu Li, Yuying Zhu, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Yanming Wang, Huijuan Wang, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a general neurodevelopmental disorder associated with altered brain connectivity. However, most connectivity analyses in ASD focus on static functional connectivity, largely neglecting brain activity dynamics that have been reported to provide deeper insight into the underlying mechanisms of brain functions. Therefore, we anticipate that the use of dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) with interaction of clustering measures could help characterize ASD severity and reveal more information. In this study, we applied the sliding‐window and k‐means clustering methods to perform DFC and clustering analyses in ASD and typically developing (TD) groups. Data from 62 ASD and 63 TD children were acquired from the open‐access data set Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Our findings revealed higher DFC variability between the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC) and middle temporal pole (TPOmid) in subjects with ASD. The connection between the PCC and pars opercularis of inferior frontal gyrus (IFGoper) also presented greater variability in ASD, with the increase depending on ASD symptom severity. Furthermore, clustering analysis showed higher averaged dwell time and probability of transition for globally hyper‐connected state in the ASD group, which could be related to connection variability between the PCC and IFGoper. Our results demonstrate that both the PCC and IFGoper play crucial roles in characterizing symptom severity and state configuration in ASD, and brain connectivity dynamics may serve as potential indicators of ASD in future studies. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-16
  • Parenting stress in caregivers of young children with ASD concerns prior to a formal diagnosis
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Trent D. DesChamps, Lisa V. Ibañez, Sarah R. Edmunds, Catherine C. Dick, Wendy L. Stone

    Robust findings demonstrate that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of parenting stress that are associated with negative outcomes for families. Although the majority of research on parenting stress has focused on parents of children with an existing diagnosis, parents of young children with concerns about ASD‐related behaviors also face many unique challenges before the time of diagnosis. However, no study to date has examined patterns of parenting stress among parents of children with ASD concerns prior to a formal ASD diagnosis. Therefore, the current study investigated longitudinal trajectories of parenting stress among parents of young children with ASD concerns compared to parents of children with non‐ASD developmental concerns (e.g., language delay), and parents of children with no developmental concerns. Known predictors of parenting stress were also examined. Results from multilevel model analyses revealed that parents of children with ASD concerns experienced consistently higher levels of parenting stress across early child development compared to parents of children with non‐ASD developmental concerns and those with no concerns. Additionally, parenting efficacy, psychological functioning, social satisfaction, and child social communication behaviors predicted levels of parenting stress for all parents. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • HLA Polymorphism in Regressive and Non‐Regressive Autism: A Preliminary Study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Ryad Tamouza, Elisabeth Fernell, Mats Anders Eriksson, Britt‐Marie Anderlid, Céline Manier, Christina Mary Mariaselvam, Wahid Boukouaci, Marion Leboyer, Christopher Gillberg

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprises heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions with symptom onset usually during infancy. However, about 10%–30% of affected cases experience a loss of language and social skills around 18–30 months, so‐called regressive autism. In this subset with regression, immune dysfunctions including inflammation and autoimmunity have been proposed to be at risk factors. Given the implication of the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) system in various aspects of immune responses, including autoimmunity, and in ASD, we investigate here the distribution of the HLA Class I and Class II haplotypes in 131 children with ASD meeting DSM‐IV TR criteria, with and without regression. We found that 62 of the 98 non‐regressive ASD patients carry the HLA‐DPA1*01‐DPB1*04 sub‐haplotype as compared to 14 of the 33 patients with regression (63% vs. 43% respectively, Pc = 0.02), suggesting that this HLA haplotype may exert a protective effect against regression. Similarly, the HLA‐DPA1*01‐DPB1*04 has also been found to be more represented in healthy controls as compared to patients affected with common nonpsychiatric autoimmune disorders. Overall our findings suggest a possible involvement of HLA polymorphism in the context of regressive ASD. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Language deficits in specific language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder: An analysis of polygenic risk
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Ron Nudel, Camilla A. J. Christiani, Jessica Ohland, Md Jamal Uddin, Nicoline Hemager, Ditte V. Ellersgaard, Katrine S. Spang, Birgitte K. Burton, Aja N. Greve, Ditte L. Gantriis, Jonas Bybjerg‐Grauholm, Jens Richardt M. Jepsen, Anne A. E. Thorup, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Thomas Werge

    Language is one of the cognitive domains often impaired across many neurodevelopmental disorders. While for some disorders the linguistic deficit is the primary impairment (e.g., specific language impairment, SLI), for others it may accompany broader behavioral problems (e.g., autism). The precise nature of this phenotypic overlap has been the subject of debate. Moreover, several studies have found genetic overlaps across neurodevelopmental disorders. This raises the question of whether these genetic overlaps may correlate with phenotypic overlaps and, if so, in what manner. Here, we apply a genome‐wide approach to the study of the linguistic deficit in SLI, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a discovery genome‐wide association study of SLI, we generate polygenic risk scores (PRS) in an independent sample which includes children with language impairment, SLI, ASD or ADHD and age‐matched controls and perform regression analyses across groups. The SLI‐trained PRS significantly predicted risk in the SLI case–control group (adjusted R2 = 6.24%; P = 0.024) but not in the ASD or ADHD case‐control groups (adjusted R2 = 0.0004%, 0.01%; P = 0.984, 0.889, respectively) nor for height, used as a negative control (R2 = 0.2%; P = 0.452). Additionally, there was a significant difference in the normalized PRS between children with SLI and children with ASD (common language effect size = 0.66; P = 0.044). Our study suggests no additive common‐variant genetic overlap between SLI and ASD and ADHD. This is discussed in the context of phenotypic studies of SLI and related disorders. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 The Authors. Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Autism spectrum disorder polygenic scores are associated with every day executive function in children admitted for clinical assessment
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Tonje Torske, Terje Nærland, Francesco Bettella, Thomas Bjella, Eva Malt, Anne Lise Høyland, Nina Stenberg, Merete Glenne Øie, Ole A. Andreassen

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) are behaviorally defined disorders with overlapping clinical features that are often associated with higher‐order cognitive dysfunction, particularly executive dysfunction. Our aim was to determine if the polygenic score (PGS) for ASD is associated with parent‐reported executive dysfunction in everyday life using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Furthermore, we investigated if PGS for general intelligence (INT) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also correlate with BRIEF. We included 176 children, adolescents and young adults aged 5–22 years with full‐scale intelligence quotient (IQ) above 70. All were admitted for clinical assessment of ASD symptoms and 68% obtained an ASD diagnosis. We found a significant difference between low and high ASD PGS groups in the BRIEF behavior regulation index (BRI) (P = 0.015, Cohen's d = 0.69). A linear regression model accounting for age, sex, full‐scale IQ, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) total score, ASD, ADHD and INT PGS groups as well as genetic principal components, significantly predicted the BRI score; F(11,130) = 8.142, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.41 (unadjusted). Only SRS total (P < 0.001), ASD PGS 0.1 group (P = 0.018), and sex (P = 0.022) made a significant contribution to the model. This suggests that the common ASD risk gene variants have a stronger association to behavioral regulation aspects of executive dysfunction than ADHD risk or INT variants in a clinical sample with ASD symptoms. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-10-01
  • Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia in school‐aged children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot feasibility study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Christina S. McCrae, Wai Sze Chan, Ashley F. Curtis, Chelsea B. Deroche, Melissa Munoz, Stephanie Takamatsu, Julie E. Muckerman, Nicole Takahashi, Dillon McCann, Kevin McGovney, Pradeep Sahota, Micah O. Mazurek

    Insomnia is common in autism and associated with challenging behavior and worse parent sleep. Cognitive behavioral treatment for childhood insomnia (CBT‐CI) is efficacious in typically developing children, but not yet tested in school‐aged children with autism. This single arm pilot tested 8‐session CBT‐CI in 17 children with autism and insomnia (M age = 8.76 years, SD = 1.99) and their parent(s) (M age = 39.50 years, SD = 4.83). Treatment integrity was assessed for each session [delivery (by therapist), receipt (participant understanding), and enactment (home practice)]. Children and parents wore actigraphs and completed electronic diaries for 2‐weeks to obtain objective and subjective sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep/wake times (TST/TWT), and sleep efficiency (SE) at pre/post/1‐month follow‐up. Parents also completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, inappropriate speech (e.g., excessive/repetitive, loud self‐talk)] at pre/post/1‐month. Fifteen children completed all sessions. Average integrity scores were high [90%‐delivery/receipt, 87.5%‐enactment]. Parents found CBT‐CI helpful, age‐appropriate, and autism‐friendly. Paired samples t‐tests (family‐wise error controlled) found CBT‐CI improved child sleep (objective SOL‐18 min, TWT‐ 34 min, SE‐5%; subjective SOL‐29 min, TST‐63 min, TWT‐45 min, SE‐8%), and decreased irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. At 1‐month, objective TST improved, inappropriate speech decreased, but hyperactivity was no longer decreased. Other gains were maintained. Parent sleep (objective SOL‐12 min, TST‐35 min, TWT‐21 min, SE‐4%; subjective SOL‐11 min, TWT‐ 31min, SE‐11%) and fatigue also improved. At 1‐month, gains were maintained. This pilot shows CBT‐CI is a feasible treatment that holds promise for improving child and parent sleep and functioning and suggests a randomized controlled trial in school‐aged children with autism is worth conducting. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-30
  • Motor learning and transfer between real and virtual environments in young people with autism spectrum disorder: A prospective randomized cross over controlled trial
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Íbis Ariana Peña de Moraes, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, Talita Dias da Silva, Thais Massetti, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Lilian Del Ciello de Menezes, Gilda Pena de Rezende Andrade, Alessandro Hervaldo Nicolai Ré, Helen Dawes, Shelly Coe, Fernando Henrique Magalhães

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, including impaired multisensory integration, which might negatively impact cognitive and motor skill performance, and hence negatively affect learning of tasks. Considering that tasks in virtual environment may provide an engaging tool as adjuncts to conventional therapies, we set out to compare motor performance between young people with ASD and a typically developing (TD) control group that underwent coincident timing tasks based on Kinect (no physical contact) and on Keyboard (with physical contact) environments. Using a randomized repeated cross‐over controlled trial design, 50 young people with ASD and 50 with TD, matched by age and sex were divided into subgroups of 25 people that performed the two first phases of the study (acquisition and retention) on the same device—real or virtual—and then switched to the other device to repeat acquisition and retention phases and finally switched on to a touch screen (transfer phase). Results showed that practice in the virtual task was more difficult (producing more errors), but led to a better performance in the subsequent practice in the real task, with more pronounced improvement in the ASD as compared to the TD group. It can be concluded that the ASD group managed to transfer the practice from a virtual to a real environment, indicating that virtual methods may enhance learning of motor and cognitive skills. A need for further exploration of its effect across a number of tasks and activities is warranted. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-30
  • Cognitive processes predicting advanced theory of mind in the broader autism phenotype
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Cherie C. Green, Natasha J. Brown, Valerie M.Z. Yap, Ingrid E. Scheffer, Sarah J. Wilson

    Little is known about executive functions (EFs) associated with advanced theory of mind (ToM) abilities. We aimed to determine if advanced ToM abilities were reduced in individuals with subclinical traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), known as the “Broader Autism Phenotype” (BAP), and identify the EFs that predicted unimpaired performance on an advanced ToM task, the faux pas test. We assessed 29 participants (13 males) with the BAP who were relatives of children with ASD. Thirteen participants showed reduced ability to understand a faux pas. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 79% of cases as impaired or unimpaired, with high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (77%), which was best predicted by language‐mediated EFs, including verbal generativity, working memory, cognitive inhibition, and flexibility. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-30
  • Increased Intra‐Subject Variability of Reaction Times and Single‐Trial Event‐Related Potential Components in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Justine R. Magnuson, Grace Iarocci, Sam M. Doesburg, Sylvain Moreno

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1 in 59 children. The cognitive profiles of individuals with ASD are varied, and the neurophysiological underpinnings of these developmental difficulties are unclear. While many studies have focused on overall group differences in the amplitude or latency of event related potential (ERP) responses, recent research suggests that increased intra‐subject neural variability may also be a reliable indicator of atypical brain function in ASD. This study aimed to identify behavioral and neural variability responses during an emotional inhibitory control task in children with ASD compared to typically developing (TD) children. Children with ASD showed increased variability in response to both inhibitory and emotional stimuli, evidenced by greater reaction time variability and single‐trial ERP variability of N200 and N170 amplitudes and/or latencies compared to TD children. These results suggest that the physiological basis of ASD may be more accurately explained by increased intra‐subject variability, in addition to characteristic increases or decreases in the amplitude or latency of neural responses. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-30
  • Theory of mind performance in younger and older adults with elevated autistic traits
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Gavin R. Stewart, Gregory L. Wallace, Martha Cottam, Rebecca A. Charlton

    Little is known about the impact of aging with Autism Spectrum Disorder on theory of mind (ToM). While ToM difficulties appear to abate with age in older autistic populations, this has yet to be explored in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). The current study examined ToM performance among younger (n = 49, aged 18–46) and older adults (n = 47, aged 60–91) who were classified as on the BAP (younger n = 18; older n = 21) or not (younger n = 31; older n = 26) using the BAP Questionnaire. ToM was assessed using the ecologically valid Strange Stories Film Task (SSFT) and the dynamic Happé–Frith Triangle Animations task (TA). A 2 × 2 analysis of variance examined the effects of autistic traits (BAP vs. non‐BAP) and age (young vs. old). For both SSFT and TA, results showed autistic trait main effects on task performance (non‐BAP > BAP). Age main effects were observed for some but not all metrics on TA (younger better than older), with no differences in SSFT. An interaction of autistic traits and age was observed in TA Intentionality, with younger non‐BAP and younger BAP performing similarly but older non‐BAP performing better than older BAP. Results show that younger and older adults with elevated autistic traits show poorer ToM performance. Despite ToM difficulties being common in later life in the general population, this effect was not observed when using a ToM task designed to reflect real‐world scenarios. However, results suggest that autistic traits and age could interact to increase risk for poor ToM performance in older adults who endorse elevated autistic traits. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-16
  • Visual and Proprioceptive Influences on Tactile Spatial Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Marlene Hense, Stephanie Badde, Svenja Köhne, Isabel Dziobek, Brigitte Röder

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often exhibit altered representations of the external world. Consistently, when localizing touch, children with ASDs were less influenced than their peers by changes of the stimulated limb's location in external space [Wada et al., Scientific Reports 2015, 4(1), 5985]. However, given the protracted development of an external‐spatial dominance in tactile processing in typically developing children, this difference might reflect a developmental delay rather than a set suppression of external space in ASDs. Here, adults with ASDs and matched control‐participants completed (a) the tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) task previously used to test external‐spatial representation of touch in children with ASDs and (b) a tactile‐visual cross‐modal congruency (CC) task which assesses benefits of task‐irrelevant visual stimuli on tactile localization in external space. In both experiments, participants localized tactile stimuli to the fingers of each hand, while holding their hands either crossed or uncrossed. Performance differences between hand postures reflect the influence of external‐spatial codes. In both groups, tactile TOJ‐performance markedly decreased when participants crossed their hands and CC‐effects were especially large if the visual stimulus was presented at the same side of external space as the task‐relevant touch. The absence of group differences was statistically confirmed using Bayesian statistical modeling: adults with ASDs weighted external‐spatial codes comparable to typically developed adults during tactile and visual‐tactile spatio‐temporal tasks. Thus, atypicalities in the spatial coding of touch for children with ASDs appear to reflect a developmental delay rather than a stable characteristic of ASD. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
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